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1

Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

diffuse radiation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Wiki Apps Datasets Browse Upload data GDR Community Linked Data Search Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon diffuse radiation Dataset Summary...

3

GEF | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEF GEF Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China GEF GHI GIS NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 629.4 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 779.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

4

GEF. latitude tilt | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEF. latitude tilt GEF. latitude tilt Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude tilted solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders Source INPE (National Institute for Spatial Research) and LABSOLAR (Laboratory of Solar Energy/Federal University of Santa Catarina) - Brazil Date Released August 08th, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated August 08th, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords Brazil GEF. latitude tilt INPE LABSOLAR solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 706.1 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 999.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

5

NREL GEF | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEF GEF Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

6

Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another. 1

unknown authors

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Kenya-GEF Projects | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEF Projects GEF Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-GEF Projects Agency/Company /Organization Global Environment Facility Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Forestry, Agriculture Topics Background analysis Country Kenya Eastern Africa References GEF Project database[1] GEF Climate Projects in Kenya 1780 Kenya Joint Geophysical Imaging (JGI) Methodology for Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Climate Change UNEP Medium Size Project, GEF Grant-979,059.000, Co-financing total-1,754,264.0 IA Approved 2870 Kenya Market Transformation for Efficient Biomass Stoves for Institutions and Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises Climate Change UNDP Medium Size Project GEF Grant-975,000.000 Co-financing total-5,646,467.0 IA Approved 3249 Kenya Adaptation to Climate Change in Arid Lands (KACCAL)

8

Global Environment Fund GEF | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Environment Fund GEF Environment Fund GEF Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Environment Fund (GEF) Place Chevy Chase, Maryland Zip 20815 Product International investment management firm with around USD 800m under management. Invests in companies that make positive contributions to environmental quality, human health and sustainable management of resources. References Global Environment Fund (GEF)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Global Environment Fund (GEF) is a company located in Chevy Chase, Maryland . References ↑ "Global Environment Fund (GEF)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Global_Environment_Fund_GEF&oldid=345910"

9

Turkmenistan-GEF Projects | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Turkmenistan-GEF Projects AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics...

10

Global Environment Facility (GEF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Global Environment Facility (GEF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Environment Facility Address...

11

GEF-Knowledge Management Initiative | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Knowledge Management Initiative Knowledge Management Initiative Jump to: navigation, search Name GEF Knowledge Management Initiative: Strategic Framework and Work-Plan for GEF-5 Agency/Company /Organization Global Environment Facility (GEF) Resource Type Dataset, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://www.thegef.org/gef/site Program Start 2010 References GEF Knowledge Management[1] GEF Knowledge Management Initiative: Strategic Framework and Work-Plan for GEF-5 Screenshot " In December 2010, the Secretariat launched the KMI with the goal of ensuring that GEF knowledge, information and data are identified, captured, and shared in their entirety and developed as a strategic asset in a coherent and comprehensive manner." References ↑ "GEF Knowledge Management"

12

Adaptive Implicit Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion  

SciTech Connect

We describe methods for accurate and efficient long term time integra- tion of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion systems: implicit time integration for effi- cient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while control- ling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

On Correction of Diffuse Radiation Measured by MFRSR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

an angular correction is needed. Such a correction of MFRSR data is performed for direct solar radiation, whereas uncertainty exists concerning the diffuse irradiance, whose...

14

Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo for frequency-dependent radiative transfer  

SciTech Connect

Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. In this paper, we develop an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo. With a frequency-dependent test problem, we confirm the increased efficiency of our new DDMC technique.

Densmore, Jeffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Thompson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Urbatish, Todd J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

15

UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management Jump to: navigation, search Logo: UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management Name UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Development Programme, Global Environment Facility Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Website http://www.un.org.kh/undp/pres Program Start 2011 Country Cambodia UN Region South-Eastern Asia References UNDP Cambodia: Environment and Energy [1] UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management Screenshot "UNDP and Global Environment Facility on Monday launched a new project worth over US$3.8 million to help Cambodia preserve its forests to benefit the rural poor as well as to contribute to reducing emission of green house gases into atmosphere.

16

Coupling Diffuse Sky Radiation and Surface Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New satellite instruments have been delivering a wealth of information regarding land surface albedo. This basic quantity describes what fraction of solar radiation is reflected from the earths surface. However, its concept and measurements have ...

Bernard Pinty; Alessio Lattanzio; John V. Martonchik; Michel M. Verstraete; Nadine Gobron; Malcolm Taberner; Jean-Luc Widlowski; Robert E. Dickinson; Yves Govaerts

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

GEF-Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant Jump to: navigation, search Name GEF-Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant Agency/Company /Organization Global Environment Facility (GEF), Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) Sector Energy Focus Area Geothermal Topics Finance, Implementation, Background analysis Website http://www.iadb.org/en/news/ne Program Start 2011 Country Colombia UN Region South America References Colombia promotes geothermal energy with IDB support[1] GEF-Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant Screenshot "Colombia will promote investment in non-conventional renewable energy sources and lay the groundwork for its first geothermal project with a $2.7 million grant from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) administered by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). "

18

UNDP-Peru GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in the Energy Generation and End-Use Sectors Jump to: navigation, search Name UNDP-Peru GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy Generation and End-Use...

19

Measure of Diffusion Model Error for Thermal Radiation Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The diffusion approximation to the equation of transfer (Boltzmann transport equation) is usually applied to media where scattering dominates the interactions. Diffusion approximation helps in significant savings in terms of code complexity and computational time. However, this approximation often has significant error. Error due to the inherent nature of a physics model is called model error. Information about the model error associated with the diffusion approximation is clearly desirable. An indirect measure of model error is a quantity that is related in some way to the error but not equal to the error. In general, indirect measures of error are expected to be less costly than direct measures. Perhaps the most well-known indirect measure of the diffusion model error is the variable-Eddington tensor. This tensor provides a great deal of information about the angular dependence of the angular intensity solution, but it is not always simple to interpret. We define a new indirect measure of the diffusion model error called the diffusion model error source (DME source). When this DME source is added to the diffusion equation, the transport solution for the angular-integrated intensity is obtained. In contrast to the variable-Eddington tensor, our DME source is a scalar that is conceptually easy to interpret. In addition to defining the DME source analytically, we show how to generate this source numerically relative to the Sn radiative transfer equations with linear-discontinuous spatial discretization. This numerical source is computationally tested and shown to reproduce the Sn solution for a number of problems. Our radiative transfer model solves a coupled, time dependent, multi-frequency, 1-D slab equation and material heat transfer equation. We then use diffusion approximation to solve the same problem. The difference due to this approximation can be modelled by a diffusion source. The diffusion source is defined as an amount of inhomogeneous source that, when added to a diffusion calculation, gives a solution for the angle-integrated intensity that is equal to the transport solution.

Kumar, Akansha

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEFs extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A Technique for Mapping the Distribution of Diffuse Solar Radiation over the Sky Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique to map the distribution of diffuse solar radiation over the sky hemisphere is described. The method is based on an analysis of all-sky, visible photographs and concurrent actinometric measurements of diffuse solar radiance. The ...

L. J. Bruce McArthur; John E. Hay

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

UNDP-GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP-GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update UNDP-GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: UNDP-GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme, Global Environment Facility Focus Area: Fuels & Efficiency Topics: Best Practices Website: www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/documents/GEF.C.28.Inf_.12.p The Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Development Programme launched a fuel cell bus deployment program to support commercial demonstrations of buses and fueling infrastructure in large bus markets in developing countries. The program's objective was to reduce the long-term greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector in GEF program countries. How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies:

23

Human Impact on Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation during the Industrial Era  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the direct and diffuse solar radiation changes are estimated, and they contribute to the understanding of the observed global dimming and the more recent global brightening during the industrial era. Using a multistream radiative ...

Maria M. Kvalevg; Gunnar Myhre

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

A hybrid transport-diffusion method for Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Monte Carlo particle-transport simulations in diffusive media. If standard Monte Carlo is used in such media, particle histories will consist of many small steps, resulting ... Keywords: Hybrid transport-diffusion, Monte Carlo, Radiative transfer

Jeffery D. Densmore; Todd J. Urbatsch; Thomas M. Evans; Michael W. Buksas

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

A New Shadow-Ring Device for Measuring Diffuse Solar Radiation at the Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new shadow-ring device for measuring diffuse solar radiation at the surface is presented. In this device the seasonal variation of shadow is followed by moving the detector horizontally. This unique characteristic facilitates its application ...

Amauri P. de Oliveira; Antonio J. Machado; Joo F. Escobedo

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

TO: Mr. Mohamed El-Ashry, CEO/Chairman, GEF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

project for review by the Secretariat staff prior to circulation to the Council and your final endorsement. 2. The program remains fully consistent with the objectives and scope of the proposal that was approved by the Council on March 8, 2000. Unfortunately due to the fluid political situation in Indonesia, it has taken approximately one year longer than foreseen to deliver the project. The appraisal was carried out in November/December 2000; negotiations are scheduled for April 18-20, and Board presentation is set for May 31, 2001. The lending instrument remains an APL in three tranches. Evolution of Project and Program since Intersessional Work Program Review 3. WJEMPs GEF Objectives. The program supports the GEF objective of reducing methane generation and therefore greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This will be accomplished by supporting increased composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste instead of dumping it into landfills. Composting will reduce GHG emissions by (a) avoiding the production of methane gas from anaerobic decomposition of organic waste; and (b) producing a useful agricultural input that reduces the need for synthetic

unknown authors

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Sensitivity of Clear-Sky Diffuse Radiation to In Situ Aerosol Scattering Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity of Clear-Sky Diffuse Radiation to In Situ Sensitivity of Clear-Sky Diffuse Radiation to In Situ Aerosol Scattering Parameters P. J. Ricchiazzi and C. Gautier University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction Recent studies of clear-sky radiation indicate that current radiative transfer (RT) models underestimate atmospheric absorption when standard aerosol properties are used. This so-called clear-sky anomaly is manifested in predicted levels of diffuse radiation significantly below those observed at Southern Great Plains (SGP) and other sites in the continental United States (e.g., Halthore et al. 1998 GRL). Other observations at pristine sites do not show a discrepancy (Barnard and Powell 2001, 2001; Kato et al. 1997; Halthore 1998). These results may indicate that the clear-sky anomaly is only observed at sites

28

Diffusion, Radiation Damage, and Interaction with Point Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 16, 2010 ... In nuclear reactors,radiation induced void swelling can cause significant dimensional instability of structural materials and degrade their...

29

UNEP-GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in Developing  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNEP-GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in Developing UNEP-GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Name UNEP-GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in Developing Countries Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Partner Global Environment Facility Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis Website http://www.unep.fr/energy/acti References UNEP Financial Risk Management [1] "This UNEP/GEF targeted research project aims to catalyse new thinking in the risk management area, examining existing instruments and approaches and suggesting potential modalities for new instruments that could be developed in partnership with private and public sector financial institutions. The

30

An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due to the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors. In this paper a description of the NIST-traceable calibration facility is provided and preliminary results are presented that compare the MPA predicted beam to beam measurements from a precision normal incidence pyrheliometer and diffuse measurements from a precision shadow-band pyranometer respectively.

Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

A robust SN-DG-approximation for radiation transport in optically thick and diffusive regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method with reduced upwind stabilization for the linear Boltzmann equation applied to particle transport. The asymptotic analysis demonstrates that the new formulation does not suffer from the limitations ... Keywords: Discontinuous Galerkin, Radiation transport, Thick diffusion limit, Upwind technique

J. C. Ragusa; J. -L. Guermond; G. Kanschat

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A radiation-hydrodynamics scheme valid from the transport to the diffusion limit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present in this paper the numerical treatment of the coupling between hydrodynamics and radiative transfer. The fluid is modeled by classical conservation laws (mass, momentum and energy) and the radiation by the grey moment $M_1$ system. The scheme introduced is able to compute accurate numerical solution over a broad class of regimes from the transport to the diffusive limits. We propose an asymptotic preserving modification of the HLLE scheme in order to treat correctly the diffusion limit. Several numerical results are presented, which show that this approach is robust and have the correct behavior in both the diffusive and free-streaming limits. In the last numerical example we test this approach on a complex physical case by considering the collapse of a gas cloud leading to a proto-stellar structure which, among other features, exhibits very steep opacity gradients.

E. Audit; P. Charrier; J. -P. Chize; B. Dubroca

2002-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

33

An improved multipyranometer array for the measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the development of an improved multipyranometer array (NDA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diff-use solar radiation. The NWA described in this thesis is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due to the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors, the development of an improved solution scheme for the calculation of the beam and diff-use solar radiation components, and the development of an empirical spectral correction for the photovoltaic-type sensors used in the NWA. In this thesis a description of the NIST-traceable calibration facility is provided and results are presented that compare the NWA predicted beam to beam measurements from a precision normal incidence pyrheliometer.

Munger, Bryce Kirtley

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the development of an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this thesis is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due to the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors, the development of an improved solution scheme for the calculation of the beam and diffuse solar radiation components, and the development of an empirical spectral correction for the photovoltaic-type sensors used in the MPA. In this thesis a description of the NIST-traceable calibration facility is provided and results are presented that compare the MPA predicted beam to beam measurements from a precision normal incidence pyrheliometer.

Munger, Bryce Kirtley

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

UNDP-Peru GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy Generation and End-Use Sectors Jump to: navigation, search Name UNDP-Peru GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy Generation and End-Use Sectors Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Sector Climate Focus Area People and Policy Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS Country Peru South America References UNDP - Latin America & the Caribbean[1] Contents 1 Program Overview 1.1 Program Focus 1.2 Environment and Sustainable Development 2 References Program Overview "Across Latin America and the Caribbean, UNDP helps countries build and share their own solutions to urgent development challenges, supporting coalitions for change and connecting individuals and institutions so they

36

Modeling heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in NIF ALE-AMR heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in NIF ALE-AMR This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2010 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 244 022075 (http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/244/2/022075) Download details: IP Address: 50.136.219.251 The article was downloaded on 18/04/2013 at 01:36 Please note that terms and conditions apply. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience Modeling Heat Conduction and Radiation Transport with the Diffusion Equation in NIF ALE-AMR A.C. Fisher 1 , D.S. Bailey 1 , T.B. Kaiser 1 , B.T.N. Gunney 1 , N.D. Masters 1 , A.E. Koniges 2 , D.C. Eder 1 , R.W. Anderson 1 1: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,

37

A Comparison Between Modeled and Measured Clear-Sky Radiative Shortwave Fluxes in Arctic Environments, with Special Emphasis on Diffuse Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the SBDART radiative transfer model to predict clear-sky diffuse and direct normal broadband shortwave irradiances is investigated. Model calculations of these quantities are compared with data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programs Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. The model tends to consistently underestimate the direct normal irradiances at both sites by about 1%. In regards to clear-sky diffuse irradiance, the model overestimates this quantity at the SGP site in a manner similar to what has been observed in other studies (Halthore and Schwartz, 2000). The difference between the diffuse SBDART calculations and Halthore and Schwartzs MODTRAN calculations is very small, thus demonstrating that SBDART performs similarly to MODTRAN. SBDART is then applied to the NSA site, and here it is found that the discrepancy between the model calculations and corrected diffuse measurements (corrected for daytime offsets, Dutton et al., 2001) is 0.4 W/m2 when averaged over the 12 cases considered here. Two cases of diffuse measurements from a shaded black and white pyranometer are also compared with the calculations and the discrepancy is again minimal. Thus, it appears as if the diffuse discrepancy that exists at the SGP site does not exist at the NSA sites. We cannot yet explain why the model predicts diffuse radiation well at one site but not at the other.

Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Donna M.

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

38

Double-diffusive convection with variable viscosity from a vertical truncated cone in porous media in the presence of magnetic field and radiation effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is focused on the study of combined heat and mass transfer or double-diffusive convection near a vertical truncated cone embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation, magnetic field and variable viscosity ... Keywords: Double diffusion, Magnetic field, Porous media, Radiation, Truncated cone, Variable viscosity

A. Mahdy; A. J. Chamkha; Yousef Baba

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

GEF-H1 Mediated Control of NOD1 Dependent NF-kB Activation by Shigella Effectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shigella flexneri has evolved the ability to modify host cell function with intracellular active effectors to overcome the intestinal barrier. The detection of these microbial effectors and the initiation of innate immune responses are critical for rapid mucosal defense activation. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor H1 (GEF-H1) mediates RhoA activation required for cell invasion by the enteroinvasive pathogen Shigella flexneri. Surprisingly, GEF-H1 is requisite for NF-kB activation in response to Shigella infection. GEF-H1 interacts with NOD1 and is required for RIP2 dependent NF-kB activation by H-Ala-DcGlu-DAP (cTriDAP). GEF-H1 is essential for NF-kB activation by the Shigella effectors IpgB2 and OspB, which were found to signal in a NOD1 and RhoA Kinase (ROCK) dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that GEF-H1 is a critical component of cellular defenses forming an intracellular sensing system with NOD1 for the detection of microbial effectors during cell

Atsuko Fukazawa; Carmen Alonso; Kiyotaka Kurachi; Sonal Gupta; Cammie F. Lesser; Beth Ann; Hans-christian Reinecker

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

A faster algorithm for smoothed particle hydrodynamics with radiative transfer in the flux-limited diffusion approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a new, faster implicit algorithm for solving the radiation hydrodynamics equations in the flux-limited diffusion approximation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This improves on the method elucidated in Whitehouse & Bate by using a Gauss-Seidel iterative method rather than iterating over the exchange of energy between pairs of particles. The new algorithm is typically many thousands of times faster than the old one, which will enable more complex problems to be solved. The new algorithm is tested using the same tests performed by Turner & Stone for ZEUS-2D, and repeated by Whitehouse & Bate.

Stuart C. Whitehouse; Matthew R. Bate; Joe J. Monaghan

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of simplified procedures for a multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA studies due several new features, including: the incorporation of an artificial horizon that prevents reflected ground radiation from striking the tilted sensors, and a routine that corrects the spectral response of photovoltaic-type sensors used in the MPA. An optimal solution procedure has also been developed that eliminates invalid data which are inherent in the simultaneous solution of the solar equations from the four MPA sensors. In this paper a description of the NIST-traceable calibration facility is provided and results are presented that compare the improved MPA-predicted beam to side-by-side measurements from a precision Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer (NIP).

Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Hypofractionation vs Conventional Radiation Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Matched-Cohort Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Despite conventional radiation therapy, 54 Gy in single doses of 1.8 Gy (54/1.8 Gy) over 6 weeks, most children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the role of hypofractionation radiation therapy given over 3 to 4 weeks. A 1:1 matched-cohort analysis with conventional radiation therapy was performed to assess response and survival. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven children, aged 3 to 14, were treated according to 1 of 2 hypofractionation regimens over 3 to 4 weeks (39/3 Gy, n=16 or 44.8/2.8 Gy, n=11). All patients had symptoms for {<=}3 months, {>=}2 signs of the neurologic triad (cranial nerve deficit, ataxia, long tract signs), and characteristic features of DIPG on magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-seven patients fulfilling the same diagnostic criteria and receiving at least 50/1.8 to 2.0 Gy were eligible for the matched-cohort analysis. Results: With hypofractionation radiation therapy, the overall survival at 6, 9, and 12 months was 74%, 44%, and 22%, respectively. Progression-free survival at 3, 6, and 9 months was 77%, 43%, and 12%, respectively. Temporary discontinuation of steroids was observed in 21 of 27 (78%) patients. No significant difference in median overall survival (9.0 vs 9.4 months; P=.84) and time to progression (5.0 vs 7.6 months; P=.24) was observed between hypofractionation vs conventional radiation therapy, respectively. Conclusions: For patients with newly diagnosed DIPG, a hypofractionation regimen, given over 3 to 4 weeks, offers equal overall survival with less treatment burden compared with a conventional regimen of 6 weeks.

Janssens, Geert O., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Jansen, Marc H. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lauwers, Selmer J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nowak, Peter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bouffet, Eric [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Saran, Frank [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Karin [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schieving, Jolanda H. [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Kaspers, Gertjan J. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gidding, Corrie E. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hargrave, Darren [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Non-diffusive resonant acceleration of electrons in the radiation belts  

SciTech Connect

We describe a mechanism of resonant electron acceleration by oblique high-amplitude whistler waves under conditions typical for the Earth radiation belts. We use statistics of spacecraft observations of whistlers in the Earth radiation belts to obtain the dependence of the angle {theta} between the wave-normal and the background magnetic field on magnetic latitude {lambda}. According to this statistics, the angle {theta} already approaches the resonance cone at {lambda}{approx}15 Degree-Sign and remains close to it up to {lambda}{approx}30 Degree-Sign -40 Degree-Sign on the dayside. The parallel component of the electrostatic field of whistler waves often increases around {lambda}{approx}15 Degree-Sign up to one hundred of mV/m. We show that due to this increase of the electric field, the whistler waves can trap electrons into the potential well via wave particle resonant interaction corresponding to Landau resonance. Trapped electrons then move with the wave to higher latitudes where they escape from the resonance. Strong acceleration is favored by adiabatic invariance along the increasing magnetic field, which continuously transfers the parallel energy gained to perpendicular energy, allowing resonance to be reached and maintained. The concomitant increase of the wave phase velocity allows for even stronger relative acceleration at low energy <50keV. Each trapping-escape event of electrons of {approx}10keV to 100 keV results in an energy gain of up to 100 keV in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the Earth dipole. For electrons with initial energy below 100 keV, such rapid acceleration should hasten their drop into the loss-cone and their precipitation into the atmosphere. We discuss the role of the considered mechanism in the eventual formation of a trapped distribution of relativistic electrons for initial energies larger than 100 keV and in microbursts precipitations of lower energy particles.

Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Agapitov, O. V. [LPC2E/CNRS, University of Orleans, Orleans (France); Mourenas, D. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Rolland, G. [CNES, Toulouse (France)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

An Improvement of the IGMK Model to Derive Total and Diffuse Solar Radiation at the Surface from Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For a better understanding, of climate, as well as all kinds of solar power applications it is necessary to know about incoming solar radiation at the surface (global radiation) and its partition into disuse and direct components Over the last ...

