Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Washiya, Tadahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1194 (Japan); Kondo, Yoshikazu; Noguchi, Yoshikazu [PESCO Co.Ltd. (Korea, Republic of)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
For the decommissioning of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), the characterization of fuel-debris in cores of Units 1-3 is necessary. In this study, typical phases of the in-vessel fuel-debris were estimated using a thermodynamic equilibrium (TDE) calculation. The FactSage program and NUCLEA database were applied to estimate the phase equilibria of debris. It was confirmed that the TDE calculation using the database can reproduce the phase separation behavior of debris observed in the Three Mile Island accident. In the TDE calculation of 1F, the oxygen potential [G(O{sub 2})] was assumed to be a variable. At low G(O{sub 2}) where metallic zirconium remains, (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} were found as oxides, and oxygen-dispersed Zr, Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U), and Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2} were found as metals. With an increase in zirconium oxidation, the mass of those metals, especially Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2}, decreased, but the other phases of metals hardly changed qualitatively. Consequently, (U,Zr)O{sub 2} is suggested as a typical phase of oxide, and Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U) is suggested as that of metal. However, a more detailed estimation is necessary to consider the distribution of Fe in the reactor pressure vessel through core-melt progression. (authors)
Hale, Barbara N.
CALCULATION OF SCALED NUCLEATION RATES FOR WATER USING MONTE CARLO GENERATED CLUSTER FREE ENERGYMattio All Rights Reserved #12;iii ABSTRACT Helmholtz free energy differences, -dFn , are calculated inconsistent with the experimental properties of water. Summation of the scaled TIP4P free energy differences
Vallée, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).
Effects of the difference in tube voltage of the CT scanner on dose calculation
Rhee, Dong Joo; Moon, Young Min; Kim, Jung Ki; Jeong, Dong Hyeok
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Computed Tomography (CT) measures the attenuation coefficient of an object and converts the value assigned to each voxel into a CT number. In radiation therapy, CT number, which is directly proportional to the linear attenuation coefficient, is required to be converted to electron density for radiation dose calculation for cancer treatment. However, if various tube voltages were applied to take the patient CT image without applying the specific CT number to electron density conversion curve, the accuracy of dose calculation would be unassured. In this study, changes in CT numbers for different materials due to change in tube voltage were demonstrated and the dose calculation errors in percentage depth dose (PDD) and a clinical case were analyzed. The maximum dose difference in PDD from TPS dose calculation and Monte Carlo simulation were 1.3 % and 1.1 % respectively when applying the same CT number to electron density conversion curve to the 80 kVp and 140 kVp images. In the clinical case, the different CT nu...
Typical Pure Nonequilibrium Steady States
Takaaki Monnai; Kazuya Yuasa
2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z
We show that typicality holds for a class of nonequilibrium systems, i.e., nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs): almost all the pure states properly sampled from a certain Hilbert space well represent a NESS and characterize its intrinsic thermal nature. We clarify the relevant Hilbert space from which the pure states are to be sampled, and construct practically all the typical pure NESSs. The scattering approach leads us to the natural extension of the typicality for equilibrium systems. Each pure NESS correctly yields the expectation values of observables given by the standard ensemble approach. It means that we can calculate the expectation values in a NESS with only a single pure NESS. We provide an explicit construction of the typical pure NESS for a model with two reservoirs, and see that it correctly reproduces the Landauer-type formula for the current flowing steadily between the reservoirs.
Calculation of free-energy differences and potentials of mean force by a multi-energy gap method
Weston, Ken
Calculation of free-energy differences and potentials of mean force by a multi-energy gap method the convergence of free-energy calculations. It introduces a bias factor in Monte Carlo simulations or.e., the difference in energy function between two states, and is therefore specifically designed for calculating free-energy
Voloshin, Igor; Karachevtsev, Victor; Zozulya, Victor
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Binding of acridine derivative quinacrine (QA) to chicken erythrocyte DNA was studied by methods of absorption and polarized fluorescent spectroscopy. Measurements were carried out in aqueous buffered solutions (pH 6.9) of different dye concentrations (QA concentration range from $10^{-6}$ till $10^{-4}$ M) and ionic strengths ($Na^{+}$ concentration rang from $10^{-3}$ till 0.15 M) in a wide range of phosphate-to-dye molar ratios ($P/D$). It is established that the minimum of fluorescent titration curve plotted as relative fluorescence intensity $vs$ $P/D$ is conditioned by the competition between the two types of QA binding to DNA which posses by different emission parameters: (i) intercalative one dominating under high $P/D$ values, and (ii) outside electrostatic binding dominating under low $P/D$ values, which is accompanied by the formation of non-fluorescent dye associates on the DNA backbone. Absorption and fluorescent characteristics of complexes formed were determined. The method of calculation of di...
Comparison of the calculated neutron noise using finite differences and the Analytical Nodal Method
Demazière, Christophe
noise in the frequency domain via the reactor transfer function using 2-group diffusion theory in 2 Viktor Larsson , Christophe Demazière Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Nuclear: Neutron noise ANM Finite differences 2-group theory a b s t r a c t In this paper, a comparison
Schreiber, Michael
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Bibliometric indicators can be determined by comparing specific citation records with the percentiles of a reference set. However, there exists an ambiguity in the computation of percentiles because usually a significant number of papers with the same citation count are found at the border between percentile rank classes. The present case study of the citations to the journal Europhysics Letters (EPL) in comparison with all physics papers from the Web of Science shows the deviations which occur due to the different ways of treating the tied papers in the evaluation of the percentage of highly cited publications. A strong bias can occur, if the papers tied at the threshold number of citations are all considered as highly cited or all considered as not highly cited.
Garcia-Herranz, Nuria [Universidad de Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain); Cabellos, Oscar [Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain); Aragones, Jose M. [Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain); Ahnert, Carol [Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain)
2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
In order to take into account in a more effective and accurate way the intranodal heterogeneities in coarse-mesh finite-difference (CMFD) methods, a new equivalent parameter generation methodology has been developed and tested. This methodology accounts for the dependence of the nodal homogeneized two-group cross sections and nodal coupling factors, with interface flux discontinuity (IFD) factors that account for heterogeneities on the flux-spectrum and burnup intranodal distributions as well as on neighbor effects.The methodology has been implemented in an analytic CMFD method, rigorously obtained for homogeneous nodes with transverse leakage and generalized now for heterogeneous nodes by including IFD heterogeneity factors. When intranodal mesh node heterogeneity vanishes, the heterogeneous solution tends to the analytic homogeneous nodal solution. On the other hand, when intranodal heterogeneity increases, a high accuracy is maintained since the linear and nonlinear feedbacks on equivalent parameters have been shown to be as a very effective way of accounting for heterogeneity effects in two-group multidimensional coarse-mesh diffusion calculations.
Calculation of Protein Heat Capacity from Replica-Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations The heat capacity has played a major role in relating microscopic and macroscopic properties of proteins, and configurational averaging. To better understand these factors on calculating a protein heat capacity, we provide
A. M. Sukhovoj; V. A. Khitrov
2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
The gamma-spectra were calculated for the set of different level densities and radiative strength functions. The sufficiently precise reproduction of the experiment is impossible without taking into account the influence of the process of the nucleons Cooper pairs breaking on any nuclei cascade gamma-decay parameters.
Torsnes, I.; Rye, N. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway)); Nesje, A. (Univ. of Bergen, Bergen-Sandviken (Norway))
1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The modern and Little Ice Age (LIA) equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) of 20 outlet valley glacier from Jostedalsbreen, western Norway, has been calculated using different approaches. Using an accumulation area ratio (AAR) of 0.6 [+-] 0.05 gave a mean little Ice Age ELA depression of 70 m. A method developed by M. Kuhle, taking the influence by topography into account gave a mean ELA depression of 35-255 m, the median elevation of glaciers 115 m, and the toe-to-headwall altitude ration 140 m. Differences in the ELA estimates can be attributed to the differences in topography and morphology of the glaciers. The AAR method appears to provide the most reliable results. This will aid in determining mean global temperatures during the LIA. 34 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.
Robust Neuroimaging-Based Classification Techniques of Autistic vs. Typically
Farag, Aly A.
abnormalities in several brain regions. Increased head size was the first observed characteristic in children1 Robust Neuroimaging-Based Classification Techniques of Autistic vs. Typically Developing Brain with autism. According to the published studies, different anatomical structures of the brain have been
Manipulating decision making of typical agents
V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette
2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate how the choice of decision makers can be varied under the presence of risk and uncertainty. Our analysis is based on the approach we have previously applied to individual decision makers, which we now generalize to the case of decision makers that are members of a society. The approach employs the mathematical techniques that are common in quantum theory, justifying our naming as Quantum Decision Theory. However, we do not assume that decision makers are quantum objects. The techniques of quantum theory are needed only for defining the prospect probabilities taking into account such hidden variables as behavioral biases and other subconscious feelings. The approach describes an agent's choice as a probabilistic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of a utility factor and of an attraction factor. The attraction factor embodies subjective and unconscious dimensions in the mind of the decision maker. We show that the typical aggregate amplitude of the attraction factor is $1/4$, and it can be either positive or negative depending on the relative attraction of the competing choices. The most efficient way of varying the decision makers choice is realized by influencing the attraction factor. This can be done in two ways. One method is to arrange in a special manner the payoff weights, which induces the required changes of the values of attraction factors. We show that a slight variation of the payoff weights can invert the sign of the attraction factors and reverse the decision preferences, even when the prospect utilities remain unchanged. The second method of influencing the decision makers choice is by providing information to decision makers. The methods of influencing decision making are illustrated by several experiments, whose outcomes are compared quantitatively with the predictions of our approach.
Geographical extrapolation of typical hourly weather data for energy calculation in buildings
Arens, Edward A; Flynn, Larry E; Nall, Daniel N; Ruberg, Kalev
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
FOR REAL 1951 YEARS PASSIVE HOUSES DAILY LOADS FOR REAL 1951Requirements for Real Year Passive Houses DAILY LOADS FOR
McCann, R.A.
1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A finite difference computer code, named HYDRA-I, has been developed to simulate the three-dimensional performance of a spent fuel assembly contained within a cylindrical canister. The code accounts for the coupled heat transfer modes of conduction, convection, and radiation and permits spatially varying boundary conditions, thermophysical properties, and power generation rates. This document is intended as a manual for potential users of HYDRA-I. A brief discussion of the governing equations, the solution technique, and a detailed description of how to set up and execute a problem are presented. HYDRA-I is designed for operation on a CDC 7600 computer. An appendix is included that summarizes approximately two dozen different cases that have been examined. The cases encompass variations in fuel assembly and canister configurations, power generation rates, filler materials, and gases. The results presented show maximum and various local temperatures and heat fluxes illustrating the changing importance of the three heat transfer modes. Finally, the need for comparison with experimental data is emphasized as an aid in code verification although the limited data available indicate excellent agreement.
Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification of Chinese typical coal samples
Hanping Chen; Zhiwu Luo; Haiping Yang; Fudong Ju; Shihong Zhang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion
2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper aims to understand the pyrolysis and gasification behavior of different Chinese coal samples at different pressures. First, the pyrolysis of four typical Chinese coals samples (Xiaolongtan brown coal, Shenfu bituminous coal, Pingzhai anthracite coal, and Heshan lean coal) were carried out using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at ambient pressure and 3 MPa, respectively. The surface structure and elemental component of the resultant char were measured with an automated gas adsorption apparatus and element analyzer. It was observed that higher pressure suppressed the primary pyrolysis, while the secondary pyrolysis of coal particles was promoted. With respect to the resultant solid char, the carbon content increased while H content decreased; however, the pore structure varied greatly with increasing pressure for different coal samples. For Xiaolongtan brown coal (XLT) char, it decreased greatly, while it increased obviously for the other three char types. Then, the isothermal gasification behavior of solid char particles was investigated using an ambient thermal analyzer with CO{sub 2} as the gasifying agent at 1000{sup o}C. The gasification reactivity of solid char was decreased greatly with increasing pyrolysis pressure. However, the extent of change displayed a vital relation with the characteristics of the original coal sample. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.
Zhao Dongqiu; Huang Xiaowei; Tian Baoli; Zhou Shaomin; Li Yuncai; Du Zuliang [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)
2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z
The effect of electronegative difference between nitrogen and oxygen on electronic properties of N-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} has been studied using first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the valence band maximum (VBM) shifts to high energy by 0.27 eV and the band gap states composed of N 2p, O 2p, and Ti 3d states are formed through the three states entering into the gap after N doping. The interactions of three states widen and delocalize the band gap states. The raised VBM and the wide band gap states can improve the visible light photocatalytic activity.
The Science of Hurricanes Typical eye diameter ~20 miles
Miami, University of
#12;The Science of Hurricanes #12;#12;Typical eye diameter ~20 miles Typical hurricane diameter-View of a Hurricane #12;Day 0, Disturbance Day 1, 35mph Depression Day 2, 46mph Tropical Storm Day 3, 63mph Tropical Storm Day 4, 92mph Hurricane Day 5, 127mph Hurricane Day 6, 150mph Hurricane Day 7, 144mph Hurricane Day
Using a calculator to do statistics
Dave
2012-03-25T23:59:59.000Z
Statistics on a Scientific Calculator. NOTE: Some of these may not be regular keys on your calculator and may appear in a different color above another key.
Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)
Sheng, S.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.
Structure of The Dixie Valley Geothermal System, a "Typical"...
and Gravity Data Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Structure of The Dixie Valley Geothermal System, a "Typical" Basin and Range...
Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Supernatant Water
Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Headspace Supernatant Water Schmutzdecke Raw water Supernatant drain Filter drain & backfill Sand media Support gravel Drain tile Adjustable weir Overflow weir Vent Control valve Treated Water Effluent flow control structure Overflow Assessing Temperature
Attenuation of typical sex differences in 800 adults with autism vs. 3,900 controls
Baron-Cohen, Simon; Cassidy, Sarah; Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Achoukhi, Maryam; Robertson, Sarah; Pohl, Alexa; Lai, Meng-Chuan
2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
; Published July 16, 2014 Copyright: #2; 2014 Baron-Cohen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided... . Most previous studies also suffer from relatively small sample sizes. An exception is the largest study to date using the Simons Simplex Collection, comparing autism symptoms in 304 female and 2,114 male children with ‘simplex’ autism, aged 4–18 years...
Monte Carlo uncertainty reliability and isotope production calculations for a fast reactor
Miles, T.L.
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Statistical uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculations are typically determined by the first and second moments of the tally. For certain types of calculations, there is concern that the uncertainty estimate is significantly non-conservative. This is typically seen in reactor eigenvalue problems where the uncertainty estimate is aggravated by the generation-to-generation fission source. It has been speculated that optimization of the random walk, through biasing techniques, may increase the non-conservative nature of the uncertainty estimate. A series of calculations are documented here which quantify the reliability of the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon (MCNP) mean and uncertainty estimates by comparing these estimates to the true mean. These calculations were made with a liquid metal fast reactor model, but every effort was made to isolate the statistical nature of the uncertainty estimates so that the analysis of the reliability of the MCNP estimates should be relevant for small thermal reactors as well. Also, preliminary reactor physics calculations for two different special isotope production test assemblies for irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) were performed using MCNP and are documented here. The effect of an yttrium-hydride moderator to tailor the neutron flux incident on the targets to maximize isotope production for different designs in different locations within the reactor is discussed. These calculations also demonstrate the useful application of MCNP in design iterations by utilizing many of the codes features.
Energy-Efficient Lighting The typical American family spends more
Energy-Efficient Lighting The typical American family spends more than $1,500 a year on household energy bills--and many households spend considerably more. Costs could climb even higher in the future, as electricity and natural gas prices continue to rise. Investing money in energy-saving products like compact
B.S. in Biochemistry Typical Program of Study
Houston, Paul L.
B.S. in Biochemistry Typical Program of Study: First Semester Second Semester 1st Year CHEM 1211K Biochemistry I Organic Chemistry Lab CHEM 4512 (3) CHEM 4581 (3) Biology Elective (3) Core Elective (3) Core Elective (3) Biochemistry II Biochemistry Lab I 4th Year CHEM 4582 (3) CHEM 4521 (3) Biology Elective (3
Safety for an Autonomous Bucket Excavator During Typical Landscaping
Berns, Karsten
Safety for an Autonomous Bucket Excavator During Typical Landscaping Tasks Gregor Zolynski, Daniel the goal of automating a mobile bucket excavator for excavation and loading tasks. This document contains a short introduction to the autonomous bucket excavator THOR, a concept for low-level safety using laser
1 INTRODUCTION A typical flexible pavement system includes four
Zornberg, Jorge G.
1 INTRODUCTION A typical flexible pavement system includes four distinct layers: asphalt concrete course in order to reduce costs or to minimize capil- lary action under the pavement. Figure 1: Cross-section of flexible pavement system (Muench 2006) Pavement distress may occur due to either traffic or environmental
Table 1. HARVESTING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Strategy Name Use Typical location
Table 1. HARVESTING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Strategy Name Use Typical location Harvesting strategies Unstable gullies with debris flow potential, unstable channels with high water transport, unstable fans by water flows Channels with high or moderate water transport potential Clean large woody debris /CLWD
Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint
Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.
Emergence of typical entanglement in two-party random processes
O. C. O. Dahlsten; R. Oliveira; M. B. Plenio
2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the entanglement within a system undergoing a random, local process. We find that there is initially a phase of very fast generation and spread of entanglement. At the end of this phase the entanglement is typically maximal. In previous work we proved that the maximal entanglement is reached to a fixed arbitrary accuracy within $O(N^3)$ steps, where $N$ is the total number of qubits. Here we provide a detailed and more pedagogical proof. We demonstrate that one can use the so-called stabilizer gates to simulate this process efficiently on a classical computer. Furthermore, we discuss three ways of identifying the transition from the phase of rapid spread of entanglement to the stationary phase: (i) the time when saturation of the maximal entanglement is achieved, (ii) the cut-off moment, when the entanglement probability distribution is practically stationary, and (iii) the moment block entanglement scales exhibits volume scaling. We furthermore investigate the mixed state and multipartite setting. Numerically we find that classical and quantum correlations appear to behave similarly and that there is a well-behaved phase-space flow of entanglement properties towards an equilibrium, We describe how the emergence of typical entanglement can be used to create a much simpler tripartite entanglement description. The results form a bridge between certain abstract results concerning typical (also known as generic) entanglement relative to an unbiased distribution on pure states and the more physical picture of distributions emerging from random local interactions.
Calculating chiller emissions and source energy use
Aumann, D.J. [Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Various analyses have compared the emissions and over-all source energy use of different chillers. However, these analyses are typically based on national or regional electric power plant annual averages or rely on outdated emissions data that do not account for scrubbers and other pollution controls applied in response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). Other analyses have used power generation data for a specific utility but require hourly generation profiles, which are difficult to obtain. Thus, many of the existing models are either too general to provide valuable information or too complex to be practical for the day-to-day applications engineers face. This paper introduces a simple yet reliable hand calculation method for estimating the combustion-related emissions and source energy use of gas and electric chillers. The user needs to supply only two inputs: annual chiller system energy use and the utility`s power generation mix during chiller operation. The analysis supplies electric power plant heat rates and emission factors. Referenced guidelines are documented for all calculation inputs.
Cattin, Rodolphe
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the lower continental crust have been measured by seismic reflection profiling (BIRPS, CALCRUST, COCORP
Typicality of thermal equilibrium and thermalization in isolated macroscopic quantum systems
Hal Tasaki
2015-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the view that thermal equilibrium should be characterized through macroscopic observations, we develop a general theory about typicality of thermal equilibrium and the approach to thermal equilibrium in macroscopic quantum systems. We first formulate the notion that a pure state in an isolated quantum system represents thermal equilibrium. Then by assuming, or proving in certain classes of nontrivial models (including that of two bodies in thermal contact), large-deviation type bounds (which we call thermodynamic bounds) for the microcanonical ensemble, we prove that to represent thermal equilibrium is a typical property for pure states in the microcanonical energy shell. We also establish the approach to thermal equilibrium under two different assumptions; one is that the initial state has a moderate energy distribution, and the other is the energy eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. We also discuss three easily solvable models in which these assumptions can be verified.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Original Impact Calculations, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Advanced Wall Systems ORNL Home ASTM Testing BEP Home Related Sites Work With Us Advanced Wall Systems Home Interactive Calculators New Whole Wall R-value Calculators As A Part Of...
Base-Exchange Properties of Some Typical Texas Soils.
Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)
1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
.7 M.E. in dune sand to 70.7 M.E. per 100 grams in a Houston black clay. Varia- tions are as large between different samples of the same soil type as variations between soils of the same physical character of dif- ferent soil series. The exchange... fine sandy loam. ... Willacy fine sandy loam.. .. Lomalto clay loam.. ...... Hidalgo clay loam. ........ Raymondville fine sandy loam.. ................. Victoria clay loam.. ...... Wilson clay. ............. Amarillo silty clay loam...
Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation
B. Dianda
2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their related manufacturer. A component produced by one manufacturer certainly varies dimensionally from a similar product produced by a different manufacturer. The internal envelope dimensions are dependent on the selection of the individual components. The external envelope dimensions, as well as, key interface dimensions are established within this calculation and are to be treated as bounding dimensions.
Multiphase flow calculation software
Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)
2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.
The SUN Action database : collecting and analyzing typical actions for visual scene types
Olsson, Catherine Anne White
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent work in human and machine vision has increasingly focused on the problem of scene recognition. Scene types are largely defined by the actions one might typically do there: an office is a place someone would typically ...
David, Mathieu; Garde, Francois; Boyer, Harry
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In building studies dealing about energy efficiency and comfort, simulation software need relevant weather files with optimal time steps. Few tools generate extreme and mean values of simultaneous hourly data including correlation between the climatic parameters. This paper presents the C++ Runeole software based on typical weather sequences analysis. It runs an analysis process of a stochastic continuous multivariable phenomenon with frequencies properties applied to a climatic database. The database analysis associates basic statistics, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and automatic classifications. Different ways of applying these methods will be presented. All the results are stored in the Runeole internal database that allows an easy selection of weather sequences. The extreme sequences are used for system and building sizing and the mean sequences are used for the determination of the annual cooling loads as proposed by Audrier-Cros (Audrier-Cros, 1984). This weather analysis was tested with the datab...
Some Calculations for Cold Fusion Superheavy Elements
Zhong, X H; Ning, P Z
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Q value and optimal exciting energy of the hypothetical superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reaction are calculated with relativistic mean field model and semiemperical shell model mass equation(SSME) and the validity of the two models is tested. The fusion barriers are also calculated with two different models and reasonable results are obtained. The calculations can give useful references for the experiments in the superheavy nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions.
Some Calculations for Cold Fusion Superheavy Elements
X. H. Zhong; L. Li; P. Z. Ning
2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
The Q value and optimal exciting energy of the hypothetical superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reaction are calculated with relativistic mean field model and semiemperical shell model mass equation(SSME) and the validity of the two models is tested. The fusion barriers are also calculated with two different models and reasonable results are obtained. The calculations can give useful references for the experiments in the superheavy nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Our appliance and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual wattage...
Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator
Sullivan, John
2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z
This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.
Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Sullivan, John
This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.
Finite-difference time-domain calculation of spontaneous
Painter, Oskar
, J. S. Vuckovic´, R. K. Lee, O. J. Painter, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv Departments of Applied Physics
Washington at Seattle, University of
to RMF FRC experiments at RPPL Theory: RMF fully penetrates plasma, Cosynchronous electron rotation plasma, Magnetic profiles flattened across null. Theory: Revised to encompass FRC condition. RMFAPS DPP November 11 15 2002University of Washington Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory Typical
Creep and shrinkage of concrete typical of four geographical areas of Texas
Ingram, Leonard Lee
1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
) (Member) (Member) August 1973 ABSTRACT Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete Typical of Four Geographical Areas of Texas. (August 1973) Leonard Lee Ingram, B. S, , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Howard L. Furr The effects of creep and shrinkage...CREEP AND SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE TYPICAL OF FOUR GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS OF TEXAS A Thesis by Leonard Lee Ingram Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...
Analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS using RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1 codes
Hsu, C.J.; Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Analysis of a typical BWR/4 Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) has been performed using two advanced, best-estimate computer codes, namely, RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1. The transient was initiated by an inadvertant closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) with subsequent failure to scram the reactor. However, all other safety features namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure coolant injection and the standby liquid (boron) control system were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. It has been found that both RAMONA-3B (with three-dimensional neutron kinetics) and TRAC-BD1 (with point kinetics) yielded similar results for the global parameters such as reactor power, system pressure and the suppression pool temperature. Both calculations showed that the reactor can be brought to hot shutdown in approximately twenty to twenty-five minutes with borated water mass flow rate of 2.78 kg/s (43 gpm) with 23800 ppM of boron. The suppression pool water temperature (assuming no pool cooling) at this time could be in the range of 170 to 205/sup 0/F. An additional TRAC-BD1 calculation with RAMONA-3B reactor power indicates that the thermal-hydraulic models in RAMONA-3B, although simpler than those in TRAC-BD1, can adequately represent the system behavior during the ATWS-type transient.
How Are Momentum Savings Calculated?
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Simplifying the Math: How Are Momentum Savings Calculated? Many people have heard about Momentum savings but don't understand how these types of savings are calculated. The short...
Radiation dose estimates for typical piloted NTR lunar and Mars mission engine operations
Schnitzler, B.G. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Borowski, S.K. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center)
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The natural and manmade radiation environments to be encountered during lunar and Mars missions are qualitatively summarized. The computational methods available to characterize the radiation environment produced by an operating nuclear propulsion system are discussed. Mission profiles and vehicle configurations are presented for a typical all-propulsive, fully reusable lunar mission and for a typical all-propulsive Mars mission. Estimates of crew location biological doses are developed for all propulsive maneuvers. Post-shutdown dose rates near the nuclear engine are estimated at selected mission times. 15 refs., 4 figs.
Health Calculators & Logs - HPMC Occupational Health Services
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Calculators & Logs Health Education & Wellness Downloads & Patient Materials Health & Productivity Health Calculators & Logs Body Mass Index Calorie Calculator Health Coaching...
Calorie Calculator - HPMC Occupational Health Services
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Calorie Calculator Health Education & Wellness Downloads & Patient Materials Health & Productivity Health Calculators & Logs Body Mass Index Calorie Calculator Health Coaching...
The impact of different weather data on simulated residential heating and cooling load
Huang, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)
1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Since 1995, two major new sources of typical year weather data--ASHRAE`s Weather Year for Energy Calculations, Version 2 (WYEC2), for 59 US and Canadian locations and NREL`s Typical Meteorological Year, Version 2 (TMY2), for 239 US locations--have become available for use in building energy simulations. Both of these data sets represent several years of effort in correcting data anomalies and adding improved solar models to the earlier WYEC and TMY weather sets. Although it is straightforward to tabulate and compare the changes in climate statistics, e.g., degree-days, wind speed, average solar heat gain, etc., the impact that such changes have on the simulated energy consumption of a building is less clear. The purpose of this study is to use DOE-2 simulations of prototypical residential buildings to (1) determine the ability of various typical year weather data such as TMY2, TMY, WYEC2, WYEC, and TRY to reproduce the long-term average heating and cooling energy consumption when simulated using 30 years of historical weather data and (2) compare the simulated energy consumption from different typical year data and determine if there are systematic differences due to the type of weather data.
Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure that there is no
Cohen, Robert E.
LAB SAFETY Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure temperature of the refrigerator rises. This results in an increase in the concentration of flammable vapors within the refrigerator's interior. When power is restored, a spark generated by the refrigerator light
INTRODUCTION Motor control of the feeding mechanism is typically regarded as
Lauder, George V.