Rolf Stuhlmann; Martin Rieland; Ehrhard Paschke

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

solar radiation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

radiation radiation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source NREL Date Released January 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Central America GEF. latitude tilt GIS Mexico NREL solar solar radiation SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 241.3 KiB)

46

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

47

Impact of Consolidation Radiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma With Negative Post-Chemotherapy Radiologic Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: While consolidation radiation therapy (i.e., RT administered after chemotherapy) is routine treatment for patients with early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the role of consolidation RT in stage III-IV DLBCL is controversial. Methods and Materials: Cases of patients with stage III-IV DLBCL treated from 1991 to 2009 at Duke University, who achieved a complete response to chemotherapy were reviewed. Clinical outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared between patients who did and did not receive RT, using the log-rank test. A multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Seventy-nine patients were identified. Chemotherapy (median, 6 cycles) consisted of anti-CD20 antibody rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP; 65%); cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP; 22%); or other (13%). Post-chemotherapy imaging consisted of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (73%); gallium with CT (14%); or CT only (13%). Consolidation RT (median, 25 Gy) was given to involved sites of disease in 38 (48%) patients. Receipt of consolidation RT was associated with improved in-field control (92% vs. 69%, respectively, p = 0.028) and event-free survival (85% vs. 65%, respectively, p = 0.014) but no difference in overall survival (85% vs. 78%, respectively, p = 0.15) when compared to patients who did not receive consolidation RT. On multivariate analysis, no RT was predictive of increased risk of in-field failure (hazard ratio [HR], 8.01, p = 0.014) and worse event-free survival (HR, 4.3, p = 0.014). Conclusions: Patients with stage III-IV DLBCL who achieve negative post-chemotherapy imaging have improved in-field control and event-free survival with low-dose consolidation RT.

Dorth, Jennifer A., E-mail: jennifer.dorth@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Broadwater, Gloria [Cancer Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Cancer Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Diehl, Louis F.; Beaven, Anne W. [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Coleman, R. Edward [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Diffusion Coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... Challenges in Constructing Diffusion Mobility Databases for Industrial Alloys: ... Implementation of new initiatives such as the Materials Genome...

49

Diffuse Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diffuse Scattering Diffuse Scattering * Anticipatory (trick) question: If you have an x-ray or neutron detector looking at a small sample volume, which will scatter more x- rays or neutrons into the detector 1 atom 100 atoms or 1000 atoms? X-ray or neutron beam Answer: Depends! Diffuse Scattering Gene E. Ice Materials Science and Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering ORNL/SNS June 2011 Presentation concentrates year graduate-level course into 1 hour * Skip mathematical complexities * Expose to range of applications * Develop intuition for length scales * Talk like x-ray/neutron scattering guru - Reciprocal space - Debye Temperature - Laue monotonic - Krivoglaz defects of 1st/2nd kinds! Great for cocktail parties or impressing attractive strangers-

50

Relativistic diffusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss a relativistic diffusion in the proper time in an approach of Schay and Dudley. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates.We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form.We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution.We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution.The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Juettner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

Z. Haba

2008-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

51

Diffusion bonding  

SciTech Connect

1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

Anderson, Robert C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

52

THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.

Grether, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

2012 Diffusion Workshop Presentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Diffusion Studies in Mg-Al-Zn (N. Kulkarni, B. Warmack, J. Mundy, ORNL); Thermodynamics and Correlation Effects on Diffusion in Al-Ni Melts. ...

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

56

An Iterative Radiative Transfer Code For Ocean-Atmosphere Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the details of an iterative radiative transfer code for computing the intensity and degree of polarization of diffuse radiation in models of the ocean-atmosphere system. The present code neglects the upwelling radiation from below the ...

Ziauddin Ahmad; Robert S. Fraser

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Microfabricated diffusion source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, coming directly from the sky except for solar radiation coming directly from the sun and the circumsolar irradiance within approximately three degrees of the sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

59

Updating Applied Diffusion Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most diffusion models currently used in air quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, ...

J. C. Weil

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

ARM - Field Campaign - Diffuse Shortwave IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsDiffuse Shortwave IOP govCampaignsDiffuse Shortwave IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Diffuse Shortwave IOP 2001.09.24 - 2001.10.22 Lead Scientist : Joseph Michalsky Data Availability Data will not be available for public viewing until April 8, 2002. All data will be archived at the diffuse IOP web site by that date. For data sets, see below. Summary Almost 4 weeks of data were acquired under mostly sunny skies. Ninety-two percent of the daylight hours had measureable direct beam radiation. Much of the sunny data included completely cloud free conditions. The trackers functioned perfectly. Clear-sky data included low to moderate aerosol cases with no high aerosol conditions sampled. Data recovery from the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Measuring Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration...

62

Measurement of Broadband Diffuse Solar Irradiance Using Current Commercial Instrumentation with a Correction for Thermal Offset Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diffuse-sky solar irradiance is an important quantity for radiation budget research, particularly as it relates to climate. Diffuse irradiance is one component of the total downwelling solar irradiance and contains information on the amount of ...

Ellsworth G. Dutton; Joseph J. Michalsky; Thomas Stoffel; Bruce W. Forgan; John Hickey; Donald W. Nelson; Timothy L. Alberta; Ibrahim Reda

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

SOLAR CELL BASED PYRANOMETERS: EVALUATION OF THE DIFFUSE RESPONSE Frank Vignola  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

260 SOLAR CELL BASED PYRANOMETERS: EVALUATION OF THE DIFFUSE RESPONSE Frank Vignola Department The responsivity to diffuse radiation of a solar cell based pyranometer is studied. Diffuse measurements are made of the LiCor pyranometer is presented. Implication of the spectral dependence of the solar cell based

Oregon, University of

64

Gravitational Instability in Radiation Pressure Dominated Backgrounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I consider the physics of gravitational instabilities in the presence of dynamically important radiation pressure and gray radiative diffusion, governed by a constant opacity, kappa. For any non-zero radiation diffusion rate on an optically-thick scale, the medium is unstable unless the classical gas-only isothermal Jeans criterion is satisfied. When diffusion is "slow," although the dynamical Jeans instability is stabilized by radiation pressure on scales smaller than the adiabatic Jeans length, on these same spatial scales the medium is unstable to a diffusive mode. In this regime, neglecting gas pressure, the characteristic timescale for growth is independent of spatial scale and given by (3 kappa c_s^2)/(4 pi G c), where c_s is the adiabatic sound speed. This timescale is that required for a fluid parcel to radiate away its thermal energy content at the Eddington limit, the Kelvin-Helmholz timescale for a radiation pressure supported self-gravitating object. In the limit of "rapid" diffusion, radiation does nothing to suppress the Jeans instability and the medium is dynamically unstable unless the gas-only Jeans criterion is satisfied. I connect with treatments of Silk damping in the early universe. I discuss several applications, including photons diffusing in regions of extreme star formation (starburst galaxies & pc-scale AGN disks), and the diffusion of cosmic rays in normal galaxies and galaxy clusters. The former (particularly, starbursts) are "rapidly" diffusing and thus cannot be supported against dynamical instability in the linear regime by radiation pressure alone. The latter are more nearly "slowly" diffusing. I speculate that the turbulence in starbursts may be driven by the dynamical coupling between the radiation field and the self-gravitating gas, perhaps mediated by magnetic fields. (Abridged)

Todd A. Thompson

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

65

Thermodynamics and Diffusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011 ... Hume-Rothery Symposium Thermodynamics and Diffusion Coupling ... be quite fundamental and often it cannot be distinguished from basic...

66

Mulitcomponent Multiphase Diffusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 54 (2006) p 2431-2439. pdf file; "Hillert, Hglund, and gren, "Diffusion in interstitial compounds with thermal and stoichiometric defects," J. Appl. ...

2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

67

Galactic Diffuse Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.

Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC

2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

68

Short communication: A software component for estimating solar radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GSRad (global solar radiation) is a software component containing models to estimate extra-terrestrial and ground-level solar radiation (global and photosynthetically active; direct, diffuse, and reflected components) from alternative methods. Radiation ... Keywords: Atmospheric transmissivity, Component architecture, GSRad, Model extensibility, Solar radiation fractions

M. Donatelli; L. Carlini; G. Bellocchi

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from...

70

Nonlinear Horizontal Diffusion for GCMs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mixing-length-based parameterization of horizontal diffusion, which was originally proposed by Smagorinsky, is revisited. The complete tendencies of horizontal momentum diffusion, the associated frictional heating, and horizontal diffusion of ...

Erich Becker; Ulrike Burkhardt

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.

Bryan M. Johnson

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

72

VISUALS: Diffusion couple animation - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 25, 2007 ... This Quicktime animation of a diffusion couple shows side-by-side views of two different atomic species - red and green - diffusing across a flat...

73

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

74

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

75

Exploiting breakdown of the similarity relation for diffuse light transport: simultaneous retrieval of scattering anisotropy and diffusion constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As manifested in the similarity relation of diffuse light transport, it is difficult to assess single scattering characteristics from multiply scattered light. We take advantage of the limited validity of the diffusion approximation of light transport and demonstrate, experimentally and numerically, that even deep into the multiple scattering regime, time-resolved detection of transmitted light allows simultaneous assessment of both single scattering anisotropy and scattering mean free path, and therefore also macroscopic parameters like the diffusion constant and the transport mean free path. This is achieved via careful assessment of early light and matching against Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer.

Svensson, Tomas; Alerstam, Erik; Vynck, Kevin; Burresi, Matteo; Wiersma, Diederik S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation-resistant Microorganisms. ... Elucidated radiation protection by intracellular halides. ...

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Sampling Conditioned Hypoelliptic Diffusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of recent articles introduced a method to construct stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) which are invariant with respect to the distribution of a given conditioned diffusion. These works are restricted to the case of elliptic diffusions where the drift has a gradient structure, and the resulting SPDE is of second order parabolic type. The present article extends this methodology to allow the construction of SPDEs which are invariant with respect to the distribution of a class of hypoelliptic diffusion processes, subject to a bridge conditioning. This allows the treatment of more realistic physical models, for example one can use the resulting SPDE to study transitions between meta-stable states in mechanical systems with friction and noise. In this situation the restriction of the drift being a gradient can also be lifted.

Hairer, Martin; Voss, Jochen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Modeling early galaxies using radiation hydrodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This simulation uses a flux-limited diffusion solver to explore the radiation hydrodynamics of early galaxies, in particular, the ionizing radiation created by Population III stars. At the time of this rendering, the simulation has evolved to a redshift ... Keywords: astrophysics, modeling, visualization

Joseph A. Insley; Rick Wagner; Robert Harkness; Daniel R. Reynolds; Michael L. Norman; Mark Hereld; Eric C. Olson; Michael E. Papka; Venkatram Vishwanath

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Beta Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

80

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Diffusion and Numerical Filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applications of low-pass filters or implicit diffusion are found to be extremely beneficial in a simple model problem that contains an oven-ordered advection scheme based on a symmetric stencil. In contrast, the effects are negative when either ...

William H. Raymond

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

An Evaluation of the Role of Eddy Diffusion in Stratospheric Interactive Two-Dimensional Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of eddy diffusion in an interactive two-dimensional model of the stratosphere is reexamined. The model consists of a primitive equation dynamics module, a simplified HOx ozone model and a full radiative transfer scheme. The diabatic/...

Hans R. Schneider; Malcolm K. W. Ko; Nien Dak Sze; Guang-Yu Shi; Wei-Chyung Wang

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, R. V. Skougaard [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

84

Consensus of Information in Distributed Control of a Diffusion Process using Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processes like chemical/radiation leaks, oil spills etc. can have a large impact on human health and natural] and extended to a diffusing and spaying scenario [6]. Actually, the monitoring and control of a diffusion tracking, task assignment, and traffic control [10] [11] [12]. Although a group of mobile actuators

Ren, Wei

85

Optical Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Optical Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

86

Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Ionizing Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

87

Radiation in Systems with Near Zero Dielectric Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss radiation effects in systems with near zero dielectric constant. An enhancement of intensity by example of transition and diffusive radiations is demonstrated. A sharp peak in the transition radiation spectral-angular intensity is predicted. Numerical estimates for specific systems are made and possible applications are discussed.

Arakelian, V H

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Diffusive Transport by Breaking Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple conceptual model of the relationship between advective transport by breaking waves and diffusive transport is derived. line model postulates that the displacement of fluid parcels by a breaking wave is analogous to molecular diffusion (...

Kenneth P. Bowman

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

High accuracy diffuse horizontal irradiance measurements without a shadowband  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The standard method for measuring diffuse horizontal irradiance uses a fixed shadowband to block direct solar radiation. This method requires a correction for the excess skylight blocked by the band, and this correction varies with sky conditions. Alternately, diffuse horizontal irradiance may be calculated from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance. This method is in error because of angular (cosine) response of the total horizontal pyranometer to direct beam irradiance. This paper describes an improved calculation of diffuse horizontal irradiance from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance using a predetermination of the angular response of the total horizontal pyranometer. We compare these diffuse horizontal irradiance calculations with measurements made with a shading-disk pyranometer that shields direct irradiance using a tracking disk. Results indicate significant improvement in most cases. Remaining disagreement most likely arises from undetected tracking errors and instrument leveling.

Schlemmer, J.A; Michalsky, J.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

91

Radiation Physics Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Portal. Radiation Physics Portal. ... more. >> see all Radiation Physics programs and projects ... ...

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

92

LHC Beam Diffusion Effects: Models and Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radio Frequency (RF) accelerating system noise and non-idealities can have detrimental impact on the LHC performance through longitudinal motion and longitudinal emittance growth. A theoretical formalism has been developed to relate the beam and RF loop dynamics with the bunch length growth [1]. Measurements were conducted at LHC to validate the formalism, determine the performance limiting RF components, and provide the foundation for beam diffusion estimates for higher energies and intensities. A brief summary of these results is presented in this work. During a long store, the relation between the energy lost to synchrotron radiation and the noise injected to the beam by the RF accelerating voltage determines the growth of the bunch energy spread and longitudinal emittance. Since the proton synchrotron radiation in the LHC is very low, the beam diffusion is extremely sensitive to RF perturbations. The theoretical formalism presented in [1], suggests that the noise experienced by the beam depends on the cavity phase noise power spectrum, filtered by the beam transfer function, and aliased due to the periodic sampling of the accelerating voltage signal V{sub c}. Additionally, the dependence of the RF accelerating cavity noise spectrum on the Low Level RF (LLRF) configurations has been predicted using time-domain simulations and models [2]. In this work, initial measurements at the LHC supporting the above theoretical formalism and simulation predictions are presented.

Mastorides, T.; /SLAC; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC; Fox, J.D.; /SLAC; Van Winkle, D.; /SLAC; Baudrenghien, P.; /CERN; Butterworth, A.; /CERN; Molendijk, J.; /CERN

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

Radiation Cataract  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation including patients undergoing diagnostic CT scans or radiotherapy, atomic bomb survivors, residents of radioactively contaminated buildings, victims of the...

94

Sampling diffusive transition paths  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

95

Discrepancies in Shortwave Diffuse Measured and Modeled Irradiances in Antarctica  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discrepancies in Shortwave Diffuse Measured and Discrepancies in Shortwave Diffuse Measured and Modeled Irradiances in Antarctica A. Payton, P. Ricchiazzi, and C. Gautier University of California Santa Barbara, California D. Lubin Scripps Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Measurements of clear-sky shortwave (SW) radiation at the surface show discrepancies between measurements and model simulations, but only for certain measurements across time and space. Most of the observations entail broadband measurements. A spectral and spatial analysis of the occurrence of this discrepancy may lend insight into the responsible processes. Langley calibrated multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements collected at the Antarctic coastline reveal significant

96

Temporal Accuracy of the Solution of Nonequilibrium Radiation...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Accuracy of the Solution of Nonequilibrium Radiation Diffusion Equations V.A. Mousseau, * R.M. Rauenzahn, * D.A. Knoll * * Los Alamos National Laboratory, T-3, Fluid Dynamics, MS...

97

Light diffusing fiber optic chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

Maitland, Duncan J. (Lafayette, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Diffusion Flame Measurements: Notes B  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Profiles in steady and flickering methane/air, ethylene/air, and propane/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure using an axisymmetric burner ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

Tracer Diffusion Databases for ICME  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of a large repository of stable isotopes that can be utilized for tracer diffusion .... Lattice Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Lithium Battery Materials LiMPO4...

100

Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Volume 1 Start Page 1176 Issue 8 Pagination 1176-1180 Keywords anode, diffusion, graphene, lithium ion battery, transport Abstract Graphitic carbon is currently considered the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Construction Worker Screening Project |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Construction Worker Screening Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Construction Worker Screening Project Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Construction Worker Screening Project Project Name: Building Trades National Medical Screening Program Covered DOE Site: Paducah Worker Population Served: Construction Workers Principal Investigator: Knut Ringen, DrPH, MHA, MPH Toll-free Telephone: (888) 464-0009 Local Outreach Office: Joe Hudson 1930 North 13th Street Paducah, KY 42001 Website: http://www.btmed.org This project is intended to provide free medical screening to former workers in the building trades (construction workers). The screening targets health problems resulting from exposures, including asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, noise, radiation, silica and/or solvents. The project is being carried out by a large group led by

102

Molecular dynamics simulation of hydrogen diffusion in titanium  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

9: Computation Physics 9: Computation Physics Atomistic Simulation of Hydrogen Diffusion in Titanium. Alexandr S. Rokhmanenkov, Alexey Yu. Kuksin, and Vladimir V. Stegailov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, Moscow 125412, Russia rohmanenkov@gmail.com Summary Study of the behavior of hydrogen in metals and alloys. The study is based on classical molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Study of the behavior of hydrogen in metals and alloys is of great importance due to the practical uses of hydrogen-metal systems for absorption of nuclear radiation, in neutron sources, for storage of hydrogen, or as catalyzers. This work is devoted to atomistic simulation of hydrogen diffusion in titanium hydrides and the effect of stresses and lattice defects on diffusivity.

103

Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Information << Timeline >> Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player July 31, 1942 The Army Corp of Engineers leases...

104

Journal of Research Volume 15  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Atomic weight of gallium, p. 409 Lundell, GEF; Hoffman, JI http://dx ... Design and construction of an experimental diffusion battery, p. 441 Proffitt, MJ ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

105

Definition of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of...

106

How to Detect Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How...

107

Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

Foreman, Kenneth M. (North Bellmore, NY); Gilbert, Barry L. (Westbury, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Tidal Diffusivity: A Mechanism for Frontogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is hypothesized that tidal mixing may provide a diffusivity mechanism for frontogenesis. It stems from the fact that tidal diffusivity varies in the opposite sense from the water depth, so the vertically integrated diffusivity may exhibit a ...

Hsien-Wang Ou; Chang-Ming Dong; Dake Chen

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Modeling phosphorus diffusion in three dimensions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional process simulator in which both the standard nonlinear diffusion model and a five-species kinetic model are implemented to model phosphorus diffusion in silicon is described. The reaction-diffusion equations are discretized using ...

W. B. Richardson; G. F. Carey; B. J. Mulvaney

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

BEAM DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS AT RHIC.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During a store, particles from the beam core continually diffuse outwards into the halo through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding the diffusion rate as a function of particle amplitude can help discover which processes are important to halo growth. A collimator can be used to measure the amplitude growth rate as a function of the particle amplitude. In this paper we present results of diffusion measurements performed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with fully stripped gold ions, deuterons, and protons. We compare these results with measurements from previous years, and simulations, and discuss any factors that relate to beam growth in RHIC.

FLILLER,R.P.,IIIDREES,A.GASSNER,D.MCINTYRE,G.PEGGS,S.TRBOJEVIC,D.

2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

111

Semi-implicit time integration for PN thermal radiative transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Implicit time integration involving the solution of large systems of equations is the current paradigm for time-dependent radiative transfer. In this paper we present a semi-implicit, linear discontinuous Galerkin method for the spherical harmonics (P"N) ... Keywords: Asymptotic diffusion limit, Discontinuous Galerkin, PN approximation, Thermal radiative transfer

Ryan G. McClarren; Thomas M. Evans; Robert B. Lowrie; Jeffery D. Densmore

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Testing a Model of IR Radiative Losses: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermopile pyranometers exhibit IR radiative losses that affect global and diffuse shortwave measurements made with first class thermopile based instruments. Pyrgeometers can be used to measure the sky temperature and are used to calculate the pyranometer?s IR radiative losses.

Vignola, F.; Long, C. N.; Reda, I.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Some analytical models of radiating collapsing spheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present some analytical solutions to the Einstein equations, describing radiating collapsing spheres in the diffusion approximation. Solutions allow for modeling physical reasonable situations. The temperature is calculated for each solution, using a hyperbolic transport equation, which permits to exhibit the influence of relaxational effects on the dynamics of the system.

Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A [Escuela de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Ospino, J. [Area de Fisica Teorica. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca Salamanca (Spain)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

FLAME STRUCTURE MEASUREMENT OF POLYMER DIFFUSION FLAMES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of counterflow diffusion flames above condensed fuels:of counterflow diffusion flames in the forward stagnationCA, October 15-16, 1979 FLAME STRUCTURE MEASUREMENT OF

Pitz, W. J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

New frontiers in diffusion modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the last fifty years, diffusion researchers have sought to explain why the rate of adoption of an innovation varies over time. Some innovations are adopted quickly as compared to others, which take decades for adoption. ...

Ranganath, Naveen Chandra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Diffusion of Hydrogen in Titanium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 1, 1994 ... TMS Member price: 10.00. Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price : 10.00. Product In Stock. Description The diffusion of...

117

Programming reaction-diffusion processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In reaction-diffusion (RD) processors, both the data and the results of the computation are encoded as concentration profiles of the reagents. The computation is performed via the spreading and interaction of wave fronts. Most prototypes of RD computers ...

Andrew Adamatzky

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Radiation Hydrodynamics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish hydrogen atoms from helium atoms, for instance. There are all just components of a mixed fluid in this case. So why do we have a special subject called ''radiation hydrodynamics'', when photons are just one of the many kinds of particles that comprise our fluid? The reason is that photons couple rather weakly to the atoms, ions and electrons, much more weakly than those particles couple with each other. Nor is the matter-radiation coupling negligible in many problems, since the star or nebula may be millions of mean free paths in extent. Radiation hydrodynamics exists as a discipline to treat those problems for which the energy and momentum coupling terms between matter and radiation are important, and for which, since the photon mean free path is neither extremely large nor extremely small compared with the size of the system, the radiation field is not very easy to calculate. In the theoretical development of this subject, many of the relations are presented in a form that is described as approximate, and perhaps accurate only to order of {nu}/c. This makes the discussion cumbersome. Why are we required to do this? It is because we are using Newtonian mechanics to treat our fluid, yet its photon component is intrinsically relativistic; the particles travel at the speed of light. There is a perfectly consistent relativistic kinetic theory, and a corresponding relativistic theory of fluid mechanics, which is perfectly suited to describing the photon gas. But it is cumbersome to use this for the fluid in general, and we prefer to avoid it for cases in which the flow velocity satisfies {nu} << c. The price we pay is to spend extra effort making sure that the source-sink terms relating to our relativistic gas component are included in the equations of motion in a form that preserves overall conservation of energy and momentum, something that would be automatic if the relativistic equations were used throughout.

Castor, J I

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

RADIATION DETECTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Model for GLAST LAT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diffuse emission from the Milky Way dominates the gamma-ray sky. About 80% of the high-energy luminosity of the Milky Way comes from processes in the interstellar medium. The Galactic diffuse emission traces interactions of energetic particles, primarily protons and electrons, with the interstellar gas and radiation field, thus delivering information about cosmic-ray spectra and interstellar mass in distant locations. Additionally, the Galactic diffuse emission is the celestial foreground for the study of gamma-ray point sources and the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission. We will report on the latest developments in the modelling of the Galactic diffuse emission, which will be used for the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) investigations.

Porter, T A; Grenier, I A; Moskalenko, I V; Strong, A W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Model for GLAST LAT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diffuse emission from the Milky Way dominates the gamma-ray sky. About 80% of the high-energy luminosity of the Milky Way comes from processes in the interstellar medium. The Galactic diffuse emission traces interactions of energetic particles, primarily protons and electrons, with the interstellar gas and radiation field, thus delivering information about cosmic-ray spectra and interstellar mass in distant locations. Additionally, the Galactic diffuse emission is the celestial foreground for the study of gamma-ray point sources and the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission. We will report on the latest developments in the modeling of the Galactic diffuse emission, which will be used for the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) investigations.

Porter, T.A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Digel, S.W.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Grenier, I.A.; /Saclay; Moskalenko, I.V.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Strong, A.W.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE

2007-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

124

Diffusion-controlled spherulite growth in obsidian inferred from H2O concentration profiles  

SciTech Connect

Spherulites are spherical clusters of radiating crystals that occur naturally in rhyolitic obsidian. The growth of spherulites requires diffusion and uptake of crystal forming components from the host rhyolite melt or glass, and rejection of non-crystal forming components from the crystallizing region. Water concentration profiles measured by synchrotron-source Fourier transform spectroscopy reveal that water is expelled into the surrounding matrix during spherulite growth, and that it diffuses outward ahead of the advancing crystalline front. We compare these profiles to models of water diffusion in rhyolite to estimate timescales for spherulite growth. Using a diffusion-controlled growth law, we find that spherulites can grow on the order of days to months at temperatures above the glass transition. The diffusion-controlled growth law also accounts for spherulite size distribution, spherulite growth below the glass transition, and why spherulitic glasses are not completely devitrified.

Watkins, Jim; Watkins, Jim; Manga, Michael; Huber, Christian; Martin, Michael C.

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

125

NIST Radiation thermometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation thermometry. Summary: ... Description: Radiation thermometers are calibrated using a range of variable-temperature blackbodies. ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

126

NIST Optical Radiation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Group. Welcome. The Optical Radiation Group maintains, improves, and disseminates the national scales ...

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

127

National Solar Radiation Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National Solar Radiation Database National Solar Radiation Database Jump to: navigation, search The National Solar Radiation Database, or NSRDB, describes the amount of solar energy which is available at any location in the United States. It is generated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with the assistance of many collaborators.[1] Technical Overview Per its user's manual, "The NSRDB is a serially complete collection of hourly values of the three most common measurements of solar radiation (global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal) over a period of time adequate to establish means and extremes, and at a sufficient number of locations to represent regional solar radiation climates."[2] There have been two releases of the NSRDB, each covering different time

128

Fractional reaction-diffusion equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a series of papers, Saxena, Mathai, and Haubold (2002, 2004a, 2004b) derived solutions of a number of fractional kinetic equations in terms of generalized Mittag-Leffler functions which provide the extension of the work of Haubold and Mathai (1995, 2000). The subject of the present paper is to investigate the solution of a fractional reaction-diffusion equation. The results derived are of general nature and include the results reported earlier by many authors, notably by Jespersen, Metzler, and Fogedby (1999) for anomalous diffusion and del-Castillo-Negrete, Carreras, and Lynch (2003) for reaction-diffusion systems with L\\'evy flights. The solution has been developed in terms of the H-function in a compact form with the help of Laplace and Fourier transforms. Most of the results obtained are in a form suitable for numerical computation.

R. K. Saxena; A. M. Mathai; H. J. Haubold

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

129

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

130

Radiation receiver  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

RADIATION SOURCES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.

Brucer, M.H.

1958-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Diffuse gamma-ray emission: Galactic and extragalactic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here is reviewed our current understanding of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission. The spectrum of the extragalactic gamma-ray background above 30 MeV can be well described by a power law with photon index s=2.1. In the 2-10 MeV range a preliminary analysis of COMPTEL data indicates a lower intensity than previously found, with no evidence for an MeV bump. Most of the models of a truly diffuse background seem to be in conflict with the observed spectrum. Though AGN are the most likely input from discrete sources, two independent attempts to model the high energy background as the superposition of unresolved AGN indicate that AGN underproduce the observed intensity. Therefore the origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray background is still unknown. The Galactic diffuse gamma-ray continuum is more intense than expected both at very low energies (energies (> 1 GeV). The published models for these excesses all involve cosmic ray electron interactions. While the low energy excess may have something to do with in-situ acceleration of electrons, the excess at high energies may be understood if the sources of cosmic ray electrons are discrete. The measured energy spectrum of the diffuse Galactic gamma-ray continuum radiation thus may provide new insights into the acceleration of cosmic rays.

Martin Pohl

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

133

In vivo facilitated diffusion model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model.

Max Bauer; Ralf Metzler

2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

134

Tracer Diffusion Db- NIST09  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... DCu Cu-Zn, 780oC Atom Fraction Zinc (X Zn ) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Tra cer Diffusion Co ... Au-Ni, 900 o C Atom fraction nickel (X Ni ) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

135

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

136

Radiation Tolerant Metallic Multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strategies that can alleviate radiation damage may assist the design of radiation tolerant materials. We will summarize our recent studies on radiation damage in...

137

NEW SOURCES OF RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project Report No. 75/07.IBL 79M0733 Fig. 20. Radiation emission pattern by electronsWinick, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Fig. 21.

Schimmerling, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Radiation-induced angiosarcoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1a Figure 1b Figure 1. Radiation-induced angiosarcoma in afollowing completion of radiation therapy. Figure 2a Figurecell histiocytosis after radiation for breast carcinoma: can

Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Asymptotic diffusion limit of the symbolic Monte-Carlo method for the transport equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use asymptotic analysis to study the diffusion limit of the Symbolic Implicit Monte-Carlo (SIMC) method for the transport equation. For standard SIMC with piecewise constant basis functions, we demonstrate mathematically that the solution converges ... Keywords: Monte-Carlo method, radiative transfer

J.-F. Clout; G. Samba

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Radiation properties of cavity Cerenkov radiation  

SciTech Connect

Cerenkov radiation from cavities has been analyzed by quantum electrodynamic theory. Analytical expressions of basic radiation properties such as the Einstein's A and B coefficients are derived and shown to be directly modified by the cavities. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the coherent radiation from the Cerenkov radiation devices is due to super radiance of spontaneous emission instead of stimulated emission. Coherent and incoherent radiations are analyzed in the THz radiation range.

Gao Ju; Shen Fang [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

An Improved Daylight Correction for IR Loss in ARM Diffuse SW Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Improved Daylight Correction for IR Loss An Improved Daylight Correction for IR Loss in ARM Diffuse SW Measurements C. N. Long, K. Younkin, and K. L. Gaustad Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington J. A. Augustine National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory Surface Radiation Research Branch Boulder, Colorado Introduction A paper by Cess et al. (2000) notes that some clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements they were using from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site exhibited less than Rayleigh magnitude. Remarking that this is a physical impossibility, the obvious conclusion forwarded by the authors was that there was some problem with the ARM SGP diffuse SW data. Shortly thereafter, the problem of infrared (IR) loss from thermopile-based single black detector

142

Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thunderhead Radiation Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX Chuck Long Jay Mace Intent * Provide downwelling broadband radiation measurements at Thunderhead * Physically small footprint portable system * Designed to provide inputs necessary for Radiative Flux Analysis Basic RFA System COPS Hornisgrinde Deployment 1200m elevation System Components * Eppley ventilated PSP * Eppley ventilated PIR * Delta-T SPN-1 * Vaisala HMP-50 T/RH probe * Campbell CR23X datalogger SPN-1 Radiometer * Uses 7 thermopile detectors and a patented shading pattern * Measures Total and Diffuse SW with no moving parts * Includes internal heaters Relative accuracy StDev = 13.6 Winter Mountain Deployment Frost/Snow Mitigation * NSA Heated Ventilator Evaluation IOP - Testing various configurations and

143

DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION SIMULATIONS OF RADIO RELICS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent radio observations have identified a class of structures, so-called radio relics, in clusters of galaxies. The radio emission from these sources is interpreted as synchrotron radiation from GeV electrons gyrating in {mu}G-level magnetic fields. Radio relics, located mostly in the outskirts of clusters, seem to associate with shock waves, especially those developed during mergers. In fact, they seem to be good structures to identify and probe such shocks in intracluster media (ICMs), provided we understand the electron acceleration and re-acceleration at those shocks. In this paper, we describe time-dependent simulations for diffusive shock acceleration at weak shocks that are expected to be found in ICMs. Freshly injected as well as pre-existing populations of cosmic-ray (CR) electrons are considered, and energy losses via synchrotron and inverse Compton are included. We then compare the synchrotron flux and spectral distributions estimated from the simulations with those in two well-observed radio relics in CIZA J2242.8+5301 and ZwCl0008.8+5215. Considering that CR electron injection is expected to be rather inefficient at weak shocks with Mach number M {approx}< a few, the existence of radio relics could indicate the pre-existing population of low-energy CR electrons in ICMs. The implication of our results on the merger shock scenario of radio relics is discussed.

Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dongsu [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jones, T. W., E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: twj@msi.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Molecular cooling in the diffuse interstellar medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a simple one-zone model of the thermal and chemical evolution of interstellar gas to study whether molecular hydrogen (H2) is ever an important coolant of the warm, diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We demonstrate that at solar metallicity, H2 cooling is unimportant and the thermal evolution of the ISM is dominated by metal line cooling. At metallicities below 0.1 Z_solar, however, metal line cooling of low density gas quickly becomes unimportant and H2 can become the dominant coolant, even though its abundance in the gas remains small. We investigate the conditions required in order for H2 to dominate, and show that it provides significant cooling only when the ratio of the interstellar radiation field strength to the gas density is small. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are insensitive to changes in the initial fractional ionization of the gas or to uncertainties in the nature of the dust present in the low-metallicity ISM.

Glover, S C O

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers Thomasconditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of areaction of reactant gases (1). A number of strategies exist

Dursch, Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Synergistic diffuser/heat-exchanger design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The theoretical and numerical evaluation of synergistic diffusing heat-exchanger design is presented. Motivation for this development is based on current diffuser and heat-exchange technologies in cogeneration plants, which ...

Lazzara, David S. (David Sergio), 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Diffusion Tubes for Ambient NO2 Monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the field of diffusive sampling, and other stakeholders. The following (in alphabetical order) actively or vapour phase pollutant directly from the surrounding air by means of diffusion, without actively drawing

Short, Daniel

148

Hierarchical 3D diffusion wavelet shape priors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a novel representation of prior knowledge for image segmentation, using diffusion wavelets that can reflect arbitrary continuous interdependencies in shape data. The application of diffusion ...

Langs, Georg

149

A hybrid Godunov method for radiation hydrodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From a mathematical perspective, radiation hydrodynamics can be thought of as a system of hyperbolic balance laws with dual multiscale behavior (multiscale behavior associated with the hyperbolic wave speeds as well as multiscale behavior associated with source term relaxation). With this outlook in mind, this paper presents a hybrid Godunov method for one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics that is uniformly well behaved from the photon free streaming (hyperbolic) limit through the weak equilibrium diffusion (parabolic) limit and to the strong equilibrium diffusion (hyperbolic) limit. Moreover, one finds that the technique preserves certain asymptotic limits. The method incorporates a backward Euler upwinding scheme for the radiation energy density E{sub r} and flux F{sub r} as well as a modified Godunov scheme for the material density {rho}, momentum density m, and energy density E. The backward Euler upwinding scheme is first-order accurate and uses an implicit HLLE flux function to temporally advance the radiation components according to the material flow scale. The modified Godunov scheme is second-order accurate and directly couples stiff source term effects to the hyperbolic structure of the system of balance laws. This Godunov technique is composed of a predictor step that is based on Duhamel's principle and a corrector step that is based on Picard iteration. The Godunov scheme is explicit on the material flow scale but is unsplit and fully couples matter and radiation without invoking a diffusion-type approximation for radiation hydrodynamics. This technique derives from earlier work by Miniati and Colella (2007) . Numerical tests demonstrate that the method is stable, robust, and accurate across various parameter regimes.

Sekora, Michael D., E-mail: sekora@math.princeton.ed [Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Stone, James M. [Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

150

Types of Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation...

151

Radiation Effects In Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RADIATION MATERIALS SCIENCE IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS II: Radiation Effects in Ceramics. Sponsored by: Jt. SMD/MSD Nuclear Materials...

152

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry. ... OH. US Air Force Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Wright-Patterson - Base, OH [100548- 0] PA. ...

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

153

Radiation Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Radiation Physics Division, part of the Physical Measurement Laboratory ... the measurement standards for ionizing radiations and radioactivity ...

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

154

Solar diffusion and public incentives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Institutional arrangements for the commercialization of solar technologies cover a variety of incentives. Although this book concentrates on one such incentive, a grant awarded to homeowners purchasing an approved solar hot water heater, the concluding discussion suggests alternative inducements. The empirical work is based on data collected in Connecticut, but attention is given to national- and state-level studies addressing various aspects of the solar-diffusion process. The authors begin by examining public acceptance and various social-science models for diffusion processes. They conclude that the importance of social and behavioral factors in accelerating the energy transition should not be underestimated. Eight appendices include survey and application forms, information releases, and information about the incentive program. 81 references, 4 figures, 33 tables.

Warkov, S.; Meyer, J.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

156

D-eigenvalues of diffusion kurtosis tensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a new model in medical engineering, where a diffusion kurtosis (DK) tensor is involved. A DK tensor is a fourth-order three-dimensional fully symmetric tensor. In this paper, we introduce D-eigenvalues for a DK tensor. ... Keywords: Computation, Diffusion kurtosis, Eigenvalues, Tensors

Liqun Qi; Yiju Wang; Ed X. Wu

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Heat Hyperbolic Diffusion in Planck Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate the diffusion of the thermal pulse in Planck Gas. We show that the Fourier diffusion equation gives the speed of diffusion, v > c and breaks the causality of the thermal processes in Planck gas .For hyperbolic heat transport v

Miroslaw Kozlowski; Janina Marciak-Kozlowska

2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

158

THE DIFFUSION OF LITHIUM IN ALUMINUM  

SciTech Connect

The diffusion of lithium in aluminum was measured at various temperatures with diffusion couples of aluminum-LiAl. The activation energy, E, is 33.3 kcal/mol, and the diffusion factor, Do, is 4.5 cm{sup2}/sec. (auth)

Costas, L. P.

1963-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

159

Technology Diffusion in Communication Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the rich and growing literature on diffusion and cascade effects in social networks, it is assumed that a node's actions are influenced only by its immediate neighbors in the social network. However, there are other contexts in which this highly-local view of influence is not applicable. The diffusion of technologies in communication networks is one important example; here, a node's actions should also be influenced by remote nodes that it can communicate with using the new technology. We propose a new model of technology diffusion inspired by the networking literature on this topic. Given the communication network $G(V,E)$, we assume that node $u$ activates (i.e. deploys the new technology) when it is adjacent to a connected component of active nodes in $G$ of size exceeding node $u$'s threshold $\\theta(u)$. We focus on an algorithmic problem that is well understood in the context of social networks, but thus far has only heuristic solutions in the context of communication networks: determining the smalle...

Goldberg, Sharon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Current Issues in Terrestrial Solar Radiation Instrumentation for Energy, Climate and Space Applications Preprint prepared for New RAD '99  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reductions of uncertainty in terrestrial solar radiation measurements are needed to validate the Earth's radiation balance derived from satellite data. Characterization of solar energy resources for renewable technologies requires greater time and spatial resolution for economical technology deployment. Solar radiation measurement research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses calibrations, operational characteristics, and corrections for terrestrial solar radiation measurements. We describe progress in measurements of broadband diffuse-sky radiation, and characterization of field instrument thermal offsets and spectral irradiance. The need and prospects for absolute references for diffuse and long-wave terrestrial solar radiation measurements are discussed. Reductions in uncertainty of broadband irradiance measurements from tens of watts per square meter to a few (one to two) watts per square meter are reported, which reduce time and labor to quantify and identify trends in artificial optical radiation sources, terrestrial solar radiation, and the Earth's radiation budget.

Stoffel, T. L.; Reda, I.; Myers, D. R.; Renne, D.; Wilcox, S. W.; Treadwell, J.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility SURF III ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Synchrotron Radiation. What is Synchrotron Radiation? Synchrotron radiation ... known. Properties of Synchrotron Radiation. Schwinger ...

162

Independent Oversight Inspection, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2006 Independent Oversight Inspection, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2006 November 2006 Inspection of Emergency Management at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant The Secretary of Energy's Office of Independent Oversight, within the Office of Security and Safety Performance Assurance, conducted an inspection of the emergency management program at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in August and September 2006. The coordination of emergency plans and procedures among USEC and DOE contractor organizations has successfully integrated the emergency management programs into a single cohesive program for the PORTS site. Other strengths include accurate hazards surveys that identify applicable

163

Quasichemical Models of Multicomponent Nonlinear Diffusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diffusion preserves the positivity of concentrations, therefore, multicomponent diffusion should be nonlinear if there exist non-diagonal terms. The vast variety of nonlinear multicomponent diffusion equations should be ordered and special tools are needed to provide the systematic construction of the nonlinear diffusion equations for multicomponent mixtures with significant interaction between components. We develop an approach to nonlinear multicomponent diffusion based on the idea of the reaction mechanism borrowed from chemical kinetics. Chemical kinetics gave rise to very seminal tools for the modeling of processes. This is the stoichiometric algebra supplemented by the simple kinetic law. The results of this invention are now applied in many areas of science, from particle physics to sociology. In our work we extend the area of applications onto nonlinear multicomponent diffusion. We demonstrate, how the mechanism based approach to multicomponent diffusion can be included into the general thermodynamic ...

Gorban, A N; Wahab, H A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

MODEL OF DIFFUSERS / PERMEATORS FOR HYDROGEN PROCESSING  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) diffusers are mainstays of hydrogen processing. Diffusers separate hydrogen from inert species such as nitrogen, argon or helium. The tubing becomes permeable to hydrogen when heated to more than 250 C and a differential pressure is created across the membrane. The hydrogen diffuses better at higher temperatures. Experimental or experiential results have been the basis for determining or predicting a diffuser's performance. However, the process can be mathematically modeled, and comparison to experimental or other operating data can be utilized to improve the fit of the model. A reliable model-based diffuser system design is the goal which will have impacts on tritium and hydrogen processing. A computer model has been developed to solve the differential equations for diffusion given the operating boundary conditions. The model was compared to operating data for a low pressure diffuser system. The modeling approach and the results are presented in this paper.

Hang, T; William Jacobs, W

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

165

Radiation-Dominated Disks Are Thermally Stable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the accretion rate is more than a small fraction of Eddington, the inner regions of accretion disks around black holes are expected to be radiation-dominated. However, in the alpha-model, these regions are also expected to be thermally unstable. In this paper, we report two 3-d radiation MHD simulations of a vertically-stratified shearing box in which the ratio of radiation to gas pressure is ~ 10, and yet no thermal runaway occurs over a timespan ~ 40 cooling times. Where the time-averaged dissipation rate is greater than the critical dissipation rate that creates hydrostatic equilibrium by diffusive radiation flux, the time-averaged radiation flux is held to the critical value, with the excess dissipated energy transported by radiative advection. Although the stress and total pressure are well-correlated as predicted by the alpha-model, we show that stress fluctuations precede pressure fluctuations, contrary to the usual supposition that the pressure controls the saturation level of the magnetic energy. This fact explains the thermal stability. Using a simple toy-model, we show that independently-generated magnetic fluctuations can drive radiation pressure fluctuations, creating a correlation between the two while maintaining thermal stability.

Shigenobu Hirose; Julian H. Krolik; Omer Blaes

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

166

Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps  

SciTech Connect

Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs.

Dunn, K.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps  

SciTech Connect

Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs.

Dunn, K.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples  

SciTech Connect

Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

UNEP-GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Environment Facility Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis Website http:www.unep.frenergyacti References UNEP Financial Risk...

170

Radiation Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

171

RADIATION COUNTER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

Goldsworthy, W.W.

1958-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

RADIATION DOSIMETER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement was made in the determination of amounts of ionizing radiation, particularly low-energy beta particles of less than 1000 rad total dose by means of fluid-phase dosimeter employing a stabilized-- sensitized ferrous-ferric colorimetric system in a sulphuric acid medium. The improvement in the dosimeter consists of adding to the ferrous-ferric system in concentrations of 10/sub -2/ to 10/sup -4/M an organic compound having one or more carboxylic or equivalent groups, such compounds being capable of chelating or complexing the iron ions in the solution. Suitable sensitizing and stabilizing agents are benzoic, phthalic, salicylic, malonic, lactic, maleic, oxalic, citric, succinic, phenolic tartaric, acetic, and adipic acid, as well as other compounds which are added to the solution alone or in certain combinations. As in conventional fluid-phase dosimeters, the absorbed dosage is correlated with a corresponding change in optical density at particular wavelengths of the solution.

Balkwell, W.R. Jr.; Adams, G.D. Jr.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

173

A 3D Monte Carlo Photoionization Code for Modeling Diffuse Ionized Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a three dimensional Monte Carlo photoionization code tailored for the study of Galactic H II regions and the percolation of ionizing photons in diffuse ionized gas. We describe the code, our calculation of photoionization, heating & cooling, and the approximations we have employed for the low density H II regions we wish to study. Our code gives results in agreement with the Lexington H II region benchmarks. We show an example of a 2D shadowed region and point out the very significant effect that diffuse radiation produced by recombinations of helium has on the temperature within the shadow.

Wood, K; Ercolano, B

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Numerical simulation of the laminar diffusion flame in a simplified burner. Revision 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame in a simple laboratory burner was simulated with the COYOTE reactive flow program. This program predicts the flow field, transport, and chemistry for the purposes of code validation and providing physical understanding of the processes occurring in the flame. The authors show the results of numerical experiments to test the importance of several physical phenomena, including gravity, radiation, and differential diffusion. The computational results compare favorably with the experimental measurements, and all three phenomena are important to accurate simulations.