3095 INTRODUCTION Motor control of the feeding mechanism is typically regarded as phylogenetically). In spite of this conservatism, most of these fishes are capable of modulating the kinematics of the feeding et al., 2006b; Nauwelaerts et al., 2007). Thus, the effect of kinematic modulation on the resulting
Strain Storage Typically, mycobacteria can be stored as lyophilized stocks, agar slants, or frozen stocks. Since lyophilization is not a cost-effective product storage alternative for virulent M. tuberculosis and agar slants can take up considerable BSL3 storage space, the best alternative for strain
is typical of atmospheric chemistry. Years of field, laboratory and modelling studies indi-
Shoubridge, Eric
is typical of atmospheric chemistry. Years of field, laboratory and modelling studies indi- cate that, in the atmosphere, particle nuclea- tion and growth might involve both gas and condensed are to be extrapolated to the atmosphere, further work is needed to unravel what happens at both the molecular and global
Assessing Student Learning We typically assess student learning in terms of their grades on
Champagne, Frances A.
need to be student-focused rather than instructor-focused. Focus on the learning resulting fromAssessing Student Learning We typically assess student learning in terms of their grades on quizzes should be linked to our learning objectives. To properly assess student learning, you need to know what
SIR GILBERT WALKER AND A CONNECTION BETWEEN EL NIO AND STATISTICS: FROM "TYPICAL CAMBRIDGE DON" TO
Katz, Richard
autocorrelations (e. g., R statistical programming language) Speech compression #12;11 #12;12 (2) SIR GILBERT Research Boulder, CO USA Home page: www.isse.ucar.edu/staff/katz/ Reference: Katz, R.W. (2002). Statistical1 SIR GILBERT WALKER AND A CONNECTION BETWEEN EL NIÑO AND STATISTICS: FROM "TYPICAL CAMBRIDGE DON
RAMONA-3B calculations for Browns Ferry ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram) study
Saha, P; Slovik, G C; Neymotin, L Y
1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Several aspects of the Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) initiated by an inadvertent closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIV) in a typical BWR/4 are analyzed in the report. The analysis is performed using the Brookhaven National Laboratory code, RAMONA-3B, which employs a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with a parallel-channel thermal hydraulics in representing a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Core. Four different transient scenarios have been investigated: (a) downcomer water level and reactor pressure control, (b) manual control rod insertion transient, (c) high pressure boil-off, and (d) recirculation pump trip failure. Results of these calculations should provide better understanding of mitigative effects of operator actions during ATWS, thus helping in the development of adequate Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPG) required for the BWR plant safety. A few unresolved questions subject to future investigations are also discussed.
RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan
Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas
2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.
A Framework for Lattice QCD Calculations on GPUs
Winter, Frank; Clark, M.A.; Edwards, Robert G.; Joo, Balint
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Computing platforms equipped with accelerators like GPUs have proven to provide great computational power. However, exploiting such platforms for existing scientific applications is not a trivial task. Current GPU programming frameworks such as CUDA C/C++ require low-level programming from the developer in order to achieve high performance code. As a result porting of applications to GPUs is typically limited to time-dominant algorithms and routines, leaving the remainder not accelerated which can open a serious Amdahl's law issue. The lattice QCD application Chroma allows to explore a different porting strategy. The layered structure of the software architecture logically separates the data-parallel from the application layer. The QCD Data-Parallel software layer provides data types and expressions with stencil-like operations suitable for lattice field theory and Chroma implements algorithms in terms of this high-level interface. Thus by porting the low-level layer one can effectively move the whole application in one swing to a different platform. The QDP-JIT/PTX library, the reimplementation of the low-level layer, provides a framework for lattice QCD calculations for the CUDA architecture. The complete software interface is supported and thus applications can be run unaltered on GPU-based parallel computers. This reimplementation was possible due to the availability of a JIT compiler (part of the NVIDIA Linux kernel driver) which translates an assembly-like language (PTX) to GPU code. The expression template technique is used to build PTX code generators and a software cache manages the GPU memory. This reimplementation allows us to deploy an efficient implementation of the full gauge-generation program with dynamical fermions on large-scale GPU-based machines such as Titan and Blue Waters which accelerates the algorithm by more than an order of magnitude.
A Framework for Lattice QCD Calculations on GPUs
F. T. Winter; M. A. Clark; R. G. Edwards; B. Joó
2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z
Computing platforms equipped with accelerators like GPUs have proven to provide great computational power. However, exploiting such platforms for existing scientific applications is not a trivial task. Current GPU programming frameworks such as CUDA C/C++ require low-level programming from the developer in order to achieve high performance code. As a result porting of applications to GPUs is typically limited to time-dominant algorithms and routines, leaving the remainder not accelerated which can open a serious Amdahl's law issue. The lattice QCD application Chroma allows to explore a different porting strategy. The layered structure of the software architecture logically separates the data-parallel from the application layer. The QCD Data-Parallel software layer provides data types and expressions with stencil-like operations suitable for lattice field theory and Chroma implements algorithms in terms of this high-level interface. Thus by porting the low-level layer one can effectively move the whole application in one swing to a different platform. The QDP-JIT/PTX library, the reimplementation of the low-level layer, provides a framework for lattice QCD calculations for the CUDA architecture. The complete software interface is supported and thus applications can be run unaltered on GPU-based parallel computers. This reimplementation was possible due to the availability of a JIT compiler (part of the NVIDIA Linux kernel driver) which translates an assembly-like language (PTX) to GPU code. The expression template technique is used to build PTX code generators and a software cache manages the GPU memory. This reimplementation allows us to deploy an efficient implementation of the full gauge-generation program with dynamical fermions on large-scale GPU-based machines such as Titan and Blue Waters which accelerates the algorithm by more than an order of magnitude.
LCEs for Naval Reactor Benchmark Calculations
W.J. Anderson
1999-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this engineering calculation is to document the MCNP4B2LV evaluations of Laboratory Critical Experiments (LCEs) performed as part of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology program. LCE evaluations documented in this report were performed for 22 different cases with varied design parameters. Some of these LCEs (10) are documented in existing references (Ref. 7.1 and 7.2), but were re-run for this calculation file using more neutron histories. The objective of this analysis is to quantify the MCNP4B2LV code system's ability to accurately calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for various critical configurations. These LCE evaluations support the development and validation of the neutronics methodology used for criticality analyses involving Naval reactor spent nuclear fuel in a geologic repository.
Dose calculations for severe LWR accident scenarios
Margulies, T.S.; Martin, J.A. Jr.
1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents a set of precalculated doses based on a set of postulated accident releases and intended for use in emergency planning and emergency response. Doses were calculated for the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) accident categories of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) using the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) code. Whole body and thyroid doses are presented for a selected set of weather cases. For each weather case these calculations were performed for various times and distances including three different dose pathways - cloud (plume) shine, ground shine and inhalation. During an emergency this information can be useful since it is immediately available for projecting offsite radiological doses based on reactor accident sequence information in the absence of plant measurements of emission rates (source terms). It can be used for emergency drill scenario development as well.
An Agricultural Economic Survey of Rockwall County, Texas : A Typical Blackland Cotton Farming Area.
Gabbard, L. P. (Letcher P.)
1925-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
TfXAS AGRICULTURAL fXPfRIMfNT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULLETIN NO. 327 February, 1925 DIVISION OF FARM AND RANCH ECONOMICS AN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC SURVEY OF ROCKWALL COUNTY, TEXAS A... Typical Blackland Cotton Farming Area B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS STAFF (As of May 1, 1925) ADMINISTRATION G. N. STROMAN, Ph. D., Agronomist, B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D., DiTector Cotton Breeding A. B. CONNER, M. S...
Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System Providing Water Resiliency in a typical Chemical Plant
Carter, T. P.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
System Providing Water Resiliency in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology Johnson Controls, Building Efficiency thomas.p.carter@jci.com ESL-IE-14...-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 2Johnson Controls is a globally diversified company in the building and automotive industries Automotive ExperienceBuilding Efficiency Power Solutions...
Unifying typical entanglement and coin tossing: on randomization in probabilistic theories
Markus P. Müller; Oscar C. O. Dahlsten; Vlatko Vedral
2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
It is well-known that pure quantum states are typically almost maximally entangled, and thus have close to maximally mixed subsystems. We consider whether this is true for probabilistic theories more generally, and not just for quantum theory. We derive a formula for the expected purity of a subsystem in any probabilistic theory for which this quantity is well-defined. It applies to typical entanglement in pure quantum states, coin tossing in classical probability theory, and randomization in post-quantum theories; a simple generalization yields the typical entanglement in (anti)symmetric quantum subspaces. The formula is exact and simple, only containing the number of degrees of freedom and the information capacity of the respective systems. It allows us to generalize statistical physics arguments in a way which depends only on coarse properties of the underlying theory. The proof of the formula generalizes several randomization notions to general probabilistic theories. This includes a generalization of purity, contributing to the recent effort of finding appropriate generalized entropy measures.
Computational Tools for Supersymmetry Calculations
Howard Baer
2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
I present a brief overview of a variety of computational tools for supersymmetry calculations, including: spectrum generators, cross section and branching fraction calculators, low energy constraints, general purpose event generators, matrix element event generators, SUSY dark matter codes, parameter extraction codes and Les Houches interface tools.
Closure and Sealing Design Calculation
T. Lahnalampi; J. Case
2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not be addressed in this calculation.
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41cloth Documentation DataDepartment of EnergyOn-Farm1 of 62.1Energy,Busy Y-12 Fire StationWallace to
Binding Energies in Benzene Dimers: Nonlocal Density Functional Calculations
Aaron Puzder; Maxime Dion; David C. Langreth
2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
The interaction energy and minimum energy structure for different geometries of the benzene dimer has been calculated using the recently developed nonlocal correlation energy functional for calculating dispersion interactions. The comparison of this straightforward and relatively quick density functional based method with recent calculations can elucidate how the former, quicker method might be exploited in larger more complicated biological, organic, aromatic, and even infinite systems such as molecules physisorbed on surfaces, and van der Waals crystals.
SB EE Calculator | Argonne National Laboratory
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Calculator Energy Efficiency Decision Support Calculator Argonne's Energy Efficiency Decision Support Calculator is a simple tool that small business owners can use to quickly...
Analysis of high-pressure boiloff situation during an MSIV closure ATWS in a typical BWR/4
Neymotin, L.Y.; Slovik, G.C.; Saha, P.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) is recognized as one of the boiling water reactor (BWR) accident sequences potentially leading to core damage. Of all the various ATWS initiating events, the main steam isolation valve (MSIV) closure ATWS is the most severe, because of its relatively high frequency of occurrence and its challenge to the residual heat removal and containment integrity systems. Although under investigation for quite a long period of time, different aspects of this type of transient are still being analyzed. The final outcome of these studies should be a well-defined set of recommendations for the plant operator to mitigate an ATWS accident. The objective of this paper is to provide a best estimate analysis of the MSIV closure ATWS in the Browns Ferry Unit 1 BWR with Mark-1 containment. The calculations have been performed using the RAMONA-3B code which as a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with one-dimensional four-equation, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium thermal hydraulics. The code also allows for one-dimensional neutronic core representation. The one-dimensional capability of the code has been employed in this calculation since a thorough sensitivity study showed that for a full ATWS, a one-dimensional neutron kinetics adequately describes the core behavior. The calculation described in the paper was started from a steady-state fuel condition corresponding to the end of cycle 5 of the Browns Ferry reactor.
Improved Calculation of Thermal Fission Energy
X. B. Ma; W. L. Zhong; L. Z. Wang; Y. X. Chen; J. Cao
2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
Thermal fission energy is one of the basic parameters needed in the calculation of antineutrino flux for reactor neutrino experiments. It is useful to improve the precision of the thermal fission energy calculation for current and future reactor neutrino experiments, which are aimed at more precise determination of neutrino oscillation parameters. In this article, we give new values for thermal fission energies of some common thermal reactor fuel isotopes, with improvements on three aspects. One is more recent input data acquired from updated nuclear databases. the second one is a consideration of the production yields of fission fragments from both thermal and fast incident neutrons for each of the four main fuel isotopes. The last one is more carefully calculation of the average energy taken away by antineutrinos in thermal fission with the comparison of antineutrino spectrum from different models. The change in calculated antineutrino flux due to the new values of thermal fission energy is about 0.32%, and the uncertainties of the new values are about 50% smaller.
Guidelines for the analysis of free energy calculations
Klimovich, PV; Shirts, MR; Mobley, DL; Mobley, DL
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Efficient estimation of free energy differ- ences from Montenumerical instabilities in free energy calculations based onD.L. , DiCapua, F.M. : Free energy via molecular simulation:
A critical look at methods for calculating charge transfer couplings fast and accurately
Ramos, Pablo; Pavanello, Michele
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present here a short and subjective review of methods for calculating charge transfer couplings. Although we mostly focus on Density Functional Theory, we discuss a small subset of semiempirical methods as well as the adiabatic-to-diabatic transformation methods typically coupled with wavefunction-based electronic structure calculations. In this work, we will present the reader with a critical assessment of the regimes that can be modeled by the various methods their strengths and weaknesses. In order to give a feeling about the practical aspects of the calculations, we also provide the reader with a practical protocol for running coupling calculations with the recently developed FDE-ET method.
Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and high temperature cooling_REHVA Guidebook, Federation ofEvaluation of cooling performance of thermally activatedsystem with evaporative cooling source for typical United
Calculation of Kinetics Parameters for the NBSR
Hanson A. L.; Diamond D.
2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
The delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime have been calculated at different times in the fuel cycle for the NBSR when fueled with both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The best-estimate values for both the delayed neutron fraction and the prompt neutron lifetime are the result of calculations using MCNP5-1.60 with the most recent ENDFB-VII evaluations. The best-estimate values for the total delayed neutron fraction from fission products are 0.00665 and 0.00661 for the HEU fueled core at startup and end-of-cycle, respectively. For the LEU fuel the best estimate values are 0.00650 and 0.00648 at startup and end-of-cycle, respectively. The present recommendations for the delayed neutron fractions from fission products are smaller than the value reported previously of 0.00726 for the HEU fuel. The best-estimate values for the contribution from photoneutrons will remain as 0.000316, independent of the fuel or time in the cycle.The values of the prompt neutron lifetime as calculated with MCNP5-1.60 are compared to values calculated with two other independent methods and the results are in reasonable agreement with each other. The recommended, conservative values of the neutron lifetime for the HEU fuel are 650 {micro}s and 750 {micro}s for the startup and end-of-cycle conditions, respectively. For LEU fuel the recommended, conservative values are 600 {micro}s and 700 {micro}s for the startup and end-of-cycle conditions, respectively. In all three calculations, the prompt neutron lifetime was determined to be longer for the end-of-cycle equilibrium condition when compared to the startup condition. The results of the three analyses were in agreement that the LEU fuel will exhibit a shorter prompt neutron lifetime when compared to the HEU fuel.
Permeability Calculation in a Fracture Network - 12197
Lee, Cheo Kyung; Kim, Hyo Won [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Laminar flow of a viscous fluid in the pore space of a saturated fractured rock medium is considered to calculate the effective permeability of the medium. The effective permeability is determined from the flow field which is calculated numerically by using the finite element method. The computation of permeability components is carried out with a few different discretizations for a number of fracture arrangements. Various features such as flow field in the fracture channels, the convergence of permeability, and the variation of permeability among different fracture networks are discussed. The longitudinal permeability in general appears greater than the transverse ones. The former shows minor variations with fracture arrangement whereas the latter appears to be more sensitive to the arrangement. From the calculations of the permeability in a rock medium with a fracture network (two parallel fractures aligned in the direction of 45-deg counterclockwise from the horizontal and two connecting fractures(narrowing, parallel and widening) the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium not only depends on the primary orientation of the main fractures but also is noticeably influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The transverse permeability (the permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the externally imposed macro-scale pressure gradient) is only a fraction of the longitudinal one, but is sensitive to the arrangement of the connecting fractures. 3. It is important to figure out the pattern of the fractures that connect (or cross) the main fractures for reliable calculation of the transverse permeability. (authors)
Building wall heat flux calculations
Park, J.E.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Tunstall, J.N.; Childs, K.W.
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Calculations of the heat transfer through the standard stud wall structure of a residential building are described. The wall cavity contains no insulation. Four of the five test cases represent progressively more complicated approximations to the heat transfer through and within a hollow wall structure. The fifth adds the model components necessary to severely inhibit the radiative energy transport across the empty cavity. Flow within the wall cavity is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equation for an ideal gas using the Implicit Compressible Eulerian (ICE) algorithm. The fluid flow calculation is coupled to the radiation-conduction model for the solid portions of the system. Conduction through sill plates is about 4% of the total heat transferred through a composite wall.
Mesh size and code option effects of strength calculations
Kaul, Ann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
Modern Lagrangian hydrodynamics codes include numerical methods which allow calculations to proceed past the point obtainable by a purely Lagrangian scheme. These options can be employed as the user deems necessary to 'complete' a calculation. While one could argue that any calculation is better than none, to truly understand the calculated results and their relationship to physical reality, the user needs to understand how their runtime choices affect the calculated results. One step toward this goal is to understand the effect of each runtime choice on particular pieces of the code physics. This paper will present simulation results for some experiments typically used for strength model validation. Topics to be covered include effect of mesh size, use of various ALE schemes for mesh detangling, and use of anti-hour-glassing schemes. Experiments to be modeled include the lower strain rate ({approx} 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}) gas gun driven Taylor impact experiments and the higher strain rate ({approx} 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) HE products driven perturbed plate experiments. The necessary mesh resolution and the effect of the code runtime options are highly dependent on the amount of localization of strain and stress in each experiment. In turn, this localization is dependent on the geometry of the experimental setup and the drive conditions.
Gräter, Frauke
Protein/Ligand Binding Free Energies Calculated with Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Frauke of the complexes are predicted (the "docking" problem) as well as in how the free energy is calculated from)solvation during the binding process.3 Typically, binding free energies calculated with these methods have average
DOE's Roof Savings Calculator (RSC)
Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"
DOE's Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) http://rsc.ornl.gov (www.roofcalc.com) in collaboration) Whole Building and Community Integration Group for: MCA Roofing Council Clearwater Beach, FL January 27, 2014 #12;Presentation summary · Context US Energy and ORNL BTRIC · Building Physics · Roof Savings
Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations
Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.
1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.
LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods
Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E. [Westinghouse Nuclear Technology Division, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.
Building wall heat flux calculations
Park, J.E.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Tunstall, J.N.; Childs, K.W.
1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Calculations of the heat transfer through the standard stud wall structure of a residential building are described. The wall cavity contains no insulation. Four of the five test cases represent progressively more complicated approximations to the heat transfer through and within a hollow wall structure. The fifth adds the model components necessary to severely inhibit the radiative energy transport across the empty cavity. Flow within the wall cavity is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equation for an ideal gas using the Implicit Compressible Eulerian (ICE) algorithm. The fluid flow calculation is coupled to the radiation-conduction model for the solid portions of the system. Conduction through sill plates is about 4% of the total heat transferred through a composite wall. All of the other model elements (conduction through wall board, sheathing, and siding; convection from siding and wallboard to ambients; and radiation across the wall cavity) are required to accurately predict the heat transfer through a wall. Addition of a foil liner on one inner surface of the wall cavity reduces the total heat transferred by almost 50%.
Haselhorst, Alexandria J.
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
of the food samples were plated on Tryptic Soy Agar media and Brucella Blood Agar to determine the aerobic and anaerobic bacterial loads respectively. The total microbioial communities were extracted from defined amounts of the different food samples...
Incorporating Weather Data into Energy Savings Calculations ...
Weather Data into Energy Savings Calculations Incorporating Weather Data into Energy Savings Calculations Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series:...
Harmonic Analysis Errors in Calculating Dipole,
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
to reduce the harmonic field calculation errors. A conformal transfor- mation of a multipole magnet into a dipole reduces these errors. Dipole Magnet Calculations A triangular...
Petty, J. A.; Lacewell, R. D.; Hardin, D. C.; Whitson, R. E.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
costs, are of primary concern because they impact on farm operations and producer economic viability. A recursive linear programming model for a typical Texas High Plains irrigated farm was developed to evaluate expected impact of price changes, tenure...
Beigl, Michael
Typical Sensors needed in Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing Michael Beigl, Albert Krohn, Tobias and presents an overview of their characteristics. Keywords: ubiquitous and pervasive computing, networked for networked embedded sensor systems, especially in ubiquitous and pervasive computing settings. Several
Boyer, Edmond
; different fishing villages Small-scale fishermen Not really (only extensive fishing methods which do not overexploit the stocks : handline ; encircling gillnet « félé-félé » ; beach seine) Fair-Fish, Switzerland of the Sea 2007 World Export : Swiss consumer via Migros supermarket + minimum of fair- fish products
Determination of a peak benzene exposure to consumers at typical self-service gasoline stations
Carapezza, Ted
1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. LITERATURE REVIEW Gasoline is a complex mixture of various volatile hydrocarbons blended with several additives depend1ng on the grade of gasoline desired. The goal in blending gasoline 1s to meet two criteria: l) improve antiknock performance, and 2.... This was due to differences in blending. Those identified hydrocarbons amounted to 98 percent, by weight, of the liquid gasoline sample. Benzene in Liquid Gasoline In 1928, Askey , reported that gasolines in West California 2 might contain as much as 17...
Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)
Ivanova, Tatiana [IRSN; Laville, Cedric [IRSN; Dyrda, James [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Mennerdahl, Dennis [E. Mennerdahl Systems; Golovko, Yury [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Raskach, Kirill [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Tsiboulia, Anatoly [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Lee, Gil Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Woo, Sweng-Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Bidaud, Adrien [Labratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmolo-gie (LPSC); Patel, Amrit [NRC; Bledsoe, Keith C [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Gulliford, J. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.
Calculating LHC Tuning Knobs using Various Methods
Wittmer, W; Zimmermann, Frank
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
By measuring and adjusting the beta-functions at the IP the luminosity is being optimized. In LEP this was done with the two closest doublet magnets. This approach is not applicable for the LHC due to the asymmetric lattice and common beam pipe through the triplet magnets. To control and change the beta-functions quadrupole groups situated on both sides further away from the IP have to be used where the two beams are already separated. The quadrupoles are excited in specific linear combinations, forming the socalled “tuning knobs” for the IP beta functions. We compare the performance of such knobs calculated by different methods: (1) matching in MAD, (2) inversion of the response matrix and singular value decomposition inversion and conditioning and (3) conditioning the response matrix by multidimensional minimization using an Adapted Moore Penrose Method.
DENSITY OF STATES CALCULATIONS FOR CARBON
Adler, Joan
DENSITY OF STATES CALCULATIONS FOR CARBON ALLOTROPES AND MIXTURES EDUARDO WARSZAWSKI #12;#12;DENSITY OF STATES CALCULATIONS FOR CARBON ALLOTROPES AND MIXTURES Research Thesis Submitted in Partial;#12;Contents Abstract xiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Carbon allotropes
Filman, Robert E.
CHAPTER TWO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES We assume the readers of this book are familiar with material covered in a typical undergraduate course on programming languages. Texts for such classes include Pratt, not all readers have identical backgrounds. This chapter reviews two aspects of programming languages
Stern, Robert J.
Glass Inclusions in Mariana Arc Phenocrysts: A New Perspective on Magmatic Evolution in a Typical at Dallas, Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083-0688, USA A B S T R A C T Major element compositions of glass of these lavas reflects accumulation of plagioclase. Glass inclusions also show the common occurrence of felsic
WHAT IS THE MASTER COMPOSTER PROGRAM? Between 10 and 25 % of a typical household's waste can be
Alpay, S. Pamir
WHAT IS THE MASTER COMPOSTER PROGRAM? Between 10 and 25 % of a typical household's waste can in partnership with the Connecticut Recyclers Coalition, is offering the Master Composter Program to educate and train state residents about the composting process and to assist participants in passing this knowledge
Boyer, Edmond
SIMULATION OF A TYPICAL HOUSE IN THE REGION OF ANTANANARIVO, MADAGASCAR DETERMINATION OF PASSIVE union ABSTRACT This paper deals with new proposals for the design of passive solutions adapted use raw wood to warm the poorly designed houses. This leads to a large scale deforestation
Cañizares, Claudio A.
Proc. IEEE PowerTech, Bucharest, June 2009. 1 Abstract-Power flow studies are typically used on the use of optimization techniques and worst-case scenario analysis. The application of these techniques assessment), thus allowing to evaluate the level of confidence of power flow studies. These algorithms should
Analysis of drainage and consolidation at typical uranium mill tailings sites
Fayer, M.J.; Conbere, W.
1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The computer code TRUNC was used to analyze three aspects of uranium mill tailings dewatering: the coupling of consolidation and fluid flow, drainage design, and cover load. One-dimensional simulations of the effects of consolidation on fluid flow within a tailings pile of either slimes or a sand/slimes mix showed that drainage flux was greater for a consolidating system early in the simulation. However, after days 1400 and 160 of the simulations for the slimes and sand/slimes mix, respectively, the fluxes from the nonconsolidating systems were greater. In the sand/slimes mix, the nonconsolidating system had a cumulative flux by day 5000 that was 93% of that of the consolidating system. At the same time, in the slimes tailings piles the nonconsolidating system had a cumulative flux of only 34% of that of the consolidating system. This difference indicates that consolidation and fluid flow should not be decoupled for the slimes. Two-dimensional simulations of an actual tailings pile drainage design showed that a sand blanket drain increased the rate of drainage and settlement. The sand blanket drain also significantly reduced differential settlement across the pile. This indicates that the use of a sand blanket drain could enable earlier placement of the cover system after tailings emplacement. In simulations of covered and uncovered tailings piles, nearly the same quantity of water was removed from each, but drainage occurred much more slowly without the cover; hence, surface settlement was slower when the tailings pile was not covered. 10 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.
Quantum transport calculations using periodic boundaryconditions
Wang, Lin-Wang
2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
An efficient new method is presented to calculate the quantum transports using periodic boundary conditions. This method allows the use of conventional ground state ab initio programs without big changes. The computational effort is only a few times of a normal groundstate calculations, thus is makes accurate quantum transport calculations for large systems possible.
Quasi Exactly Solvable Difference Equations
Ryu Sasaki
2007-10-11T23:59:59.000Z
Several explicit examples of quasi exactly solvable `discrete' quantum mechanical Hamiltonians are derived by deforming the well-known exactly solvable Hamiltonians of one degree of freedom. These are difference analogues of the well-known quasi exactly solvable systems, the harmonic oscillator (with/without the centrifugal potential) deformed by a sextic potential and the 1/sin^2x potential deformed by a cos2x potential. They have a finite number of exactly calculable eigenvalues and eigenfunctions.
Calculation of size for bound-state constituents
Stanislaw D. Glazek
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Elements are given of a calculation that identifies the size of a proton in the Schroedinger equation for lepton-proton bound states, using the renormalization group procedure for effective particles (RGPEP) in quantum field theory, executed only up to the second order of expansion in powers of the coupling constant. Already in this crude approximation, the extraction of size of a proton from bound-state observables is found to depend on the lepton mass, so that the smaller the lepton mass the larger the proton size extracted from the same observable bound-state energy splitting. In comparison of Hydrogen and muon-proton bound-state dynamics, the crude calculation suggests that the difference between extracted proton sizes in these two cases can be a few percent. Such values would match the order of magnitude of currently discussed proton-size differences in leptonic atoms. Calculations using the RGPEP of higher order than second are required for a precise interpretation of the energy splittings in terms of the proton size in the Schroedinger equation. Such calculations should resolve the conceptual discrepancy between two conditions: that the renormalization group scale required for high accuracy calculations based on the Schroedinger equation is much smaller than the proton mass (on the order of a root of the product of reduced and average masses of constituents) and that the energy splittings due to the physical proton size can be interpreted ignoring corrections due to the effective nature of constituents in the Schr\\"odinger equation.
Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental, C.S.I.C., Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)
2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
A real wave packet based time-dependent method and a statistical quantum method have been used to study the He + NeH{sup +} (v, j) reaction with the reactant in various ro-vibrational states, on a recently calculated ab initio ground state potential energy surface. Both the wave packet and statistical quantum calculations were carried out within the centrifugal sudden approximation as well as using the exact Hamiltonian. Quantum reaction probabilities exhibit dense oscillatory pattern for smaller total angular momentum values, which is a signature of resonances in a complex forming mechanism for the title reaction. Significant differences, found between exact and approximate quantum reaction cross sections, highlight the importance of inclusion of Coriolis coupling in the calculations. Statistical results are in fairly good agreement with the exact quantum results, for ground ro-vibrational states of the reactant. Vibrational excitation greatly enhances the reaction cross sections, whereas rotational excitation has relatively small effect on the reaction. The nature of the reaction cross section curves is dependent on the initial vibrational state of the reactant and is typical of a late barrier type potential energy profile.
Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles
Jones, Chad [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Kwan-Liu [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.
Recent PQCD calculations of heavy quark production
Vitev, I
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We summarize the results of a recent study of heavy quark production and attenuation in cold nuclear matter. In p+p collisions, we investigate the relative contribution of partonic sub-processes to $D$ meson production and $D$ meson-triggered inclusive di-hadrons to lowest order in perturbative QCD. While gluon fusion dominates the creation of large angle $D\\bar{D}$ pairs, charm on light parton scattering determines the yield of single inclusive $D$ mesons. The distinctly different non-perturbative fragmentation of $c$ quarks into $D$ mesons versus the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into light hadrons results in a strong transverse momentum dependence of anticharm content of the away-side charm-triggered jet. In p+A reactions, we calculate and resum the coherent nuclear-enhanced power corrections from the final-state partonic scattering in the medium. We find that single and double inclusive open charm production can be suppressed as much as the yield of neutral pions from dynamical high-twist shadowing. ...
Computerized Energy and Treatment Cost Calculations
Trace, W. L.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
operating conditions. This fact will be demonstrated graphically by comparing sodium zeolite softening versus demineralization on a typical raw water analysis. RAW WATER pH 7.2 Bicarbonate as HC0 3 102 mg I L Chloride as CI 10 mgt L Sulfate as S04... be necessary to control scale and corrosion throughout the boiler system. DE!\\i1N ERALIZAnON Let us now consider using the same raw water analysis, but using demineralization as treatment on the typical raw water. Figure 7 lists the ~2rlysis effluent...
Fully microscopic shell-model calculations with realistic effective hamiltonians
Coraggio, L; Gargano, A; Itaco, N; Kuo, T T S
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The advent of nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from chiral perturbation theory, as well as the so-called V-low-k approach to the renormalization of the strong short-range repulsion contained in the potentials, have brought renewed interest in realistic shell-model calculations. Here we focus on calculations where a fully microscopic approach is adopted. No phenomenological input is needed in these calculations, because single-particle energies, matrix elements of the two-body interaction, and matrix elements of the electromagnetic multipole operators are derived theoretically. This has been done within the framework of the time-dependent degenerate linked-diagram perturbation theory. We present results for some nuclei in different mass regions. These evidence the ability of realistic effective hamiltonians to provide an accurate description of nuclear structure properties.
Theory and calculations of synchrotron instabilities and feedback-mechanism
Meijssen, T.E.M.
1981-08-12T23:59:59.000Z
The properties of the phenomenon synchrotron radiation are given with general theory on the basic processes and betatron and synchrotron oscillations. A more extended theoretical view at transverse instabilities and the influence of a damping feedback system are discussed. The longitudinal case is covered. For the calculations on the longitudinal case with M equally spaced pointbunches, with N electrons each, in the storage ring, the parasitic modes of the radio-frequency cavity were measured. A description of this is given. The values of damping rates of the longitudinal feedback system found, are as expected, but too low to damp the longitudinal instabilities calculated. This might be caused by the input data. The calculated growth rates are very sensitive to changes in frequency and width of the parasitic modes, which were measured under conditions differing slightly from the operating conditions.
Fully microscopic shell-model calculations with realistic effective hamiltonians
L. Coraggio; A. Covello; A. Gargano; N. Itaco; T. T. S. Kuo
2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z
The advent of nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from chiral perturbation theory, as well as the so-called V-low-k approach to the renormalization of the strong short-range repulsion contained in the potentials, have brought renewed interest in realistic shell-model calculations. Here we focus on calculations where a fully microscopic approach is adopted. No phenomenological input is needed in these calculations, because single-particle energies, matrix elements of the two-body interaction, and matrix elements of the electromagnetic multipole operators are derived theoretically. This has been done within the framework of the time-dependent degenerate linked-diagram perturbation theory. We present results for some nuclei in different mass regions. These evidence the ability of realistic effective hamiltonians to provide an accurate description of nuclear structure properties.
Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) "Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening" Dora Nakafuji and Anthony Hong, Hawaiian Electric Co. Babak Enayati,...
Calculating Plutonium and Praseodymium Structural Transformations...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Calculating Plutonium and Praseodymium Structural Transformations A newly-developed hybrid computational method has computed, for the first time, plutonium's exotic crystal...
What is the GREET Fleet Footprint Calculator
fuels and advanced vehicles (AFVs). The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emis- sions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) Fleet Foot- print Calculator can help fleets decide on...
Evaluation Of Chemical Geothermometers For Calculating Reservoir...
search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Evaluation Of Chemical Geothermometers For Calculating Reservoir Temperatures At Nevada Geothermal Power...
SPREADSHEET DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT FOR SATURATION TEMPERATURE CALCULATION
JO J
2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
This document describes the methodology for determining the saturation temperature in waste tanks. The saturation temperature is used to calculate neutral buoyancy ratio.
Cooling airflow design calculations for UFAD
Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
written permission. Cooling Airflow Design Calculations form) height. Table 2: Design cooling airflow performance fortool predictions of UFAD cooling airflow rates and associ-
Effect of housing conditions on sex differences in spatial cognition in rats
Harris, Anjanette Patricia
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Male mammals typically outperform females in tests of spatial ability. However, in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus), from which the majority of data in support of this difference come, sex differences are not consistently ...
Born-series approach to the calculation of Casimir forces
Robert Bennett
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Casimir force between two objects is notoriously difficult to calculate in anything other than parallel-plate geometries due to its non-additive nature. This means that for more complicated, realistic geometries one usually has to resort to approaches such as making the crude proximity force approximation (PFA). Another issue with calculation of Casimir forces in real-world situations (such as with realistic materials) is that there are continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz treatment as a true quantum theory. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to calculation of Casimir forces for arbitrary geometries which sidesteps both these problems. Our calculations are based upon a Born expansion of the Green's function of the quantised electromagnetic vacuum field, interpreted as multiple scattering, with the relevant coupling strength being the difference in the dielectric functions of the various materials involved. This allows one to consider arbitrary geometries in single or multiple scattering simply by integrating over the desired shape, meaning that extension beyond the PFA is trivial. This work is mostly dedicated to illustration of the method by reproduction of known parallel-slab results -- a process that turns out to be non-trivial and provides several useful insights. We also present a short example of calculation of the Casimir energy for a more complicated geometry, namely that of two finite slabs.
Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.
2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
pH is an essential parameter for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies conducted under geological CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH. The accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In our previous work, we have developed a method for pH determination by in-situ spectrophotometry. In the present work, we expanded the applicable pH range for this method and measured the pH of several rock-brine-CO2 systems at GCS conditions for five rock samples collected from ongoing GCS demonstration projects. Experimental measurements were compared with pH values calculated using several geochemical modeling approaches. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. Results indicate that the accuracy of model calculations is rock-dependent. For rocks comprised of carbonate and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models’ failure to fully account for certain reaction occurring between the basalt minerals the CO2-saturated brine solutions.
Multipole Electrostatics in Hydration Free Energy Calculations
Ponder, Jay
Multipole Electrostatics in Hydration Free Energy Calculations YUE SHI,1 CHUANJIE WU,2 JAY W Acceptance Ratio method. We have compared two approaches to derive the atomic multipoles from quantum mechanical calculations: one directly from the new distributed multipole analysis and the other involving
PVWatts (R) Calculator India (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The PVWatts (R) Calculator for India was released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2013. The online tool estimates electricity production and the monetary value of that production of grid-connected roof- or ground-mounted crystalline silicon photovoltaics systems based on a few simple inputs. This factsheet provides a broad overview of the PVWatts (R) Calculator for India.
Calculating Highly Oscillatory Integrals by Quadrature Methods
Thapa, Krishna 1989-
2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
are found by requiring Z b a m (x) sin(!x)dx = 2 +2X i= wim (xi) The calculation of the wi therefore hinges on calculating the moments R b a x nei!g(x)dx. Unlike traditional approximation methods, the accuracy of the function increases...
2004 NET SYSTEM POWER CALCULATION COMMISSIONREPORT
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2004 NET SYSTEM POWER CALCULATION COMMISSIONREPORT April 2005 CEC-300 Adam Pan, Terry Ewing Principal Author David Ashuckian Manager Electricity Analysis Office Terry O, the Legislature directed the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) to calculate and report annually
Analysis of high pressure boil-off situation during MSIV closure ATWS in a typical BWR/4
Neymotin, L.Y.; Slovik, G.C.; Saha, P.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this paper is to provide a best-estimate analysis of the MSIV Closure ATWS in the Browns Ferry Unit 1 BWR with Mark 1 containment. The calculations have been performed using the RAMONA-3B code which has a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with one-dimensional (multi-channel core representation), four-equation, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium thermal hydraulics. The code also allows for one-dimensional neutronic core representation. The 1-D capability of the code has been employed in this calculation since a thorough sensitivity study showed that for a full ATWS, a one-dimensional (axial) neutron kinetics adequately describes the core behavior. (Note that the core steady-state symmetry in this case was preserved throughout the transient so that radial effects could be neglected.) The calculation described in the paper was started from a steady-state fuel condition corresponding to the end of Cycle 5 of the Browns Ferry reactor.
Hamp, S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States). Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office; Jackson, T.J. [Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dotson, P.W. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Past operations at uranium processing sites throughout the US have resulted in local contamination of soils and ground water by radionuclides, toxic metals, or both. Understanding the origin of contamination and how the constituents are distributed is a basic element for planning remedial action decisions. This report describes the radiological and nonradiological species found in ground water at a typical US uranium milling facility. The report will provide the audience with an understanding of the vast spectrum of contaminants that must be controlled in planning solutions to the long-term management of these waste materials.
Tools for calculations in color space
Malin Sjodahl; Stefan Keppeler
2013-07-04T23:59:59.000Z
Both the higher energy and the initial state colored partons contribute to making exact calculations in QCD color space more important at the LHC than at its predecessors. This is applicable whether the method of assessing QCD is fixed order calculation, resummation, or parton showers. In this talk we discuss tools for tackling the problem of performing exact color summed calculations. We start with theoretical tools in the form of the (standard) trace bases and the orthogonal multiplet bases (for which a general method of construction was recently presented). Following this, we focus on two new packages for performing color structure calculations: one easy to use Mathematica package, ColorMath, and one C++ package, ColorFull, which is suitable for more demanding calculations, and for interfacing with event generators.
Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application
Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G. [and others
1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.
Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.
Francetic, J.S.; Robinson, K.S.
1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent comprehensive monitoring of solar energy systems has indicated that heat losses from system piping and components are much higher than originally expected. Theoretical analyses conducted at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) predict that operating plus standby (during shutdown) heat losses from a typical solar system could equal up to one-third of the total gross solar energy collected by the system. Detailed heat loss experiments were conducted on a Solar in Federal Buildings Program (SFBP)-monitored site to identify and quantify actual piping, component, and thermosiphon heat losses for a typical day. The selected solar system, SFBP 4008, is a solar space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) system located at the Eisenhower Memorial Museum at Abilene, Kansas. The system has 4200 ft/sup 2/ of collector array located at a considerable distance from the mechanical building. Long lengths of exterior above-ground and buried piping connect the collectors to the mechanical room. Valves and pumps are uninsulated. The heat loss experiments at the Eisenhower site showed that 25% of the energy collected on a summer day was lost in pipes and components. Detailed results are given. 8 refs., 64 figs., 17 tabs.
Krylov, Anna I.
Efficient Strategies for Accurate Calculations of Electronic Excitation and Ionization Energies on single-reference methods for calculating accurate energy differences. Different schemes for calculating of energy differences, such as electronic excitation and ionization energies, as well as heats of formation
IDS120h: Be WINDOW DETAILED CALCULATION, SHIELDING VESSELS, RESULTS FOR DIFFERENT
McDonald, Kirk
FURTER AWAY FROM Hg POOL GAP, JET AND PROTON BEAM 3 #12;4 Be Window detail: 1 cm vacuum regions before POOL GEOMETRY,IDS120f) SH=SHIELDING AREAS SC=SUPER CONDUCTING COIL 6 mm Be Window VAC1 VAC26 mm Be Window Hg Pool SC8 SC 7 SC 6 SH 2 SH 4 SH 3 #12;IDS120h:SHIELDING VESSELS. RESULTS FOR 0.5 cm THIKNESS
Rasor, Robert Winston
1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. IST 0F FIGURBS Figure Ideal Fracture Propagation Increase in l&roductivity From Fracturing Concentra l. !on Protile From Analytical l'odels A;"ier BabcockA Concentration Profi1e From Simulation Node'1 5 Bed Contigurat'ion for Analytical Solution... is described oy 0'?r! y's equation and is a funct ioi) of producing inLerval height. Therefor(', 1 low through a propped fracture is also a function of' !)ropi)&&nt !&ank he) qht. . Prc)dieting the + ina! oeometry of the proppant bank is easer tiai...
68 energy risk November 2003 The ability to calculate correlations for different assets or for the
Carmona, Rene
.The questions of how natural gas storage is correlated to temperature in a certain location or what the trend or seasonal component. For example, natural gas storage and temperature decrease in winter
Yerokhin, V A; Fritzsche, S
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistic configuration-interaction calculations have been performed for the energy levels of the low-lying and core-excited states of beryllium-like argon, Ar$^{14+}$. These calculations include the one-loop QED effects as obtained by two different methods, the screening-potential approach as well as the model QED operator approach. The calculations are supplemented by a systematic estimation of uncertainties of theoretical predictions.
Calculation of external dose from distributed source
Kocher, D.C.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper discusses a relatively simple calculational method, called the point kernel method (Fo68), for estimating external dose from distributed sources that emit photon or electron radiations. The principles of the point kernel method are emphasized, rather than the presentation of extensive sets of calculations or tables of numerical results. A few calculations are presented for simple source geometries as illustrations of the method, and references and descriptions are provided for other caluclations in the literature. This paper also describes exposure situations for which the point kernel method is not appropriate and other, more complex, methods must be used, but these methods are not discussed in any detail.
Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods
Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.
1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.
Dose calculation for electron therapy using an improved LBR method
Gebreamlak, Wondesen T.; Alkhatib, Hassaan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); South Carolina Oncology Associates, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States); Tedeschi, David J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)
2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To calculate the percentage depth dose (PDD) of any irregularly shaped electron beam using a modified lateral build-up ratio (LBR) method.Methods: Percentage depth dose curves were measured using 6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV electron beam energies for applicator cone sizes of 6 Multiplication-Sign 6, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10, 14 Multiplication-Sign 14, and 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 cm{sup 2}. Circular cutouts for each cone were prepared from 2.0 cm diameter to the maximum possible size for each cone. In addition, three irregular cutouts were prepared.Results: The LBR for each circular cutout was calculated from the measured PDD curve using the open field of the 14 Multiplication-Sign 14 cm{sup 2} cone as the reference field. Using the LBR values and the radius of the circular cutouts, the corresponding lateral spread parameter [{sigma}{sub R}(z)] of the electron shower was calculated. Unlike the commonly accepted assumption that {sigma}{sub R}(z) is independent of cutout size, it is shown that its value increases linearly with circular cutout size (R). Using this characteristic of the lateral spread parameter, the PDD curves of irregularly shaped cutouts were calculated. Finally, the calculated PDD curves were compared with measured PDD curves.Conclusions: In this research, it is shown that the lateral spread parameter {sigma}{sub R}(z) increases with cutout size. For radii of circular cutout sizes up to the equilibrium range of the electron beam, the increase of {sigma}{sub R}(z) with the cutout size is linear. The percentage difference of the calculated PDD curve from the measured PDD data for irregularly shaped cutouts was under 1.0% in the region between the surface and therapeutic range of the electron beam. Similar results were obtained for four electron beam energies (6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV)
Tu, Kevin
, latent and carbon dioxide from eddy covariances presented by Kevin Tu, St. Louis (10/97). The properties
INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS
Finley Jr., Russell L.
INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS YOU KNOW WHAT THE TUITION, STIPEND AND EQUIPMENT COSTS ARE YOU KNOW WHAT THE TOTAL COST IS CALCULATION IS USING THE 2010 FED F&A RATE FOR WSU OF 52% (.52) [ DIRECT COST TUITION STIPEND EQUIPMENT] (.52 ) + DIRECT
Quality Control Inspector: Different Programs, Different Responsibilit...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
document explains the role of the Quality Control Inspector (QCI) in regards to the Home Energy Professional Certification Exam. Quality Control Inspector: Different Programs,...
NREL: Energy Analysis - Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Useful Life Land Use by System Technology LCOE Calculator Simple Levelized Cost of Energy (sLCOE) Calculator (BETA) Simple Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Financial...
HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR A MODIFIED IN-SITU RETORT
Hall, W.G.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
LBL-1 0431 UC-91 HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR A MODIFIED IN-REFERENCES • . • • • • . , . HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR ACalifomia. LBL-10431 HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR A MODIFIED
Medical physics calculations with MCNP: a primer
Lazarine, Alexis D
2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
of Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values using the ORNL MIRD phantom, x-ray phototherapy effectiveness, prostate brachytherapy lifetime dose calculations, and a radiograph of the head using the Zubal head phantom. Also...
Design Calculations For APS Safety Shutters
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
computer program MCNPX 1 to verify the guidelines set forth previously for the APS safety shutters 2. The original shutter design calculations were carried out using the EGS4...
Essential Value, Pmax, and Omax Automated Calculator
Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.
2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z
Behavioral economic measures of demand are often calculated in sophisticated spreadsheet programs. Unfortunately, no closed form models for exact pmax (point of unit elasticity) and omax (response output at pmax) can be ...
Supplemental Reactor Physics Calculations and Analysis of ELF Mk 1A Fuel
Michael A. Pope
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
These calculations supplement previous the reactor physics work evaluating the Enhanced Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel (ELF) Mk 1A element. This includes various additional comparisons between the current Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and LEU along with further characterization of the performance of the ELF fuel. The excess reactivity to be held down at BOC for ELF Mk 1A fuel is estimated to be approximately $2.75 greater than with HEU for a typical cycle. This is a combined effect of the absence of burnable poison in the ELF fuel and the reduced neck shim worth in LEU fuel compared to HEU. Burnable poison rods were conceptualized for use in the small B positions containing Gd2O3 absorber. These were shown to provide $2.37 of negative reactivity at BOC and to burn out in less than half of a cycle. The worth of OSCCs is approximately the same between HEU and ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuels in the representative loading evaluated. This was evaluated by rotating all banks simultaneously. The safety rod worth is relatively unchanged between HEU and ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuels in the representative loading evaluated. However, this should be reevaluated with different loadings. Neutron flux, both total and fast (>1 MeV), is either the same or reduced upon changing from HEU to ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuels in the representative loading evaluated. This is consistent with the well-established trend of lower neutron fluxes for a given power in LEU than HEU.The IPT loop void reactivity is approximately the same or less positive with ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuel than HEU in the representative loading evaluated.
Calculations of crystal-melt interfacial free energies by nonequilibrium work measurements
Song, Xueyu
Calculations of crystal-melt interfacial free energies by nonequilibrium work measurements Yan Mu perturbation method to compute the interfacial free energies by nonequilibrium work measurements with cleaving potential procedure. Using this method, we calculated the interfacial free energies of different crystal
Calculation of rotordynamic forces on labyrinth seals
Hensel, Steve John
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
CALCULATION OF ROTORDYNAMIC FORCES ON LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis STEVE JOHN HENSEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering CALCULATION OF ROTORDYNAMIC FORCES ON LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by STEVE JOHN HENSEL Approved as to style snd content by: David Rhode (Chairman of Committee) Erian Baskharone Leel and Garison (Member) +, gg, W. D...
A new comprehensive semiempirical approach to calculate three-phase water/hydrocarbons equilibria
Tandia, Bagus Krisna
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
are different, and one ternary system of n-decane/n-pentadecane/water. The vapor phase composition (yi) data has been tuned to satisfy the following material balance equation: [] The approachhas been verified by comparing the calculated vapor phase composition...
End-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent fuel assemblies
Linge, I. I.; Mitenkova, E. F., E-mail: mit@ibrae.ac.ru; Novikov, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)
2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
The results of end-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent nuclear fuel are presented. Details of formation of neutron and gamma-radiation sources are analyzed. Distributed sources of different types of radiation are considered. A comparative analysis of calculated radiation characteristics is performed with the use of nuclear data from different ENDF/B and EAF files and ANSI/ANS and ICRP standards.
Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.
2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) with complex chemistry was used to study statistics of displacement and consumption speeds in turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames. The main focus of the study is an evaluation of the extent to which a turbulent flame in the thin reaction zones regime can be described by an ensemble of strained laminar flames. Conditional averages with respect to strain for displacement and consumption speeds are presented over a wide range of strain typically encountered in a turbulent flame, compared with previous studies that either made local pointwise comparisons or conditioned the data on small strain and curvature. The conditional averages for positive strains are compared with calculated data from two different canonical strained laminar configurations to determine which is the optimal representation of a laminar flame structure embedded in a turbulent flame: the reactant-to-product (R-to-P) configuration or the symmetric twin flame configuration. Displacement speed statistics are compared for the progress-variable isosurface of maximum reaction rate and an isosurface toward the fresh gases, which are relevant for both modeling and interpretation of experiment results. Displacement speeds in the inner reaction layer are found to agree very well with the laminar R-to-P calculations over a wide range of strain for higher Damkhler number conditions, well beyond the regime in which agreement was expected. For lower Damkhler numbers, a reduced response to strain is observed, consistent with previous studies and theoretical expectations. Compared with the inner layer, broader and shifted probability density functions (PDFs) of displacement speed were observed in the fresh gases, and the agreement with the R-to-P calculations deteriorated. Consumption speeds show a poorer agreement with strained laminar calculations, which is attributed to multidimensional effects and a more attenuated unsteady response to strain fluctuations; however, they also show less departure from the unstrained laminar value, suggesting that detailed modeling of this quantity may not be critical for the conditions considered. For all quantities investigated, including CO production, the R-to-P laminar configuration provides an improved description relative to the twin flame configuration, which predicts qualitatively incorrect trends and overestimates extinction.
Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Light Nuclei Using Chiral Potentials
J. E. Lynn; J. Carlson; E. Epelbaum; S. Gandolfi; A. Gezerlis; A. Schwenk
2014-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei with nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory up to next-to-next-to-leading order. Up to this order, the interactions can be constructed in a local form and are therefore amenable to quantum Monte Carlo calculations. We demonstrate a systematic improvement with each order for the binding energies of $A=3$ and $A=4$ systems. We also carry out the first few-body tests to study perturbative expansions of chiral potentials at different orders, finding that higher-order corrections are more perturbative for softer interactions. Our results confirm the necessity of a three-body force for correct reproduction of experimental binding energies and radii, and pave the way for studying few- and many-nucleon systems using quantum Monte Carlo methods with chiral interactions.
ASME PTC 47 -- Calculation of overall IGCC plant performance
Xiong, T.; Horazak, D.A.
1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
An integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant is a combined chemical and power system that converts coal or other unrefined fuel into clean gaseous fuel, electric power, and other byproducts. The conversion process requires interactions among the gasification, gas cleaning, air or oxygen production, power and steam generation systems. Overall performance testing of IGCC plants. however, is based only on the streams that cross the overall plant boundary. This paper describes the calculation procedures required to conduct a fair and accurate performance test of an IGCC plant, as proposed for ASME Performance Test Code 47. Discussions include identification of parameters to be measured, calculations needed to evaluate performance, and corrections to performance data for test conditions that differ from reference conditions.
Calculation of intervention doses for the CNGS facility
Lorenzo-Sentis, M; Roesler, Stefan
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) project is to generate at CERN a powerful artificial muon-neutrino beam aimed at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. There, detectors will detect those neutrinos and try to disentangle those, which on their 730 km trip have changed their flavour. During the operating lifetime of the neutrino beam facility some interventions are required. These maintenance operations have to be planned in advance to define the guidelines of design and operational procedures in order to keep the doses received by personnel As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA-principle). A calculational method developed for the Monte Carlo simulation program FLUKA has been used, which allows one to compute dose equivalent rates from induced radioactivity for different cooling times in the regions of the human intervention. In this paper the method of calculation is described, the results of dose equivalent rate in the areas of interventions are summarized and discussed and finally, these ...
MCNP photon transport benchmarking calculations performed at SRP. Revision 1
White, A.M.
1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Monte Carlo methods have long been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to perform criticality calculations for many different processes. To perform transport analyses (both neutron and photon) a two-dimensional infinite lattice integral transport code (GLASS) has been used. The neutron transport portion of the code has been benchmarked against other codes and experimental data. The photon transport portion of the code, which is used to calculate gamma redistribution in the event of a loss of moderator and/or coolant, had not been benchmarked against either. For this reason, the Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to benchmark the photon transport portion of the GLASS code. Preceding this, a brief description of the geometry of the Savannah River Plant`s (SRP) reactor cores and how they were modeled using MCNP will be given.
Benchmarking kinetic calculations of resistive wall mode stability
Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wang, Z. R.; Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Manickam, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Validating the calculations of kinetic resistive wall mode (RWM) stability is important for confidently predicting RWM stable operating regions in ITER and other high performance tokamaks for disruption avoidance. Benchmarking the calculations of the Magnetohydrodynamic Resistive Spectrum—Kinetic (MARS-K) [Y. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)], Modification to Ideal Stability by Kinetic effects (MISK) [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)], and Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) [N. Logan et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122507 (2013)] codes for two Solov'ev analytical equilibria and a projected ITER equilibrium has demonstrated good agreement between the codes. The important particle frequencies, the frequency resonance energy integral in which they are used, the marginally stable eigenfunctions, perturbed Lagrangians, and fluid growth rates are all generally consistent between the codes. The most important kinetic effect at low rotation is the resonance between the mode rotation and the trapped thermal particle's precession drift, and MARS-K, MISK, and PENT show good agreement in this term. The different ways the rational surface contribution was treated historically in the codes is identified as a source of disagreement in the bounce and transit resonance terms at higher plasma rotation. Calculations from all of the codes support the present understanding that RWM stability can be increased by kinetic effects at low rotation through precession drift resonance and at high rotation by bounce and transit resonances, while intermediate rotation can remain susceptible to instability. The applicability of benchmarked kinetic stability calculations to experimental results is demonstrated by the prediction of MISK calculations of near marginal growth rates for experimental marginal stability points from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)].
Pastore, S. [University of South Carolina; Wiringa, Robert B. [ANL; Pieper, Steven C. [ANL; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic transitions in $^8$Be. The realistic Argonne $v_{18}$ two-nucleon and Illinois-7 three-nucleon potentials are used to generate the ground state and nine excited states, with energies that are in excellent agreement with experiment. A dozen $M1$ and eight $E2$ transition matrix elements between these states are then evaluated. The $E2$ matrix elements are computed only in impulse approximation, with those transitions from broad resonant states requiring special treatment. The $M1$ matrix elements include two-body meson-exchange currents derived from chiral effective field theory, which typically contribute 20--30\\% of the total expectation value. Many of the transitions are between isospin-mixed states; the calculations are performed for isospin-pure states and then combined with the empirical mixing coefficients to compare to experiment. In general, we find that transitions between states that have the same dominant spatial symmetry are in decent agreement with experiment, but those transitions between different spatial symmetries are often significantly underpredicted.