Cloutman, L.D.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Photon bremsstrahlung and diffusive broadening of a hard jet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The photon bremsstrahlung rate from a quark jet produced in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) off a large nucleus is studied in the collinear limit. The leading medium-enhanced higher twist corrections that describe the multiple scattering of the jet in the nucleus are re-summed to all orders of twist. The propagation of the jet in the absence of further radiative energy loss is shown to be governed by a transverse momentum diffusion equation. We compute the final photon spectrum in the limit of soft photons, taking into account the leading and next-to-leading terms in the photon momentum fraction y. In this limit, the photon spectrum in a physical gauge is shown to arise from two interfering sources: one where the initial hard scattering produces an off-shell quark, which immediately radiates the photon and then undergoes subsequent soft rescattering, and an alternative in which the quark is produced on-shell and propagates through the medium until it is driven off-shell by rescattering and radiates the photon. Our result has a simple formal structure as a product of the photon splitting function, the quark transverse momentum distribution coming from a diffusion equation, and a dimensionless factor that encodes the effect of the interferences encountered by the propagating quark over the length of the medium. The destructive nature of such interferences in the small-y limit is responsible for the origin of the Landau-Pomeranchuck-Migdal (LPM) effect. Along the way we also discuss possible implications for quark jets in hot nuclear matter.

Majumder, A.; Fries, Rainer J.; Mueller, B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Gamma Radiation & X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations...

177

Fractional diffusion modeling of ion channel gating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An anomalous diffusion model for ion channel gating is put forward. This modeling scheme is able to describe the non-exponential, power-law like gating behavior of residence time intervals in several types of ion channels. Our scheme presents a generalization of the discrete diffusion model by Millhauser, Salpeter and Oswald [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 1503 (1988)] to the case of a continuous, anomalously slow conformational diffusion. The corresponding generalization is derived from a continuous time random walk composed of nearest neighbor jumps which in the scaling limit results in a fractional diffusion equation. The studied model contains three parameters only: the mean residence time, a characteristic time of conformational diffusion, and the index of subdiffusion. A tractable analytical expression for the characteristic function of the residence time distribution (RTD) is obtained. In the limiting case of normal diffusion a prior result of Goychuk and Hanggi [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3552 (20...

Goychuk, I; Goychuk, Igor; Hanggi, Peter

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

A new spherical harmonics scheme for multi-dimensional radiation transport I. Static matter configurations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work by McClarren and Hauck (2010) [31] suggests that the filtered spherical harmonics method represents an efficient, robust, and accurate method for radiation transport, at least in the two-dimensional (2D) case. We extend their work to the ... Keywords: Asymptotic diffusion limit, Discontinuous Galerkin, PN-method, Radiation transport

David Radice, Ernazar Abdikamalov, Luciano Rezzolla, Christian D. Ott

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A consistent approach for the coupling of radiation and hydrodynamics at low Mach number  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a consistent numerical model for coupling radiation to hydrodynamics at low Mach number. The hydrodynamical model is based on a low-Mach asymptotic in the compressible flow that removes acoustic wave propagation while retaining the compressibility ... Keywords: Diffusion flame, Low-Mach number flows, M1 model, Natural convection, Radiation hydrodymanics

Bruno Dubroca; Mohammed Sead; Ioan Teleaga

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2) W. J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , Newand R. J. Berry, "Manual on Radiation Dosimetry" (New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (New

Perez-Mendez, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.

Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

182

Experience with Palladium Diffusers in Tritium Processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen isotopes are separated from other gases by permeation through palladium and palladium-silver alloy diffusers in the Tritium Facilities at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). Diffusers have provided effective service for almost forty years. This paper is an overview of the operational experience with the various diffuser types that have been employed at SRS. Alternative technologies being developed at SRS for purifying hydrogen isotopes are also discussed.

Motyka, T.; Clark, E.A.; Dauchess, D.A.; Heung, L.K.; Rabum, R.L.

1995-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

183

Diffusion bonding of Stratapax for drill bits  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process has been developed for the diffusion bonding of General Electric's Stratapax drill blanks to support studs for cutter assemblies in drill bits. The diffusion bonding process is described and bond strength test data are provided for a variety of materials. The extensive process details, provided in the Appendices, should be sufficient to enable others to successfully build diffusion-bonded drill bit cutter assemblies.

Middleton, J.N.; Finger, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Reaction-Diffusion Texture Synthesis - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 12, 2000 ... page 9 : Meinhardt's Stripe-Generation System stripes.png page 10 : Multiple Reaction-Diffusion Systems page 11 : Cheetah Spots

185

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Former Production Workers...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plant, Former Production Workers Screening Projects Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Former Production Workers Screening Projects Project Name: Worker Health Protection Program...

186

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Enforcement Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inc. related to Installation and Inspection of Penetration Fire Seals at the DUF6 Conversion Building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, March 26, 2010 Consent...

187

Mapping Diffuse Seismicity for Geothermal Reservoir Management...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Facebook icon Twitter icon Mapping Diffuse Seismicity for Geothermal Reservoir Management with Matched Field Processing Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation,...

188

Laser Extinction in Laminar Inverse Diffusion Flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diagnostics, Chapter 9: Laser-Induced Incandescence,Laser Extinction in Laminar Inverse Diffusion Flames WesternFoundation, Arlington, VA Laser Extinction in Laminar

Macko, Kevin; Mikofski, Mark A; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Blevins, Linda G; Davis, Ronald W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Diffusion Flame Measurements: Literature Citations C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Partial Equilibrium in the Reaction Zone of Methane-Air Diffusion Flames; and Combustion and Flame 37:227-244 (1980). ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

190

The Diffusion of GIS in Journalism.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purposes of this study were to determine the likelihood of reporters to adopt Geographical Information Systems and to predict the future of the diffusion (more)

Wasike, Ben S.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Diffusion instability in a thermonuclear burn  

SciTech Connect

Time-dependent, one-dimesional equations are solved to demonstrate the possibility of a superheating-diffusion instability in a steady-state fusion reactor.

Vasil' ev, N.N.; Lukash, V.E.; Nedospasov, A.V.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

FLAME STRUCTURE MEASUREMENT OF POLYMER DIFFUSION FLAMES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diffusion flame of gaseous propane and methane provide aCurrent study Tsuji and Yamoaka (propane fuel, -f Oxidizeris air and propane flow rate is constant Nozzle velocity

Pitz, W. J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Solar radiation resource assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Courses on Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

195

Radiation Physics Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Events. Radiation Physics Events. (showing 1 - 3 of 3). CIRMS 2012 Start Date: 10/22/2012 ...

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Bayesian Radiation Source Localization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Special Issue on the 16th Biennial Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division / Radiation Measurements and General Instrumentation

Kenneth D. Jarman; Erin A. Miller; Richard S. Wittman; Christopher J. Gesh

197

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

198

Diffusion in active magnetic colloids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properties of active colloids of circle swimmers are reviewed. As an particular example of active magnetic colloids the magnetotactic bacteria under the action of a rotating magnetic field is considered. The relation for a diffusion coefficient due to the random switching of the direction of rotation of their rotary motors is derived on the basis of the master equation. The obtained relation is confirmed by the direct numerical simulation of random trajectory of a magnetotactic bacterium under the action of the Poisson type internal noise due to the random switching of rotary motors. The results obtained are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the available experimental results and allows one to determine the characteristic time between the switching events of a rotary motor of the bacterium.

Reinis Taukulis; Andrejs Cebers

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

199

Monte Carlo Photoionization Simulations of Diffuse Ionized Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that the observed increase of some nebular line ratios with height above the midplane in the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Milky Way and other galaxies is a natural consequence of the progressive hardening of the radiation field far from the midplane ionizing sources. To obtain increasing temperatures and line ratios away from the midplane, our photoionization simulations of a multi-component interstellar medium do not require as much additional heating (over and above that from photoionization) as previous studies that employed one dimensional, spherically averaged models. Radiation leaking into the DIG from density bounded H II regions is generally harder in the H-ionizing continuum and has its He-ionizing photons suppressed compared to the ionizing source of the H II region. In line with other recent investigations, we find that such leaky H II region models can provide elevated temperatures and line ratios, and a lower He+ fraction in the DIG. For a composite model representing the relative spectral types of O stars in the solar neighbourhood, we find that additional heating less than 1.0E-26 n_e ergs/s/cm^3 can reproduce the observed elevated line ratios in the DIG. This additional heating is considerably less than previous estimates due to the natural hardening of the radiation field reaching large heights in our simulations.

Kenneth Wood; John S. Mathis

2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

200

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Modelling international wind energy diffusion: Are the patterns of induced diffusion `S'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling international wind energy diffusion: Are the patterns of induced diffusion `S' shaped datasets, the paper explores the patterns of international wind energy diffusion in OECD countries. The model employed in the paper predicted that wind energy, as a complex and expensive innovation, would

Feigon, Brooke

202

Properties of small molecular drug loading and diffusion in a fluorinated PEG hydrogel studied by 1H molecular diffusion NMR and 19F spin diffusion NMR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA NMR combined withspin diffusion NMR is useful in studying the drug loadingdiffusion . Spin diffusion . NMR Introduction R f -PEGs (

Mathias, Errol V.; Aponte, Julia; Kornfield, Julia A.; Ba, Yong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

CASTRO: A NEW COMPRESSIBLE ASTROPHYSICAL SOLVER. III. MULTIGROUP RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS  

SciTech Connect

We present a formulation for multigroup radiation hydrodynamics that is correct to order O(v/c) using the comoving-frame approach and the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We describe a numerical algorithm for solving the system, implemented in the compressible astrophysics code, CASTRO. CASTRO uses a Eulerian grid with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement based on a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular variable-sized grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. In our multigroup radiation solver, the system is split into three parts: one part that couples the radiation and fluid in a hyperbolic subsystem, another part that advects the radiation in frequency space, and a parabolic part that evolves radiation diffusion and source-sink terms. The hyperbolic subsystem and the frequency space advection are solved explicitly with high-order Godunov schemes, whereas the parabolic part is solved implicitly with a first-order backward Euler method. Our multigroup radiation solver works for both neutrino and photon radiation.

Zhang, W.; Almgren, A.; Bell, J. [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Howell, L. [Center for Applied Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Burrows, A.; Dolence, J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Diffusion coefficient of trona in water  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the diffusion coefficient of trona in water. The diffusion coefficient of trona from saturated solution in water was measured to be 1.167 *10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2//s with a standard devition of 6.2% at 25/degree/C.30 10/sup 9/ refs.

Mehta, G.D.; Jain, S.C.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

THE MULTIGROUP DIFFUSION EQUATIONS OF REACTOR PHYSICS  

SciTech Connect

The partial differential equations of the multigroup diffusion model of reactor physics are shown to have solutions both in the time-independent and timedependent problems, and the usually assumed behavior of these solutions is shown to be mathematically valid. The method of spectral representation is developed for the multigroup diffusion operator. (auth)

Habetler, G.J.; Martino, M.A.

1958-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

206

Surveying Diffusion in Complex Geometries. An Essay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surrounding world surprises us by the beauty and variety of complex shapes that emerge from nanometric to macroscopic scales. Natural or manufactured materials (sandstones, sedimentary rocks and cement), colloidal solutions (proteins and DNA), biological cells, tissues and organs (lungs, kidneys and placenta), they all present irregularly shaped "scenes" for a fundamental transport "performance", that is, diffusion. Here, the geometrical complexity, entangled with the stochastic character of diffusive motion, results in numerous fascinating and sometimes unexpected effects like diffusion screening or localization. These effects control many diffusion-mediated processes that play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis, biochemical mechanisms, electrochemistry, growth phenomena, oil recovery, or building industry. In spite of a long and rich history of academic and industrial research in this field, it is striking to see how little we know about diffusion in complex geometries, especially the one which occurs in three dimensions. We present our recent results on restricted diffusion. We look into the role of geometrical complexity at different levels, from boundary microroughness to hierarchical structure and connectivity of the whole diffusion-confining domain. We develop a new approach which consists in combining fast random walk algorithms with spectral tools. The main focus is on studying diffusion in model complex geometries (von Koch boundaries, Kitaoka acinus, etc.), as well as on developing and testing spectral methods. We aim at extending this knowledge and at applying the accomplished arsenal of theoretical and numerical tools to structures found in nature and industry.

Denis Grebenkov

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

207

Patents and the diffusion of technical information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Does the disclosure requirement of the patent system encourage the diffusion of inventions? This paper builds a simple model where firms choose between patents and trade secrecy to protect inventions. Diffusion is not necessarily more likely with a patent system nor is the market for technology necessarily greater.

James Bessen; Thanks To Ashish Arora; Robert Barr; Nancy Gallini; Wendy Gordon; Mark Lemley; Mike Meurer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

NIST MIRF - Accelerator Radiation Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accelerator Radiation Physics. Medium-energy accelerators are under investigation for production of channeling radiation ...

209

NIST Synchrotron radiation in SSD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation in the Sensor Science Division. ... Synchrotron Radiation-Based Calibrations for Space Weather Prediction. ...

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

210

Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2013 November 5, 2013 Review of Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of the preparedness of the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office, contractors at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and selected non-leased facilities to respond to a severe natural phenomena event (NPE). The review was conducted in July and August 2013 by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations, which is within the DOE Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS). The HSS Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations performed this

211

THE DIFFUSION OF HYDROGEN IN BETA ZIRCONIUM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diffusion coefficients for hydrogen in beta zirconium were determined from permeation rates in the range 650 to 850 deg C. Both the steady-state method, which is dependent upon the hydrogen concentration, and the time-lag method, which is independent of hydrogen concentration, were employed to obtain diffusion data. Zirconium disks, 0.03 to 0.1 cm thick and varying in hydrogen concentration from 9 to 33 at.%, were used to measure permeation rates. The diffusion coefficients determined by the steady-state and time-lag methods on samples of differing thickness were in agreement. It was concluded that the permeation process was diffusion controlled. The diffusion coefficients were found to be independent of concentration and can be expressed by D = 6.14 x 10/ sup 4/ exp (--45,900/RT). (auth)

Albrecht, W.M.; Goode, W.D. Jr.

1959-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

212

Surveying Diffusion in Complex Geometries. An Essay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surrounding world surprises us by the beauty and variety of complex shapes that emerge from nanometric to macroscopic scales. Natural or manufactured materials (sandstones, sedimentary rocks and cement), colloidal solutions (proteins and DNA), biological cells, tissues and organs (lungs, kidneys and placenta), they all present irregularly shaped "scenes" for a fundamental transport "performance", that is, diffusion. Here, the geometrical complexity, entangled with the stochastic character of diffusive motion, results in numerous fascinating and sometimes unexpected effects like diffusion screening or localization. These effects control many diffusion-mediated processes that play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis, biochemical mechanisms, electrochemistry, growth phenomena, oil recovery, or building industry. In spite of a long and rich history of academic and industrial research in this field, it is striking to see how little we know about diffusion in complex geometries, especially the one whic...

Grebenkov, Denis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Radiation Detection Instruments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Directory of Accredited Laboratories. Radiation Detection Instruments. In 2005, the Department of Homeland Security requested ...

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

214

National Solar Radiation Data Base | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Radiation Data Base Solar Radiation Data Base Dataset Summary Description The National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) is the most comprehensive collection of solar data freely available. The 1991 - 2005 NSRDB contains hourly solar radiation (including global, direct, and diffuse) and meteorological data for 1,454 stations. NCDC's Integrated Surface Data (ISD) were the key data source for this effort, with much of the solar data modeled/estimated based on the surface observations. This dataset builds on the 1961-1990 NSRDB, which contains data for 239 stations. These data are extremely useful in estimating solar energy potential across the U.S., and in estimating heating/cooling requirements for buildings based on heat-gain from solar radiation. More information available at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/reds/

215

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

216

Information Technology Diffusion with Influentials, Imitators, and Opponents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information technology (IT) innovations follow a diverse set of diffusion patterns. Early diffusion models explaining technology diffusion patterns assumed that there is a single homogeneous segment of potential adopters. It was later shown that a two-segment ... Keywords: Diffusion Of Innovation, Information Technology Diffusion, Technology Opposition

Hasan Cavusoglu; Nan Hu; Yingjiu Li; Dan Ma

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Evaluation of diffusion coefficients from nonlinear impurity profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At high concentrations, impurity diffusion in semiconductors is governed by nonlinear diffusion processes. Using similarity analysis, a general expression for evaluation of the diffusion coefficient from experimental impurity profiles derived for the case of redistributive diffusion of implanted impurities. This expression corresponds to the Boltzmann-Matano analysis for the case of diffusion with constant surface concentration.

Anderson, D.; Jeppson, K.O.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Radiation Field Control Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Radiation Management Program is dedicated to reducing nuclear power plant worker personnel exposure by developing practices and technologies to increase the radiation protection of the worker, and to implement methods to reduce radiation fields. The nuclear power industry has recently implemented the RP2020 Initiative to promote positive radiation protection trends. Control of radiation fields is crucial to one of the initiative goals of reducing exposure. This manual provides the current state ...

2004-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

219

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Former Workers, Construction Worker  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plant Former Workers, Construction Plant Former Workers, Construction Worker Screening Projects Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Former Workers, Construction Worker Screening Projects Project Name: Building Trades National Medical Screening Program Covered DOE Site: Portsmouth Worker Population Served: Construction Workers Principal Investigator: Knut Ringen, DrPh, MHA, MPH Toll-free Telephone: (888) 464-0009 Local Outreach Office: Ron Bush 1236 Gallia Street Portsmouth, OH 45662 Website: http://www.btmed.org This project is intended to provide free medical screening to former workers in the building trades (construction workers). The screening targets health problems resulting from exposures, including asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, noise, radiation, silica and/or solvents. The project is being carried out by a large group led by

220

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse downwelling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Incidence Multifilter Radiometer External Instruments USDARAD : US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Radiation Monitoring Data Field Campaign Instruments AOD : Aerosol Optical...

222

Does an accelerated electron radiate Unruh radiation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accelerated particle sees the Minkowski vacuum as thermally excited, and the particle moves stochastically due to an interaction with the thermal bath. This interaction fluctuates the particle's transverse momenta like the Brownian motion in a heat bath. Because of this fluctuating motion, it has been discussed that the accelerated charged particle emits extra radiation (the Unruh radiation) in addition to the classical Larmor radiation, and experiments are under planning to detect such radiation by using ultrahigh intensity lasers constructed in near future. There are, however, counterarguments that the radiation is canceled by an interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the fluctuating motion. In fact, in the case of an internal detector where the Heisenberg equation of motion can be solved exactly, there is no additional radiation after the thermalization is completed. In this paper, we revisit the issue in the case of an accelerated charged particle in the scalar QED. We first prove the e...

Iso, Satoshi; Zhang, Sen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Diffuse Gamma-Rays from Local Group Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diffuse gamma-ray radiation in galaxies is produced by cosmic ray interactions with the interstellar medium. With the completion of EGRET observations, the only extragalactic object from which there has been a positive detection of diffuse gamma-ray emission is the Large Magellanic Cloud. We systematically estimate the expected diffuse gamma-ray flux from Local Group galaxies, and determine their detectability by new generation gamma-ray observatories such as GLAST. For each galaxy, the expected gamma-ray flux depends only on its total gas content and its cosmic ray flux. We present a method for calculating cosmic ray flux in these galaxies in terms of the observed rate of supernova explosions, where cosmic ray acceleration is believed to take place. The difficulty in deriving accurate supernova rates from observational data is a dominant uncertainty in our calculations. We estimate the gamma-ray flux for Local Group galaxies and find that our predictions are consistent with the observations for the LMC and with the observational upper limits for the Small Magellanic Cloud and M31. Both the Andromeda galaxy, with a flux of $\\sim 1.0 \\times 10^{-8}$ photons sec$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ above 100 MeV, and the SMC, with a flux of $\\sim 1.7 \\times 10^{-8}$ photons sec$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ above 100 MeV, are expected to be observable by GLAST. M33 is at the limit of detectability with a flux of $\\sim 0.11 \\times 10^{-8}$ sec$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. Other Local Group galaxies are at least two orders of magnitude below GLAST sensitivity.

Vasiliki Pavlidou; Brian D. Fields

2001-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

A model for the directional distribution of the diffuse sky radiance with an application to a CPC collector  

SciTech Connect

The development of a new, semi-empirical model for the directional distribution of the diffuse radiance is reported. The proposed regression-type model, with the form of its base functions obtained from physical principles, is based on a combination of the purely physical reasoning approach and the purely empirical approach. Direct multiple-scattering calculations are circumvented through the use of the method of successive orders of scattering. The model is calibrated for the mean diffuse radiance estimated under all sky conditions reported in a large and comprehensive diffuse radiance data set. It is found that only a small increase in accuracy is gained by including higher orders of scattering, and this increase does not justify the complexity of the resulting model. Therefore, the single scattering approximation is recommended. The use of the model is illustrated in a typical application, in which the fraction of diffuse radiation intercepted by the receive of a compound parabolic concentrator is computed.

Siala, F.M.F. (Center for Solar Energy Studies, Tripoli (Libya)); Hooper, F.C. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Diffusive Accumulation of Methane Bubbles in Seabed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider seabed bearing methane bubbles. In the absence of fractures the bubbles are immovably trapped in a porous matrix by surface tension forces; therefore the dominant mechanism of transfer of gas mass becomes the diffusion of gas molecules through the liquid. The adequate description of this process requires accounting "other-than-normal" (non-Fickian) diffusion effects, thermodiffusion and gravity action. We evaluate the diffusive flux of aqueous methane and predict the possibility of existence of bubble mass accumulation zones (which can appear independently from the presence/absence of hydrate stability zone) and effect of non-Fickian drift on the capacity of shallow and deep methane-hydrate deposits.

Goldobin, D S; Levesley, J; Lovell, M A; Rochelle, C A; Jackson, P; Haywood, A; Hunter, S; Rees, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Reaction-diffusion systems and nonlinear waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The authors investigate the solution of a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation connected with nonlinear waves. The equation discussed is more general than the one discussed recently by Manne, Hurd, and Kenkre (2000). The results are presented in a compact and elegant form in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions and generalized Mittag-Leffler functions, which are suitable for numerical computation. The importance of the derived results lies in the fact that numerous results on fractional reaction, fractional diffusion, anomalous diffusion problems, and fractional telegraph equations scattered in the literature can be derived, as special cases, of the results investigated in this article.

R. K. Saxena; A. M. Mathai; H. J. Haubold

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

227

Facilitated diffusion of proteins on chromatin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theoretical model of facilitated diffusion of proteins in the cell nucleus. This model, which takes into account the successive binding/unbinding events of proteins to DNA, relies on a fractal description of the chromatin which has been recently evidenced experimentally. Facilitated diffusion is shown quantitatively to be favorable for a fast localization of a target locus by a transcription factor, and even to enable the minimization of the search time by tuning the affinity of the transcription factor with DNA. This study shows the robustness of the facilitated diffusion mechanism, invoked so far only for linear conformations of DNA.

O. Benichou; C. Chevalier; B. Meyer; R. Voituriez

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

228

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

229

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - General Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Radiation Information Answers to Questions about Radiation Dose Ranges Charts - tables showing radiation dose ranges from radio diagnostics to cancer radiotherapy....

230

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Websites about Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Websites About Radiation The ABC's of Nuclear Science A Teacher's Guide To The Nuclear Science Wall Chart Answers to Questions about Radiation and You Background Radiation:...