Improved Calculation of Thermal Fission Energy
Ma, X B; Wang, L Z; Chen, Y X; Cao, J
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thermal fission energy is one of the basic parameters needed in the calculation of antineutrino flux for reactor neutrino experiments. It is useful to improve the precision of the thermal fission energy calculation for current and future reactor neutrino experiments, which are aimed at more precise determination of neutrino oscillation parameters. In this article, we give new values for thermal fission energies of some common thermal reactor fuel iso-topes, with improvements on two aspects. One is more recent input data acquired from updated nuclear databases. The other, which is unprecedented, is a consideration of the production yields of fission fragments from both thermal and fast incident neutrons for each of the four main fuel isotopes. The change in calculated antineutrino flux due to the new values of thermal fission energy is about 0.33%, and the uncertainties of the new values are about 30% smaller.
Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data
Zourari, K.; Peppa, V.; Papagiannis, P., E-mail: ppapagi@phys.uoa.gr [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 11527 Athens (Greece); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Siebert, Frank-André [Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel 24105 (Germany)] [Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel 24105 (Germany)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To provide a method for calculating the transmission of any broad photon beam with a known energy spectrum in the range of 20–1090 keV, through concrete and lead, based on the superposition of corresponding monoenergetic data obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: MCNP5 was used to calculate broad photon beam transmission data through varying thickness of lead and concrete, for monoenergetic point sources of energy in the range pertinent to brachytherapy (20–1090 keV, in 10 keV intervals). The three parameter empirical model introduced byArcher et al. [“Diagnostic x-ray shielding design based on an empirical model of photon attenuation,” Health Phys. 44, 507–517 (1983)] was used to describe the transmission curve for each of the 216 energy-material combinations. These three parameters, and hence the transmission curve, for any polyenergetic spectrum can then be obtained by superposition along the lines of Kharrati et al. [“Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray buildup factors of lead and its applications in shielding of diagnostic x-ray facilities,” Med. Phys. 34, 1398–1404 (2007)]. A simple program, incorporating a graphical user interface, was developed to facilitate the superposition of monoenergetic data, the graphical and tabular display of broad photon beam transmission curves, and the calculation of material thickness required for a given transmission from these curves. Results: Polyenergetic broad photon beam transmission curves of this work, calculated from the superposition of monoenergetic data, are compared to corresponding results in the literature. A good agreement is observed with results in the literature obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for the photon spectra emitted from bare point sources of various radionuclides. Differences are observed with corresponding results in the literature for x-ray spectra at various tube potentials, mainly due to the different broad beam conditions or x-ray spectra assumed. Conclusions: The data of this work allow for the accurate calculation of structural shielding thickness, taking into account the spectral variation with shield thickness, and broad beam conditions, in a realistic geometry. The simplicity of calculations also obviates the need for the use of crude transmission data estimates such as the half and tenth value layer indices. Although this study was primarily designed for brachytherapy, results might also be useful for radiology and nuclear medicine facility design, provided broad beam conditions apply.
On the Sensitivity of ?/? Prediction to Dose Calculation Methodology in Prostate Brachytherapy
Afsharpour, Hossein [Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Université Laval and Département de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec, QC (Canada); Centre Intégré de Cancérologie de la Montérégie, Hôpital Charles-LeMoyne, Greenfield Park, QC (Canada); Walsh, Sean [Department of Radiation Oncology Maastricht Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, The University of Oxford, The United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Collins Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Vigneault, Eric [Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Université Laval and Département de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec, QC (Canada); Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology Maastricht Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc, E-mail: Luc.Beaulieu@phy.ulaval.ca [Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Université Laval and Département de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec, QC (Canada)
2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To study the relationship between the accuracy of the dose calculation in brachytherapy and the estimations of the radiosensitivity parameter, ?/?, for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In this study, Monte Carlo methods and more specifically the code ALGEBRA was used to produce accurate dose calculations in the case of prostate brachytherapy. Equivalent uniform biologically effective dose was calculated for these dose distributions and was used in an iso-effectiveness relationship with external beam radiation therapy. Results: By considering different levels of detail in the calculations, the estimation for the ?/? parameter varied from 1.9 to 6.3 Gy, compared with a value of 3.0 Gy suggested by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 137. Conclusions: Large variations of the ?/? show the sensitivity of this parameter to dose calculation modality. The use of accurate dose calculation engines is critical for better evaluating the biological outcomes of treatments.
Heat Exchanger Support Bracket Design Calculations
Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab
1995-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
This engineering note documents the design of the heat exchanger support brackets. The heat exchanger is roughly 40 feet long, 22 inches in diameter and weighs 6750 pounds. It will be mounted on two identical support brackets that are anchored to a concrete wall. The design calculations were done for one bracket supporting the full weight of the heat exchanger, rounded up to 6800 pounds. The design follows the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of steel construction, Eighth edition. All calculated stresses and loads on welds were below allowables.
Fully Automated Calculations in the complex MSSM
T. Hahn; S. Heinemeyer; F. von der Pahlen; H. Rzehak; C. Schappacher
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We review recent progress towards automated higher-order calculations in the MSSM with complex parameters (cMSSM). The consistent renormalization of all relevant sectors of the cMSSM and the inclusion into the FeynArts/FormCalc framework has recently been completed. Some example calculations applying this framework are briefly discussed. These include two-loop corrections to cMSSM Higgs boson masses as well as partial decay widths of electroweak supersymmetric particles decaying into a Higgs boson and another supersymmetric particle.
Calculation method for safe ?* in the LHC
Bruce, R; Herr, W; Wollmann, D
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
One way of increasing the peak luminosity in the LHC is to decrease the beam size at the interaction points by squeezing to smaller values of ?*. The LHC is now in a regime where safety and stability determines the limit on ?*, as opposed to traditional optics limits. In this paper, we derive a calculation model to determine the safe ?*-values based on collimator settings and operational stability of the LHC. This model was used to calculate the settings for the LHC run in 2011. It was found that ?* could be decreased from 3.5 m to 1.5 m, which has now successfully been put into operation.
Typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS analysis using RAMONA-3B code with space-time neutron kinetics
Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A best-estimate analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS has been performed using the RAMONA-3B code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics. All safety features, namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure safety injections and the standby liquid control system (boron injection), were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. The results show a strong spatial dependence of reactor power during the transient. After the initial peak of pressure and reactor power, the reactor vessel pressure oscillated between the relief valve set points, and the reactor power oscillated between 20 to 50% of the steady state power until the hot shutdown condition was reached at approximately 1400 seconds. The suppression pool bulk water temperature at this time was predicted to be approx. 96/sup 0/C (205/sup 0/F). In view of code performance and reasonable computer running time, the RAMONA-3B code is recommended for further best-estimate analyses of ATWS-type events in BWRs.
Consanguine Calculations Input File: blood.in
California at Berkeley, University of
1 of 20 Problem A+ Consanguine Calculations Input File: blood.in Every person's blood has 2 markers in a particular ABO blood type for that person. Combination ABO Blood Type AA A AB AB AO A BB B BO B OO O Likewise, every person has two alleles for the blood Rh factor, represented by the characters + and -. Someone who
SCALE Sensitivity Calculations Using Contributon Theory
Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL] [ORNL; Perfetti, Chris [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; Williams, Mark L [ORNL] [ORNL; Petrie Jr, Lester M [ORNL] [ORNL
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The SCALE TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity and uncertainty analysis sequence computes the sensitivity of k-eff to each constituent multigroup cross section using adjoint techniques with the KENO Monte Carlo codes. A new technique to simultaneously obtain the product of the forward and adjoint angular flux moments within a single Monte Carlo calculation has been developed and implemented in the SCALE TSUNAMI-3D analysis sequence. A new concept in Monte Carlo theory has been developed for this work, an eigenvalue contributon estimator, which is an extension of previously developed fixed-source contributon estimators. A contributon is a particle for which the forward solution is accumulated, and its importance to the response, which is equivalent to the adjoint solution, is simultaneously accumulated. Thus, the contributon is a particle coupled with its contribution to the response, in this case keff. As implemented in SCALE, the contributon provides the importance of a particle exiting at any energy or direction for each location, energy and direction at which the forward flux solution is sampled. Although currently implemented for eigenvalue calculations in multigroup mode in KENO, this technique is directly applicable to continuous-energy calculations for many other responses such as fixed-source sensitivity analysis and quantification of reactor kinetics parameters. This paper provides the physical bases of eigenvalue contributon theory, provides details of implementation into TSUNAMI-3D, and provides results of sample calculations.
Spin Contamination in Inorganic Chemistry Calculations
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
R EVISED PAG E PR O O FS ia617 Spin Contamination in Inorganic Chemistry Calculations Jason L . In such cases, 0 is said to be spin contaminated owing to incorporation of higher spin state character of IronSulfur ia618 Clusters). It is important to note that while spin-contaminated and broken
URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS
URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÑON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO an administration building, a 17-acre mill, a 30.5-acre tailings cell with phased expansion capacity to 91.5 acres, a 40-acre evaporation pond area with an expansion capacity to 80 acres, an approximately 6-acre ore
Calculation of a coaxial microwave torch
Gritsinin, S. I.; Kossyi, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation); Kulumbaev, E. B.; Lelevkin, V. M. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)
2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Parameters of an equilibrium microwave discharge in an atmospheric-pressure argon flow in a coaxial waveguide with a truncated inner electrode are calculated numerically by using a self-consistent two-dimensional MHD model. The results obtained agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.
CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR
Su, Xiao
CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY By: Yasser Dessouky #12;Carbon Footprint Supply Chain Carbon Trust defines carbon footprint of a supply chain as follows: "The carbon footprint of a product is the carbon dioxide emitted across the supply chain for a single
Oberseminar -ICP Temperature Calculation for Tribological
Harting, Jens
and passing to third parties. 0 #12;Overview Where to calculate the heat: diesel injection pump First focus in the steel in the meantime of one step It takes some rotations to have the heat penetrate the whole pump even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying
PIC : Protein Interaction Calculator HELP AND GUIDELINES
Srinivasan, N.
PIC : Protein Interaction Calculator HELP AND GUIDELINES CONTENTS 1. Overview 2. Method 3. Input 4 (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of threedimensional structure of a protein colored by PIC programmes can be downloaded and conveniently displayed with structural viewers
2002CALIFORNIAPOWERMIX 2002 NET SYSTEM POWER CALCULATION
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION APRIL 2003 300-03-002 2002CALIFORNIAPOWERMIX 2002 NET SYSTEM POWER CALCULATION Gray Davis, Governor #12;CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION William J. Keese Chairman Commissioners Adam Pan, Ron Wetherall Principal Authors David Ashuckian Manager Electricity Analysis Office Terry O
Kurova, N. V., E-mail: kurova_natasha@mail.ru; Burdov, V. A. [Lobachevskii Nizhni Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
The results of ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of Si nanocrystals doped with shallow donors (Li, P) are reported. It is shown that phosphorus introduces much more significant distortions into the electronic structure of the nanocrystal than lithium, which is due to the stronger central cell potential of the phosphorus ion. It is found that the Li-induced splitting of the ground state in the conduction band of the nanocrystal into the singlet, doublet, and triplet retains its inverse structure typical for bulk silicon.
Novel Approach for Calculation and Analysis of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Microgrids: Preprint
Li, Y.; Gao, W.; Muljadi, E.; Jiang, J.
2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper proposes a novel approach based on matrix perturbation theory to calculate and analyze eigenvalues and eigenvectors in a microgrid system. Rigorous theoretical analysis to solve eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors for a system under various perturbations caused by fluctuations of irradiance, wind speed, or loads is presented. A computational flowchart is proposed for the unified solution of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in microgrids, and the effectiveness of the matrix perturbation-based approach in microgrids is verified by numerical examples on a typical low-voltage microgrid network.
Mezei, Mihaly
method on the calculation of the aqueous hydration free energy difference between acetone and dimethyl in an aqueous system: on the calculation of the hydration free energy difference between acetone for the calculation of free energy from computer simulations, a com- putationally exacting task, have been
Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media
Schurig, D; Smith, D R
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Complex and interesting electromagnetic behavior can be found in spaces with non-flat topology. When considering the properties of an electromagnetic medium under an arbitrary coordinate transformation an alternative interpretation presents itself. The transformed material property tensors may be interpreted as a different set of material properties in a flat, Cartesian space. We describe the calculation of these material properties for coordinate transformations that describe spaces with spherical or cylindrical holes in them. The resulting material properties can then implement invisibility cloaks in flat space. We also describe a method for performing geometric ray tracing in these materials which are both inhomogeneous and anisotropic in their electric permittivity and magnetic permeability.
Calculation of wake power losses in a two-level array: a simple case study
Barnard, J.C.
1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
One method of adding capacity is to install another array of turbines whose hub height is above the existing array. This report estimates the wake interference that could be expected in a two-level array. Interference is estimated for a typical situation that may be encountered by a wind farm developer. A modified Lissaman array model is used to make the wake interference calculations. The model calculations show that the wake interference between the two levels is small for the turbine characteristics and turbine layouts considered. (The windwise spacings are about 5.4 and 10.8D for the lower and upper levels of turbines, respectively.) Power losses are about 5% or less at rated speed. Thus, two-level arrays may be a viable way of increasing the generating capacity of existing wind farms.
HP-41 Calculates Dykstra-Parsons permeability
Bixler, B.
1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new program for the HP-41 programmable calculator has been written which will calculate the often used Dykstra-Parsons permeability variation factor, V. No longer must numerous individual permeability values be plotted on log probability paper as a first step in determining V. Input is simply these same permeability values selected at equal spacing along the interval in question. For most core analysis this spacing will be 1 ft. This program is labeled ''KVAR'' (for permeability variation) and is listed here, along with its bar code for those with optical wands. It requires only nine registers for program storage (since it uses HP built-in statistical functions) and eight registers for data storage. Also, it can be stored on one track of the standard two-track magnetic card. Data entry is terminated by entering ''O''. Lastly, it will run with or without a printer.
Validation of Dose Calculation Codes for Clearance
Menon, S.; Wirendal, B.; Bjerler, J.; Studsvik; Teunckens, L.
2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z
Various international and national bodies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Commission, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have put forward proposals or guidance documents to regulate the ''clearance'' from regulatory control of very low level radioactive material, in order to allow its recycling as a material management practice. All these proposals are based on predicted scenarios for subsequent utilization of the released materials. The calculation models used in these scenarios tend to utilize conservative data regarding exposure times and dose uptake as well as other assumptions as a safeguard against uncertainties. None of these models has ever been validated by comparison with the actual real life practice of recycling. An international project was organized in order to validate some of the assumptions made in these calculation models, and, thereby, better assess the radiological consequences of recycling on a practical large scale.
Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP aCentrothermDepew,Independent EnergyInternational Maritime LawInterruption Cost Estimate Calculator
Diffusion Simulation and Lifetime Calculation at RHIC
Abreu,N.P.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.
2009-01-02T23:59:59.000Z
The beam lifetime is an important parameter for any storage ring. For protons in RHIC it is dominated by the non-linear nature of the head-on collisions that causes the particles to diffuse outside the stable area in phase space. In this report we show results from diffusion simulation and lifetime calculation for the 2006 and 2008 polarized proton runs in RHIC.
Economic Calculations for the ASHRAE Handbook
Haberl, J. S.
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ESL-TR-93/04-07 Economic Calculations for the ASHRAE Handbook Jeff S. Haberl Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-3123 For any proposed capital investment, the capital and interest costs, salvage costs... Office, Washington, D.C. BIBLIOGRAPHY ASTM. 1985. Definition of terms relating to building economics. ASTM Standard E933-S5. ASTM, Philadelphia. Kurtz, M. 1984. Handbook of engineering economics: A guide for engineers, technicians, scientists and managers...
Free Energy Calculation in MD Simulation
Nielsen, Steven O.
Free Energy Calculation in MD Simulation #12;Basic Thermodynamics Helmoholtz free energy A = U TS + i Ni dA = wrev (reversible, const N V T) eq (22.9) McQuarrie & Simon Gibbs free energy G = U;Implication of Free Energy A B Keq = [A]/[B] Keq = exp (-G0 /RT) G0 = -RT ln Keq G = G0 + RT ln Q G > 0
Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.
Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
with Phase III, as planned. Phase III will cover: (1) developing the typical load shapes for the acquired data sets, using the proposed method, for both energy and cooling load calculations; (2) developing the tool-kit for deriving the new diversity factors...
Development of finite-difference equations for variance of neutron fluxes in reactor
Laletin, N. I., E-mail: nil@adis.vver.kiae.ri; Kovalishin, A. A., E-mail: kaa@adis.vver.kiae.ri [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Different sources-methodical, constant, and technological-are discussed for uncertainties in calculation functionals. The basic principles of three methods used in calculations of uncertainties are briefly described.
Advanced Neutronics Tools for BWR Design Calculations
Santamarina, A.; Hfaiedh, N.; Letellier, R.; Sargeni, A.; Vaglio, C. [CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Marotte, V. [AREVA NP SAS (France); Misu, S. [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany); Zmijarevic, I. [CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper summarizes the developments implemented in the new APOLLO2.8 neutronics tool to meet the required target accuracy in LWR applications, particularly void effects and pin-by-pin power map in BWRs. The Method Of Characteristics was developed to allow efficient LWR assembly calculations in 2D-exact heterogeneous geometry; resonant reaction calculation was improved by the optimized SHEM-281 group mesh, which avoids resonance self-shielding approximation below 23 eV, and the new space-dependent method for resonant mixture that accounts for resonance overlapping. Furthermore, a new library CEA2005, processed from JEFF3.1 evaluations involving feedback from Critical Experiments and LWR P.I.E, is used. The specific '2005-2007 BWR Plan' settled to demonstrate the validation/qualification of this neutronics tool is described. Some results from the validation process are presented: the comparison of APOLLO2.8 results to reference Monte Carlo TRIPOLI4 results on specific BWR benchmarks emphasizes the ability of the deterministic tool to calculate BWR assembly multiplication factor within 200 pcm accuracy for void fraction varying from 0 to 100%. The qualification process against the BASALA mock-up experiment stresses APOLLO2.8/CEA2005 performances: pin-by-pin power is always predicted within 2% accuracy, reactivity worth of B4C or Hf cruciform control blade, as well as Gd pins, is predicted within 1.2% accuracy. (authors)
Criticality calculations for Step-2 GPHS modules.
Hensen, Danielle Lynn; Lipinski, Ronald J.
2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) will use an improved version of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module as its source of thermal power. This new version, referred to as the Step-2 GPHS Module, has additional and thicker layers of carbon fiber material (Fine Weaved Pierced Fabric) for increased strength over the original GPHS module. The GPHS uses alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu in the oxide form as the primary source of heat, and small amounts of other actinides are also present in the oxide fuel. Criticality calculations have been performed by previous researchers on the original version of the GPHS module (Step 0). This paper presents criticality calculations for the present Step-2 version. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) was used for these calculations. Numerous configurations of GPHS module arrays surrounded by wet sand and other materials (to reflect the neutrons back into the stack with minimal absorption) were modeled. For geometries with eight GPHS modules (from a single MMRTG) surrounded by wet sand, the configuration is extremely sub-critical; k{sub eff} is about 0.3. It requires about 1000 GPHS modules (from 125 MMRTGs) in a close-spaced stack to approach criticality (k{sub eff} = 1.0) when surrounded by wet sand. The effect of beryllium in the MMRTG was found to be relatively small.
Criticality Calculations for Step-2 GPHS Modules
Lipinski, Ronald J. [Advanced Nuclear Concepts Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Hensen, Danielle L. [Risk and Reliability Department Sandia National Laboratories, P.O Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)
2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z
The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) will use an improved version of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module as its source of thermal power. This new version, referred to as the Step-2 GPHS Module, has additional and thicker layers of carbon fiber material (Fine Weaved Pierced Fabric) for increased strength over the original GPHS module. The GPHS uses alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu in the oxide form as the primary source of heat, and small amounts of other actinides are also present in the oxide fuel. Criticality calculations have been performed by previous researchers on the original version of the GPHS module (Step 0). This paper presents criticality calculations for the present Step-2 version. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) was used for these calculations. Numerous configurations of GPHS module arrays surrounded by wet sand and other materials (to reflect the neutrons back into the stack with minimal absorption) were modeled. For geometries with eight GPHS modules (from a single MMRTG) surrounded by wet sand, the configuration is extremely sub-critical; k{sub eff} is about 0.3. It requires about 1000 GPHS modules (from 125 MMRTGs) in a close-spaced stack to approach criticality (k{sub eff} = 1.0) when surrounded by wet sand. The effect of beryllium in the MMRTG was found to be relatively small.
Iron loss calculation for synchronous reluctance machines
Leonardi, F.; Matsuo, T.; Lipo, T.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
A numerical method for iron loss calculation is presented in this paper. The method is suitable for any synchronous and most dc machines, especially if the current waveforms are known a priori . This technique will be principally useful for high speed machines and in particular for the synchronous reluctance machines and in particular for the synchronous reluctance machine, where the iron losses are often an important issue. The calculation is based on Finite Element Analysis, which provides the flux density waveforms in the iron, and on the Fourier Analysis of these waveforms. Several Finite Element Simulations are necessary to obtain the induced voltage versus time waveforms. To reduce the post-processing time the majority of the elements of the model are grouped together to create super elements. Also the periodicity of the motor can be used to reduce the number of required simulations. The method is applied to the calculation of the iron losses of a synchronous reluctance generator, and a number of interesting results are discussed in the paper.
Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis
Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.
Free energy differences : Representations, estimators, and sampling strategies
Acharya, Arjun R
In this thesis we examine methodologies for determining free energy differences (FEDs) of phases via Monte Carlo simulation. We identify and address three generic issues that arise in FED calculations; the choice of ...
Escher, Christine
-called "biodegradable" plastic products will safely break down in a typical commercial composting facility. www
NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global...
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in some regions such as the midwestern United States, Argentina and eastern Brazil. The differences may be due previously unrecognized issues with the pressure...
Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.
2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
Reliable pH estimation is essential for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies of formation reactivities conducted under geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH; however, the accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In this study, we expanded the measurement range of a spectrophotometric method for pH determination, and we applied the method to measure the pH in batch-reactor experiments utilizing rock samples from five ongoing GCS demonstration projects. A combination of color-changing pH indicators, bromophenol blue and bromocresol green, was shown to enable measurements over the pH range of 2.5-5.2. In-situ pH measurements were compared with pH values calculated using geochemical models. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. For rocks comprised of carbonate, siltstone, and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models’ failure to fully account for certain proton consuming and producing reactions that occur between the basalt minerals and CO2-saturated brine solutions.
Calculated fission-fragment yield systematics in the region 74
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Möller, Peter; Randrup, Jørgen
2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Background: In the seminal experiment by Schmidt et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 665, 221 (2000)] in which fission-fragment charge distributions were obtained for 70 nuclides, asymmetric distributions were seen above nucleon number A ? 226 and symmetric ones below. Because asymmetric fission had often loosely been explained as a preference for the nucleus to always exploit the extra binding of fragments near ¹³²Sn it was assumed that all systems below A ? 226 would fission symmetrically because available isotopes do not have a proton-to-neutron Z/N ratio that allows division into fragments near ¹³²Sn. But the finding by Andreyev et al.more »[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010)] did not conform to this expectation because the compound system ¹??Hg was shown to fission asymmetrically. It was suggested that this was a new type of asymmetric fission, because no strong shell effects occur for any possible fragment division. Purpose: We calculate a reference database for fission-fragment mass yields for a large region of the nuclear chart comprising 987 nuclides. A particular aim is to establish whether ¹??Hg is part of a contiguous region of asymmetric fission, and if so, its extent, or if not, in contrast to the actinides, there are scattered smaller groups of nuclei that fission asymmetrically in this area of the nuclear chart. Methods: We use the by now well benchmarked Brownian shape-motion method and perform random walks on the previously calculated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces. The calculated shell corrections are damped out with energy according to a prescription developed earlier. Results: We have obtained a theoretical reference database of fission-fragment mass yields for 987 nuclides. These results show an extended region of asymmetric fission with approximate extension 74 ? Z ? 85 and 100 ? N ? 120. The calculated yields are highly variable. We show 20 representative plots of these variable features and summarize the main aspects of our results in terms of “nuclear-chart” plots showing calculated degrees of asymmetry versus N and Z. Conclusions: Experimental data in this region are rare: only ten or so yield distributions have been measured, some with very limited statistics. We agree with several measurements with higher statistics. Regions where there might be differences between our calculated results and measurements lie near the calculated transition line between symmetric and asymmetric fission. To draw more definite conclusions about the accuracy of the present implementation of the Brownian shape-motion approach in this region experimental data, with reliable statistics, for a fair number of suitably located additional nuclides are clearly needed. Because the nuclear potential-energy structure is so different in this region compared to the actinide region, additional experimental data together with fission theory studies that incorporate additional, dynamical aspects should provide much new insight.« less
Structure and vibrations of different charge Ge impurity in ?-quartz
Kislov, A. N., E-mail: a.n.kislov@urfu.ru; Mikhailovich, A. P., E-mail: a.n.kislov@urfu.ru; Zatsepin, A. F., E-mail: a.n.kislov@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira St., Yekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)
2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
Atomic structure and localized vibrations of ??SiO{sub 2}:Ge are studied using computer modeling techniques. The simulation was carried out by the lattice dynamics calculation of the local density of vibrational states. Local structures parameters are calculated, localized symmetrized vibrations frequency caused by Ge impurity in different charge states are defined. The movements of atoms located near Ge impurity are analyzed and their contribution into localized vibrations of different type is evaluated.
The Filter Difference Spectrometer
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Difference Spectrometer (FDS) is used for molecular vibrational spectroscopy by inelastic neutron scattering. The instrument is designed for high count rates by use of large...
NSRD-2015-TD01, Technical Report for Calculations of Atmospheric...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
default Q value when calculating the dispersion of chemical releases. NSRD-2015-TD01, Technical Report for Calculations of Atmospheric Dispersion at Onsite Locations for DOE...
Measurement and Verification Plan and Savings Calculations Methods...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Measurement and Verification Plan and Savings Calculations Methods Outline (IDIQ Attachment J-8) Measurement and Verification Plan and Savings Calculations Methods Outline (IDIQ...
Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic Theory...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic Theory of Fission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic...
Energy Department Report Calculates Emissions and Costs of Power...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Report Calculates Emissions and Costs of Power Plant Cycling Necessary for Increased Wind and Solar in the West Energy Department Report Calculates Emissions and Costs of Power...
Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Rate...
Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Gardner, Robin; Mattingly, John; Sood, Avneet
2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
The development of hybrid Monte-Carlo-Deterministic (MC-DT) approaches, taking place over the past few decades, have primarily focused on shielding and detection applications where the analysis requires a small number of responses, i.e. at the detector locations(s). This work further develops a recently introduced global variance reduction approach, denoted by the SUBSPACE approach is designed to allow the use of MC simulation, currently limited to benchmarking calculations, for routine engineering calulations. By way of demonstration, the SUBSPACE approach is applied to assembly level calculations used to generate the few-group homogenized cross-sections. These models are typically expensive and need to be executed in the order of 10-10 times to properly characterize the few-group cross-sections for deownstream core-wide calculations. Applicability to k-eigenvalue core-wide models is also demonstrated in this work. Given the faborable results obtained in this work, we believe the applicability of the MC method for reactor analysis calculations could be realized in the near future.
Yerokhin, V A; Fritzsche, S
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We perform relativistic configuration-interaction calculations of the energy levels of the low-lying and core-excited states of beryllium-like iron, Fe$^{22+}$. The results include the QED contributions calculated by two different methods, the model QED operator approach and the screening-potential approach. The uncertainties of theoretical energies are estimated systematically. The predicted wavelengths of the K\\alpha transitions in beryllium-like iron improve previous theoretical results and compare favorably with the experimental data.
Excited state contamination in nucleon structure calculations
Jeremy Green; Stefan Krieg; John Negele; Andrew Pochinsky; Sergey Syritsyn
2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z
Among the sources of systematic error in nucleon structure calculations is contamination from unwanted excited states. In order to measure this systematic error, we vary the operator insertion time and source-sink separation independently. We compute observables for three source-sink separations between 0.93 fm and 1.39 fm using clover-improved Wilson fermions and pion masses as low as 150 MeV. We explore the use of a two-state model fit to subtract off the contribution from excited states.
Calculation of Neutral Beam Injection into SSPX
Pearlstein, L D; Casper, T A; Hill, D N; LoDestro, L L; McLean, H S
2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
The SSPX spheromak experiment has achieved electron temperatures of 350eV and confinement consistent with closed magnetic surfaces. In addition, there is evidence that the experiment may be up against an operational beta limit for Ohmic heating. To test this barrier, there are firm plans to add two 0.9MW Neutral Beam (NB) sources to the experiment. A question is whether the limit is due to instability. Since the deposited Ohmic power in the core is relatively small the additional power from the beams is sufficient to significantly increase the electron temperature. Here we present results of computations that will support this contention. We have developed a new NB module to calculate the orbits of the injected fast fast-ions. The previous computation made heavy use of tokamak ordering which fails for a tight-aspect-ratio device, where B{sub tor} {approx} B{sub pol}. The model calculates the deposition from the NFREYA package [1]. The neutral from the CX deposition is assumed to be ionized in place, a high-density approximation. The fast ions are then assumed to fill a constant angular momentum orbit. And finally, the fast ions immediately assume the form of a dragged down distribution. Transfer rates are then calculated from this distribution function [2]. The differential times are computed from the orbit times and the particle weights in each flux zone (the sampling bin) are proportional to the time spent in the zone. From this information the flux-surface-averaged profiles are obtained and fed into the appropriate transport equation. This procedure is clearly approximate, but accurate enough to help guide experiments. A major advantage is speed: 5000 particles can be processed in under 4s on our fastest LINUX box. This speed adds flexibility by enabling a ''large'' number of predictive studies. Similar approximations, without the accurate orbit calculation presented here, had some success comparing with experiment and TRANSP [3]. Since our procedure does not have multiple CX and relies on disparate time scales, more detailed understanding requires a ''complete'' NB package such as the NUBEAM [4] module, which follows injected fast ions along with their generations until they enter the main thermal distribution.
Simple method for calculating island widths
Cary, J.R.; Hanson, J.D.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A simple method for calculating magnetic island widths has been developed. This method uses only information obtained from integrating along the closed field line at the island center. Thus, this method is computationally less intensive than the usual method of producing surfaces of section of sufficient detail to locate and resolve the island separatrix. This method has been implemented numerically and used to analyze the buss work islands of ATF. In this case the method proves to be accurate to at least within 30%. 7 refs.
Simple method for calculating island widths
Cary, J.R. (Department of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences, and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0391 (USA)); Hanson, J.D. (Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (USA))
1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
A simple method for calculating magnetic island widths has been developed. This method uses only that information obtained from integrating along the closed field line at the island center. Thus, this method is computationally less intensive than the usual method of producing surfaces of section of sufficient detail to locate and resolve the island separatrix. This method has been implemented numerically and used to analyze the buss work islands of ATF (Fusion Technol. {bold 10}, 179 (1986)). In this case the method proves to be accurate to at least within 20% even though the islands are within a factor of 2 of overlapping.
NERSC HPSS Storage Resource Units (SRU) Calculator
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
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Touschek Lifetime Calculations for NSLS-II
Nash,B.; Kramer, S.
2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
The Touschek effect limits the lifetime for NSLS-II. The basic mechanism is Coulomb scattering resulting in a longitudinal momentum outside the momentum aperture. The momentum aperture results from a combination of the initial betatron oscillations after the scatter and the non-linear properties determining the resultant stability. We find that higher order multipole errors may reduce the momentum aperture, particularly for scattered particles with energy loss. The resultant drop in Touschek lifetime is minimized, however, due to less scattering in the dispersive regions. We describe these mechanisms, and present calculations for NSLS-II using a realistic lattice model including damping wigglers and engineering tolerances.
Calculations of dynamic stresses in the envelopes of pulsed Xe flashlamps
Holdener, F.R.; Platt, E.A.; Erlandson, A.C.; Frank, D.N.; Gelinas, R.J.; Jancaitis, K.S.; Larson, D.W.; Sinz, K.H.
1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
We have modeled dynamic stresses in the envelopes of pulsed xenon flashlamps, treating stresses produced by three different sources: the heating of the envelope by the plasma; the pressure rise of the xenon gas; and magnetic forces, due to currents flowing in nearby lamps. The heat-induced stresses were calculated by the finite element method, using uniform heating rates for the inside surface of the envelope that were inferred from flashlamp radiant efficiency measurements. Pressure-induced stresses were calculated analytically, using empirical relationships for temperature and pressure in terms of current density. Magnetically-induced stresses were also calculated analytically, for flashlamps packed parallel to each other in linear arrays.
Multicavity SCRF calculation of ion hydration energies
Diercksen, B.H.F. [Max-Planck-Institut Fuer Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany); Karelson, M. [Univ. of Tartu (Estonia); Tamm, T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The hydration energies of the proton, hydroxyl ion, and several inorganic ions were calculated using the multicavity self-consistent reaction field (MCa SCRF) method developed for the quantum-mechanical modeling of rotationally or flexible systems in dielectric media. The ionic complexes H{sub 3}O{sup +}(H2O){sub 4}, OH{sup {minus}}(H2O){sub 4}, NH{sup +}{sub 4}(H2O){sub 4}, and Hal{sup {minus}}(H2O){sub 4}, where Hal = F, Cl, or Br, have been studied. Each complex was divided between five spheres, corresponding to the central ion and four water molecules in their first coordination sphere, respectively. Each cavity was surrounded by a polarizable medium with the dielectric permittivity of water at room temperature (80). The ionic hydration energies of ions were divided into specific and nonspecific parts. After accounting for the cavity-formation energy using scaled particle theory, good agreement between the total calculated and experimental hydration energies was obtained for all ions studied.
Becker, Marion Charles
1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
AN INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMUM NUMBER OF SUPPORTS FOR A TYPICAL SUPERSONIC TACTICAL AIRCRAFT AILERON WITH AND WITHOUT WING BENDING A THESIS MAR ION CHARLES BECKER SUBMI TTEO TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE ABRI CULTURAL ANO MECHAN I... NUMBER OF SUPPORTS FOR A TYPICAL SUPERSONIC TACTICAL AIRCRAFI A ILERON W I TH AND W I I HOUT W I NG l3ENO I NG A THESIS BY MAR I ON CHARLES BECKER APPNOVEO AS TO STYLE AND CONTENT BY CNAIIINAN OF COIINITTKK HKAB OF OKPAIITIIKNT AUGUST 1...
Militzer, Burkhard
of thermal energy stored in the interior of a planet. In 2008, two groups constructed Jupiter interior models METHODS In Refs. [4,5], the entropy has been inferred by computing free energy differences such as F(V2 for a typical helium mass fraction of 0.245. In addition to computing internal energy and pressure, we determine
On the calculation of mutual information
Duncan, Tyrone E.
1970-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
as follows: (1) d Yt Zt dt + dBt, where the n-dimensional process Z is independent of the n-dimensional standard Brownian motion B, [0, 1], Yo =- 0 and (2) f,f ZTt Zt dP dr< where the superscript T denotes transpose. We wish to calculate the amount... was supported by the United States Air Force under Grant AF-AFOSR 814-66. 215 D ow nl oa de d 09 /1 0/ 14 to 1 29 .2 37 .4 6. 10 0. R ed ist rib ut io n su bje ct to SIA M lic en se or co py rig ht; se e h ttp ://w ww .si am .or g/j ou rna ls/ ojs a...
Followup calculations for the UVAR LEU conversion
Rydin, R.A.; Hosticka, B.; Burns, T. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering] [and others
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The UVAR reactor was successfully converted to LEU fuel in April 1994. Void coefficient measurements were made on the 4-by-4 fully-graphite-reflected LEU-1 core configuration, and an isothermal temperature coefficient measurement was made on the operational 4-by-5 partially-graphite-reflected LEU-2 core configuration. Both of these experiments have now been modeled in their critical configurations using the 3DBUM code. The LEU cores were also modeled using the Monte Carlo code MCNP in order to obtain a neutron/gamma source for BNCT filter design calculations. Advanced BNCT filters have been evaluated using both MCNP and the discrete ordinates code DORT. The results indicate that the UVAR would be an ideal source for the BNCT treatment of brain tumors.
Random number stride in Monte Carlo calculations
Hendricks, J.S.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Monte Carlo radiation transport codes use a sequence of pseudorandom numbers to sample from probability distributions. A common practice is to start each source particle a predetermined number of random numbers up the pseudorandom number sequence. This number of random numbers skipped between each source particles the random number stride, S. Consequently, the jth source particle always starts with the j{center dot}Sth random number providing correlated sampling'' between similar calculations. A new machine-portable random number generator has been written for the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP providing user's control of the random number stride. First the new MCNP random number generator algorithm will be described and then the effects of varying the stride will be presented. 2 refs., 1 fig.
Numeric spectral radiation hydrodynamic calculations of supernova shock breakouts
Sapir, Nir; Halbertal, Dorri [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present here an efficient numerical scheme for solving the non-relativistic one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics equations including inelastic Compton scattering, which is not included in most codes and is crucial for solving problems such as shock breakout. The devised code is applied to the problems of a steady-state planar radiation mediated shock (RMS) and RMS breakout from a stellar envelope. The results are in agreement with those of a previous work on shock breakout, in which Compton equilibrium between matter and radiation was assumed and the 'effective photon' approximation was used to describe the radiation spectrum. In particular, we show that the luminosity and its temporal dependence, the peak temperature at breakout, and the universal shape of the spectral fluence derived in this earlier work are all accurate. Although there is a discrepancy between the spectral calculations and the effective photon approximation due to the inaccuracy of the effective photon approximation estimate of the effective photon production rate, which grows with lower densities and higher velocities, the difference in peak temperature reaches only 30% for the most discrepant cases of fast shocks in blue supergiants. The presented model is exemplified by calculations for supernova 1987A, showing the detailed evolution of the burst spectrum. The incompatibility of the stellar envelope shock breakout model results with observed properties of X-ray flashes (XRFs) and the discrepancy between the predicted and observed rates of XRFs remain unexplained.
A primer for criticality calculations with DANTSYS
Busch, R.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Criticality Safety Group
1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
With the closure of many experimental facilities, the nuclear safety analyst has to rely on computer calculations to identify safe limits for the handling and storage of fissile materials. Although deterministic methods often do not provide exact models of a system, a substantial amount of reliable information on nuclear systems can be obtained using these methods if the user understands their limitations. To guide criticality specialists in this area, the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group at the University of New Mexico (UNM) in cooperation with the Radiation Transport Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a primer to help the analyst understand and use the DANTSYS deterministic transport code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. DANTSYS is the new name of the group of codes formerly known as: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWOHEX, TWOGQ, and THREEDANT. The primer is designed to teach bu example, with each example illustrating two or three DANTSYS features useful in criticality analyses. Starting with a Quickstart chapter, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for DANTSYS input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with DANTSYS. Each chapter has a list of basic objectives at the beginning identifying the goal of the chapter and the individual DANTSYS features covered in detail in the chapter example problems. On completion of the primer, it is expected that the user will be comfortable doing criticality calculations with DANTSYS and can handle 60--80% of the situations that normally arise in a facility. The primary provides a set of input files that can be selective modified by the user to fit each particular problem.
RELAP5 posttest calculation of IAEA-SPE-4
Petelin, S.; Mavko, B.; Parzer, I.; Prosek, A.
1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Fourth Standard Problem Exercise (IAEA-SPE-4) was performed at the PMK-2 facility. The PMK-2 facility is designed to study processes following small- and medium-size breaks in the primary system and natural circulation in VVER-440 plants. The IAEA-SPE-4 experiment represents a cold-leg side small break, similar to the IAEA-SPE-2, with the exception of the high-pressure safety injection being unavailable, and the secondary side bleed and feed initiation. The break valve was located at the dead end of a vertical downcomer, which in fact simulates a break in the reactor vessel itself, and should be unlikely to happen in a real nuclear power plant (NPP). Three different RELAP5 code versions were used for the transient simulation in order to assess the calculations with test results.
Johnson, Eric E.
PV modules, with a life measured in decades, will typically be in place longer than the outdoor and repaired promptly. PV systems suffer gradual degradation that is often not monitored, and the PV array may with copper conductors. On the other hand, PV systems have numerous modules (tens to thousands) and mounting
Minnesota, University of
G - 1 Appendix G: Sample Laboratory Report There is no set length for a problem report but experience shows that good reports are typically three pages long. Graphs and photocopies of your lab journal make up additional pages. Complete reports will include the terminology and the mathematics relevant
Minnesota, University of
E - 1 Appendix E: Sample Laboratory Report There is no set length for a problem report but experience shows good reports are typically four pages long. Graphs and photocopies of your lab journal make up additional pages. Complete reports will include the terminology and the mathematics relevant
Minnesota, University of
F - 1 Appendix F: Sample Laboratory Report There is no set length for a problem report but experience shows that good reports are typically three pages long. Graphs and photocopies of your lab journal make up additional pages. Complete reports will include the terminology and the mathematics relevant
Lawrence, Deborah
#12;ii Abstract Carbon sequestration is accelerated by the presence of seagrass in coastal habitats as the vegetation promotes the accumulation of carbon-rich sediment. Typically, measurements of carbon sequestration is to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of the restored seagrass habitat at the Virginia Coast Reserve
Song, Xueyu
Accurate method to calculate liquid and solid free energies for embedded atom potentials Xueyu Song system we have directly calculated free energies of fluid and solid phases of aluminum with an embedded simulations. Moreover, the free energies of the two different phases are calculated in a single approach
Hong, Tianzhen
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
consisting of a water heater tank, a direct expansion (DX) “many types of water heaters and storage tanks, including gasIndirect Tank loss calculations are different Water Heaters
Bratt, Jonathan D.
We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain-wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different ...
Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo calculations of molecular systems with a Gaussian basis
Al-Saidi, W.A.; Zhang Shiwei; Krakauer, Henry [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)
2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
We extend the recently introduced phaseless auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approach to any single-particle basis and apply it to molecular systems with Gaussian basis sets. QMC methods in general scale favorably with the system size as a low power. A QMC approach with auxiliary fields, in principle, allows an exact solution of the Schroedinger equation in the chosen basis. However, the well-known sign/phase problem causes the statistical noise to increase exponentially. The phaseless method controls this problem by constraining the paths in the auxiliary-field path integrals with an approximate phase condition that depends on a trial wave function. In the present calculations, the trial wave function is a single Slater determinant from a Hartree-Fock calculation. The calculated all-electron total energies show typical systematic errors of no more than a few millihartrees compared to exact results. At equilibrium geometries in the molecules we studied, this accuracy is roughly comparable to that of coupled cluster with single and double excitations and with noniterative triples [CCSD(T)]. For stretched bonds in H{sub 2}O, our method exhibits a better overall accuracy and a more uniform behavior than CCSD(T)
The First Calculation of Fractional Jets
Daniele Bertolini; Jesse Thaler; Jonathan R. Walsh
2015-05-14T23:59:59.000Z
In collider physics, jet algorithms are a ubiquitous tool for clustering particles into discrete jet objects. Event shapes offer an alternative way to characterize jets, and one can define a jet multiplicity event shape, which can take on fractional values, using the framework of "jets without jets". In this paper, we perform the first analytic studies of fractional jet multiplicity $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ in the context of $e^+e^-$ collisions. We use fixed-order QCD to understand the $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ cross section at order $\\alpha_s^2$, and we introduce a candidate factorization theorem to capture certain higher-order effects. The resulting distributions have a hybrid jet algorithm/event shape behavior which agrees with parton shower Monte Carlo generators. The $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ observable does not satisfy ordinary soft-collinear factorization, and the $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ cross section exhibits a number of unique features, including the absence of collinear logarithms and the presence of soft logarithms that are purely non-global. Additionally, we find novel divergences connected to the energy sharing between emissions, which are reminiscent of rapidity divergences encountered in other applications. Given these interesting properties of fractional jet multiplicity, we advocate for future measurements and calculations of $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ at hadron colliders like the LHC.
Development of a Roof Savings Calculator
New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation, and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA.
Development of a Roof Savings Calculator
New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of thermal mass, ceiling insulation and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate energy/cost savings between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft Irwin, CA.
PEP-X IMPEDANCE AND INSTABILITY CALCULATIONS
Bane, K.L.F.; Lee, L.-Q.; Ng, C.; Stupakov, G.; au Wang, L.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC
2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z
PEP-X, a next generation, ring-based light source is designed to run with beams of high current and low emittance. Important parameters are: energy 4.5 GeV, circumference 2.2 km, beam current 1.5 A, and horizontal and vertical emittances, 185 pm by 8 pm. In such a machine it is important that impedance driven instabilities not degrade the beam quality. In this report they study the strength of the impedance and its effects in PEP-X. For the present, lacking a detailed knowledge of the vacuum chamber shape, they create a straw man design comprising important vacuum chamber objects to be found in the ring, for which they then compute the wake functions. From the wake functions they generate an impedance budget and a pseudo-Green function wake representing the entire ring, which they, in turn, use for performing microwave instability calculations. In this report they, in addition, consider in PEP-X the transverse mode-coupling, multi-bunch transverse, and beam-ion instabilities.
Barbaras, Sean A. [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996 (United States); Knight, Travis W. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies has been researched at length and has shown to provide the benefit of transmutation and targets the amount and toxicity of high level waste needed to be managed. Advanced MOX concepts using enriched Uranium Dioxide (UO{sub 2}) are required for multiple recycling of plutonium. The use of MOX and ordinary UO{sub 2} fuel in the same assembly as well as unfueled rods and assembly edge effects contrasts with the unit cell computational assumption of a uniform infinite array of rods. While a deterministic method of calculating the Dancoff factor has traditionally been employed in fuel assembly analysis due to the lighter computational and modeling requirements, this research seeks to determine the validity of the uniform, infinite lattice assumption with respect to Dancoff factor and determine the magnitude of the impact of nonuniform lattice effects on fuel assembly criticality calculations as well as transuranic isotope production and transmutation. This research explored the pin-to-pin interaction in a non-uniform lattice of MOX fuel rods and UO{sub 2} fuel rods through the impact of the calculated Dancoff factors from the deterministic method used in SCALE versus the Monte Carlo method used in the code DANCOFF-MC. Using the Monte Carlo method takes into account the non-uniform lattice effects of having neighboring fuel rods with different cross-sectional spectra whereas the Dancoff factor calculated by SCALE assumes a uniform, infinite lattice of one fuel rod type. Differences in eigenvalue calculations as a function of burnup are present between the two methods of Dancoff factor calculation. The percent difference is greatest at low burnup and then becomes smaller throughout the cycle. Differences in the transmutation rate of transuranic isotopes in the MOX fuel are also present between the Dancoff factor calculation methods. The largest difference is in Pu-239, Pu-242, and Am-241 composition whereas U-238, Pu-242, and Pu-238 composition was not changed by taking into account the non-homogenous lattice effects. Heterogeneous lattice effects do change the calculated eigenvalue and transmutation rate in a non-uniform lattice of MOX fuel rods and UO{sub 2} fuel. However, the uncertainty in the ENDF data used by SCALE in these calculations is large enough that the infinite lattice assumption remains valid. (authors)
Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation
Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav [Faculty of Graphic Arts, University of Zagreb, Getaldiceva 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Trg Ivane Brlic Mazuranic 2, 35000 Slavonski Brod (Croatia)
2007-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process.
Available Energy Calculations for Process Engineers
Parker, A. L.
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
in the unit plus the difference in the free energy of mixing for the unit feed and product streams at dead state condi tions. Thus, by a proper choice of reference state, lost work values may be computed without defining a reference environment... pressure decreases. Available Energy Analysis Via Computer Virtually every major design and most minor designs done today are, at one time or another, modeled with a steady state chemical process simulator such as ASPEN (8 and 9), Monsantos' FLOWTRAN...
Handbook of Industrial Engineering Equations, Formulas, and Calculations
Badiru, Adedeji B [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The first handbook to focus exclusively on industrial engineering calculations with a correlation to applications, Handbook of Industrial Engineering Equations, Formulas, and Calculations contains a general collection of the mathematical equations often used in the practice of industrial engineering. Many books cover individual areas of engineering and some cover all areas, but none covers industrial engineering specifically, nor do they highlight topics such as project management, materials, and systems engineering from an integrated viewpoint. Written by acclaimed researchers and authors, this concise reference marries theory and practice, making it a versatile and flexible resource. Succinctly formatted for functionality, the book presents: Basic Math Calculations; Engineering Math Calculations; Production Engineering Calculations; Engineering Economics Calculations; Ergonomics Calculations; Facility Layout Calculations; Production Sequencing and Scheduling Calculations; Systems Engineering Calculations; Data Engineering Calculations; Project Engineering Calculations; and Simulation and Statistical Equations. It has been said that engineers make things while industrial engineers make things better. To make something better requires an understanding of its basic characteristics and the underlying equations and calculations that facilitate that understanding. To do this, however, you do not have to be computational experts; you just have to know where to get the computational resources that are needed. This book elucidates the underlying equations that facilitate the understanding required to improve design processes, continuously improving the answer to the age-old question: What is the best way to do a job?
Variations in gear fatigue life for different wind turbine braking strategies
McNiff, B.P. (Second Wind, Inc., Somerville, MA (USA)); Musial, W.D. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)); Errichello, R. (GEARTECH, Albany, CA (USA))
1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
A large number of gearbox failures have occurred in the wind industry in a relatively short period, many because service loads were underestimated. High-torque transients that occur during starting and stopping are difficult to predict and may be overlooked in specifying gearbox design. Although these events comprise a small portion of total load cycles, they can be the most damaging. The severity of these loads varies dramatically with the specific configuration of the wind turbine. The large number of failures in Danish-designed Micon 65 wind turbines prompted this investigation. The high-speed and low-speed shaft torques were measured on a two-stage helical gearbox of a single Micon 65 turbine. Transient events and normal running loads were combined statistically to obtain a typical annual load spectrum. The pitting and bending fatigue lives of the gear teeth were calculated by using Miner's rule for four different high-speed shaft brake configurations. Each breaking scenario was run for both a high- and a low-turbulence normal operating load spectrum. The analysis showed increases in gear life by up to a factor of 25 when the standard high-speed shaft brake is replaced with a dynamic brake or modified with a damper. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.
Normalizing Weather Data to Calculate Energy Savings Peer Exchange...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Normalizing Weather Data to Calculate Energy Savings Peer Exchange Call Normalizing Weather Data to Calculate Energy Savings Peer Exchange Call February 26, 2015 3:00PM to 4:3...
Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study
Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.
2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z
This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.
BENCHMARKING UPGRADED HOTSPOT DOSE CALCULATIONS AGAINST MACCS2 RESULTS
Brotherton, Kevin
2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z
The radiological consequence of interest for a documented safety analysis (DSA) is the centerline Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) incurred by the Maximally Exposed Offsite Individual (MOI) evaluated at the 95th percentile consequence level. An upgraded version of HotSpot (Version 2.07) has been developed with the capabilities to read site meteorological data and perform the necessary statistical calculations to determine the 95th percentile consequence result. These capabilities should allow HotSpot to join MACCS2 (Version 1.13.1) and GENII (Version 1.485) as radiological consequence toolbox codes in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Central Registry. Using the same meteorological data file, scenarios involving a one curie release of {sup 239}Pu were modeled in both HotSpot and MACCS2. Several sets of release conditions were modeled, and the results compared. In each case, input parameter specifications for each code were chosen to match one another as much as the codes would allow. The results from the two codes are in excellent agreement. Slight differences observed in results are explained by algorithm differences.
Calculation of Helium nuclei in quenched lattice QCD
T. Yamazaki
2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z
We present results for the binding energies for ^4He and ^3He nuclei calculated in quenched lattice QCD at the lattice spacing of a =0.128 fm with a heavy quark mass corresponding to m_pi = 0.8 GeV. Enormous computational cost for the nucleus correlation functions is reduced by avoiding redundancy of equivalent contractions stemming from permutation symmetry of protons or neutrons in the nucleus and various other symmetries. To distinguish a bound state from an attractive scattering state, we investigate the volume dependence of the energy difference between the ground state energy of the nucleus channel and the free multi-nucleon states by changing the spatial extent of the lattice from 3.1 fm to 12.3 fm. A finite energy difference left in the infinite spatial volume limit leads to the conclusion that the measured ground states are bounded. It is also encouraging that the measured binding energies and the experimental ones show the same order of magnitude.
TDHF fusion calculations for spherical+deformed systems
A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker
2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z
We outline a formalism to carry out TDHF calculations of fusion cross sections for spherical + deformed nuclei. The procedure incorporates the dynamic alignment of the deformed nucleus into the calculation of the fusion cross section. The alignment results from multiple E2/E4 Coulomb excitation of the ground state rotational band. Implications for TDHF fusion calculations are discussed. TDHF calculations are done in an unrestricted three-dimensional geometry using modern Skyrme force parametrizations.
Discussion about Noise Equivalent Power and its use for photon noise calculation.
Leclercq, Samuel
. 2007-03-02. Abstract. The Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) is a concept often used to quantify processes, I show the link between the different definitions of the NEP. In the third part, starting from the fundamental properties of boson I calculate the most general expression for the photon NEP, allowing to link
An enhanced model for calculating delay as a function of offset
Jain, Shweta
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents the enhancements made to an existing model for calculating delay as a function of offset between the traffic signals of a link. The delay-difference-of offset technique is a signal control concept used for strategic optimization...
An enhanced model for calculating delay as a function of offset
Jain, Shweta
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents the enhancements made to an existing model for calculating delay as a function of offset between the traffic signals of a link. The delay-difference-of offset technique is a signal control concept used for strategic optimization...
TTDTTC^/TTN MS#-R-68I Danish Calculations of
»Reactor« Calculations on Assembly Basis 10 3.4 Fin Power Reconstruction 11 4Res*ks 13 4.1 Cl;1 Introduction Thebenchmark is described in NEACRP-L-33*. Så efferent .reactor, coo- figwations are considered,which togetherwith a numberofcodes based on different principles (nodal expansion, nKshcenocs or mesh coroen bawd
Optimizing the ATLAS code with different profilers
Kama, S; The ATLAS collaboration
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
After the current maintenance period, the LHC will provide higher energy collisions with increased luminosity. In order to keep up with these higher rates, ATLAS software needs to speed up substantially. However, ATLAS code is composed of approximately 4M lines, written by many different programmers with different backgrounds, which makes code optimisation a challenge. To help with this effort different profiling tools and techniques are being used. These include well known tools, such as the Valgrind suite and Intel Amplifier; less common tools like PIN, PAPI, and GOODA; as well as techniques such as library interposing. In this talk we will mainly focus on PIN tools and GOODA. PIN is a dynamic binary instrumentation tool which can obtain statistics such as call counts, instruction counts and interrogate functions' arguments. It has been used to obtain CLHEP Matrix profiles, operations and vector sizes for linear algebra calculations which has provided the insight necessary to achieve significant performance...