231

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

232

Radiation effects in the environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yazzie, A. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ (United States). Dept. of History; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Leavitt, C.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Chloride Ion Diffusion in Cement-Based Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... into Hardened Cement Paste , Fly Ash, Silica Fume ... Diffusion Cell: Effects of Material and Test ... LJ, and Yu, SW, Diffusion in Cementitious Materials: II ...

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

234

Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Decommissioning The decommissioning of Gaseous Diffusion Plant facilities requires accurate, non-destructive...

235

Production and Handling Slide 25: The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Skip Presentation Navigation First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

236

Production and Handling Slide 24: The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Site Skip Presentation Navigation First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Site Refer to...

237

Wind and Diffusion Modeling for Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric transport and dispersion over complex terrain were investigated. Meteorological and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) concentration data were collected and used to evaluate the performance of a transport and diffusion model coupled with a ...

Robert M. Cox; John Sontowski; Richard N. Fry Jr.; Catherine M. Dougherty; Thomas J. Smith

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Pollutant Transport and Diffusion in Katabatic Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characteristics of pollutant transport and diffusion of a passive contaminant in a two-dimensional katabatic flow over a simple slope are examined using a primitive equation hydrodynamic model. It is shown that pollutants released above the ...

Carmen J. Nappo; K. Shankar Rao; Jerold A. Herwehe

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Turbulence Spectra and Eddy Diffusivity over Forests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main objectives of this observational study are to examine the stability dependence of velocity and air temperature spectra and to employ the spectral quantities to establish relations for eddy diffusivity over forests. The datasets chosen ...

Xuhui Lee

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

Hasinoff, Samuel W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Electrospray emitters For diffusion vacuum pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following similar principles as regular diffusion vacuum pumps, an electrospray emitter is set to produce a jet of charged particles that will drag air molecules out of a volume. To be a feasible concept, the emitted ...

Diaz Gmez Maqueo, Pablo (Pablo Ly)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Manhattan Project: K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 > Working K-25 into the Mix, Oak Ridge:...

243

A critical review of the ASHRAE solar radiation model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inconsistencies are shown to exist in the presentation and formulation of the ASHRAE solar radiation model. To remove them, it is proposed: 1. To include in the Fundamentals Handbook the clearness number in the expressions for the direct and, in particular, the sky diffuse irradiation under cloudless conditions, and 2. To rewrite the expressions for cloud sky conditions so that they reduce to the cloudless formulation when the cloud cover is zero and they do not give rise to negative values of the sky diffuse irradiation as is presently the case under certain conditions.

Galanis, N.; Chatigny, R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Monte Carlo Photoionization Simulations of Diffuse Ionized Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that the observed increase of some nebular line ratios with height above the midplane in the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Milky Way and other galaxies is a natural consequence of the progressive hardening of the radiation field far from the midplane ionizing sources. To obtain increasing temperatures and line ratios away from the midplane, our photoionization simulations of a multi-component interstellar medium do not require as much additional heating (over and above that from photoionization) as previous studies that employed one dimensional, spherically averaged models. Radiation leaking into the DIG from density bounded H II regions is generally harder in the H-ionizing continuum and has its He-ionizing photons suppressed compared to the ionizing source of the H II region. In line with other recent investigations, we find that such leaky H II region models can provide elevated temperatures and line ratios, and a lower He+ fraction in the DIG. For a composite model representing the relat...

Wood, K; Wood, Kenneth; Mathis, John S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Tachyons and Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND GRAVITATIONAL CHERENKOV RADIATION CHARLES SCHWARTZwould emit gravitational radiation. It is very small.gravitational waves; Cherenkov radiation. In a recent work,

Schwartz, Charles

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advisor Paul Hoover Special Assistant and Issues Management Coordinator Elinor Gwynn Radiation Protection Radiation Protection The Radiation Protection Division supports the...

247

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2.2. Internal ExposureRADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND

Rubloff, Gary W.

248

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

249

WI Radiation Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

250

Nonionizing Radiation and HIV  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nonionizing Radiation and HIV Name: Flora R Pitchford Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: What are the effects of nonionizing radiation on DNA , RNA or any other cell...

251

Radiation and Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation is the driving force for the general circulation of the atmosphere and controls the Earth's climate. Ozone is responsible for the warm stratosphere and protects life on Earth from harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In July 1959, the ...

G. Ohring; R. D. Bojkov; H-J. Bolle; R. D. Hudson; H. Volkert

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Advances in radiation modeling in ALEGRA :a final report for LDRD-67120, efficient implicit mulitgroup radiation calculations.  

SciTech Connect

The original LDRD proposal was to use a nonlinear diffusion solver to compute estimates for the material temperature that could then be used in a Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) calculation. At the end of the first year of the project, it was determined that this was not going to be effective, partially due to the concept, and partially due to the fact that the radiation diffusion package was not as efficient as it could be. The second, and final year, of the project focused on improving the robustness and computational efficiency of the radiation diffusion package in ALEGRA. To this end, several new multigroup diffusion methods have been developed and implemented in ALEGRA. While these methods have been implemented, their effectiveness of reducing overall simulation run time has not been fully tested. Additionally a comprehensive suite of verification problems has been developed for the diffusion package to ensure that it has been implemented correctly. This process took considerable time, but exposed significant bugs in both the previous and new diffusion packages, the linear solve packages, and even the NEVADA Framework's parser. In order to manage this large suite of problem, a new tool called Tampa has been developed. It is a general tool for automating the process of running and analyzing many simulations. Ryan McClarren, at the University of Michigan has been developing a Spherical Harmonics capability for unstructured meshes. While still in the early phases of development, this promises to bridge the gap in accuracy between a full transport solution using IMC and the diffusion approximation.

Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Kurecka, Christopher J. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); McClarren, Ryan (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Radiation protection at CERN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Radiation Dosimetry Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation Dosimetry Data. Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions. MJ Berger The databases ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

255

Radiation Shields Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Materials Solutions for the Nuclear Renaissance. Presentation Title, Radiation...

256

A Hybrid Transport-Diffusion Method  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

method uses an effective-scatter process to approximate absorption and emission of radiation within a time step. * The physical opacity n is divided into an isotropic...

257

Determination of Matrix Diffusion Properties of Granite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rock-core column experiments were introduced to estimate the diffusion and sorption properties of Kuru Grey granite used in block-scale experiments. The objective was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially matrix diffusion. The objective was also to estimate the importance of retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock-core columns were constructed from cores drilled into the fracture and were placed inside tubes to form flow channels in the 0.5 mm gap between the cores and the tube walls. Tracer experiments were performed using uranin, HTO, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 131}I, {sup 22}Na and {sup 85}Sr at flow rates of 1-50 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. Rock matrix was characterized using {sup 14}C-PMMA method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and the B.E.T. method. Solute mass flux through a column was modelled by applying the assumption of a linear velocity profile and molecular diffusion. Coupling of the advection and diffusion processes was based on the model of generalised Taylor dispersion in the linear velocity profile. Experiments could be modelled applying a consistent parameterization and transport processes. The results provide evidence that it is possible to investigate matrix diffusion at the laboratory scale. The effects of matrix diffusion were demonstrated on the slightly-sorbing tracer breakthrough curves. Based on scoping calculations matrix diffusion begins to be clearly observable for non-sorbing tracer when the flow rate is 0.1 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. The experimental results presented here cannot be transferred directly to the spatial and temporal scales that prevail in an underground repository. However, the knowledge and understanding of transport and retention processes gained from this study is transferable to different scales from laboratory to in-situ conditions. (authors)

Holtta, Pirkko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Huittinen, Nina [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 55, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland); Poteri, Antti [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1608, VTT, FI-02044 (Finland)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

259

Radiation detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

Nelson, Melvin A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Davies, Terence J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Morton, III, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

1961-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Sandia Laboratories radiation facilities  

SciTech Connect

This brochure is designed as a basic source of information for prospective users of Sandia Laboratories Radiation Facilities. It contains a brief description of the various major radiation sources, a summary of their output characteristics, and additional information useful to experimenters. Radiation source development and source upgrading is an ongoing program, with new source configurations and modes of operation continually being devised to satisfy the ever-changing radiation requirements of the users. For most cases, the information here should allow a potential user to assess the applicability of a particular radiation facility to a proposed experiment and to permit some preirradiation calculations and planning.

Choate, L.M.; Schmidt, T.R.; Schuch, R.L.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Flow and diffusion distributed structures with noise at the inlet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow and diffusion distributed structures (FDS) are stationary spatially periodic patterns that can be observed in reaction-diffusion-advection systems. These structures arise when the flow rate exceeds a certain bifurcation point provided that concentrations ... Keywords: 47.54.-r, 82.40.Ck, Flow and diffusion distributed structures, Flow distributed oscillations, Noise, Pattern formation, Reaction-diffusion-advection system

Pavel V. Kuptsov; Razvan A. Satnoianu

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Phase Stability, Diffusion, Kinetics and their Applications (PSDK-VI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expedited Processing of CIGS Photovoltaic Absorber Materials Experimental Uncertainty Propagation in Depth-Profiling Diffusion Experiments.

264

Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant- January 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Work Planning and Control Activities Prior to Work Execution

265

NMR Advanced methodologies to investigate water diffusion in materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NMR Advanced methodologies to investigate water diffusion in materials and biological systems Ph · Introduction: _Water Diffusion _Experimental technique: NMR · Diffusion NMR: applications to the study glasses · Diffusion NMR in the framework of multi-quantum coherences · Project outline #12;Outlook

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

266

NIST Optical Radiation Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Staff Directory. Staff. Name, Position, Office Phone. ... Contact. Optical Radiation Group Eric Shirley, Group Leader. ...

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

267

NVLAP Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry LAP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry LAP. ... This site has been established for applicants to the accreditation program for ionizing radiation dosimetry. ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

268

Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Welcome. The Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division is a division ... disseminate the national standards for ionizing radiations and radioactivity ...

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

269

NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course. ... 2012 NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course October 15-19, 2012 NIST Gaithersburg, Maryland. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

NIST Ionizing Radiation Division - 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Ionizing Radiation Division of the Physics Laboratory supports the ... meaningful, and compatible measurements of ionizing radiations (x rays ...

271

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Carribean | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carribean Carribean Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Diffuse Solar Resource for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar radiation for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available at a shaded location. This can be of value for day-lighting or other building applications. The data can be combined with other data (global horizontal, direct normal) to estimate the global radiation on different surfaces. Source NREL Date Released January 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Carribean Central America diffuse radiation GEF GIS Mexico NREL solar SWERA Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 245.7 KiB)

273

Mexico | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico Mexico Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Diffuse Solar Resource for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar radiation for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available at a shaded location. This can be of value for day-lighting or other building applications. The data can be combined with other data (global horizontal, direct normal) to estimate the global radiation on different surfaces. Source NREL Date Released January 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Carribean Central America diffuse radiation GEF GIS Mexico NREL solar SWERA Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 245.7 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 380.6 KiB)

274

CRASH: A BLOCK-ADAPTIVE-MESH CODE FOR RADIATIVE SHOCK HYDRODYNAMICS-IMPLEMENTATION AND VERIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

We describe the Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code, a block-adaptive-mesh code for multi-material radiation hydrodynamics. The implementation solves the radiation diffusion model with a gray or multi-group method and uses a flux-limited diffusion approximation to recover the free-streaming limit. Electrons and ions are allowed to have different temperatures and we include flux-limited electron heat conduction. The radiation hydrodynamic equations are solved in the Eulerian frame by means of a conservative finite-volume discretization in either one-, two-, or three-dimensional slab geometry or in two-dimensional cylindrical symmetry. An operator-split method is used to solve these equations in three substeps: (1) an explicit step of a shock-capturing hydrodynamic solver; (2) a linear advection of the radiation in frequency-logarithm space; and (3) an implicit solution of the stiff radiation diffusion, heat conduction, and energy exchange. We present a suite of verification test problems to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the algorithms. The applications are for astrophysics and laboratory astrophysics. The CRASH code is an extension of the Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code with a new radiation transfer and heat conduction library and equation-of-state and multi-group opacity solvers. Both CRASH and BATS-R-US are part of the publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework.

Van der Holst, B.; Toth, G.; Sokolov, I. V.; Myra, E. S.; Fryxell, B.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Powell, K. G. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Holloway, J. P. [Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stout, Q. [Computer Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adams, M. L.; Morel, J. E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Karni, S. [Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Reaction-diffusion systems with constant diffusivities: conditional symmetries and form-preserving transformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Q-conditional symmetries (nonclassical symmetries) for a general class of two-component reaction-diffusion systems with constant diffusivities are studied. Using the recently introduced notion of Q-conditional symmetries of the first type (R. Cherniha J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., 2010. vol. 43., 405207), an exhaustive list of reaction-diffusion systems admitting such symmetry is derived. The form-preserving transformations for this class of systems are constructed and it is shown that this list contains only non-equivalent systems. The obtained symmetries permit to reduce the reaction-diffusion systems under study to two-dimensional systems of ordinary differential equations and to find exact solutions. As a non-trivial example, multiparameter families of exact solutions are explicitly constructed for two nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. A possible interpretation to a biologically motivated model is presented.

Roman Cherniha; Vasyl' Davydovych

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

276

Chaotic radiation/turbulence interactions in flames  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors present a review of their recent efforts to model chaotic radiation-turbulence interactions in flames. The main focus is to characterize soot volume fraction fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames, as they strongly contribute to these interaction. The approach is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuations of properties in turbulent flames are deterministic in nature, rather than random. The authors first discuss the theoretical details and then they briefly outline the experiments conducted to measure the scattered light signals from fluctuating soot particles along the axis of an ethylene-air diffusion flame. They compare the power spectra and time series obtained from experiments against the ad-hoc and rigorous models derived using a series of logistic maps. These logistic maps can be used in simulation of the fluctuations in these type of flames, without extensive computational effort or sacrifice of physical detail. Availability of accurate models of these kinds allows investigation of radiation-turbulence interactions at a more fundamental level than it was previously possible.

Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments RSS : Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer

278

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

279

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION SAFETY is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students who are directly or indirectly involved in the use of radioisotopes or radiation-producing machines. In July 1963, the State of Texas granted The University of Texas at Austin a broad radioactive materials license for research, development and instruction. While this means a minimum of controls by the state, it requires that The University establish and pursue an effective Radiation Safety Program. The Radiation Safety Committee is responsible for The University's radiation control program outlined in this manual. The use of radiation in a university, where a large number of people may be unaware of their exposure to radiation hazards, makes strict adherence to procedures established by federal and state authorities of paramount importance for the protection of The University and the safety of its faculty, staff and students. It is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students involved in radiation work to familiarize themselves thoroughly with The University's radiation control program and to comply with its requirements and all applicable federal and state regulations. I hope you will always keep in mind that radiation safety depends on a continuous awareness of potential hazards and on the acceptance

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Solar radiation model validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several mathematical models have been developed within the past few years which estimate the solar radiation from other weather variables. Some of these models have been used to generate data bases which are extensively used in the design and analysis of solar system. Three of these solar radiation models have been used in developing the Augmented SOLMET Solar Data Tapes for the 26 SOLMET sites and the 222 ERSATZ Solar Data Tapes. One of the models, a theoretical one, predicts the solar noon radiation for clear sky conditions from the optical air mass, precipitable water vapor and turbidity variables. A second model, an empirical one, predicts the hourly total horizontal radiation from meteorological variables. And, a third model, also an empirical one, predicts the hourly direct normal radiation from the hourly total horizontal radiation. A study of the accuracy of these three solar radiation models is reported here. To assess the accuracy of these models, data were obtained from several US National Weather Service Stations and other sources, used the models to estimate the solar-radiation, and then compared the modeled radiation values with observed radiation values. The results of these comparisons and conclusions regarding the accuracy of the models are presented.

Hall, I.J.; Prairie, R.R.; Anderson, H.E.; Boes, E.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Comparison of Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diffuse Shortwave Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements J. J. Michalsky and J. Schlemmer Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York B. C. Bush, S. Leitner, D. Marsden, and F. P. J. Valero Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California R. Dolce and A. Los Kipp & Zonen, Inc. Bohemia, New York and Delft The Netherlands E. G. Dutton Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado M. P. Haeffelin Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blackburg, Virginia G. Major Budapest University of Economic Sciences and Public Administration Budapest, Hungry J. Hickey The Eppley Laboratory, Inc. Newport, Rhode Island

282

Quantum diffusion in the quasiperiodic kicked rotor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the mechanisms responsible for quantum diffusion in the quasiperiodic kicked rotor. We report experimental measurements of the diffusion constant on the atomic version of the system and develop a theoretical approach (based on the Floquet theorem) explaining the observations, especially the ``sub-Fourier'' character of the resonances observed in the vicinity of exact periodicity, i.e. the ability of the system to distinguish two neighboring driving frequencies in a time shorter than the inverse of the difference of the two frequencies.

Hans Lignier; Jean Claude Garreau; Pascal Szriftgiser; Dominique Delande

2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

283

Calculating the Diffuse Responsivity of Solar Pyranometers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyranometers are used to measure the global and diffuse components of solar irradiance. One of the methods to calculate the unshade (global) responsivity of a pyranometer is the standard shading method, described in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, section 14, volume 14.02. In this paper, the standard method is used to calculate the shade (diffuse) responsivity of a pyranometer by accounting for the zenith and azimuth response of the pyranometer. A discussion of the effect of pyranometer offset on the calculated responsivity is also presented.

Reda, I.; Myers, D.

1999-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

284

Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes by Thermal Diffusion  

SciTech Connect

At high hot wall temperatures the gas phase thermal diffusion column acts as an atomic rather than a molecular separator. A modified theory was developed to describe the process. Equivalent transport equations were derived for the two nuclides in a binary atomic mixture. The equations are identical in form to those normally encountered in thermal diffusion column theory. Experiments to test the theory were carried out with two 3-meter columns. Experimental results with deuterium-tritium mixtures were found to be in satisfactory agreement with theory, and it was concluded that the theory was sufficiently accurate for design purposes.

Rutherford, W. M.; Lindsay, C. N.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes  

SciTech Connect

The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; /SLAC; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Padua U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Pisa /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; /more authors..

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

286

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

287

RADIATION WAVE DETECTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

Wouters, L.F.

1960-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

Zero-flux planes, flux reversals and diffusion paths in ternary and quaternary diffusion  

SciTech Connect

During isothermal multicomponent diffusion, interdiffusion fluxes of individual components can go to zero at zero-flux planes (ZFP) and exhibit flux reversals from one side to the other of such planes. Interdiffusion fluxes as well as the locations and compositions of ZFPs for components are determined directly from the concentration profiles of diffusion couples without the need for prior knowledge of interdiffusion coefficients. The development and identification of ZFPs is reviewed with the aid of single phase and two-phase diffusion couples investigated in the Cu-Ni-Zn system at 775/sup 0/C. ZFP locations in the diffusion zone nearly correspond to sections where the activity of a component is the same as its activity in either of the terminal alloys of a couple. Path slopes at ZFPs are uniquely dictated by the atomic mobility and thermodynamic data for the components. Discontinuous flux reversals for the components can also occur at interfaces in multiphase couples. Identification of ZFPs is also presented for diffusion in the Cu-Ni-Zn-Mn quaternary system. Analytical representation of diffusion paths for both ternary and quaternary diffusion couples is presented with the aid of characteristic path parameters.

Dayananda, M.A.

1986-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

289

Effects of atomic radiation  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the lifelong effects of atomic radiation exposure in language understandable by the concerned layperson or the specialist in another field. The base of knowledge used is the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor since 1975 the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Within the range of Chronic effects on human health the book provides a thorough review, although effects of nonionizing radiation, effects on structures, effects on other living species, and acute effects are not discussed.

Schull, W.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Intrauterine device for laser light diffusion and method of using the same  

SciTech Connect

An improved device for delivery of photoenergy from a light source, such as a laser, into a uterine cavity for photodynamic therapy is comprised of a plurality of optic fibers, which are bundled together and inserted into the uterine cavity by means of a uterine cannula. The cannula is positioned within the uterine cavity at a preferred location and then withdrawn thereby allowing the plurality of optic fibers to splay or diverge one from the other within the cavity. Different portions of the distal tip of the optic fiber is provided with a light diffusing tip, the remainder being provided with a nondiffusing tip portion. The fiber optic shape, as well as the segment which is permitted to actively diffuse light through the tip, is selected in order to provide a more uniform exposure intensity of the photo energy or at least sufficient radiation directed to each segment of the uterine walls.

Tadir, Yona (Irvine, CA); Berns, Michael W. (Trabuco Canyon, CA); Svaasand, Lars O. (Trondheim, NO); Tromberg, Bruce J. (Irvine, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Diffusion of hydrogen isotopes in palladium hydride and deuteride in the presence of lithium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of Li incorporation into Pd on the hydrogen flow through a membrane Pd-electrode was found. It was of interest to determine the mechanism of this effect by a direct measurement of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the Pd-H{sub x} phase and in the ternary Li-PdH{sub x} phase that was formed by the cathodic polarization of Pd in the solutions of lithium salts. A study of the effect of lithium on the diffusion of deuterium in the Li-PdD{sub x} phase might also be useful in solving this problem. In this work, a method of electrochemical extraction of absorbed hydrogen is used for these measurements; this method has been developed for nonsteady-state conditions, in particular. The X-ray examination of the formed phases was performed by a DRON-3M set-up with the use of CoK{sub {alpha}} radiation.

Astakhov, I.I.; Kazarinov, V.E.; Reznikova, L.A.; Teplitskaya, G.L. [Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

SciTech Connect

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Radiation Shielding Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shielding Radiation Shielding Applications Heavy concrete is standard concrete in which conventional aggregate (typically gravel) is replaced with aggregate composed of a dense...

295

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

296

Synchrotron Radiation Effects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron Radiation Effects in the IR Solenoid Flux Excluder Peter Tenenbaum LCC-Note-0007 Draft 23-September-1998 Abstract We examine the emittance dilution due to synchrotron...

297

Human Radiation Experiments: Multimedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the oral histories of researchers and others possessing firsthand knowledge of human radiation experimentation during World War II and the Cold War. Film Clips: Document...

298

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

299

Quick Reference Information - Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma and x-rays are photons. Protons: Positively charged elementary particles found in atomic nuclei. Radiation: The propagation of energy through space, or some other medium,...

300

Living with radiation  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an account of the hopes and fears associated with ionizing radiation, extending from nuclear energy and medical radiation to nuclear weapons. They argue that a justified fear of nuclear weapons has led to a widespread, unjustified, and unreasoning fear of the beneficial applications of radiation. Although these two aspects of atomic energy are tied together-they both involve the nucleus of the atom and its radioactive rays-a deep misunderstanding of this relationship by the general public has evolved since the time of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The authors' aim is to place the beneficial applications of nuclear radiation in perspective.

Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Div. of Nuclear Medicine); Ketchum, L.E. (Proclinica, Inc., New York, NY (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study Science Objective This field campaign is designed to increase scientific knowledge about the evolution of black carbon, primary organic...