The melting lines of model systems calculated from coexistence simulations
Song, Xueyu
rapidly as a function of the potential cutoff, indicating that long-range corrections to the free energies of the solid and liquid phases very nearly cancel. This approach provides an alternative to traditional methods them. Tradition- ally, these calculations have been made using free energy calculations: by calculating
Contributions of different neutron pairs in different approaches for neutrinoless double beta decay
Alberto Escuderos; Amand Faessler; Vadim Rodin; Fedor Simkovic
2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
The methods used till now to calculate the neutrinoless double beta decay matrix elements are: the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA), the Shell Model (SM), the angular momentum projected Hartee-Fock-Bogoliubov approach (HFB) and the Interacting Boson Model (IBM). The different approaches are compared specifically concerning the the angular momenta and parities of the neutron pairs, which are changed into two protons by the $0\
Development of a Web-based Emissions Reduction Calculator for Code-Compliant Commercial Construction
Ahmad, M.; Gilman, D.; Kim, S.; Chongcharoensuk, C.; Malhotra, M.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for office and retail end-uses. The simulation models were then modified to accommodate the different scenarios of construction and HVAC equipment typically used in the commercial sector. The simulation models, created with the DOE-2.1e simulation... Resource Integrated Database (Version 2). This publicly available database can be found at www.epa.gov/airmarkets/egrid/. The information in this table is from a special edition of the eGRID database, provided by Art Diem at the USEPA for the TCEQ...
Once-through steam-generator sensitivity calculations
Steiner, J.L.; Siebe, D.A.
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A series of TRAC-PF1/MOD2 thermal-hydraulic calculations has been performed to determine the effect of uncertainties in modeling once through steam-generator (OTSG) secondary-side phenomena on the calculated behavior of Babcock and Wilcox power plants. The calculations were performed by varying parameters in correlations for the secondary-side phenomena. The parameters and transients were chosen to show the maximum expected sensitivity of the calculated results to the parameter variations. The parameters were then varied over a range representing the estimated uncertainty in the correlation. In this manner, the sensitivity if the calculated plant behavior to the modeling uncertainties was determined with a reasonable number of calculations. The sensitivity of calculated plant behavior to variations in interfacial heat-transfer in the OTSG secondaries was determined in a series of steam-generator overfill transient calculations. Calculations were performed for a main steam line break (MSLB) transient to quantify the sensitivity to variations in interfacial drag in the secondaries; the interfacial drag was varied in these calculations to indicate the effects of entrainment and de-entrainment processes, for which no specific models exist in the code. In addition to the transient calculations, a series of steady-state calculations was performed to determine the sensitivity of the OTSG primary-to-secondary heat transfer to the assumed fraction of tubes wetted by the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) injection. The plant model used for the sensitivity calculations was qualified by performing a benchmark calculation for a natural circulation test in the TMI-1 plant.
Clanton, John L
1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
BALANCE CALCULATIONS A Thesis By JOHN L. CLANTON Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi e ad of Department TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. ABSTRACT Page Z. INTRODUCTION 3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 4. DESCRIPTION OF KELLEY-SNYDER FIELD, 5... BALANCE EQUATION 1874(B. P. ) ~Ntb Wg bbl w bbls. Re scf/bbl v res bbls/sef 1756 1698 1647 1555 1546 1561 1589 60, 420, 88Z 7Z, 378, 937 85, 698, SS6 105, 707, 67Z 117, 57Z, I?6 1Z7, 690, 579 138, 151, 475 1, 199, 482 18, 909, 009 39...
Radhakrishnan, Archana, E-mail: anju.archana@gmail.com [B.Tech, Engineering Physics, National Institute Of Technology, Calicut (India); Murugesan, Dr V., E-mail: murugesh@serc.iisc.in [Assistant Professor, Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
The electromagnetic theory of light explains the behavior of light in most of the domains quite accurately. The problem arises when the exact solution of the Maxwell's equation is not present, in case of objects with arbitrary geometry. To find the extinction cross-section and lifetime of the gold nanoparticle, the software FDTD solutions 8.6 by Lumerical is employed. The extinction cross-sections and lifetimes of Gold nanospheres of different sizes and arrangements are studied using pulse lengths of the order of femtoseconds. The decay constant and other properties are compared. Further, the lifetimes are calculated using frequency and time domain calculations.
Design calculations and measurements of a dipole magnet with Permendur pole pieces
Early, R.A.; Cobb, J.K.; Oijala, J.E.
1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
A redesign of the SLC South Linac-to-Ring beam line required that the width of a good field of three of the bending magnets be increased while utilizing the same yoke and coils. Further requirements were that the resulting magnets should have the same strength at two different operating currents as the original magnets. The idea of replacing the steel poles with pole pieces of the high permeability material Permendur was investigated. Design calculations were done using TOSCA and POISSON. An existing prototype magnet was modified with Permendur poles, and magnetic measurements were done. The new magnets were completed, and measurements agreed well with the calculations. 4 refs., 14 figs.
Camps, Peter; Bianchi, Simone; Lunttila, Tuomas; Pinte, Christophe; Natale, Giovanni; Juvela, Mika; Fischera, Joerg; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Gordon, Karl; Baes, Maarten; Steinacker, Juergen
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We define an appropriate problem for benchmarking dust emissivity calculations in the context of radiative transfer (RT) simulations, specifically including the emission from stochastically heated dust grains. Our aim is to provide a self-contained guide for implementors of such functionality, and to offer insights in the effects of the various approximations and heuristics implemented by the participating codes to accelerate the calculations. The benchmark problem definition includes the optical and calorimetric material properties, and the grain size distributions, for a typical astronomical dust mixture with silicate, graphite and PAH components; a series of analytically defined radiation fields to which the dust population is to be exposed; and instructions for the desired output. We process this problem using six RT codes participating in this benchmark effort, and compare the results to a reference solution computed with the publicly available dust emission code DustEM. The participating codes implement...
A Cosmology Calculator for the World Wide Web
Edward L. Wright
2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
A cosmology calculator that computes times and distances as a function of redshift for user-defined cosmological parameters is available on the World Wide Web. This note gives the formulae used by the cosmology calculator and discusses some of its implementation. A version of the calculator that allows one to specify the equation of state parameter w and w' and neutrino masses, and a version for converting the light travel times usually given in the popular press into redshifts are also available.
Fattebert, J; Law, R J; Bennion, B; Lau, E Y; Schwegler, E; Lightstone, F C
2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
We evaluate the accuracy of density functional theory quantum calculations of biomolecular subsystems using a simple electrostatic embedding scheme. Our scheme is based on dividing the system of interest into a primary and secondary subsystem. A finite difference discretization of the Kohn-Sham equations is used for the primary subsystem, while its electrostatic environment is modeled with a simple one-electron potential. Force-field atomic partial charges are used to generate smeared Gaussian charge densities and to model the secondary subsystem. We illustrate the utility of this approach with calculations of truncated dipeptide chains. We analyze quantitatively the accuracy of this approach by calculating atomic forces and comparing results with fullQMcalculations. The impact of the choice made in terminating dangling bonds at the frontier of the QM region is also investigated.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the equation of state of neutron matter
Gandolfi, S.; Illarionov, A. Yu.; Schmidt, K. E.; Pederiva, F.; Fantoni, S. [International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA Via Beirut 2/4 I-34014 Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy) and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Trento (Italy); International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA Via Beirut 2/4 I-34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste, Italy and INFM DEMOCRITOS National Simulation Center, Via Beirut 2/4 I-34014 Trieste (Italy)
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
We calculated the equation of state of neutron matter at zero temperature by means of the auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) method combined with a fixed-phase approximation. The calculation of the energy was carried out by simulating up to 114 neutrons in a periodic box. Special attention was given to reducing finite-size effects at the energy evaluation by adding to the interaction the effect due to the truncation of the simulation box, and by performing several simulations using different numbers of neutrons. The finite-size effects due to kinetic energy were also checked by employing the twist-averaged boundary conditions. We considered a realistic nuclear Hamiltonian containing modern two- and three-body interactions of the Argonne and Urbana family. The equation of state can be used to compare and calibrate other many-body calculations and to predict properties of neutron stars.
Thermoelectric properties of AgSbTe? from first-principles calculations
Rezaei, Nafiseh; Akbarzadeh, Hadi [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemifar, S. Javad, E-mail: hashemifar@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
The structural, electronic, and transport properties of AgSbTe? are studied by using full-relativistic first-principles electronic structure calculation and semiclassical description of transport parameters. The results indicate that, within various exchange-correlation functionals, the cubic Fd3?m and trigonal R3?m structures of AgSbTe? are more stable than two other considered structures. The computed Seebeck coefficients at different values of the band gap and carrier concentration are accurately compared with the available experimental data to speculate a band gap of about 0.1–0.35 eV for AgSbTe? compound, in agreement with our calculated electronic structure within the hybrid HSE (Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof) functional. By calculating the semiclassical Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and electronic part of thermal conductivity, we present the theoretical upper limit of the thermoelectric figure of merit of AgSbTe? as a function of temperature and carrier concentration.
Cascade calculation of subthreshold. pi. sup 0 production
Gavron, A.; Yariv, Y. (Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (US))
1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Intranuclear cascade calculations are found to provide a good description of the various features of subthreshold {pi}{sup 0} production in nucleon-nucleus collisions.
Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating...
Team IBACOS highlighted the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations. Current industry rules of thumb, perceptions and barriers to...
A Method for Calculating Reference Evapotranspiration on Daily Time Scales
Farmer, William
Measures of reference evapotranspiration are essential for applications of agricultural management and water resources engineering. Using numerous esoteric variables, one can calculate daily reference evapotranspiration ...
Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only This cost...
Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy savings estimates and cost...
AIM: Web-Based, Residential Energy Calculator for Homeowners
Marshall, K.; Moss, M.; Liu, B.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J.; Herbert, C.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for simulations in existing homes, are automatically provided using statistical tables. This allows homeowners to use the calculator with information commonly available during a real estate transaction....
Yi-Ping Qin
2004-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we employ the peak count rate{\\bf \\}$C_p$ and the total count $C_{total}$ of light curves to study in the corresponding aspects the relationship between different channel light curves. To make a direct comparison between count rates of different channel light curves we introduce a plot of $C(\\tau)$ versus $C_H(\\tau)$, where $C(\\tau)$ is the count rate of a channel and $C_H(\\tau)$ is the count rate of a definite cannel, channel H (see the text). According to the plot we define $\\Delta C_{\\max}$ as the maximum deviation of the two count rate values of $C(\\tau)$ associated with a same count rate value of $% C_H(\\tau)$ and define $\\Delta S$ as the area confined by the close curve of $C(\\tau)$ in the plot to measure the difference of the rising and decaying portions of a light curve relative to the count rate of channel H. Under the assumption that some GRBs observed are in the stage of fireballs which expand relativistically, predictions on the relationships between the four quantities{\\bf (}$C_p$, $C_{total}$, $\\Delta C_{\\max}$, and $\\Delta S$) and energy within a wide band, calculated with different rest frame radiation forms and two typical Lorentz factors ($\\Gamma =20$ and 200), are made and presented, which would make the test of our model with the coming Swift data easier. Interpretations to the relationships within the mechanism of fireballs are also presented.
Computing Partial Eigenvalue Sum in Electronic Structure Calculations
Bai, Zhaojun
and CPU time. In the application of electronic structure calculations in molecular dynamics, the newComputing Partial Eigenvalue Sum in Electronic Structure Calculations Z. Bai M. Faheyy G. Golubz M where computation of the total energy of an electronic structure requires the evaluation of partial
Dynamic Algorithm Selection in Parallel GAMESS Calculations Nurzhan Ustemirov
Sosonkina, Masha
and Molecular Electronic Structure System (GAMESS) used for ab initio molecular quantum chemistry calculationsDynamic Algorithm Selection in Parallel GAMESS Calculations Nurzhan Ustemirov Masha Sosonkina, network, or disk I/O. For large-scale scientific applications, dynamic adjustments to a computationally
An efficient Java implementation of the immediate successors calculation
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
An efficient Java implementation of the immediate successors calculation Cl´ement Gu´erin, Karell an effective Java imple- mentation of the concept immediate successors calculation. It is based on the lattice Java library, developed by K. Bertet and the Limited Objects Access algorithm, proposed by C. Demko [5
Processus communicants Communication synchrone CSP/CCS/-calcul
Grigoras, .Romulus
Processus communicants Communication synchrone CSP/CCS/-calcul Rendez-vous étendu Ada Huitième partie Processus communicants CSP/Ada Systèmes concurrents 2 / 44 #12;Processus communicants Communication synchrone CSP/CCS/-calcul Rendez-vous étendu Ada Principes Synchronisation Désignation
Independent review of SCDAP/RELAP5 natural circulation calculations
Martinez, G.M.; Gross, R.J.; Martinez, M.J.; Rightley, G.S.
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A review and assessment of the uncertainties in the calculated response of reactor coolant system natural circulation using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code were completed. The SCDAP/RELAP5 calculation modeled a station blackout transient in the Surry nuclear power plant and concluded that primary system depressurization from natural circulation induced primary system failure is more likely than previously thought.
Semi-empirical calculation of quenching factors for scintillators: new results
Tretyak, V I
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
New results of calculation of quenching factors for ions in scintillators in semi-empirical approach described in [V.I. Tretyak, Astropart. Phys. 33 (2010) 40] are presented. In particular, they give additional arguments in favour of hypothesis that quenching factors for different particles can be described with the same Birks factor kB, if all the data were collected in the same conditions and processed in the same way.
IN-DRIFT MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES MODEL VALIDATION CALCULATIONS
D.M. Jolley
2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z
The objective and scope of this calculation is to create the appropriate parameter input for MING 1.0 (CSCI 30018 V1.0, CRWMS M&O 1998b) that will allow the testing of the results from the MING software code with both scientific measurements of microbial populations at the site and laboratory and with natural analogs to the site. This set of calculations provides results that will be used in model validation for the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' model (CRWMS M&O 2000) which is part of the Engineered Barrier System Department (EBS) process modeling effort that eventually will feed future Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models. This calculation is being produced to replace MING model validation output that is effected by the supersession of DTN M09909SPAMINGl.003 using its replacement DTN M00106SPAIDMO 1.034 so that the calculations currently found in the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M&O 2000) will be brought up to date. This set of calculations replaces the calculations contained in sections 6.7.2, 6.7.3 and Attachment I of CRWMS M&O (2000) As all of these calculations are created explicitly for model validation, the data qualification status of all inputs can be considered corroborative in accordance with AP-3.15Q. This work activity has been evaluated in accordance with the AP-2.21 procedure, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', and is subject to QA controls (BSC 2001). The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12 procedure, Calculations, and prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For EBS Department Modeling FY 01 Work Activities'' (BSC 200 1) which includes controls for the management of electronic data.
Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei
Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block AF, Sector 1, Kolkata- 700 064 (India)
2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.
First-principles Calculation of Excited State Spectra in QCD
Dudek, Jozef J. [Jefferson Laboratory, 12000 Jefferson Avenue Suite 1, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Edwards, Robert G.; Richards, David G.; Thomas, Christopher E. [Jefferson Laboratory, 12000 Jefferson Avenue Suite 1, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Peardon, Michael J. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z
Recent progress at understanding the excited state spectra of mesons and baryons is described. I begin by outlining the application of the variational method to compute the spectrum of QCD, and then present results for the excited meson spectrum, with continuum quantum numbers of the states clearly delineated. I emphasise the need to extend the calculation to encompass multi-hadron contributions, and describe a recent calculation of the I = 2{pi}{pi} energy-dependent phase shifts as a precursor to the study of channels with resonant behavior. I conclude with recent results for the low lying baryon spectrum, and the prospects for future calculations.
Use of Carbon Mesh Anodes and the Effect of Different Pretreatment
Use of Carbon Mesh Anodes and the Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Power Production, China, and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Penn State University, 231Q Sackett electrode spacing improves power generation. Carbon cloth and carbon paper materials typically used
Milgram, Paul
Microfluidic device for bone cell mechanobiology study The use of microfluidics provides many microfluidics to investigate real-time interactions of different bone cells while undergoing physiologically
Sader, Charles Avery
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electronic Structure Theory Calculations and Molecular DynamicsElectronic Structure Theory Calculations and Molecular Dynamicsdynamics simulation requires identification of an electronic structure calculation
Universal calculation formula and calibration method in Fourier transform profilometry
Wen Yongfu; Li Sikun; Cheng Haobo; Su Xianyu; Zhang Qican
2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a universal calculation formula of Fourier transform profilometry and give a strict theoretical analysis about the phase-height mapping relation. As the request on the experimental setup of the universal calculation formula is unconfined, the projector and the camera can be located arbitrarily to get better fringe information, which makes the operation flexible. The phase-height calibration method under the universal condition is proposed, which can avoid measuring the system parameters directly. It makes the system easy to manipulate and improves the measurement velocity. A computer simulation and experiment are conducted to verify its validity. The calculation formula and calibration method have been applied to measure an object of 22.00 mm maximal height. The relative error of the measurement result is only 0.59%. The experimental results prove that the three-dimensional shape of tested objects can be reconstructed exactly by using the calculation formula and calibration method, and the system has better universality.
Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E.
Read, Charles
calculations. The first is pulmonary oxygen toxicity which primarily concerns the effects to the lungs of long is the maximum volume of air (or gas) that a person can expel from his/her lungs after first filling the lungs
Calculating the hyperWiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons
Klavzar, Sandi
Calculating the hyperÂWiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons Petra Zigert1 , Sandi Klavzar1) is not easy, especially in the case of large polycyclic molecules, such as benzenoid hydrocarbons. Some time
Calculating the hyper--Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons
Klavzar, Sandi
Calculating the hyper--Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons Petra Å¸ Zigert 1 , Sandi KlavÅ¸ zar 1. (1) is not easy, especially in the case of large polycyclic molecules, such as benzenoid hydrocarbons
Is Ring breaking feasible in relative binding free energy calculations?
Liu, S; Wang, L; Mobley, DL
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Essex, J. W. Rigorous Free Energy Calculations in Structure-of Hydration Free Energies for SAMPL. J. Comput. -Aided Mol.Basic Ingredients of Free Energy Calcula- tions: A Review.
RESEARCH PAPER Calculating the effective permeability of sandstone with
Borja, Ronaldo I.
RESEARCH PAPER Calculating the effective permeability of sandstone with multiscale lattice microtomo- graphic images of a sandstone, with sample resolution of 3.34 lm. We discuss the predictive
Guidelines for the analysis of free energy calculations
Klimovich, PV; Shirts, MR; Mobley, DL; Mobley, DL
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Free energy calculations for Lennard-Jones systems and waterfree energy change is found as the negative of ?G waterenergy of hydrophobic hydration: A molecular dynam- ics study of noble gases in water.
Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation
Fipps, Guy
1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
Pumping costs are often one of the largest single expenses in irrigated agriculture. This publication explains how to lower pumping costs by calculating horsepower requirements and sizing supply pipelines correctly. Examples take the reader through...
Reactor physics calculation of BWR fuel bundles containing gadolinia
Morales, Diego
1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A technique for the calculation of the neutronic behavior of BWR fuel bundles has been developed and applied to a Vermont Yankee fuel bundle. The technique is based on a diffusion theory treatment of the bundle, with ...
Protein Thermostability Calculations Using Alchemical Free Energy Simulations
de Groot, Bert
Protein Thermostability Calculations Using Alchemical Free Energy Simulations Daniel Seeliger by alterations in the free energy of folding. Growing computational power, however, increasingly allows us to use alchem- ical free energy simulations, such as free energy perturbation or thermodynamic integration
Automated higher-order calculations: Status and prospects
Giovanni Ossola
2015-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
In this presentation we review the current status in the automated evaluation of scattering amplitudes, with particular attention to the developments related with NLO calculations, which led to the construction of powerful multi-purpose computational tools. After a general overview, we will devote a short section to describe the GoSam framework for NLO calculations and its application to the production of Higgs boson plus jets. We will then briefly comment on the challenges presented by NNLO calculations, whose structure is considerably more complicated. Finally, we will describe some of the features of the integrand-reduction techniques beyond NLO, an alternative promising approach to multi-loop calculations which is currently under development.
Automated higher-order calculations: Status and prospects
Ossola, Giovanni
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this presentation we review the current status in the automated evaluation of scattering amplitudes, with particular attention to the developments related with NLO calculations, which led to the construction of powerful multi-purpose computational tools. After a general overview, we will devote a short section to describe the GoSam framework for NLO calculations and its application to the production of Higgs boson plus jets. We will then briefly comment on the challenges presented by NNLO calculations, whose structure is considerably more complicated. Finally, we will describe some of the features of the integrand-reduction techniques beyond NLO, an alternative promising approach to multi-loop calculations which is currently under development.
Sequential Voronoi diagram calculations using simple chemical reactions
Costello, Ben de Lacy; Adamatzky, Andy
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In our recent paper [de Lacy Costello et al. 2010] we described the formation of complex tessellations of the plane arising from the various reactions of metal salts with potassium ferricyanide and ferrocyanide loaded gels. In addition to producing colourful tessellations these reactions are naturally computing generalised Voronoi diagrams of the plane. The reactions reported previously were capable of the calculation of three distinct Voronoi diagrams of the plane. As diffusion coupled with a chemical reaction is responsible for the calculation then this is achieved in parallel. Thus an increase in the complexity of the data input does not utilise additional computational resource. Additional benefits of these chemical reactions is that a permanent record of the Voronoi diagram calculation (in the form of precipitate free bisectors) is achieved, so there is no requirement for further processing to extract the calculation results. Previously it was assumed that the permanence of the results was also a potenti...
CRAC calculations for accident sections of environmental statements
Johnson, J.D.; Ritchie, L.T.
1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The CRAC2 computer code was adapted to the calculation requirements of Draft/Final Environmental Impact Statement (DES/FES) casework analysis for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. CRAC is a revised version of the CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) computer code developed in support of the Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400. A graphical output package was developed for displaying CRAC2 computed results. All phases of the casework analysis calculations from initial data formatting to plotting of calculated results are executed through the use of procedure files on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) computing system at Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL computing system operates under the Control Data Corporation (CDC) NOS/BE Operating System (Level 518) and Intercom Version 5.
TOUSCHEK LIFETIME CALCULATIONS AND SIMULATIONS FOR NSLS-II
MONTAG,C.; BENGTSSON, J.; NASH, B.
2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z
The beam lifetime in most medium energy synchrotron radiation sources is limited by the Touschek effect, which describes the momentum transfer from the transverse into the longitudinal direction due to binary collisions between electrons. While an analytical formula exists to calculate the resulting lifetime, the actual momentum acceptance necessary to perform this calculation can only be determined by tracking. This is especially the case in the presence of small vertical apertures at insertion devices. In this case, nonlinear betatron coupling leads to beam losses at these vertical aperture restrictions. In addition, a realistic model of the storage ring is necessary for calculation of equilibrium beam sizes (particularly in the vertical direction) which are important for a self-consistent lifetime calculation.
Goddard III, William A.
Calculation of Solvation Free Energies of Charged Solutes Using Mixed Cluster/Continuum Models methodologies make systematic errors in the computed free energies because of the incorrect accounting consideration. We analyze two different thermodynamic cycles for calculating the solvation free energies
Electromagnetic mass difference on the lattice
Yusuke Namekawa; Yoshio Kikukawa
2005-09-24T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate electromagnetic mass difference of mesons using a method proposed by Duncan {\\it et al}. The RG-improved gauge action and the non-compact Abelian gauge action are employed to generate configurations. Quark propagators in the range of $m_{PS}/m_{V}=0.76-0.51$ are obtained with the meanfield-improved clover quark action. Chiral and continuum extrapolations are performed and the results are compared with experiments. Finite size effects are also examined. Quark masses are extracted from the measured spectrum. Our preliminary values for light quark masses are $m_{u}^{\\bar{MS}}(\\mu =2 {GeV}) = 3.03(19)$ MeV, $m_{d}^{\\bar{MS}}(\\mu = 2 {GeV}) = 4.44(28)$ MeV, $m_{s}^{\\bar{MS}}(\\mu = 2 {GeV}) = 99.2(52)$ MeV.
Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations
Burdick, A.
2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.
Improved load models for multi-area reliability calculations
Pathak, Sanjesh
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
IMPROVED LOAD MODELS FOR MULTI-AREA RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by SANJESH PATHAK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1992 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering IMPROVED LOAD MODELS FOR MULTI-AREA RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by SAN JESH PATHAK Approved as to style and content by: Chanan Singh (Chair of Committee) Prasad Enjeti (Member) Ces . Mal, e...
Ab initio calculations of nuclear widths via an integral relation
Kenneth M. Nollett
2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
I describe the computation of energy widths of nuclear states using an integral over the interaction region of ab initio variational Monte Carlo wave functions, and I present calculated widths for many states. I begin by presenting relations that connect certain short-range integrals to widths. I then present predicted widths for 5 integral relation, I conclude that overlap calculations can diagnose cases in which computed widths should not be trusted.
Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion
Difilippo, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.
Iterative acceleration methods for Monte Carlo and deterministic criticality calculations
Urbatsch, T.J.
1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
If you have ever given up on a nuclear criticality calculation and terminated it because it took so long to converge, you might find this thesis of interest. The author develops three methods for improving the fission source convergence in nuclear criticality calculations for physical systems with high dominance ratios for which convergence is slow. The Fission Matrix Acceleration Method and the Fission Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (FDSA) Method are acceleration methods that speed fission source convergence for both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods. The third method is a hybrid Monte Carlo method that also converges for difficult problems where the unaccelerated Monte Carlo method fails. The author tested the feasibility of all three methods in a test bed consisting of idealized problems. He has successfully accelerated fission source convergence in both deterministic and Monte Carlo criticality calculations. By filtering statistical noise, he has incorporated deterministic attributes into the Monte Carlo calculations in order to speed their source convergence. He has used both the fission matrix and a diffusion approximation to perform unbiased accelerations. The Fission Matrix Acceleration method has been implemented in the production code MCNP and successfully applied to a real problem. When the unaccelerated calculations are unable to converge to the correct solution, they cannot be accelerated in an unbiased fashion. A Hybrid Monte Carlo method weds Monte Carlo and a modified diffusion calculation to overcome these deficiencies. The Hybrid method additionally possesses reduced statistical errors.
Formal Management Review of the Safety Basis Calculations Noncompliance
Altenbach, T J
2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z
In Reference 1, LLNL identified a failure to adequately implement an institutional commitment concerning administrative requirements governing the documentation of Safety Basis calculations supporting the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) process for LLNL Hazard Category 2 and Category 3 nuclear facilities. The AB Section has discovered that the administrative requirements of AB procedure AB-006, 'Safety Basis Calculation Procedure for Category 2 and 3 Nuclear Facilities', have not been uniformly or consistently applied in the preparation of Safety Basis calculations for LLNL Hazard Category 2 and 3 Nuclear Facilities. The SEP Associated Director has directed the AB Section to initiate a formal management review of the issue that includes, but is not necessarily limited to the following topics: (1) the basis establishing Ab-006 as a required internal procedure for Safety Basis calculations; (2) how requirements for Safety Basis calculations flow down in the institutional DSA process; (3) the extent to which affected Laboratory organizations have explicitly complied with the requirements of Procedure AB-006; (4) what alternative approaches LLNL organizations has used for Safety Basis calculations and how these alternate approaches compare with Procedure AB-006 requirements; and (5) how to reconcile Safety Basis calculations that were performed before Procedure AB-006 came into existence (i.e., August 2001). The management review2 also includes an extent-of-condition evaluation to determine how widespread the discovered issue is throughout Laboratory organizations responsible for operating nuclear facilities, and to determine if implementation of AB procedures other than AB-006 has been similarly affected. In Reference 2, Corrective Action 1 was established whereby the SEP Directorate will develop a plan for performing a formal management review of the discovered condition, including an extent-of condition evaluation. In Reference 3, a plan was provided to prepare a formal management review, satisfying Corrective Action 1. An AB-006 Working Group was formed,led by the AB Section, with representatives from the Nuclear Materials Technology Program (NMTP), the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division, and the Packaging and Transportation Safety (PATS) Program. The key action of this management review was for Working Group members to conduct an assessment of all safety basis calculations referenced in their respective DSAs. Those assessments were tasked to provide the following information: (1) list which safety basis calculations correctly follow AB-006 and therefore require no additional documentation; (2) identify and list which safety basis calculations do not strictly follow AB-006, these include NMTP Engineering Notes, Engineering Safety Notes, and calculations by organizations external to the nuclear facilities (such as Plant Engineering), subcontractor calculations, and other internally generated calculations. Each of these will be reviewed and listed on a memorandum with the facility manager's (or designee's) signature accepting that calculation for use in the DSA. If any of these calculations are lacking the signature of a technical reviewer, they must also be reviewed for technical content and that review documented per AB-006.
Interaction of loading pattern and nuclear data uncertainties in reactor core calculations
Klein, M.; Gallner, L.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Pautz, A.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS MbH, Boltzmannstr. 14, D- 85748 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Along with best-estimate calculations for design and safety analysis, understanding uncertainties is important to determine appropriate design margins. In this framework, nuclear data uncertainties and their propagation to full core calculations are a critical issue. To deal with this task, different error propagation techniques, deterministic and stochastic are currently developed to evaluate the uncertainties in the output quantities. Among these is the sampling based uncertainty and sensitivity software XSUSA which is able to quantify the influence of nuclear data covariance on reactor core calculations. In the present work, this software is used to investigate systematically the uncertainties in the power distributions of two PWR core loadings specified in the OECD UAM-Benchmark suite. With help of a statistical sensitivity analysis, the main contributors to the uncertainty are determined. Using this information a method is studied with which loading patterns of reactor cores can be optimized with regard to minimizing power distribution uncertainties. It is shown that this technique is able to halve the calculation uncertainties of a MOX/UOX core configuration. (authors)
Tahmasebi Birgani, Mohamad J. [Department of Radiation Therapy, Golestan Hospital, JondiShapour University of Medical Science, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics, JondiShapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chegeni, Nahid, E-mail: nchegen@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, JondiShapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabihzadeh, Mansoor; Hamzian, Nima [Department of Medical Physics, JondiShapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Equivalent field is frequently used for central axis depth-dose calculations of rectangular- and irregular-shaped photon beams. As most of the proposed models to calculate the equivalent square field are dosimetry based, a simple physical-based method to calculate the equivalent square field size was used as the basis of this study. The table of the sides of the equivalent square or rectangular fields was constructed and then compared with the well-known tables by BJR and Venselaar, et al. with the average relative error percentage of 2.5 ± 2.5% and 1.5 ± 1.5%, respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, the percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured for some special irregular symmetric and asymmetric treatment fields and their equivalent squares for Siemens Primus Plus linear accelerator for both energies, 6 and 18 MV. The mean relative differences of PDDs measurement for these fields and their equivalent square was approximately 1% or less. As a result, this method can be employed to calculate equivalent field not only for rectangular fields but also for any irregular symmetric or asymmetric field.
Smith, L.A.; Gallmeier, F.X. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Energy, TN (United States); Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others
1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The FOEHN critical experiment was analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections and Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutronics computer codes in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. The ANSL-V 99-group master cross section library was used for all the calculations. Three different critical configurations were evaluated using the multigroup KENO Monte Carlo transport code, the multigroup DORT discrete ordinates transport code, and the multigroup diffusion theory code VENTURE. The simple configuration consists of only the fuel and control elements with the heavy water reflector. The intermediate configuration includes boron endplates at the upper and lower edges of the fuel element. The complex configuration includes both the boron endplates and components in the reflector. Cross sections were processed using modules from the AMPX system. Both 99-group and 20-group cross sections were created and used in two-dimensional models of the FOEHN experiment. KENO calculations were performed using both 99-group and 20-group cross sections. The DORT and VENTURE calculations were performed using 20-group cross sections. Because the simple and intermediate configurations are azimuthally symmetric, these configurations can be explicitly modeled in R-Z geometry. Since the reflector components cannot be modeled explicitly using the current versions of these codes, three reflector component homogenization schemes were developed and evaluated for the complex configuration. Power density distributions were calculated with KENO using 99-group cross sections and with DORT and VENTURE using 20-group cross sections. The average differences between the measured values and the values calculated with the different computer codes range from 2.45 to 5.74%. The maximum differences between the measured and calculated thermal flux values for the simple and intermediate configurations are {approx} 13%, while the average differences are < 8%.
Courtney, Christina Leigh
2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
of difference, the differential quotient, is determined. For the purposes of this dissertation, I calculated the reported achievement gaps between white and black fourth graders for the years 2005, 2007, and 2009 on the individual state reading and math...
Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R
1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.
Solar Reflectance Index Calculation Worksheet Instructions Usage: The purpose of this calculator is to enable contractors and homeowners to quickly and accurately calculate the solar reflectance product exceeds the Building Energy Efficiency Standards requirement for either the aged solar
Border flow rights and Contracts for differences of differences
, called "contracts for differences of differences." These financial rights allow for forward trading decentralized long- term energy trading and centralized long-term transmission trading. Such long-term trading properties of such a right in the absence of lumpiness, economies of scale, and market power. Keywords
Border flow rights and Contracts for differences of differences
Baldick, Ross
that includes both real and reactive power.) Border flow rights accommodate trading of financial transmission for differences of differences." These financial rights allow for forward trading of both energy and transmission trading and centralized long-term transmission trading. Such long-term trading can help to support
Building a World of Difference
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Waste?to?Energy Roadmapping Workshop Building a World of Difference Presentation by Patricia Scanlan, Director of Residuals Treatment Technologies, Black & Veatch
Benchmark calculations for elastic fermion-dimer scattering
Shahin Bour; H. -W. Hammer; Dean Lee; Ulf-G. Meißner
2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z
We present continuum and lattice calculations for elastic scattering between a fermion and a bound dimer in the shallow binding limit. For the continuum calculation we use the Skorniakov-Ter-Martirosian (STM) integral equation to determine the scattering length and effective range parameter to high precision. For the lattice calculation we use the finite-volume method of L\\"uscher. We take into account topological finite-volume corrections to the dimer binding energy which depend on the momentum of the dimer. After subtracting these effects, we find from the lattice calculation kappa a_fd = 1.174(9) and kappa r_fd = -0.029(13). These results agree well with the continuum values kappa a_fd = 1.17907(1) and kappa r_fd = -0.0383(3) obtained from the STM equation. We discuss applications to cold atomic Fermi gases, deuteron-neutron scattering in the spin-quartet channel, and lattice calculations of scattering for nuclei and hadronic molecules at finite volume.
Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes
Jacobsen, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.jacobsen@ntnu.n [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dept of Structural Engineering, Trondheim (Norway); Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne [SINTEF Byggforsk AS Building and Infrastructure, Trondheim (Norway); Kalogiannidis, Evangelos [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dept of Structural Engineering, Trondheim (Norway)
2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.
Benchmark data for validating irradiated fuel compositions used in criticality calculations
Bierman, S.R.; Talbert, R.J.
1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
To establish criticality safety margins utilizing burnup credit in the storage and transport of spent reactor fuels requires a knowledge of the uncertainty in the calculated fuel composition used in making the reactivity assessment. To provide data for validating such calculated burnup fuel compositions, radiochemical assays have been obtained as part of the United States Department of Energy From-Reactor Cask Development Program. Assay results and associated operating histories on the initial three samples analyzed in this effort are presented. The three samples were taken from different axial regions of a Pressurized Water Reactor fuel rod and represent radiation exposures of about 37, 27, and 44 GWd/MTU. The data are presented in a benchmark type format to facilitate identification/referencing and computer code input.
Hybrid model calculations of direct photons in high-energy nuclear collisions
Björn Bäuchle; Marcus Bleicher
2010-03-04T23:59:59.000Z
Direct photon emission in heavy-ion collisions is calculated within a relativistic micro+macro hybrid model and compared to the microscopic transport model UrQMD. In the hybrid approach, the high-density part of the evolution is replaced by an ideal 3-dimensional hydrodynamic calculation. This allows to examine the effects of viscosity and full local thermalization, in comparison of the transport model to the ideal fluid-dynamics. We study the origin of high-p_T photons as well as the impact of elementary high-sqrt(s) collisions. We further explore the contribution of different production channels and non-thermal radiation to the spectrum of direct photons. Detailed comparison to the measurements by the WA98-collaboration are also undertaken.
Fast plane wave density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations on multi-GPU machines
Jia, Weile, E-mail: jiawl@sccas.cn [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China) [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Fu, Jiyun, E-mail: fujy@sccas.cn [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China) [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Cao, Zongyan, E-mail: zycao@sccas.cn [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Long, E-mail: wangl@sccas.cn [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China); Chi, Xuebin, E-mail: chi@sccas.cn [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 4 South 4th Street, ZhongGuanCun, Beijing 100190 (China); Gao, Weiguo, E-mail: wggao@fudan.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China) [School of Mathematical Sciences, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Computational Physical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Lin-Wang, E-mail: lwwang@lbl.gov [Material Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 50F Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Material Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 50F Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Plane wave pseudopotential (PWP) density functional theory (DFT) calculation is the most widely used method for material simulations, but its absolute speed stagnated due to the inability to use large scale CPU based computers. By a drastic redesign of the algorithm, and moving all the major computation parts into GPU, we have reached a speed of 12 s per molecular dynamics (MD) step for a 512 atom system using 256 GPU cards. This is about 20 times faster than the CPU version of the code regardless of the number of CPU cores used. Our tests and analysis on different GPU platforms and configurations shed lights on the optimal GPU deployments for PWP-DFT calculations. An 1800 step MD simulation is used to study the liquid phase properties of GaInP.
Calculations to assist in a new Hiroshima yield estimate. Final report, August 19-December 31, 1983
Kennedy, L.W.; Roth, L.A.; Needham, C.E.
1984-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes calculations and analysis performed in an attempt to provide a new estimate for the yield of the Hiroshima weapon. Newly discovered meteorological data was adapted for use in one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic codes, and a series of calculations was then run for different values of yield. The objective was to determine what yield produced an overpressure record which could best be correlated with an actual trace measured at a parachute-dropped canister. Altitude of the bomb and canister-carrying aircraft at drop time was also a variable parameter. The analysis provides an estimate of 16.6 + 0.3 kt for the yield of the Hiroshima weapon. A drop altitude of near 35,500 feet is shown to be consistent with the signal time-of-arrival. This yield value is within the range of other estimates, but the drop altitude is higher than that previously assumed to be reasonable.
Sun, Shih-Jye [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ken-Huang; Li, Jia-Yun [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Ju, Shin-Pon, E-mail: jushin-pon@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)
2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z
The simulated annealing basin-hopping method incorporating the penalty function was used to predict the lowest-energy structures for ultrathin tungsten nanowires and nanotubes of different sizes. These predicted structures indicate that tungsten one-dimensional structures at this small scale do not possess B.C.C. configuration as in bulk tungsten material. In order to analyze the relationship between multi-shell geometries and electronic transfer, the electronic and structural properties of tungsten wires and tubes including partial density of state and band structures which were determined and analyzed by quantum chemistry calculations. In addition, in order to understand the application feasibility of these nanowires and tubes on nano-devices such as field emitters or chemical catalysts, the electronic stability of these ultrathin tungsten nanowires was also investigated by density functional theory calculations.
Ab-initio calculations on two-electron ions in strongly coupled plasma environment
Bhattacharyya, S; Mukherjee, T K
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, the controversy between the interpretations of recent measurements on dense aluminum plasma created with Linac coherent light sources (LCLS) X-ray free electron laser (FEL) and Orion laser has been addressed. In both kind of experiments, helium-like and hydrogen-like spectral lines are used for plasma diagnostics . However, there exist no precise theoretical calculations for He-like ions within dense plasma environment. The strong need for an accurate theoretical estimates for spectral properties of He-like ions in strongly coupled plasma environment leads us to perform ab initio calculations in the framework of Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle in Hylleraas coordinates where ion-sphere potential is used. An approach to resolve the long-drawn problem of numerical instability for evaluating two-electron integrals with extended basis inside a finite domain is presented here. The present values of electron densities corresponding to disappearance of different spectral lines obtained within the fram...
Direct Calculation of Ice Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for a Molecular Model of Water
Haji-Akbari, Amir
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Ice formation is ubiquitous in nature, with important consequences in a variety of systems and environments, including biological cells [1], soil [2], aircraft [3], transportation infrastructure [4] and atmospheric clouds [5,6]. However, its intrinsic kinetics and microscopic mechanism are difficult to discern with current experiments. Molecular simulations of ice nucleation are also challenging, and direct rate calculations have only been performed for coarse-grained models of water [7-9]. For the more realistic molecular models, only indirect estimates have been obtained, e.g.~by assuming the validity of classical nucleation theory [10]. Here, we use a path sampling approach to perform the first direct rate calculation of homogeneous nucleation of ice in a molecular model of water. We use TIP4P/Ice [11], the most accurate among the existing molecular models for studying ice polymorphs. By using a novel topological order parameter for distinguishing different polymorphs, we are able to identify a freezing me...
Production of the Weather Year for Energy Calculations Version 2 (WYEC2) data files
Stoffel, T.L.; Rymes, M.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Representative climate data are important for comparing computer simulations of building designs and their resultant energy needs. In 1969, recognizing a growing interest in such data, ASHRAE Technical Committee 4.2--Weather Information (TC4.2), commissioned development of hourly weather files. The resulting data for 51 locations in the US and Canada are called Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC). In 1988, TC4.2 initiated a major revision of the WYEC files. This effort was limited to adding the 26 Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) hourly weather files to the original WYEC database and making many significant improvements and enhancements to the available data elements. Specifically, the need existed to use a consistent time convention, correct excessive solar radiation values, screen the meteorological data for physically impossible values, provide model estimates of additional solar irradiance and illuminance values, and include data quality indicators. The work of revising and improving the WYEC database was done at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The resulting set of 77 revised and corrected hourly weather files are known as WYEC Version 2 or WYEC2 files. This paper describes the NREL production of the WYEC2 data files for ASHRAE.
Baer, Howard; Sreethawong, Warintorn [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Lessa, Andre, E-mail: baer@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: lessa@fma.if.usp.br, E-mail: wstan@nhn.ou.edu [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the relic abundance of mixed axion/neutralino cold dark matter which arises in R-parity conserving supersymmetric (SUSY) models wherein the strong CP problem is solved by the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism with a concommitant axion/saxion/axino supermultiplet. By numerically solving the coupled Boltzmann equations, we include the combined effects of 1. thermal axino production with cascade decays to a neutralino LSP, 2. thermal saxion production and production via coherent oscillations along with cascade decays and entropy injection, 3. thermal neutralino production and re-annihilation after both axino and saxion decays, 4. gravitino production and decay and 5. axion production both thermally and via oscillations. For SUSY models with too high a standard neutralino thermal abundance, we find the combined effect of SUSY PQ particles is not enough to lower the neutralino abundance down to its measured value, while at the same time respecting bounds on late-decaying neutral particles from BBN. However, models with a standard neutralino underabundance can now be allowed with either neutralino or axion domination of dark matter, and furthermore, these models can allow the PQ breaking scale f{sub a} to be pushed up into the 10{sup 14}?10{sup 15} GeV range, which is where it is typically expected to be in string theory models.
Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)
Kerr, Kent
2005-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.
Overview of TRAC-PD2 assessment calculations
Waterman, M E
1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
A summary of Transient Reactor Analysis Code Version PD2 (TRAC-PD2) calculations performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is presented in this report as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRCs) overall assessment program of TRAC-PD2. The calculated and measured parameters summarized in this report are break mass flow rate, primary coolant system pressure, reactor core flow rates, and fuel rod cladding temperatures. The data were obtained from seven tests that were performed at two test facilities. The tests were conducted to study the various aspects of cold leg break transients, including the effects of large and small beaks, and core reflood phenomena. User experience gained from the various calculations is also summarized. 42 figs., 10 tabs.
Indoor design condition and the cooling load calculation
Sun, T.Y. [Sun (Tseng-Yao), Rancho Palos Verde, CA (United States)
1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Cooling load calculation involves two steps. The first is to determine the basic building load. This consists of external loads through the building envelope and internal loads from people, lights, appliances, and other heat sources. The required supply air quantity for each conditioned space generally is determined in the first step. This is because each relates only to the coil leaving and required room dry bulb temperatures (unless reheat is required to control the humidity level in the conditioned space). The second step, after completing the above, is to calculate the system cooling load. This step adapts the selected air distribution system to the building load and involves the introduction of the required outdoor air volume into the air conditioning system for ventilation. Proper psychrometric analysis is required to calculate the entering and leaving wet bulb conditions of the air passing through the cooling coil. These, together with the corresponding dry bulb temperatures, will determine the system cooling load.
TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances
Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...
Boyer, Edmond
Dynamical mean-field theory using Wannier functions: A flexible route to electronic structure materials with different degrees of structural and electronic complexity, SrVO3 and BaVS3, are investigated calculations of strongly correlated materials F. Lechermann,1,2, * A. Georges,1 A. Poteryaev,1 S. Biermann,1 M
Ramos-Mendez, Jose [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 18 Sur and San Claudio Avenue, Puebla, Puebla 72750 (Mexico); Perl, Joseph [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Faddegon, Bruce [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)
2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To present the implementation and validation of a geometrical based variance reduction technique for the calculation of phase space data for proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: The treatment heads at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center were modeled with a new Monte Carlo tool (TOPAS based on Geant4). For variance reduction purposes, two particle-splitting planes were implemented. First, the particles were split upstream of the second scatterer or at the second ionization chamber. Then, particles reaching another plane immediately upstream of the field specific aperture were split again. In each case, particles were split by a factor of 8. At the second ionization chamber and at the latter plane, the cylindrical symmetry of the proton beam was exploited to position the split particles at randomly spaced locations rotated around the beam axis. Phase space data in IAEA format were recorded at the treatment head exit and the computational efficiency was calculated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were analyzed. Dose distributions were compared for a voxelized water phantom for different treatment fields for both the reference and optimized simulations. In addition, dose in two patients was simulated with and without particle splitting to compare the efficiency and accuracy of the technique. Results: A normalized computational efficiency gain of a factor of 10-20.3 was reached for phase space calculations for the different treatment head options simulated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were in reasonable agreement with the simulation done without splitting: within 1% for depth-dose with an average difference of (0.2 {+-} 0.4)%, 1 standard deviation, and a 0.3% statistical uncertainty of the simulations in the high dose region; 1.6% for planar fluence with an average difference of (0.4 {+-} 0.5)% and a statistical uncertainty of 0.3% in the high fluence region. The percentage differences between dose distributions in water for simulations done with and without particle splitting were within the accepted clinical tolerance of 2%, with a 0.4% statistical uncertainty. For the two patient geometries considered, head and prostate, the efficiency gain was 20.9 and 14.7, respectively, with the percentages of voxels with gamma indices lower than unity 98.9% and 99.7%, respectively, using 2% and 2 mm criteria. Conclusions: The authors have implemented an efficient variance reduction technique with significant speed improvements for proton Monte Carlo simulations. The method can be transferred to other codes and other treatment heads.
Fast spectral source integration in black hole perturbation calculations
Seth Hopper; Erik Forseth; Thomas Osburn; Charles R. Evans
2015-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a new technique for achieving spectral accuracy and fast computational performance in a class of black hole perturbation and gravitational self-force calculations involving extreme mass ratios and generic orbits. Called \\emph{spectral source integration} (SSI), this method should see widespread future use in problems that entail (i) point-particle description of the small compact object, (ii) frequency domain decomposition, and (iii) use of the background eccentric geodesic motion. Frequency domain approaches are widely used in both perturbation theory flux-balance calculations and in local gravitational self-force calculations. Recent self-force calculations in Lorenz gauge, using the frequency domain and method of extended homogeneous solutions, have been able to accurately reach eccentricities as high as $e \\simeq 0.7$. We show here SSI successfully applied to Lorenz gauge. In a double precision Lorenz gauge code, SSI enhances the accuracy of results and makes a factor of three improvement in the overall speed. The primary initial application of SSI--for us its \\emph{raison d'\\^{e}tre}--is in an arbitrary precision \\emph{Mathematica} code that computes perturbations of eccentric orbits in the Regge-Wheeler gauge to extraordinarily high accuracy (e.g., 200 decimal places). These high accuracy eccentric orbit calculations would not be possible without the exponential convergence of SSI. We believe the method will extend to work for inspirals on Kerr, and will be the subject of a later publication. SSI borrows concepts from discrete-time signal processing and is used to calculate the mode normalization coefficients in perturbation theory via sums over modest numbers of points around an orbit. A variant of the idea is used to obtain spectral accuracy in solution of the geodesic orbital motion.
Calculation of the strange quark mass using domain wall fermions
Tom Blum; Amarjit Soni; Matthew Wingate
2000-09-18T23:59:59.000Z
We present a first calculation of the strange quark mass using domain wall fermions. This paper contains an overview of the domain wall discretization and a pedagogical presentation of the perturbative calculation necessary for computing the mass renormalization. We combine the latter with numerical simulations to estimate the strange quark mass. Our final result in the quenched approximation is 95(26) MeV in the ${\\bar{MS}}$ scheme at a scale of 2 GeV. We find that domain wall fermions have a small perturbative mass renormalization, similar to Wilson quarks, and exhibit good scaling behavior.
Heat Transfer Calculations for a Fixed CST Bed Column
Lee, S.Y.
2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
In support of the crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange project of High-Level Waste (HLW) Process Engineering, a transient two-dimensional heat transfer model that includes the conduction process neglecting the convection cooling mechanism inside the CST column has been constructed and heat transfer calculations made for the present design configurations. For this situation, a no process flow condition through the column was assumed as one of the reference conditions for the simulation of a loss-of-flow accident. The modeling and calculations were performed using a computational heat transfer approach.
Excited State Effects in Nucleon Matrix Element Calculations
Constantia Alexandrou, Martha Constantinou, Simon Dinter, Vincent Drach, Karl Jansen, Theodoros Leontiou, Dru B Renner
2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We perform a high-statistics precision calculation of nucleon matrix elements using an open sink method allowing us to explore a wide range of sink-source time separations. In this way the influence of excited states of nucleon matrix elements can be studied. As particular examples we present results for the nucleon axial charge g{sub A} and for the first moment of the isovector unpolarized parton distribution x{sub u-d}. In addition, we report on preliminary results using the generalized eigenvalue method for nucleon matrix elements. All calculations are performed using N{sub f} = 2+1+1 maximally twisted mass Wilson fermions.
Analytic calculation of 1-jettiness in DIS at O (?s)
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Kang, Daekyoung; Lee, Christopher; Stewart, Iain W.
2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
We present an analytic O(?s) calculation of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) dependent on an event shape, 1-jettiness, that probes final states with one jet plus initial state radiation. This is the first entirely analytic calculation for a DIS event shape cross section at this order. We present results for the differential and cumulative 1-jettiness cross sections, and express both in terms of structure functions dependent not only on the usual DIS variables x, Q 2 but also on the 1-jettiness ?. Combined with previous results for log resummation, predictions are obtained over the entire range of themore »1-jettiness distribution.« less
RADIATION DOSE CALCULATION FOR FUEL HANDLING FACILITY CLOSURE CELL EQUIPMENT
D. Musat
2005-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
This calculation evaluates the energy deposition rates in silicon, gamma and neutron flux spectra at various locations of interest throughout FHF closure cell. The physical configuration features a complex geometry, with particle flux attenuation of many orders of magnitude that cannot be modeled by computer codes that use deterministic methods. Therefore, in this calculation the Monte Carlo method was used to solve the photon and neutron transport. In contrast with the deterministic methods, Monte Carlo does not solve an explicit transport equation, but rather obtain answers by simulating individual particles, recording the aspects of interest of their average behavior, and estimates the statistical precision of the results.
New approach to calculating the potential energy of colliding nuclei
Kurmanov, R. S., E-mail: kurmanovrs@mail.ru [Omsk State Transport University (Russian Federation); Kosenko, G. I., E-mail: kosenkophys@gmail.com [Omsk Tank Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)
2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
The differential method proposed by the present authors earlier for the reduction of volume integrals in calculating the potential energy of a compound nucleus is generalized to the case of two interacting nuclei. The Coulomb interaction energy is obtained for the cases of a sharp and a diffuse boundary of nuclei, while the nuclear interaction energy is found only for nuclei with a sharp boundary, the finiteness of the nuclear-force range being taken into account. The present method of calculations permits reducing the time it takes to compute the potential energy at least by two orders of magnitude.
A Parallel Orbital-Updating Approach for Electronic Structure Calculations
Xiaoying Dai; Xingao Gong; Aihui Zhou; Jinwei Zhu
2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we propose an orbital iteration based parallel approach for electronic structure calculations. This approach is based on our understanding of the single-particle equations of independent particles that move in an effective potential. With this new approach, the solution of the single-particle equation is reduced to some solutions of independent linear algebraic systems and a small scale algebraic problem. It is demonstrated by our numerical experiments that this new approach is quite efficient for full-potential calculations for a class of molecular systems.
Semiclassical framework for the calculation of transport anisotropies
Vyborny, Karel; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
microscopic calculations and a simple physical model was recently found in the diluted magnetic semiconductor10,11 #1;Ga,Mn#2;As whose band structure is much simpler. Despite the long history of the AMR research, the ques- tion has not been answered... the main body of the paper by discussing the relevance of our model calculations for the AMR in magnetic semiconductors and by summarizing the key elements of the theoretical framework we have developed. Appendixes A?G contain de- tails of our...
Improved guidelines for RELAP4/MOD6 reflood calculations. [PWR
Chen, T.H.; Fletcher, C.D.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Computer simulations were performed for an extensive selection of forced- and gravity-feed reflood experiments. This effort was a portion of the assessment procedure for the RELAP4/MOD6 thermal hydraulic computer code. A common set of guidelines, based on recommendations from the code developers, was used in determining the model and user-selected input options for each calculation. The comparison of code-calculated and experimental data was then used to assess the capability of the RELAP4/MOD6 code to model the reflood phenomena. As a result of the assessment, the guidelines for determining the user-selected input options were improved.
Additional nuclear criticality safety calculations for small-diameter containers
Hone, M.J.
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents additional criticality safety analysis calculations for small diameter containers, which were originally documented in Reference 1. The results in Reference 1 indicated that some of the small diameter containers did not meet the criteria established for criticality safety at the Portsmouth facility (K{sub eff} +2{sigma}<.95) when modeled under various contingency assumptions of reflection and moderation. The calculations performed in this report reexamine those cases which did not meet the criticality safety criteria. In some cases, unnecessary conservatism is removed, and in other cases mass or assay limits are established for use with the respective containers.
Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.
ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMINGARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING Program Spreadsheet GSF, NSF, NOSF Calculation
Heller, Barbara
ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMINGARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING Program Spreadsheet GSF, NSF, NOSF Calculation? This is an estimate, based on: · Experience doing these types of layouts · Studying existing successful plans of similar projects (doing area take-offs) #12;To get NOSF* - Guidelines for adding circulation · % of space
Efficient Calculation of Statistical Moments for Structural Health Monitoring
Sweetman, Bert
Efficient Calculation of Statistical Moments for Structural Health Monitoring Myoungkeun Choi sen- sor packages have shown considerable promise in providing low-cost Structural Health Monitoring@tamu.edu, Telephone:(409) 740-4834, Fax:(409) 741-7153 1 Journal of Structural Health Monitoring, January 1, 2010, Vol
SHADING CALCULATIONS FOR THE BIG DISH Jeff Cumpston1
shading fraction in a field of dish-Stirling systems for a given ground-cover ratio1 , g, as a function an economic analysis of a large dish-Stirling field by simulating a dish-field with separation determinedSHADING CALCULATIONS FOR THE BIG DISH Jeff Cumpston1 , John Pye2 , and Keith Lovegrove3 1 B science
EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages
S. LeStrange
1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality.