302

ICT diffusion in the Republic of Armenia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Republic of Armenia, a high literacy and high poverty country, allows for a test of digital divide beliefs about the role of economic wellbeing in ownership of and skills in using information communication technology. While socioeconomic status was ... Keywords: Armenia, ICT, ICTD, adoption, diffusion, digital divide

Katy E. Pearce

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Information and attitude diffusion in networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of diverse information does not guarantee that a person's views will be equally diverse. Research has consistently shown that attitudinal positions on an issue will lead to selective reception and dissemination of information, which ... Keywords: active dissemination of information, attitude diffusion, information cascades, selective exposure of information

Wai-Tat Fu; Q. Vera Liao

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

A Two?Stage Oil Diffusion Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two?stage oil diffusion pump built of glass is described which makes possible the utilization of the advantages of oil without requiring the use of an unusually good coarse vacuum. The novelty of the pump resides in the first stage which is so designed that it cannot clog even with the small clearances needed to work against high pressures.

Joseph E. Henderson

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Some Recent Long-Range Diffusion Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent atmospheric cloud-spreading (relative diffusion) data from a variety of sources are combined to show that the horizontal spreading rate is approximately linear over a time range from 1 to 10 or more hours (20?200 or more km) of downwind ...

F. A. Gifford

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Diffusion Processes in Turbulent Magnetic Fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study of the effect of turbulence on diffusion processes within magnetized medium. While we exemplify our treatment with heat transfer processes, our results are quite general and are applicable to different processes, e.g. diffusion of heavy elements. Our treatment is also applicable to describing the diffusion of cosmic rays arising from magnetic field wandering. In particular, we find that when the energy injection velocity is smaller than the Alfven speed the heat transfer is partially suppressed, while in the opposite regime the effects of turbulence depend on the intensity of driving. In fact, the scale $l_A$ at which the turbulent velocity is equal the Alfven velocity is a new important parameter. When the electron mean free path $\\lambda$ is larger than $l_A$, the stronger the the turbulence, the lower thermal conductivity by electrons is. The turbulent motions, however, induces their own advective transport, that can provide effective diffusivity. For clusters of galaxies, we find that the turbulence is the most important agent for heat transfer. We also show that the domain of applicability of the subdiffusion concept is rather limited.

Alex Lazarian

2007-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

307

Diffusion Processes in Turbulent Magnetic Fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study of the effect of turbulence on diffusion processes within magnetized medium. While we exemplify our treatment with heat transfer processes, our results are quite general and are applicable to different processes, e.g. diffusion of heavy elements. Our treatment is also applicable to describing the diffusion of cosmic rays arising from magnetic field wandering. In particular, we find that when the energy injection velocity is smaller than the Alfven speed the heat transfer is partially suppressed, while in the opposite regime the effects of turbulence depend on the intensity of driving. In fact, the scale $l_A$ at which the turbulent velocity is equal the Alfven velocity is a new important parameter. When the electron mean free path $\\lambda$ is larger than $l_A$, the stronger the the turbulence, the lower thermal conductivity by electrons is. The turbulent motions, however, induces their own advective transport, that can provide effective diffusivity. For clusters of galaxies, we find that the turbule...

Lazarian, Alex

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

The diffusion of mobile phones in India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mobile phones, which were introduced around a decade ago in 1995-1996 in India, are becoming the dominant means of accessing communication. At the end of 2005-2006, there were 90 million mobile subscribers in India in comparison to 50 million subscribers ... Keywords: Mobile telecommunications, Technology diffusion

Sanjay Kumar Singh

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Constraints on dark matter annihilations from diffuse gamma-ray emission in the Galaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent advances in gamma-ray cosmic ray, infrared and radio astronomy have allowed us to develop a significantly better understanding of the galactic medium properties in the last few years. In this work using the DRAGON code, that numerically solves the CR propagation equation and calculating gamma-ray emissivities in a 2-dimensional grid enclosing the Galaxy, we study in a self consistent manner models for the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission. Our models are cross-checked to both the available CR and gamma-ray data. We address the extend to which dark matter annihilations in the Galaxy can contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray flux towards different directions on the sky. Moreover we discuss the impact that astrophysical uncertainties of non DM nature, have on the derived gamma-ray limits. Such uncertainties are related to the diffusion properties on the Galaxy, the interstellar gas and the interstellar radiation field energy densities. Light ~10 GeV dark matter annihilating dominantly to hadrons is more strongly constrained by gamma-ray observations towards the inner parts of the Galaxy and influenced the most by assumptions of the gas distribution; while TeV scale DM annihilating dominantly to leptons has its tightest constraints from observations towards the galactic center avoiding the galactic disk plane, with the main astrophysical uncertainty being the radiation field energy density. In addition, we present a method of deriving constraints on the dark matter distribution profile from the diffuse gamma-ray spectra. These results critically depend on the assumed mass of the dark matter particles and the type of its end annihilation products.

Maryam Tavakoli; Ilias Cholis; Carmelo Evoli; Piero Ullio

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

310

Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - July 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - July 2011 Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - July 2011 July 2011 Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant [HIAR-PAD-2011-07-27] The purpose of the visit was to discuss the nuclear safety oversight strategy, describe the site lead program, increase HSS personnel's operational awareness of the site's activities, and to determine how HSS can carry out its independent oversight and mission support responsibilities. Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - July 2011 More Documents & Publications Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August 2011 Independent Activity Report, Argonne National Laboratory - August 2011

311

Numerical Treatment of Anisotropic Radiation Field Coupling with the Relativistic Resistive Magnetofluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a numerical scheme for solving a fully special relativistic resistive radiation magnetohydrodynamics. Our code guarantees conservations of total mass, momentum and energy. Radiation energy density and radiation flux are consistently updated using the M-1 closure method, which can resolve an anisotropic radiation fields in contrast to the Eddington approximation as well as the flux-limited diffusion approximation. For the resistive part, we adopt a simple form of the Ohm's law. The advection terms are explicitly solved with an approximate Riemann solver, mainly HLL scheme, and HLLC and HLLD schemes for some tests. The source terms, which describe the gas-radiation interaction and the magnetic energy dissipation, are implicitly integrated, relaxing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition even in optically thick regime or a large magnetic Reynolds number regime. Although we need to invert $4\\times 4$ (for gas-radiation interaction) and $3\\times 3$ (for magnetic energy dissipation) matrices at each grid ...

Takahashi, Hiroyuki R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

The Quasi-stationary Structure of Radiating Shock Waves; 1, The One-temperature Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the quasi-stationary structure of a radiating shock wave propagating through a spherically symmetric shell of cold gas by solving the time-dependent equations of radiation hydrodynamics on an adaptive grid. We show that this code successfully resolves the shock wave in both the subcritical and supercritical cases and, for the first time, we have reproduced all the expected features -- including the optically thin temperature spike at a supercritical shock front -- without invoking analytic jump conditions at the discontinuity. We solve the full moment equations for the radiation flux and energy density, but the shock wave structure can also be reproduced if the radiation flux is assumed to be proportional to the gradient of the energy density (the diffusion approximation), as long as the radiation energy density is determined by the appropriate radiative transfer moment equation. We find that Zel'dovich and Raizer's analytic solution for the shock wave structure accurately describes a subcritical...

Sincell, M W; Mihalas, D L

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Waste Management, Shackelford, C.D. , Daniel, D.E. ,ASCE 117(3), 467-484. Shackelford, C.D. , Daniel, D.E. ,diffusion effects (Shackelford and Daniel, 1991a) may

Takeda, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Radiation detection system  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Solar radiation modelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sun is the main energy source of the life on the Earth. Thus, solar radiation energy data and models are important for many areas of research and applications. Many parameters influence the amount of solar energy at a particular standing point of ... Keywords: Digital elevation model, Energy of quasiglobal radiation, Meteorology, Shadows, Virtual Sun motion

Klemen Zakek; Toma Podobnikar; Kritof Otir

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Electromagnetic radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

Benson, Jay L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hansen, Gordon J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments This database contains information on records collections related to human radiation...

318

Underwater radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM); McKnight, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

Bos, Adrie J. J. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)

2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

320

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Slide Shows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dose Health Effects of Radiation Health Effects of Radiation Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation PDF Background Radiation PDF Bystander Effects PDF Dirty Bombs PDF DNA Damage...

322

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This calendar year 1989 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions (Part 1) and the Data Presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are the following: report 1989 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE site are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, to identify trends, to provide information for the public, and to contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental-monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 26 refs.

Turner, J.W. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Rayleigh temperature profiles in a hydrogen diffusion flame  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rayleigh scattering from a hydrogen-air laminar jet diffusion flame in combination with a numerical model of the flame has been used to determine temperature profiles. The model predictions of species concentration are used to calculate a mean Rayleigh cross-section which is used to relate the Rayleigh scattered intensity to temperature. Using an argon ion laser producing 7.5 watts at 488 nm and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA), the scattered light was imaged into a spectrometer. The OMA was rotated 90 degrees to its normal orientation, allowing scans to be taken along the spectrometer exit slit. This resulted in a spatially resolved Rayleigh signal along the laser beam through the entire flame. Spatial resolution of 0.18 mm on each of the 500 detector elements with good signal-to-noise ratios was achieved even with integration times of only 0.03 second. Since the entire profile is made simultaneously, particulate perturbed profiles are easily recognized and discarded. Transverse profiles are presented to show flame structure. Axial profiles are compared to radiation corrected thermocouple measurements.

Smith, J.R.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Funding Radiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Funding Radiation Research Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Centers for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological and...

325

National Solar Radiation Data Base

The National Solar Radiation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) is the most comprehensive collection of solar data freely available. The 1991 - 2005 NSRDB contains hourly solar radiation (including...

326

Diffusion Multilayer Sampling of Ground Water in Five Wells at...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Diffusion Multilayer Sampling of Ground Water in Five Wells at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Diffusion Multilayer Sampling of Ground Water in Five Wells at the Tuba City, Arizona,...

327

Does rotation influence double-diffusive fluxes in polar oceans?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diffusive (or semi-convection) regime of double-diffusive convection (DDC) is wide-spread in the polar oceans, generating staircases consisting of high-gradient interfaces of temperature and salinity separated by convectively mixed layers. ...

J. R. Carpenter; M.-L. Timmermans

328

Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing G. Bazalgette Courre Abstract. Onboard calibration of radiometric measurements in remote sensing is often achieved for publication May 28, 2003. 1 Introduction Light diffusers are used in remote sensing applications

Sprik, Rudolf

329

Stable Schemes for Nonlinear Vertical Diffusion in Atmospheric Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intensity of vertical mixing in atmospheric models generally depends on wind shear and static stability, making the diffusion process nonlinear. Traditional implicit numerical schemes, which treat the variables to be diffused implicitly but ...

Claude Girard; Yves Delage

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

SunShot Initiative: Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative:...

331

Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell Title Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer...

332

Fundamental Studies of Diffusion and Reactions in Hydrogen Storage Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy production and use [1,2], but adequate hydrogen storageEnergy Fundamental studies of diffusion and reactions in hydrogen storageEnergy 010 "Fundamental studies of diffusion and reactions in hydrogen storage

Van de Walle, Chris G; Peles, Amra; Janotti, Anderson; Wilson-Short, Gareth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

A Simulation Study of Diffusion in Microporous Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dynamics simulation of the diffusion of n- butane andi-butane in silicalite. J. Chem. Phys. 108, 21702172 (Stefan diffusivity of iso-butane in MFI zeolite. Chem. Phys.

Abouelnasr, Mahmoud Kamal Forrest

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Oceanographic implications of Laboratory Experiments on Diffusive Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper contains a summary of the results from some laboratory and theoretical studies on the diffusive interface in double diffusive convection, paying particular attention to the recent work of Fernando. A simple model is developed which ...

Harindra J. S. Fernando

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Modeling Vertical and Horizontal Diffusivities with the Sigma Coordinate System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of diffusive terms in numerical ocean models is examined relative to different coordinate systems. The conventional model for horizontal diffusion is found to be incorrect when bottom topographical slopes are large. A new formulation is ...

George L. Mellor; Alan F. Blumberg

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Tritium diffusion in lithium oxide solid breeder materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review of data of tritium diffusion in Li/sub 2/O is presented. Also diffusion coefficients in Li/sub 2/O of tritium, lithium, oxygen, hydrogen, and deuterium are given. (MOW)

Shearer, J.A.; Tam, S.W.; Johnson, C.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Development of a micro-FID using a diffusion flame.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A micro-flame ionization detector (micro-FID) was developed operating with a diffusion flame with a folded flame structure. Unlike conventional FIDs, an air-hydrogen diffusion flame was (more)

Kim, Jihyung

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

The Properties of Undulator Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Dedicated Synchrotron Radiation Facility," IEEE Trans.1983), "Characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation and of itsHandbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E. -E. Koch.1A. 65-172,

Howells, M.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Coherent Radiation in an Undulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solving the particle-radiation system in a self-consistentto clarify the coherent radiation mechanism. References 1.the Proceedings Coherent Radiation in an Undulator Y,H. Chin

Chin, Y.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal  

A unique gas diffusion electrode technique resulting in little to no leftover methanol, therefore increasing the overall effectiveness and performance ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant- April 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Review of the Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification Review at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

342

Fundamental Studies of Diffusion and Reactions in Hydrogen Storage Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fundamental Science ofEnergy 010 "Fundamental studies of diffusion and reactionsInstitute's (UCEI) Fundamental Science of Energy Working

Van de Walle, Chris G; Peles, Amra; Janotti, Anderson; Wilson-Short, Gareth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Fukushima's decomposition for diffusions associated with semi-Dirichlet forms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we give Fukushima's decomposition for diffusions associated with semi-Dirichlet forms and discuss some related topics.

Ma, Li; Sun, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Gaseous Diffusion Plant Production Workers Needs Assessment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Department of Energy Gaseous Diffusion Plants Department of Energy Gaseous Diffusion Plants Phase I: Needs Assessment Robert Wages Oil, Chemical and Atomic Inte national Union Steven Markowitz Mount Sinai School of Medicine Sylvia Kieding Oil, Chemical and Atomic International Union Mark Griffon University of Massachusetts Lowell Elizabeth Averill Samaras Alice Hamilton College October 1, 1997 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Number Executive Summary 1 J: OVERVIEW 1. Introduction 2-3 2. Methods 3-8 3. Principal Findings 9-16 4. Need for Medical Surveillance and Risk Communication 16-17 PART II: METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS 4. Exposure Assessment Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C 5. Focus Group Results Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C 6. Epidemiology and Other Health Studies EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Purpose We report the results and analysis of a one year needs assessment study evaluating

345

Pumping Fluid Condensation in Oil Diffusion Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Condensation conditions of the motive fluid in an oil diffusion pump are considered with particular attention to the backstreaming problem. The backstreaming rate is correlated with the temperature of the cold caps surrounding the pump nozzle and it is demonstrated that an upper temperature limit exists near 200?F where such devices cease to function effectively. The effect of oleophobic surfaces on cold caps and baffles is discussed. Conditions existing at the inlet of diffusion pumps and in baffles do not warrant attempts to introduce dropwise condensation. The condensation coefficient of pumping vapor at the temperature of the water cooled wall and with the flow rates used at the top nozzle appears to be very close to unity. The usefulness of creep barriers with modern pumping fluids and trap designs is judged to be questionable.

M. H. Hablanian

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

347

Methodology and apparatus for diffuse photon mimaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Non-invasive near infrared optical medical imaging devices for both hematoma detection in the brain and early tumor detection in the breast is achieved using image reconstruction which allows a mapping of the position dependent contrast diffusive propagation constants, which are related to the optical absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient in the tissue, at near infrared wavelengths. Spatial resolutions in the range of 5 mm for adult brain sizes and breast sizes can be achieved. The image reconstruction utilizes WKB approximation on most probable diffusion paths which has as lowest order approximation the straight line-of-sight between the plurality of sources and the plurality of detectors. The WKB approximation yields a set of linear equations in which the contrast optical absorption coefficients are the unknowns and for which signals can be generated to produce a pixel map of the contrast optical resolution of the scanned tissue.

Feng, Shechao C. (Los Angeles, CA); Zeng, Fanan (Los Angeles, CA); Zhao, Hui-Lin (Los Angeles, CA)

1997-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

348

Methodology and apparatus for diffuse photon imaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Non-invasive near infrared optical medical imaging devices for both hematoma detection in the brain and early tumor detection in the breast is achieved using image reconstruction which allows a mapping of the position dependent contrast diffusive propagation constants, which are related to the optical absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient in the tissue, at near infrared wavelengths. Spatial resolutions in the range of 5 mm for adult brain sizes and breast sizes can be achieved. The image reconstruction utilizes WKB approximation on most probable diffusion paths which has as lowest order approximation the straight line-of-sight between the plurality of sources and the plurality of detectors. The WKB approximation yields a set of linear equations in which the contrast optical absorption coefficients are the unknowns and for which signals can be generated to produce a pixel map of the contrast optical resolution of the scanned tissue. 58 figs.

Feng, S.C.; Zeng, F.; Zhao, H.L.

1997-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

349

Establishing the Clear-Sky Diffuse Reference for BORCAL Using EPLAB Model 8-48 Pyranometers at the National Renewable Energ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Establishing the Clear-Sky Diffuse Reference for BORCAL Establishing the Clear-Sky Diffuse Reference for BORCAL Using EPLAB Model 8-48 Pyranometers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory I. Reda, T. L. Stoffel, and D. Myers National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado Abstract Precision pyranometer calibrations are important to the quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement's (ARM's) shortwave solar irradiance measurements. Calibrations at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) are under clear-sky conditions. G = I * COS(2) + D, is used to establish the reference global during the calibration. The references for the beam irradiance, I, and the solar zenith angle, 2, are internationally recognized. There is no recognized reference for the diffuse irradiance, D. Our research goal is to establish a consistent diffuse

350

Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model  

SciTech Connect

Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase DER adoption, and thus, shift building energy consumption to a more efficient alternative.

Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

351

Collective motion in quantum diffusive environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The general problem of dissipation in macroscopic large-amplitude collective motion and its relation to energy diffusion of intrinsic degrees of freedom of a nucleus is studied. By applying the cranking approach to the nuclear many-body system, a set of coupled dynamical equations for the collective classical variable and the quantum mechanical occupancies of the intrinsic nuclear states is derived. Different dynamical regimes of the intrinsic nuclear motion and its consequences on time properties of collective dissipation are discussed.

V. M. Kolomietz; S. berg; S. V. Radionov

2007-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

352

Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model  

SciTech Connect

Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase DER adoption, and thus, shift building energy consumption to a more efficient alternative.

Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

353

Diffusion bonding of commercially pure Ni using Cu interlayer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concentration dependence of diffusivity in a multi-component diffusion system makes it complicated to predict the concentration profiles of diffusing species. This so called chemical diffusivity can be expressed as a function of thermodynamic and kinetic data. DICTRA software can calculate the concentration profiles using appropriate mobility and thermodynamic data. It can also optimize the diffusivity data using experimental diffusivity data. Then the optimized diffusivity data is stored as mobility data which is a linear function of temperature. In this work, diffusion bonding of commercially pure Ni using Cu interlayers is reported. The mobility parameters of Ni-Cu alloy binary systems were optimized using DICTRA/Thermocalc software from the available self-, tracer and chemical diffusion coefficients. The optimized mobility parameters were used to simulate concentration profiles of Ni-Cu diffusion joints using DICTRA/Thermocalc software. The calculated and experimental concentration profiles agreed well at 1100 Degree-Sign C. Agreement between the simulated and experimental profiles was less good at 1050 Degree-Sign C due to the grain boundary contribution to the overall diffusion. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration profiles of Cu in Ni-Cu diffusion joints are modeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interdiffusion coefficients in Ni-Cu system are optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimized interdiffusion coefficients are expressed as mobility parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulated profiles are comparable with experimental profiles.

Rahman, A.H.M.E., E-mail: a.rahman@my.und.edu; Cavalli, M.N.

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Nonlinear analysis of a reaction-diffusion system: Amplitude equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reaction-diffusion system with a nonlinear diffusion term is considered. Based on nonlinear analysis, the amplitude equations are obtained in the cases of the Hopf and Turing instabilities in the system. Turing pattern-forming regions in the parameter space are determined for supercritical and subcritical instabilities in a two-component reaction-diffusion system.

Zemskov, E. P., E-mail: zemskov@ccas.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Dorodnicyn Computing Center (Russian Federation)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

The diffusion of the Internet: A cross-country analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the process of Internet diffusion across the world using a panel of 214 countries during the period 1990-2004. Countries are classified as low- or high-income and it is shown that the diffusion process is characterized by a different ... Keywords: Digital divide, Internet, Network externalities, O14, O33, O57, S-shape curve, Technological diffusion

Luis Andrs; David Cuberes; Mame Diouf; Toms Serebrisky

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and M. C. Edlund, The Elements of Nuclear Reactor Theory (Van Nostrand, New York, 1952), Chaps. 5 and 14 diffusion coefficient gives better agreement with theory than the traditionally accepted photon diffusion diffusion theory by using the two different diffu- sion coefficients, we quantitatively demonstrate

Boas, David

357

New radiation stable and long-lived plastic scintillator for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

The study of the influence of the concentration of secondary flour, high concentrations of primary dopant, diffusion enhancer, and stabilizer, on radiation hardness is presented. It is concluded that the diffusion enhancing technique is the most powerful method for improving rad hardness. A new polystyrene scintillator which contains 2% pT and 0.02% POPOP and 20% diffusion enhancer and 0.02% stabilizer gave 91% of initial light output immediately after 3MRad in air. Data are presented that show that scintillator prepared form commercial polymer is more radiation hard and has greater light output than scintillator prepared from monomer. It is assumed that this difference is due to different molecular weight distributions. Some protocols for acceleration of aging (yellowing and crazing) are presented. It is shown that one of the main reasons for aging of plastic scintillators is residual monomer.

Senchishin, V.; Koba, V.; Korneeva, O. [Inst. for Single Crystals, Kharkov (Ukraine)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

359

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

360

NVLAP Radiation Detection Instruments LAP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation Detection Instruments LAP. Leticia Pibida uses a hand-held radiation detection device to check cargo. Photo: Copyright Robert Rathe. ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Human Radiation Experiments: What's New  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Defense Report Finding Aids Department of Defense Report on Search for Human Radiation Experiments Records 1944-1994 Exit Human Radiation Experiments Site This...

362

Radiation Effects in Nanoporous Gold  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Foams with filament and porous sizes in the range of nanometers could be unusually resistant to radiation because radiation induced point defects cannot...

363

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

365

METHOD FOR MEASURING RADIATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for measuring an unknown integrated quantity of radiation with a condenser ionization chamber is described. The chamber is initially charged to a predetermined voltage by a voltage source. The chamber is then removed from the source and exposed to an unknown quantity of radiation for a period of time. The quantity of radiation to which the chamber was exposed is then measured by detecting the magnitude of the pulse of current necessary to recharge the chamber of its initial value through a suitable impedance. The current pulse is amplified and measured directly by a suitable pulse height analyzing system. (AEC)

Roesch, W.C.; McCall, R.C.

1961-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

366

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principal of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, L.H.

1989-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

368

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

369

Low Dose Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

370

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Portal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Radiation Stress Estimators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation stresses Sij associated with the propagation of wind-generated waves are principal driving forces for several important surf-zone processes. The accurate estimation of the onshore flux of longshore-directed mean momentum Syx, using ...

S. S. Pawka; D. L. Inman; R. T. Guza

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum

376

Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

378

Radiation and viral DNA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation and viral DNA Radiation and viral DNA Name: Loretta L Lamb Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Can viral DNA be changed through exposure to radiation? If so, what type of radiation will do this? Can these irradiated viruses cause changes in the genome of any human cells they may infect? Can these (or any) viruses actually cause cancer, or do they merely act as triggering devices for cancer? Replies: In theory, any nucleic acid (viral or otherwise) can be changed by exposure to many kinds of radiation. Depending on the type of virus, these may then change the human cells that they infect. Although there are many different things that are being implicated in causing cancers, it looks like a fairly common model involves the sequential "knockout" of several human genes. Viruses may be one cause of such gene changes, radiation and other environmental causes may also contribute. Some of these changes may be inherited through families, so it becomes more likely that the environmental factors may happen to "hit" the right places in cells to cause cancers in these families. If you ask something more specific, perhaps I can focus my response a bit more

379

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Brazil Diffuse Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files.
The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Brazil Diffuse Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the...

382

Brazil Diffuse Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files. The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed...

383

Brazil Diffuse Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files

(Supplemental Information): The assessment of...

384

Comparative Accuracy of Diffuse Radiative Properties Computed Using Selected Multiple Scattering Approximations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computational results have been obtained for the spherical albedo, global transmission, and global absorption of plane-parallel layers composed of cloud droplets. These computations, obtained using the doubling method for the entire range of ...

Harshvardhan; Michael D. King

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Neutrons in a highly diffusive medium a new propulsion tool for deep space exploration?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recently completed TARC Experiment at the CERN-PS has shown how it is possible to confine neutrons by diffusion in a limited volume of a highly transparent medium for very long times (tens of milliseconds), with correspondingly very long diffusive paths (> 60 m neutron path wound within a ~ 60 cm effective radius). Assume an empty cavity is introduced inside the previous volume of diffusing medium. The inner walls of the cavity are covered with a thin layer of highly fissionable material, which acts as a neutron multiplying source. This configuration, called n-Hohlraum, is reminiscent of a classic black-body radiator, with the exception that now neutrons rather than photons are propagated. The flux can be sufficiently enhanced as to permit to reach criticality with a ~ 1 mm thick Americium deposit, corresponding to a mere 1100 atomic layers. Such a layer is so thin that the Fission Fragments (FF) exit freely into the cavity. The energy carried by FF can be recovered directly, thus making use of th...

Rubbia, Carlo

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

NIST Ionizing Radiation Division - 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES 1998 - NISTIR 6268 IONIZING RADIATION DIVISION. The Neutron Interferometer. The neutron ...

387

NIST Ionizing Radiation Division - 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Technical Activities 2000" - Table of Contents, Division home page. Ionizing Radiation Division. ...

388

Band Formation during Gaseous Diffusion in Aerogels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study experimentally how gaseous HCl and NH_3 diffuse from opposite sides of and react in silica aerogel rods with porosity of 92 % and average pore size of about 50 nm. The reaction leads to solid NH_4Cl, which is deposited in thin sheet-like structures. We present a numerical study of the phenomenon. Due to the difference in boundary conditions between this system and those usually studied, we find the sheet-like structures in the aerogel to differ significantly from older studies. The influence of random nucleation centers and inhomogeneities in the aerogel is studied numerically.

M. A. Einarsrud; F. A. Maao; A. Hansen; M. Kirkedelen; J. Samseth

1997-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

389

Radiation in Particle Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle simulations of fusion ignition plasmas including the important effects of radiation emission and absorption.

More, R; Graziani, F; Glosli, J; Surh, M

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

390

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

NONTHERMAL RADIATION FROM COSMIC-RAY MODIFIED SHOCKS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We calculate nonthermal radiation from cosmic-ray (CR) protons and electrons accelerated at CR modified plane and spherical shocks, using time-dependent, diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) simulations that include radiative losses of CR electrons. Strong non-relativistic shocks with physical parameters relevant for young supernova remnants (SNRs) are considered in both the plane-parallel and spherically symmetric geometries, and compared at times when their dynamical and CR properties are concordant. A thermal leakage injection model and a Bohm-like diffusion coefficient are adopted. After DSA energy gains balance radiative losses, the electron spectrum at the plane shock approaches a time-asymptotic spectrum with a super-exponential cutoff above the equilibrium momentum. The postshock electron spectrum cuts off at a progressively lower momentum downstream from the shock due to the energy losses. That results in the steepening of the volume integrated electron energy spectrum by one power of the particle energy. These features evolve toward lower energies in the spherical, SNR shocks. In a CR modified shock, pion decay gamma-ray emission reveals distinct signatures of nonlinear DSA due to the concave proton momentum spectrum. Although the electron momentum spectrum has a much weaker concavity, the synchrotron spectral slope at the shock may flatten by about 0.1-0.3 between radio and X-ray bands. The slope of the volume integrated emission spectrum behaves nonlinearly around the break frequency.

Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Edmon, Paul P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Jones, T. W., E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: pedmon@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: twj@msi.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Measurement of Solute Diffusion Behavior in Fractured Waste Glass Media  

SciTech Connect

Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through fractured media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminants transport at many hazardous waste disposal sites. No methods for earlier measurements are available for the characterization of diffusion in fractured glass blocks. We report here the use of time-lag diffusion experimental method to assess the diffusion behavior of three different solutes (Cs, Sr and Pentafluoro Benzoic Acid or PFBA) in fractured, immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) glass forms. A fractured media time-lag diffusion experimental apparatus that allows the measurement of diffusion coefficients has been designed and built for this purpose. Use of time-lag diffusion method, a considerably easier experimental method than the other available methods, was not previously demonstrated for measuring diffusion in any fractured media. Hydraulic conductivity, porosity and diffusion coefficients of a solute were experimentally measured in fractured glass blocks using this method for the first time. Results agree with the range of properties reported for similar rock media earlier, indicating that the time-lag experimental method can effectively characterize the diffusion coefficients of fractured ILAW glass media.

Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Meyer, Philip D.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

Phelps, J.E.

1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

AREA RADIATION MONITOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

1962-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

396

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Jones, Scott C. (Pullman, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

398

Ratcheted diffusion transport through crowded nanochannels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of transport through nanochannels is one of the major questions in cell biology, with a wide range of applications. Brownian ratchets are fundamental in various biochemical processes, and are roughly divided into two categories: active (usually ATP-powered) molecular motors and passive constructions with a directional bias, where the transport is driven by thermal motion. In this paper we discuss the latter process, of spontaneous translocation of molecules (Brownian particles) by ratcheted diffusion with no external energy input: a problem relevant for protein translocation along bacterial flagella or injectosome complex, or DNA translocation by bacteriophages. We use molecular dynamics simulations and statistical theory to identify two regimes of transport: at low rate of particles injection into the channel the process is controlled by the individual diffusion towards the open end (the first passage problem), while at a higher rate of injection the crowded regime sets in. In this regime the particle density in the channel reaches a constant saturation level and the resistance force increases substantially, due to the osmotic pressure build-up. To achieve a steady-state transport, the apparatus that injects new particles into a crowded channel has to operate with an increasing power consumption, proportional to the length of the channel and the required rate of transport. The analysis of resistance force, and accordingly -- the power required to inject the particles into a crowded channel to oversome its clogging, is also relevant for many microfluidics applications.

Anna Lappala; Alessio Zaccone; Eugene M. Terentjev

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

399

Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion  

SciTech Connect

This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organizations building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.

Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

400

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

402

Audible radiation monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

Odell, D.M.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operational Management » History » Manhattan Project » Signature Operational Management » History » Manhattan Project » Signature Facilities » K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building The K-25 plant, located on the southwestern end of the Oak Ridge reservation, used the gaseous diffusion method to separate uranium-235 from uranium-238. Based on the well-known principle that molecules of a lighter isotope would pass through a porous barrier more readily than molecules of a heavier one, gaseous diffusion produced through myriads of repetitions a gas increasingly rich in uranium-235 as the heavier uranium-238 was separated out in a system of cascades. Although producing minute amounts of final product measured in grams, gaseous diffusion required a massive

405

Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

Rooney, Stephen J.

2000-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

406

Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

Rooney, Stephen J. (East Berne, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

A NUMERICAL TREATMENT OF ANISOTROPIC RADIATION FIELDS COUPLED WITH RELATIVISTIC RESISTIVE MAGNETOFLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We develop a numerical scheme for solving fully special relativistic, resistive radiation magnetohydrodynamics. Our code guarantees conservation of total mass, momentum, and energy. The radiation energy density and the radiation flux are consistently updated using the M-1 closure method, which can resolve an anisotropic radiation field, in contrast to the Eddington approximation, as well as the flux-limited diffusion approximation. For the resistive part, we adopt a simple form of Ohm's law. The advection terms are explicitly solved with an approximate Riemann solver, mainly the Harten-Lax-van Leer scheme; the HLLC and HLLD schemes are also solved for some tests. The source terms, which describe the gas-radiation interaction and the magnetic energy dissipation, are implicitly integrated, relaxing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition even in an optically thick regime or a large magnetic Reynolds number regime. Although we need to invert 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 matrices (for the gas-radiation interaction) and 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 matrices (for the magnetic energy dissipation) at each grid point for implicit integration, they are obtained analytically without preventing massive parallel computing. We show that our code gives reasonable outcomes in numerical tests for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, propagating radiation, and radiation hydrodynamics. We also applied our resistive code to the relativistic Petschek-type magnetic reconnection, revealing the reduction of the reconnection rate via radiation drag.

Takahashi, Hiroyuki R. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohsuga, Ken [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hydrogen trapping, diffusion, and recombination in austenitic stainless steels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Trapping, diffusion, and recombination of hydrogen in austenitic stainless steels are reviewed. It is suggested that since all of these processes are strongly interdependent and since the measured recombination rates are found to vary four orders of magnitude at any temperature, the data analysis techniques used to date are insufficient. A two-region diffusion model with surface recombination is proposed in which the surface layer is characterized by a smaller diffusion coefficient than the bulk.

Langley, R.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

"Diffuse Scattering and the Fundamental Properties of materials"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book highlights emerging research areas that exploit the ability of diffuse scattering to characterize local structures in materials. An emphasis is placed on the coming renaissance in diffuse scattering driven by new sources, better instrumentation, novel new materials, and advanced theories and methods. This book will provide an overview of some of the most exciting recent advances in diffuse scattering and provides guidance for students and researchers interested in new methods to characterize their samples.

Barabash, Rozaliya [ORNL; Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Turchi, Dr. Patrice E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Measurement of Thermal Diffusity and Flow Resistance for TCAP Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SRS uses the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) to separate isotopes of hydrogen. The frequency of thermal cycles is a limit of the productivity of the process and that frequency is largely determined by the thermal diffusivity of the absorbent material. For a given tube diameter, a larger thermal diffusivity decreases the time required for each cycle. In 1998, the Engineering Development Laboratory measured thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity for three TCAP materials in helium.

STEIMKE, JOHN

2004-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

411

Gas fixation solar cell using gas diffusion semiconductor electrode  

SciTech Connect

A gas diffusion semiconductor electrode and solar cell and a process for gaseous fixation, such as nitrogen photoreduction, CO/sub 2/ photoreduction and fuel gas photo-oxidation are described. The gas diffusion photosensitive electrode has a central electrolyte porous matrix with an activated semiconductor material on one side adapted to be in contact with an electrolyte and a hydrophobic gas diffusion region on the opposite side adapted to be in contact with a supply of molecular gas.

Ang, P.G.; Sammells, A.F.

1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

412

Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

413

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Iso, Satoshi; Zhang, Sen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

415

Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Decommissioning Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Decommissioning The decommissioning of Gaseous Diffusion Plant facilities requires accurate, non-destructive assay (NDA) of residual enriched uranium in facility components for safeguards and nuclear criticality safety purposes. Current practices used to perform NDA measurements frequently have poorly defined uncertainties due to multiple factors. Working reference material (WRM) standards and container-specific surrogates are required to verify and validate NDA methods used to support characterization of gaseous diffusion equipment within the D&D project. Because working reference

416

Disposal barriers that release contaminants only by molecular diffusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engineered barriers can slow the movement of pollutants out of land disposal facilities in several ways. If the advective velocity is low, release will be primarily by molecular diffusion. Attenuation processes also work to slow the transport of many contaminants. Barriers that cause pollutants to be released almost entirely by molecular diffusion represent the best barriers achievable. Use of thick barrier materials will maximize the breakthrough time of contaminants that diffuse through the barrier. Thin barriers with exceedingly low permeabilities will not necessarily outperform thicker, more permeable liners. In fact, if diffusion is the dominant mechanism of release, the thicker, more permeable barrier may actually outperform the thinner barrier with lower permeability.

Daniel, D.E.; Shackelford, C.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Reference Self Diffusion Mobility Data for CALPHAD and Beyond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Reference Self Diffusion Mobility Data for CALPHAD and Beyond. Author(s) ... Development of New Ferrous Alloys with High Al Content.

418

Development of a Reference Self-Diffusion Mobility Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Register as a New User ... Scope, Twenty years ago, John gren initiated the development of a CALPHAD-based approach to diffusion mobility databases.

419

Orientation Visit to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PAD-2011-07-27 Site: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the...

420

Effect of Additives on Diffusion Processes in UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen and uranium Frenkel pairs and the uranium-oxygen Schottky defects regulate the O/U ratio, which in turn influence diffusion processes in UO2.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon and Implications for the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon and Implications for the Rate Capability of Anodes Title Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon and Implications for the Rate Capability of Anodes Publication Type Journal...

422

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

SciTech Connect

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

MEACHAM, J.E.

2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

424

Phase Stability, Diffusion, Kinetics and their Applications (PSDK-VIII)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 31, 2013 ... Michael Gao, National Energy Technology Lab. Scope, Phase stability and diffusion are central themes of materials science and engineering,...

425

Former Worker Medical Screening Program - Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Construction Workers Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP) Project Name: Building Trades National Medical Screening Program Covered DOE...

426

A Metallography-Based Examination of Inadvertent Diffusion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Inadvertent diffusion bonding of workpieces during heat treatment is a ... Characterization of Breaks in Creep Resistant Feeding Grid Links in the...

427

HILO: Quasi Diffusion Accelerated Monte Carlo on Hybrid Architectures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HILO: Quasi Diffusion Accelerated Monte Carlo on Hybrid Architectures The Boltzmann transport equation provides high fidelity simulation of a diverse range of kinetic systems....

428

High-Temperature Reactor for Diffuse Reflectance Infrared ...  

High-Temperature Reactor for Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy Note: The technology described above is an early stage ...

429

Diffusion and Segregation of Hydrogen in Martensitic AISI 5140  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Diffusion and Segregation of Hydrogen in Martensitic AISI 5140: Influence of Baking Time at 20C on the Hydrogen Distribution and...

430

A Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for Reflection of Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rapid analytical radiative transfer model for reflection of solar radiation in plane-parallel atmospheres is developed based on the Sobolev approach and the delta function transformation technique. A distinct advantage of this model over ...

X. Xiang; E. A. Smith; C. G. Justus

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Toward Radiation-Resistant Ionic Liquids. Radiation Stability...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Resistant Ionic Liquids. Radiation Stability of Sulfonyl Imide Anions I. A. Shkrob, T. W. Marin, Sergey D. Chemerisov, J. L. Hatcher, and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B...

432

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upwelling irradiance upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer

433

Diffusion effects on a superconductive model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A superconductive model characterized by a third order parabolic operator L" is analysed. When the viscous terms, represented by higher - order deriva- tives, tend to zero, a hyperbolic operator L0 appears. Furthermore, if P" is the Dirichlet initial boundary - value problem for L", when L" turns into L0; P" turns into a problem P0 with the same initial - boundary conditions as P". The solution of the nonlinear problem related to the remainder term r is achieved, as long as the higher-order derivatives of the solution of P0 are bounded. More- over, some classes of explicit solutions related to P0 are determined, proving the existence of at least one motion whose derivatives are bounded. The estimate shows that the diffusion effects are bounded even when time tends to infinity.

M. de Angelis; G. Fiore

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

434

Random walk computations of diffusive fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A numerical study of three problems is carried out using the gradient random walk method. These problems include the heat equation, Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation, and Burgers' equation. Each problem illustrates various aspects of the operation of the numerical method. The heat equation with no reaction term illustrates the numerical algorithm, the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation is a system with an explicit reaction term, Burgers' equation has an advection term. The gradient random walk numerical method is well suited for the diffusion problem due to the connection between Gaussian distributions and the kernel of the heat equation. The numerical results compare well with known analytical solutions. Burgers' equation is studied to examine any effects the advection term has on the results of the numerical method.

Lindstrom, Gregory Scot

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers  

SciTech Connect

Under sub-freezing conditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) drastically reducing cell performance. Although a number of strategies exist to prevent ice formation, there is little fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of freezing within PEMFC components. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to elucidate the effects of hydrophobicity (Teflon loading) and water saturation on the rate of ice formation within three commercial GDLs. We find that as the Teflon loading increases, the crystallization temperature decreases due to a change in internal ice/substrate contact angle, as well as the attainable level of water saturation. Classical nucleation theory predicts the correct trend in freezing temperature with Teflon loading.

Dursch, Thomas; Radke, Clayton J.; Weber, Adam Z.

2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

436

Diffuse gamma-rays from galactic halos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we review our current knowledge on diffuse gamma-rays from galactic halos. Estimates of the relative contribution of the various emission processes at low and high latitudes are compared to the data over 6 decades in energy. The observed spectral shape differs from what was expected, especially at ver low and very high energies. In the latter case, above 1 GeV, the sky emission related to gas exceeds the expected pi^0 decay spectrum. At energies below 1 MeV the relatively high gamma-ray intensity indicates at high density of nearly relativistic electrons which would have a strong influence on the energy and ionisation balance of the interstellar medium. Given the EGRET results for the Magellanic Clouds the gamma-ray emissivity in the outer halo is probably small, so that a substantial amount of baryonic dark matter may be hidden at 20-50 kpc radius without inducing observable gamma-ray emission.

M. Pohl

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

437

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, Dimitrios C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos S. L. Soares

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

440

Hyperon radiative decay  

SciTech Connect

The radiative decay widths of the low-lying strange baryons are calculated both within the relativistic quark bag model and the nonrelativistic potential model. These widths are found to depend sensitively upon the quark-model dynamics through multiplet mixing and q/sup 4/q-bar admixtures. The comparison between our calculated results and the very limited experimental data is discussed.

Kaxiras, E.; Moniz, E.J.; Soyeur, M.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

442

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, D.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

443

STANFORD SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LIGHTSOURCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-926-4100 SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the U.S. Department of Energy SSRL Facility Research Associate for Small Angle X-ray Scattering The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) has) program. This position has a component (roughly 50%) that involves beam line development at SSRL

Ford, James

444

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

SciTech Connect

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Simplified HTTR Diffusion Theory Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

The Georgia Institute of Technology (GA-Tech) recently developed a transport theory benchmark based closely on the geometry and the features of the HTTR reactor that is operational in Japan. Though simplified, the benchmark retains all the principal physical features of the reactor and thus provides a realistic and challenging test for the codes. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is an extension of the benchmark to diffusion theory applications by generating the additional data not provided in the GA-Tech prior work. The second goal is to use the benchmark on the HEXPEDITE code available to the INL. The HEXPEDITE code is a Greens function-based neutron diffusion code in 3D hexagonal-z geometry. The results showed that the HEXPEDITE code accurately reproduces the effective multiplication factor of the reference HELIOS solution. A secondary, but no less important, conclusion is that in the testing against actual HTTR data of a full sequence of codes that would include HEXPEDITE, in the apportioning of inevitable discrepancies between experiment and models, the portion of error attributable to HEXPEDITE would be expected to be modest. If large discrepancies are observed, they would have to be explained by errors in the data fed into HEXPEDITE. Results based on a fully realistic model of the HTTR reactor are presented in a companion paper. The suite of codes used in that paper also includes HEXPEDITE. The results shown here should help that effort in the decision making process for refining the modeling steps in the full sequence of codes.

Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Management Commitment B. Training C. Monitoring of Individual Radiation Exposures D. Program Reviews 1 of Radiation A. Research Applications 1. Non-Human User 2. Animal Use 3. Human Use B. Clinical Applications C Materials Chapter VI: Occupational Exposure to Radiation and Personnel Monitoring and Bioassay Program #12;A

Grishok, Alla

447

"Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the...

448

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Character of Solar and Circumsolar Radiation. Proceedings ~all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from thethat attenuate the solar radiation available to terres-

Grether, Donald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from thea suitable site for solar radiation measurements. A requestused to estimate the solar radiation per unit wavelength at

Grether, D.F.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3395 (1977). H. Winick, VUV Radiation Physics, edited by E.M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Exci- ted Atoms, (II. III. Appendix A - Radiation Trapping. Appendix B -

Poliakoff, E.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUMBER 5 MAY 2004 Terahertz radiation from laser acceleratedand millimeter wave radiation from laser acceleratedNo. 5, May 2004 Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

POLARIZATION OF THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Galactic Synchrotron Radiation at 33 GHz NOIiWNPQaa s x s sthe Cosmic Background Radiation Philip Michael Lubin Spacethe Cosmic Background Radiation. The ground-based experiment

Lubin, Philip Lubin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas K. Tathe resulting betatron radiation spectrum can therefore bepro?le, the betatron radiation emitted by theses electrons

Ta Phuoc, Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Radiative Forcing of Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 6 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 6.1 Radiative Forcing 6.2 Forcing-Response Relationship 6.3 Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases 6.4 Stratospheric Ozone 6.5 Radiative Forcing By Tropospheric Ozone 6.6 Indirect Forcings due to Chemistry 6.7 The Direct Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.8 The Indirect Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.9 Stratospheric Aerosols 6.10 Land-use Change (Surface Albedo Effect) 6.11 Solar Forcing of Climate 6.12 Global Warming Potentials hydrocarbons 6.13 Global Mean Radiative Forcings 6.14 The Geographical Distribution of the Radiative Forcings 6.15 Time Evolution of Radiative Forcings Appendix 6.1 Elements of Radiative Forcing Concept References.

Ramaswamy, V.; Boucher, Olivier; Haigh, J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Haywood, J.; Myhre, G.; Nakajima, Takahito; Shi, Guangyu; Solomon, S.; Betts, Robert E.; Charlson, R.; Chuang, C. C.; Daniel, J. S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Feichter, J.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Forster, P. M.; Ghan, Steven J.; Jones, A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Koch, D.; Land, C.; Lean, J.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Minschwaner, K.; Penner, Joyce E.; Roberts, D. L.; Rodhe, H.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rotstayn, Leon D.; Schneider, T. L.; Schumann, U.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Schwartzkopf, M. D.; Shine, K. P.; Smith, Steven J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Stordal, F.; Tegen, I.; van Dorland, R.; Zhang, Y.; Srinivasan, J.; Joos, Fortunat

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Isocurvature perturbations in extra radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent cosmological observations, including measurements of the CMB anisotropy and the primordial helium abundance, indicate the existence of an extra radiation component in the Universe beyond the standard three neutrino species. In this paper we explore the possibility that the extra radiation has isocurvatrue fluctuations. A general formalism to evaluate isocurvature perturbations in the extra radiation is provided in the mixed inflaton-curvaton system, where the extra radiation is produced by the decay of both scalar fields. We also derive constraints on the abundance of the extra radiation and the amount of its isocurvature perturbation. Current observational data favors the existence of an extra radiation component, but does not indicate its having isocurvature perturbation. These constraints are applied to some particle physics motivated models. If future observations detect isocurvature perturbations in the extra radiation, it will give us a hint to the origin of the extra radiation.

Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Propagation of radiation in fluctuating multiscale plasmas. II. Kinetic simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical algorithm is developed and tested that implements the kinetic treatment of electromagnetic radiation propagating through plasmas whose properties have small scale fluctuations, which was developed in a companion paper. This method incorporates the effects of refraction, damping, mode structure, and other aspects of large-scale propagation of electromagnetic waves on the distribution function of quanta in position and wave vector, with small-scale effects of nonuniformities, including scattering and mode conversion approximated as causing drift and diffusion in wave vector. Numerical solution of the kinetic equation yields the distribution function of radiation quanta in space, time, and wave vector. Simulations verify the convergence, accuracy, and speed of the methods used to treat each term in the equation. The simulations also illustrate the main physical effects and place the results in a form that can be used in future applications.

Pal Singh, Kunwar; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Tyshetskiy, Yu. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

458

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities NREL's solar radiation research staff provides expertise in renewable energy measurement and instrumentation. Major capabilities include solar resource measurement,...

459

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

460

Hybrid Radiator-Cooling System  

Technology Development & Commercialization Current Challenges Coolant radiators in highway trucks are designed to transfer maximum heat at a ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

SciTech Connect

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

SciTech Connect

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fabrication and characterization of GaSb based thermophotovoltaic cells using Zn diffusion from a doped spin-on glass source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The GaInSb material system is attractive for application in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells since its band gap can be tuned to match the radiation of the emitter. At present, most of the TPV cells are fabricated using epitaxial layers and hence are expensive. To reduce the cost, Zn diffusion using elemental vapors in a semi-closed diffusion system is being pursued by several laboratories. In this paper, the authors present studies carried out on Zn diffusion into n-type (Te-doped) GaSb substrates in an open tube diffusion furnace. The dopant precursor was a 2,000 {angstrom} thick, zinc doped spin-on glass. The diffusion was carried out at temperatures ranging from 550 to 600 C, for times from 1 to 10 hours. The diffused layers were characterized by Hall measurements using step-and-repeat etching by anodic oxidation, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements and TPV device fabrication. For diffusion carried out at 600 C, the junction depth was 0.3 {micro}m, and the hole concentration near the surface was 5 {times} 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3}. The external quantum efficiency, measured without any anti-reflection coating, of the TPV cells fabricated using mesa-etching had a maximum value of 38%. Masked diffusion was also carried out by opening windows in a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coated, GaSb wafer. TPV cells fabricated on these structures had similar quantum efficiency, but lower dark current.

Dakshinamurthy, S.; Shetty, S.; Bhat, I.; Hitchcock, C.; Gutmann, R. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Charache, G.; Freeman, M. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Coherent Radiation in Insertion Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the coherent radiation in an undulator/wiggler with a vacuum chamber of arbitrary cross section. The backward radiation is a coherent and it has wavelengths about twice the period of the undulator/wiggler. Mostly of coherent radiation is going with the wavelengths approximately the bunch length at small angles however.

Mikhailichenko, A A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Cerenkov radiation of spinning particle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cerenkov radiation of a neutral particle with magnetic moment is considered, as well as the spin-dependent contribution to the Cerenkov radiation of a charged spinning particle. The corresponding radiation intensity is obtained for an arbitrary value of spin and for an arbitrary spin orientation with respect to velocity.

I. B. Khriplovich

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

466

Peer Effects in the Diffusion of Solar Photovoltaic Panels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Social interaction (peer) effects are recognized as a potentially important factor in the diffusion of new products. In the case of environmentally friendly goods or technologies, both marketers and policy makers are interested in the presence of causal ... Keywords: diffusion models, empirical IO methods, endogeneity, probability models, social contagion, word of mouth

Bryan Bollinger; Kenneth Gillingham

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Diffusion of a plasma subject to neutral beam injection  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional numerical plasma simulations have been carried out in a uniform magnetic field to study the effects of neutral beam injection on plasma diffusion. Neutral beams injected across a magnetic field are assumed to be ionized by various ionization processes in a plasma. It is found that the suprathermal convective motion of a plasma generated by the injection of neutral beams is dissipated via anomalous viscosity, leading to enhanced cross-field diffusion. The diffusion coefficient depends weakly on the magnetic field and plasma density, similar to the diffusion due to thermally excited convective cells. The magnitude of the diffusion increases with the injection energy and is much larger than the thermal diffusion because of the presence of suprathermal plasma convection. It is shown that a similar anomalous plasma diffusion may occur in a plasma subject to radio frequency (RF) wave heating where only a localized region of plasma across a magnetic field is heated to a temperature much higher than the surrounding temperature. Theoretical investigations are given on the scaling of enhanced plasma diffusion.

Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Diffusion and semi-convexity of fuzzy set multifunctions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present some properties regarding diffusion and semi-convexity for fuzzy set multifunctions defined on a ring of subsets of an abstract nonvoid space and taking values in the family of all nonvoid closed subsets of a real normed space. Keywords: Darboux property, diffused, fuzzy set multifunction, multimeasure, non-atomicity, null-additive, regular, semi-convex

Alina Gavrilu?; Anca Croitoru; Nikos E. Mastorakis

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Studying Diffusion of Viral Content at Dyadic Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diffusion of information and viral content, social contagion and influence are still topics of broad evaluation. As theory explaining the role of influentials moves slightly to reduce their importance in the propagation of viral content, authors of the ... Keywords: diffusion of information, viral content, dyads, motif analysis, influentials, influence factors, social networks, virtual worlds

Anita Zbieg; Blazej Zak; Jaroslaw Jankowski; Radoslaw Michalski; Sylwia Ciuberek

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Studying paths of participation in viral diffusion process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Authors propose a conceptual model of participation in viral diffusion process composed of four stages: awareness, infection, engagement and action. To verify the model it has been applied and studied in the virtual social chat environment settings. ... Keywords: information diffusion, multistage analysis, online social networks, participation model

Jaros?aw Jankowski; Sylwia Ciuberek; Anita Zbieg; Rados?aw Michalski

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Accelerating large-scale data exploration through data diffusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data-intensive applications often require exploratory analysis of large datasets. If analysis is performed on distributed resources, data locality can be crucial to high throughput and performance. We propose a "data diffusion" approach that acquires ... Keywords: Falkon, Swift, data caching, data diffusion, data management, data-aware scheduling, data-intensive applications, grid

Ioan Raicu; Yong Zhao; Ian T. Foster; Alex Szalay

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Numerical Discretization of Rotated Diffusion Operators in Ocean Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to improve the behavior of the numerical discretization of a rotated diffusion operator such as, for example, the isopycnal diffusion parameterization used in large-scale ocean models based on the so-called z-coordinate system is ...

J-M. Beckers; H. Burchard; E. Deleersnijder; P. P. Mathieu

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A Novel Image Denoising Algorithm Based on Anisotropic Diffusion Equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article first give the concept of the scale space, and construct the relationship between the heat conduction equation and the Gaussian scale space, which lead to the partial differential equations. Then the article introduces linear diffusion equation, ... Keywords: Anisotropic diffusion equation, image denoising, partial differential equation

Haozheng Ren Hongbo, Hongbo Yu, Yihua Lan

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

ENERGY DIFFUSION IN HARMONIC SYSTEM WITH CONSERVATIVE NOISE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENERGY DIFFUSION IN HARMONIC SYSTEM WITH CONSERVATIVE NOISE GIADA BASILE AND STEFANO OLLA Abstract. We prove diffusive behaviour of the energy fluctua- tions in a system of harmonic oscillators with a stochastic pertur- bation of the dynamics that conserves energy and momentum. The results concern pinned

475

Projecting diffusion along the normal bundle of a plane curve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to provide new formulas for the estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient of an equation of Fick-Jacob's type obtained by projecting the two-dimensional diffusion equation along the normal direction of an arbitrary plane curve.

Carlos Valero Valdes; Rafael Herrera Guzman

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

476

Predicting information diffusion on social networks with partial knowledge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models of information diffusion and propagation over large social media usually rely on a Close World Assumption: information can only propagate onto the network relational structure, it cannot come from external sources, the network structure ... Keywords: diffusion, machine learning, social networks

Anis Najar; Ludovic Denoyer; Patrick Gallinari

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Radiation Protection Group: Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Who To Call Who To Call Rad Training Dosimetry Telemetry Laser Safety Radiation Safety Committee Pub-3000 Ch. 21 Forms RPG Procedures RPG Internal Radiation Safety Committee Charter Purpose The Berkeley Lab Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) is appointed by, and reports to, the Laboratory Director and is responsible for advising LBNL Management on all matters related to occupational and environmental radiation safety. The Radiation Safety Committee reviews and recommends approval of radiation safety policies and guides the Environment, Health and Safety Division and radiation user divisions in carrying out these programs. The scope of its actions will generally be in issues of broad institutional concern and impact, or areas of potential high consequence either in terms of safety or institutional needs.

478

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant -  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - 026 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (026 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is located in south central Ohio, approximately 20 miles north of Portsmouth, Ohio and 70 miles south of Columbus, Ohio. Construction of the PGDP began in late 1952 to expand the Federal Government¿s gaseous diffusion program already in place at Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Paducah, Kentucky. The facility was built to increase the production of enriched uranium at rates substantially above the other

479

Relativistic diffusion with friction on a pseudoriemannian manifold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a relativistic diffusion equation on the Riemannian phase space defined by Franchi and Le Jan. We discuss stochastic Ito (Langevin) differential equations (defining the diffusion) as a perturbation by noise of the geodesic equation. We show that the expectation value of the angular momentum and the energy grow exponentially fast. We discuss drifts leading to an equilibrium. It is shown that the diffusion process corresponding to the Juettner or quantum equilibrium distributions has a bounded expectation value of angular momentum and energy. The energy and the angular momentum tend exponentially fast to their equilibrium values. As examples we discuss a particle in a plane fronted gravitational wave and a particle in de Sitter universe. It is shown that the relativistic diffusion of momentum in de Sitter space is the same as the relativistic diffusion on the Minkowski mass-shell with the temperature proportional to the de Sitter radius.

Z. Haba

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Relativistic diffusion with friction on a pseudoriemannian manifold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a relativistic diffusion equation on the Riemannian phase space defined by Franchi and Le Jan. We discuss stochastic Ito (Langevin) differential equations (defining the diffusion) as a perturbation by noise of the geodesic equation. We show that the expectation value of the angular momentum and the energy grow exponentially fast. We discuss drifts leading to an equilibrium. It is shown that the diffusion process corresponding to the Juettner or quantum equilibrium distributions has a bounded expectation value of angular momentum and energy. The energy and the angular momentum tend exponentially fast to their equilibrium values. As examples we discuss a particle in a plane fronted gravitational wave and a particle in de Sitter universe. It is shown that the relativistic diffusion of momentum in de Sitter space is the same as the relativistic diffusion on the Minkowski mass-shell with the temperature proportional to the de Sitter radius.

Haba, Z

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diffuse radiation gef" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

On anomalous diffusion in a plasma in velocity space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of anomalous diffusion in momentum space is considered for plasma-like systems on the basis of a new collision integral, which is appropriate for consideration of the probability transition function (PTF) with long tails in momentum space. The generalized Fokker-Planck equation for description of diffusion (in momentum space) of particles (ions, grains etc.) in a stochastic system of light particles (electrons, or electrons and ions, respectively) is applied to the evolution of the momentum particle distribution in a plasma. In a plasma the developed approach is also applicable to the diffusion of particles with an arbitrary mass relation, due to the small characteristic momentum transfer. The cases of an exponentially decreasing in momentum space (including the Boltzmann-like) kernel in the PT-function, as well as the more general kernels, which create the anomalous diffusion in velocity space due to the long tail in the PT-function, are considered. Effective friction and diffusion coefficients f...

Trigger, S A; van Heijst, G J F; Schram, P P J M; Sokolov, I M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Enforcement Documents - Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Enforcement Documents - Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant March 26, 2010 Enforcement Letter, Intennech, Inc. - March 26, 2010 Enforcement Letter issued to Intermech, Inc. related to Installation and Inspection of Anchor Bolts and Pipe Supports at the DUF6 Conversion Buildings at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plants March 26, 2010 Enforcement Letter, Geiger Brothers Mechanical Contractors, INC - March 26, 2010 Enforcement Letter issued to Geiger Brothers Mechanical Contractors, Inc. related to Installation and Inspection of Penetration Fire Seals at the DUF6 Conversion Building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant March 26, 2010 Consent Order, Uranium Disposition Services, LLC - NCO-2010-01 Consent Order issued to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC related to

483

Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies Agency/Company /Organization: UNEP-Risoe Centre Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Topics: Technology characterizations Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual, Training materials Website: uneprisoe.org/ Cost: Free Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies Screenshot References: UNEP-Risoe[1] Logo: Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies This guidebook deals with the transfer of proven technologies both between countries and within them. "The purpose of the TNA project is to assist participant developing country

484

Orientation Visit to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, July 2011 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Orientation Visit to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, July 2011 Orientation Visit to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, July 2011 Orientation Visit to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, July 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted an orientation visit to the DOE Paducah Site Office (PAD) from July 25-27, 2011. The purpose of the visit was to discuss the nuclear safety oversight strategy, describe the site lead program, increase HSS personnel's operational awareness of the site's activities, and to determine how HSS can carry out its independent oversight and mission support responsibilities. Orientation Visit to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, July 2011 More Documents & Publications Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August

485

Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations  

SciTech Connect

A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained.

Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Mechanisms of Stochastic Diffusion of Energetic Ions in Spherical Tori  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic diffusion of the energetic ions in spherical tori is considered. The following issues are addressed: (I) Goldston-White-Boozer diffusion in a rippled field; (ii) cyclotron-resonance-induced diffusion caused by the ripple; (iii) effects of non-conservation of the magnetic moment in an axisymmetric field. It is found that the stochastic diffusion in spherical tori with a weak magnetic field has a number of peculiarities in comparison with conventional tokamaks; in particular, it is characterized by an increased role of mechanisms associated with non-conservation of the particle magnetic moment. It is concluded that in current experiments on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) the stochastic diffusion does not have a considerable influence on the confinement of energetic ions.

Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; R.B. White; Yu.V. Yakovenko

2001-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

487

Evolutionary Dynamics of Information Diffusion over Social Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current social networks are of extremely large-scale generating tremendous information flows at every moment. How information diffuse over social networks has attracted much attention from both industry and academics. Most of the existing works on information diffusion analysis are based on machine learning methods focusing on social network structure analysis and empirical data mining. However, the dynamics of information diffusion, which are heavily influenced by network users' decisions, actions and their socio-economic interactions, is generally ignored by most of existing works. In this paper, we propose an evolutionary game theoretic framework to model the dynamic information diffusion process in social networks. Specifically, we derive the information diffusion dynamics in complete networks, uniform degree and non-uniform degree networks, with the highlight of two special networks, Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi random network and the Barab\\'asi-Albert scale-free network. We find that the dynamics of information di...

Jiang, Chunxiao; Liu, K J Ray

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Effect of superbanana diffusion on fusion reactivity in stellarators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fusion reactivity is usually obtained using a Maxwellian distribution. However, energy-dependent radial diffusion can modify the energy distribution. Superbanana diffusion is energy-dependent and occurs in nonaxisymmetric magnetic confinement devices, such as stellarators, because of ripple-trapped particles which can take large steps between collisions. In this paper, the D-T fusion reactivity is calculated using a non-Maxwellian energy distribution obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically, including radial superbanana diffusion as well as energy scattering. The ions in the tail of the distribution, with energies larger than thermal, which are most needed for fusion, are depleted by superbanana diffusion. In this paper, it is shown that the D-T fusion reactivity is reduced by tail ion depletion due to superbanana diffusion, by roughly a factor of 0.5 for the parameters used in the calculation.

Hinton, Fred L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

National Ambient Radiation Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

490

Multilayer radiation shield  

SciTech Connect

A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

Urbahn, John Arthur (Saratoga Springs, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Niskayuna, NY)

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

491

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Radiation shielding composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

493

Terahertz radiation mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

494

Radiation Emergency Procedure Demonstrations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Managing Radiation Emergencies Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstrations Procedure Demonstrations Note: RealPlayer is needed for listening to the narration that accompany these demonstrations. Real Player Dressing To Prevent the Spread of Radioactive Contamination This demonstration shows how your team can dress to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination. Click to begin presentation on dressing to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination. Preparing The Area This demonstration shows basic steps you can take to gather equipment and prepare a room to receive a patient who may be contaminated with radioactive material. Click to begin presentation on preparing a room to receive a radioactive contaminated patient. Removing Contaminated Clothing This demonstration shows the procedure for removing clothing from a patient who may be contaminated with radioactive material.

495

TWO-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF PARTIAL IONIZATION IN THE CHROMOSPHERE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bulk of the solar chromosphere is weakly ionized and interactions between ionized particles and neutral particles likely have significant consequences for the thermodynamics of the chromospheric plasma. We investigate the importance of introducing neutral particles into the MHD equations using numerical 2.5D radiative MHD simulations obtained with the Bifrost code. The models span the solar atmosphere from the upper layers of the convection zone to the low corona, and solve the full MHD equations with non-gray and non-LTE radiative transfer, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field. The effects of partial ionization are implemented using the generalized Ohm's law, i.e., we consider the effects of the Hall term and ambipolar diffusion in the induction equation. The approximations required in going from three fluids to the generalized Ohm's law are tested in our simulations. The Ohmic diffusion, Hall term, and ambipolar diffusion show strong variations in the chromosphere. These strong variations of the various magnetic diffusivities are absent or significantly underestimated when, as has been common for these types of studies, using the semi-empirical VAL-C model as a basis for estimates. In addition, we find that differences in estimating the magnitude of ambipolar diffusion arise depending on which method is used to calculate the ion-neutral collision frequency. These differences cause uncertainties in the different magnetic diffusivity terms. In the chromosphere, we find that the ambipolar diffusion is of the same order of magnitude or even larger than the numerical diffusion used to stabilize our code. As a consequence, ambipolar diffusion produces a strong impact on the modeled atmosphere. Perhaps more importantly, it suggests that at least in the chromospheric domain, self-consistent simulations of the solar atmosphere driven by magnetoconvection can accurately describe the impact of the dominant form of resistivity, i.e., ambipolar diffusion. This suggests that such simulations may be more realistic in their approach to the lower solar atmosphere (which directly drives the coronal volume) than previously assumed.

Martinez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo, E-mail: j.m.sykora@astro.uio.no [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

496

Harvesting nanoscale thermal radiation using pyroelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exceeding Plancks blackbody radiation law. Applied PhysicsA] I b ? spectral blackbody radiation intensity [W/m 2 ] kNanoscale radiation blackbody radiation limit. In addition,

Fang, Jin; Frederich, Hugo; Pilon, Laurent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

RADIATION SHIELDING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

ABS>A radiation shield that is suitable for the protection of personnel from both gamma rays and nentrons is described. The shield is comprised of a hollow wall and an aggregate consisting of iron and water in approximately equal amounts by volume substantially filling the wall. A means is provided to circulate the water through the wall to cool the shield when in use.

Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

1958-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

498

Radiation damage considerations  

SciTech Connect

The designs of nuclear fission and fusion power plants do not, in general, appear to make unusual demands on materials in terms of mechanical- property requirements. Radiation environments produce unique effects on the composition, microstructure, and defect population of these alloys, resulting in time-dependent and time-independent changes in mechanical properties. To illustrate these problems, the materials needs of the core of a Liquid-Metal Fast- Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) and of the first wall of a fusion reactor are discussed. In the case of the LMFBR core, the phenomenon of void swelling causes serious design problems, and a search is being made for a low-swelling alloy that has adequate mechanical properties. The fusion reactor poses different problems because the neutron energy is high (14 MeV) and is accompanied by a high flux of charged particles. The long-term choices for a wall material have been narrowed to vanadium and niobium alloys. In the search for low-swelling alloys, it has become clear that minor elements play an important role in determining the nature of the radiation effects. The segregation of minor elements to void surfaces and the dispersion and reformation of second-phase precipitates are two important radiation-induced phenomena that require additional study in view of their influence on void swelling and high-temperature properties. (auth)

Frost, B.R.T.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

NIST Medical-Industrial Radiation Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Medical-Industrial Radiation Facility. ... Radiation hardness testing; Electron-beam sterilization; Beam diagnostics; Industrial CT scanning. ...

500

Surface Properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The wetting properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs) were quantified by surface characterization measurements and modeling of material properties. Single-fiber contact-angle and surface energy (both Zisman and Owens-Wendt) data of a wide spectrum of GDL types is presented to delineate the effects of hydrophobic post-processing treatments. Modeling of the basic sessile-drop contact angle demonstrates that this value only gives a fraction of the total picture of interfacial wetting physics. Polar forces are shown to contribute 10-20 less than dispersive forces to the composite wetting of GDLs. Internal water contact angles obtained from Owens-Wendt analysis were measured at 13-19 higher than their single-fiber counterparts. An inverse relationship was found between internal contact angle and both Owens-Wendt surface energy and % polarity of the GDL. The most sophisticated PEMFC mathematical models use either experimentally measured capillary pressures or the standard Young-Laplace capillary-pressure equation. Based on the results of the Owens-Wendt analysis, an advancement to the Young-Laplace equation is proposed for use in these mathematical models, which utilizes only solid surface energies and fractional surface coverage of fluoropolymer. Capillary constants for the spectrum of analyzed GDLs are presented for the same purpose.

WoodIII, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rulison, Christopher [Augustine Scientific; Borup, Rodney [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z