Calculation of the RayleighSommerfeld diffraction integral by exact
Calculation of the RayleighSommerfeld diffraction integral by exact integration of the fast of constant (possibly complex) index of refraction n. The method integrates the RayleighSommerfeld diffraction integral numerically. After an appropriate change of integration variables, the integrand
2004 Compliance Recertification Application Performance Assessment Baseline Calculation
2004 Compliance Recertification Application Performance Assessment Baseline Calculation Revision O Sandia National Laboratories Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 Compliance Recertification Application (2 ~"f, Date QA Review Mario Chavez Print WIPP: 1.4.1.1.:P A:QA-L:540232 lof153 #12;2004 Compliance
Solution of Large Eigenvalue Problems in Electronic Structure Calculations \\Lambda
Stathopoulos, Andreas
Solution of Large Eigenvalue Problems in Electronic Structure Calculations \\Lambda Y. Saad y , A the structural and electronic properties of complex systems is one of the outstanding problems in condensed external perturbations. For example, it may be desirable in certain cases to follow the dynamics of atoms/electrons
Patent Citation Analysis: Calculating Science linkage based on Citing Motivation
Menczer, Filippo
1 Patent Citation Analysis: Calculating Science linkage based on Citing Motivation Rui Li used patent bibliometric indicator to measure patent linkage to scientific research based on the frequency of citations to scientific papers within the patent. Science linkage is also regarded as noisy
Calculation of Extreme Wave Loads on Coastal Highway Bridges
Meng, Bo
2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
force on bridge decks. 2D Model is a linear wave model, which has the capability of calculating wave velocity potential components in time domain based on wave parameters such as wave height, wave period and water depth, and complex structural geometries...
Vol.11,No.1,January-February 1995 Calculations
JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER Vol.11,No.1,January-February 1995 Calculations for Steady, and trailing oblique shock. The reaction strengthens the lead shock tothe extent that the far-field wave angle to balance the wave drag. Fora fixed heat release greater than a critical value, two steady propagation
Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach
Hughes, Larry
that are targeted to the demand. This paper demonstrates this by removing the equivalent residential emissions from their space heating demand from oil to electricity, the emissions shift from A.4.b (Residential) to A.1.aCalculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan
RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections
Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire, DEN/DM2S/SERMA/LENR, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)
Improving Cost Calculations for Global Constraints in Local Search
Rossi, Francesca
Improving Cost Calculations for Global Constraints in Local Search Markus Bohlin Swedish Institute- straint satisfaction is based on local minimization of a cost function, which is usually the number equivalent to a set of basic constraints but still contributes as little to the cost as a single basic
Fuzzy-probabilistic calculations of water-balance uncertainty
Faybishenko, B.
2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Hydrogeological systems are often characterized by imprecise, vague, inconsistent, incomplete, or subjective information, which may limit the application of conventional stochastic methods in predicting hydrogeologic conditions and associated uncertainty. Instead, redictions and uncertainty analysis can be made using uncertain input parameters expressed as probability boxes, intervals, and fuzzy numbers. The objective of this paper is to present the theory for, and a case study as an application of, the fuzzyprobabilistic approach, ombining probability and possibility theory for simulating soil water balance and assessing associated uncertainty in the components of a simple waterbalance equation. The application of this approach is demonstrated using calculations with the RAMAS Risk Calc code, to ssess the propagation of uncertainty in calculating potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, and infiltration-in a case study at the Hanford site, Washington, USA. Propagation of uncertainty into the results of water-balance calculations was evaluated by hanging he types of models of uncertainty incorporated into various input parameters. The results of these fuzzy-probabilistic calculations are compared to the conventional Monte Carlo simulation approach and estimates from field observations at the Hanford site.
Ironless Permanent Magnet Motors: Three-Dimensional Analytical Calculation
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
of the magnetic torque exerted between a tile permanent magnet radially magnetized and a winding in ironless structures. Such an expression can be used for calculating the magnetic torque transmitted between the stator or winding dimensions. The ironless structure we consider in this paper is commonly used for high speed
Calculated Phonon Spectra of Plutonium at High Temperatures
Savrasov, Sergej Y.
Calculated Phonon Spectra of Plutonium at High Temperatures X. Dai,1 S. Y. Savrasov,2 * G. Kotliar dynamical proper- ties of plutonium using an electronic structure method, which incorporates correlation anharmonic and can be stabilized at high temperatures by its phonon entropy. Plutonium (Pu) is a material
SEMIEMPIRICAL MOLECULAR ORBITAL CALCULATIONS OF BAND GAPS OF CONJUGATED POLYMERS
Goddard III, William A.
SEMIEMPIRICAL MOLECULAR ORBITAL CALCULATIONS OF BAND GAPS OF CONJUGATED POLYMERS Tahir Cagin Research and Development Center, Materials Labarotory, Polymer Branch, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 geometries and energy band gaps of conjugated polymers. In this study, we used a modified version of semi
Subject Positions and Derivational Scope Calculation in Minimalist Syntax
Subject Positions and Derivational Scope Calculation in Minimalist Syntax: A Phase-Based Approach without any other special implement. 1 Introduction This paper explores the correlation between subject in subject positions across languages. We claim that unlike English Nominative Case, C, rather than
General calculations using graphics hardware, with application to interactive caustics
Stewart, James
General calculations using graphics hardware, with application to interactive caustics Chris Trendall and A. James Stewart iMAGIS--GRAVIR/IMAG and University of Toronto Abstract. Graphics hardware has been developed with image production in mind, but current hardware can be exploited for much more
CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE
Su, Xiao
CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY A LEARNING TOOL By a complete supply chain #12;Carbon Footprint Supply Chain Carbon Trust defines carbon footprint of a supply chain as follows: "The carbon footprint of a product is the carbon dioxide emitted across the supply
Calculating coherent pair production with Monte Carlo methods
Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss calculations of the coherent electromagnetic pair production in ultra-relativistic hadron collisions. This type of production, in lowest order, is obtained from three diagrams which contain two virtual photons. We discuss simple Monte Carlo methods for evaluating these classes of diagrams without recourse to involved algebraic reduction schemes. 19 refs., 11 figs.
HOPF CALCULATIONS IN DELAYED CAR-FOLLOWING MODELS Gabor Stepan
Awtar, Shorya
HOPF CALCULATIONS IN DELAYED CAR-FOLLOWING MODELS G´abor St´ep´an and G´abor Orosz Department: A nonlinear car-following model that includes the reaction-time delay of drivers is considered. When, bistability 1. INTRODUCTION There are two important goals of traffic manage- ment when cars follow each other
Using Graphical Representations to Support the Calculation of Infusion Parameters
Subramanian, Sriram
Using Graphical Representations to Support the Calculation of Infusion Parameters Sandy J. J. Gould in which participants were asked to solve a num- ber of infusion parameter problems that were represented representations transfer to actual workplace settings. Keywords: Graphical reasoning, infusion pumps, re
Systematic perturbation calculation of integrals with applications to physics
Paolo Amore; Alfredo Aranda; Francisco M. Fernandez; Ricardo A. Saenz
2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we generalize and improve a method for calculating the period of a classical oscillator and other integrals of physical interest, which was recently developed by some of the authors. We derive analytical expressions that prove to be more accurate than those commonly found in the literature, and test the convergence of the series produced by the approach.
ELECTROMOTION 2009 3D Analytical Calculation of Forces between
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Co or NdFeB, the designers can use magnets owning a really rigid magnetization. They are the magnets whichELECTROMOTION 2009 1 3D Analytical Calculation of Forces between Linear Halbach-Type Permanent Magnet Arrays H. Allag1,2 , J-P. Yonnet1 and M. E. H. Latreche2 1- Laboratoire de GÃ©nie Electrique de
Calculation Method of Permanent Magnet Pickups for Electric Guitars
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
in the 1930s, when Rickenbacker fitted out a guitar with a magnet and coils, thus designing the first magnetic to look at the types of magnetic circuit for the guitar pickups. We consider in this paper the most usual1 Calculation Method of Permanent Magnet Pickups for Electric Guitars G. Lemarquand and V
AI A A-90-0688 Multigrid Euler Calculations
Jameson, Antony
the three-dimensional Euler equations is applied to cascade calculation. Test cases of a VKI turbine cascade on blade surfaces show good agreements with experimental data at design conditions, while dis- crepancy support the theory that the development of passage and horse-shoe vortices in cascades is, to a large
Alternative similarity renormalization group generators in nuclear structure calculations
Nuiok M. Dicaire; Conor Omand; Petr Navratil
2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
The similarity renormalization group (SRG) has been successfully applied to soften interactions for ab initio nuclear calculations. In almost all practical applications in nuclear physics, an SRG generator with the kinetic energy operator is used. With this choice, a fast convergence of many-body calculations can be achieved, but at the same time substantial three-body interactions are induced even if one starts from a purely two-nucleon (NN) Hamiltonian. Three-nucleon (3N) interactions can be handled by modern many-body methods. However, it has been observed that when including initial chiral 3N forces in the Hamiltonian, the SRG transformations induce a non-negligible four-nucleon interaction that cannot be currently included in the calculations for technical reasons. Consequently, it is essential to investigate alternative SRG generators that might suppress the induction of many-body forces while at the same time might preserve the good convergence. In this work we test two alternative generators with operators of block structure in the harmonic oscillator basis. In the no-core shell model calculations for 3H, 4He and 6Li with chiral NN force, we demonstrate that their performances appear quite promising.
AIM: Web-Based, Residential Energy Calculator for Homeowners
Marshall, K.; Moss, M.; Liu, B.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J.; Herbert, C.
house using a minimum number of inputs. To accomplish this, AIM uses DOE-2 loads simulations and a simplified systems model. To simplify the use of the calculator, parameters such as window U-factor, roof and wall insulation, which are normally required...
Vacuum Calculations in Azimuthally Symmetric Geometry \\Lambda M. S. Chance
Vacuum Calculations in Azimuthally Symmetric Geometry \\Lambda M. S. Chance Princeton University the volume integrated perturbed magnetic energy in the vacuum region or through the continuity requirements plasmavacuum boundary. The method is based upon using Green's second identity and the method
Vacuum Calculations in Azimuthally Symmetric Geometry M. S. Chance
Vacuum Calculations in Azimuthally Symmetric Geometry M. S. Chance Princeton University Plasma energy in the vacuum region or through the continuity requirements for the normal component of the perturbed magnetic #12;eld and the total perturbed pressure across the unperturbed plasma-vacuum boundary
Semiclassical calculation of an induced decay of false vacuum
A. Monin; M. B. Voloshin
2010-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a model where a scalar field develops a metastable vacuum state and weakly interacts with another scalar field. In this situation we find the probability of decay of the false vacuum stimulated by the presence and collisions of particles of the second field. The discussed calculation is an illustration of the recently suggested thermal approach to treatment of induced semiclassical processes.
Comparison of TRAC calculations with experimental data. [PWR
Jackson, J.F.; Vigil, J.C.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
TRAC is an advanced best-estimate computer code for analyzing postulated accidents in light water reactors. This paper gives a brief description of the code followed by comparisons of TRAC calculations with data from a variety of separate-effects, system-effects, and integral experiments. Based on these comparisons, the capabilities and limitations of the early versions of TRAC are evaluated.
CALCULATION OF THE NEUTRON NOISE INDUCED BY SHELL-MODE
Demazière, Christophe
CALCULATION OF THE NEUTRON NOISE INDUCED BY SHELL-MODE FISSION REACTORS CORE-BARREL VIBRATIONS-REGION SLAB REACTOR MODEL CARL SUNDE,* CHRISTOPHE DEMAZIÈRE, and IMRE PÁZSIT Chalmers University of Technology. 5 gives a self-contained description of the principles of fluctuation analysis for the diagnostics
Atomic Structure Calculations from the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Codes
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Cowan, R. D.
The well known Hartree-Fock method of R.D. Cowan, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is used for the atomic structure calculations. Electron impact excitation cross sections are calculated using either the distorted wave approximation (DWA) or the first order many body theory (FOMBT). Electron impact ionization cross sections can be calculated using the scaled hydrogenic method developed by Sampson and co-workers, the binary encounter method or the distorted wave method. Photoionization cross sections and, where appropriate, autoionizations are also calculated. Original manuals for the atomic structure code, the collisional excitation code, and the ionization code, are available from this website. Using the specialized interface, you will be able to define the ionization stage of an element and pick the initial and final configurations. You will be led through a series of web pages ending with a display of results in the form of cross sections, collision strengths or rates coefficients. Results are available in tabular and graphic form.
Appalakondaiah, S.; Vaitheeswaran, G., E-mail: gvaithee@gmail.com [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Lebègue, S. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique et Modélisations (CRM2, UMR CNRS 7036), Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, BP 239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)] [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique et Modélisations (CRM2, UMR CNRS 7036), Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, BP 239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)
2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
The effects of pressure on the structural and vibrational properties of the layered molecular crystal 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethelene (FOX-7) are explored by first principles calculations. We observe significant changes in the calculated structural properties with different corrections for treating van der Waals interactions to Density Functional Theory (DFT), as compared with standard DFT functionals. In particular, the calculated ground state lattice parameters, volume and bulk modulus obtained with Grimme's scheme, are found to agree well with experiments. The calculated vibrational frequencies demonstrate the dependence of the intra and inter-molecular interactions on FOX-7 under pressure. In addition, we also found a significant increment in the N–H...O hydrogen bond strength under compression. This is explained by the change in bond lengths between nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, as well as calculated IR spectra under pressure. Finally, the computed band gap is about 2.3 eV with generalized gradient approximation, and is enhanced to 5.1 eV with the GW approximation, which reveals the importance of performing quasiparticle calculations in high energy density materials.
Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.
Monajemi, T. T.; Clements, Charles M.; Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada) and Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)
2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants that incorporates a clinically motivated model for edema and (ii) to illustrate the use of the method by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error for a reference configuration of {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 137}Cs seeds subject to edema-induced motions corresponding to a variety of model parameters. Methods: A model for spatially anisotropic edema that resolves linearly with time was developed based on serial magnetic resonance imaging measurements made previously at our center to characterize the edema for a group of n=40 prostate implant patients [R. S. Sloboda et al., ''Time course of prostatic edema post permanent seed implant determined by magnetic resonance imaging,'' Brachytherapy 9, 354-361 (2010)]. Model parameters consisted of edema magnitude, {Delta}, and period, T. The TG-43 dose calculation formalism for a point source was extended to incorporate the edema model, thus enabling calculation via numerical integration of the cumulative dose around an individual seed in the presence of edema. Using an even power piecewise-continuous polynomial representation for the radial dose function, the cumulative dose was also expressed in closed analytical form. Application of the method was illustrated by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error, RE{sub preplan}, in a 5x5x5 cm{sup 3} volume for {sup 125}I (Oncura 6711), {sup 103}Pd (Theragenics 200), and {sup 131}Cs (IsoRay CS-1) seeds arranged in the Radiological Physics Center test case 2 configuration for a range of edema relative magnitudes ({Delta}=[0.1,0.2,0.4,0.6,1.0]) and periods (T=[28,56,84] d). Results were compared to preimplant dosimetry errors calculated using a variation of the isotropic edema model developed by Chen et al. [''Dosimetric effects of edema in permanent prostate seed implants: A rigorous solution,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 47, 1405-1419 (2000)]. Results: As expected, RE{sub preplan} for our edema model indicated underdosage in the calculation volume with a clear dependence on seed and calculation point positions, and increased with increasing values of {Delta} and T. Values of RE{sub preplan} were generally larger near the ends of the virtual prostate in the RPC phantom compared with more central locations. For edema characteristics similar to the population average values previously measured at our center, i.e., {Delta}=0.2 and T=28 d, mean values of RE{sub preplan} in an axial plane located 1.5 cm from the center of the seed distribution were 8.3% for {sup 131}Cs seeds, 7.5% for {sup 103}Pd seeds, and 2.2% for {sup 125}I seeds. Maximum values of RE{sub preplan} in the same plane were about 1.5 times greater. Note that detailed results strictly apply only for loose seed implants where the seeds are fixed in tissue and move in synchrony with that tissue. Conclusions: A dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema was developed for which cumulative dose can be written in closed form. The method yields values for RE{sub preplan} that differ from those for spatially isotropic edema. The method is suitable for calculating pre- and postimplant dosimetry correction factors for clinical seed configurations when edema characteristics can be measured or estimated.
Thermonuclear reaction rate of $^{18}$Ne($?$,$p$)$^{21}$Na from Monte-Carlo calculations
P. Mohr; R. Longland; C. Iliadis
2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z
The $^{18}$Ne($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{21}$Na reaction impacts the break-out from the hot CNO-cycles to the $rp$-process in type I X-ray bursts. We present a revised thermonuclear reaction rate, which is based on the latest experimental data. The new rate is derived from Monte-Carlo calculations, taking into account the uncertainties of all nuclear physics input quantities. In addition, we present the reaction rate uncertainty and probability density versus temperature. Our results are also consistent with estimates obtained using different indirect approaches.
Thermonuclear reaction rate of $^{18}$Ne($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{21}$Na from Monte-Carlo calculations
Mohr, P; Iliadis, C
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The $^{18}$Ne($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{21}$Na reaction impacts the break-out from the hot CNO-cycles to the $rp$-process in type I X-ray bursts. We present a revised thermonuclear reaction rate, which is based on the latest experimental data. The new rate is derived from Monte-Carlo calculations, taking into account the uncertainties of all nuclear physics input quantities. In addition, we present the reaction rate uncertainty and probability density versus temperature. Our results are also consistent with estimates obtained using different indirect approaches.
Some differences between Dirac's hole theory and quantum field theory
Dan Solomon
2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
Diracs hole theory (HT) and quantum field theory (QFT) are generally considered to be equivalent to each other. However, it has been recently shown by several researchers that this is not necessarily the case. When the change in the vacuum energy was calculated for a time independent perturbation HT and QFT yielded different results. In this paper we extend this discussion to include a time dependent perturbation for which the exact solution to the Dirac equation is known. It will be shown that for this case, also, HT and QFT yield different results. In addition, there will be some discussion of the problem of anomalies in QFT.
Use of SCALE Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Tools for Eigenvalue Sensitivity Coefficient Calculations
Perfetti, Christopher M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL] [ORNL
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The TSUNAMI code within the SCALE code system makes use of eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients for an extensive number of criticality safety applications, such as quantifying the data-induced uncertainty in the eigenvalue of critical systems, assessing the neutronic similarity between different critical systems, and guiding nuclear data adjustment studies. The need to model geometrically complex systems with improved fidelity and the desire to extend TSUNAMI analysis to advanced applications has motivated the development of a methodology for calculating sensitivity coefficients in continuous-energy (CE) Monte Carlo applications. The CLUTCH and Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) eigenvalue sensitivity methods were recently implemented in the CE KENO framework to generate the capability for TSUNAMI-3D to perform eigenvalue sensitivity calculations in continuous-energy applications. This work explores the improvements in accuracy that can be gained in eigenvalue and eigenvalue sensitivity calculations through the use of the SCALE CE KENO and CE TSUNAMI continuous-energy Monte Carlo tools as compared to multigroup tools. The CE KENO and CE TSUNAMI tools were used to analyze two difficult models of critical benchmarks, and produced eigenvalue and eigenvalue sensitivity coefficient results that showed a marked improvement in accuracy. The CLUTCH sensitivity method in particular excelled in terms of efficiency and computational memory requirements.
Theoretical calculations and vibrational potential energy surface of 4-silaspiro(3,3)heptane
Ocola, Esther J.; Medders, Cross; Laane, Jaan, E-mail: laane@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States); Meinander, Niklas [Department of Military Technology, Finnish National Defence University, P.O. Box 7, 00861 Helsinki (Finland)] [Department of Military Technology, Finnish National Defence University, P.O. Box 7, 00861 Helsinki (Finland)
2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
Theoretical computations have been carried out on 4-silaspiro(3,3)heptane (SSH) in order to calculate its molecular structure and conformational energies. The molecule has two puckered four-membered rings with dihedral angles of 34.2° and a tilt angle of 9.4° between the two rings. Energy calculations were carried out for different conformations of SSH. These results allowed the generation of a two-dimensional ring-puckering potential energy surface (PES) of the form V = a(x{sub 1}{sup 4} + x{sub 2}{sup 4}) – b(x{sub 1}{sup 2} + x{sub 2}{sup 2}) + cx{sub 1}{sup 2}x{sub 2}{sup 2}, where x{sub 1} and x{sub 2} are the ring-puckering coordinates for the two rings. The presence of sufficiently high potential energy barriers prevents the molecule from undergoing pseudorotation. The quantum states, wave functions, and predicted spectra resulting from the PESs were calculated.
Study of cosmic ray interaction model based on atmospheric muons for the neutrino flux calculation
Sanuki, T.; Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan); Faculty of Software and Information Technology, Aomori University, 2-3-1 Kobata, Aomori, Aomori 030-0943 (Japan)
2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
We have studied the hadronic interaction for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by summarizing the accurately measured atmospheric muon flux data and comparing with simulations. We find the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes respond to errors in the {pi}-production of the hadronic interaction similarly, and compare the atmospheric muon flux calculated using the HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).] code with experimental measurements. The {mu}{sup +}+{mu}{sup -} data show good agreement in the 1{approx}30 GeV/c range, but a large disagreement above 30 GeV/c. The {mu}{sup +}/{mu}{sup -} ratio shows sizable differences at lower and higher momenta for opposite directions. As the disagreements are considered to be due to assumptions in the hadronic interaction model, we try to improve it phenomenologically based on the quark parton model. The improved interaction model reproduces the observed muon flux data well. The calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux will be reported in the following paper [M. Honda et al., Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).].
Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code
Li, G. Q., E-mail: ligq@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); FSC, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.
Munir, A.; Hensel, O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering,University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr. 1 a 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Scheffler, W. [Solar Bruecke G.v.Werdenbergstr.6 D-89344 Aislingen (Germany)
2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Scheffler fixed focus concentrators are successfully used for medium temperature applications in different parts of the world. These concentrators are taken as lateral sections of paraboloids and provide fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations throughout the year. The paper presents a complete description about the design principle and construction details of an 8 m{sup 2} surface area Scheffler concentrator. The first part of the paper presents the mathematical calculations to design the reflector parabola curve and reflector elliptical frame with respect to equinox (solar declination = 0) by selecting a specific lateral part of a paraboloid. Crossbar equations and their ellipses, arc lengths and their radii are also calculated to form the required lateral section of the paraboloid. Thereafter, the seasonal parabola equations are calculated for two extreme positions of summer and winter in the northern hemisphere (standing reflectors). The slopes of the parabola equations for equinox (solar declination = 0), summer (solar declination = +23.5) and winter (solar declination = -23.5) for the Scheffler reflector (8 m{sup 2} surface area) are calculated to be 0.17, 0.28, and 0.13 respectively. The y-intercepts of the parabola equations for equinox, summer and winter are calculated as 0, 0.54, and -0.53 respectively. By comparing with the equinox parabola curve, the summer parabola is found to be smaller in size and uses the top part of the parabola curve while the winter parabola is bigger in size and uses the lower part of the parabola curve to give the fixed focus. For this purpose, the reflector assembly is composed of flexible crossbars and a frame to induce the required change of the parabola curves with the changing solar declination. The paper also presents the calculation procedure of seasonal parabola equations for standing reflectors in the southern hemisphere as well as for laying reflectors in the northern and southern hemispheres. Highly reflective aluminium sheets are used on the crossbar profiles to complete the concentrator. The reflector is installed at the required site by setting its axis of rotation at an angle equal to the latitude of the site. For daily tracking, these concentrators rotate along an axis parallel to the polar axis of the earth at an angular velocity of one revolution per day with the help of simpler and cheaper self-tracking devices. For seasonal tracking, the reflector rotates at half the solar declination angle with the help of a telescopic clamp mechanism. The design procedure is simple, flexible and does not need any special computational setup, thus offering the prospect of potential application in domestic as well as industrial configurations. (author)
Mueller, S; Dunn, JB; Wang, M (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago)
2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released May 31, 2012 which includes corn, as did the previous CCLUB version, and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. CCLUB calculations are based upon two data sets: land change areas and above- and below-ground carbon content. Table 1 identifies where these data are stored and used within the CCLUB model, which is built in MS Excel. Land change area data is from Purdue University's Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) economic model. Section 2 describes the GTAP data CCLUB uses and how these data were modified to reflect shrubland transitions. Feedstock- and spatially-explicit below-ground carbon content data for the United States were generated with a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic carbon sub-model (Kwon and Hudson 2010) as described in Section 3. CENTURY is a soil organic matter model developed by Parton et al. (1987). The previous CCLUB version used more coarse domestic carbon emission factors. Above-ground non-soil carbon content data for forest ecosystems was sourced from the USDA/NCIAS Carbon Online Estimator (COLE) as explained in Section 4. We discuss emission factors used for calculation of international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Section 5. Temporal issues associated with modeling LUC emissions are the topic of Section 6. Finally, in Section 7 we provide a step-by-step guide to using CCLUB and obtaining results.
Bandgap calculations and trends of organometal halide perovskites
Castelli, Ivano E., E-mail: ivca@fysik.dtu.dk; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); García-Lastra, Juan María [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, DK 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Energy production from the Sun requires a stable efficient light absorber. Promising candidates in this respect are organometal perovskites (ABX{sub 3}), which have been intensely investigated during the last years. Here, we have performed electronic structure calculations of 240 perovskites composed of Cs, CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}, and HC(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as A-cation, Sn and Pb as B-ion, and a combination of Cl, Br, and I as anions. The calculated gaps span over a region from 0.5 to 5.0 eV. In addition, the trends over bandgaps have been investigated: the bandgap increases with an increase of the electronegativities of the constituent species, while it reduces with an increase of the lattice constants of the system.
Energy levels of isoelectronic impurities by large scale LDA calculations
Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang
2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
Isoelectronic impurity states are localized states induced by stoichiometric single atom substitution in bulk semiconductor. Photoluminescence spectra indicate deep impurity levels of 0.5 to 0.9eV above the top of valence band for systems like: GaN:As, GaN:P, CdS:Te, ZnS:Te. Previous calculations based on small supercells seemingly confirmed these experimental results. However, the current ab initio calculations based on thousand atom supercells indicate that the impurity levels of the above systems are actually much shallower(0.04 to 0.23 eV), and these impurity levels should be compared with photoluminescence excitation spectra, not photoluminescence spectra.
Calculation of thermal parameters of SiGe microbolometers
Voitsekhovskii, A V; Yuryev, V A; Nesmelov, S N; 10.1007/s11182-008-9015-4
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The thermal parameters of a SiGe microbolometer were calculated using numerical modeling. The calculated thermal conduction and thermal response time are in good agreement with the values found experimentally and range between 2x10$^-7$ and 7x10$^-8$ W/K and 1.5 and 4.5 ms, respectively. High sensitivity of microbolometer is achieved due to optimization of the thermal response time and thermal conduction by fitting the geometry of supporting heat-removing legs or by selection of a suitable material providing boundary thermal resistance higher than 8x10$^-3$ cm$^2$K/W at the SiGe interface.
Calculations of multiquark functions in effective models of strong interaction
Jafarov, R. G., E-mail: raufjafarov@bsu.az [Institute for Physical Problems of Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Rochev, V. E. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Theoretical Division (Russian Federation)] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Theoretical Division (Russian Federation)
2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we present our results of the investigation of multiquark equations in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with chiral symmetry of SU(2) group in the mean-field expansion. To formulate the mean-field expansion we have used an iteration scheme of solution of the Schwinger-Dyson equations with the fermion bilocal source. We have considered the equations for Green functions of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model up to third step for this iteration scheme. To calculate the high-order corrections to the mean-field approximation, we propose the method of the Legendre transformation with respect to the bilocal source, which allows effectively to take into account the symmetry constraints related with the chiral Ward identity. We discuss also the problem of calculating the multiquark functions in the mean-field expansion for Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type models with other types of the multifermion sources.
Quantum mechanical calculation of Rydberg-Rydberg Auger decay rates
Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui; Jaksch, Dieter
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present quantum mechanical calculations of the Auger decay rate $\\Gamma_A$ of two Rubidium Rydberg atoms with weakly overlapping electron clouds. The two-electron wavefunction is modelled by a single Slater determinant of $nd$ Rydberg orbitals with principal quantum number $n\\le35$. The dependence of $\\Gamma_A$ on the atom-atom separation $R$ is well described by a power law $\\Gamma_A \\propto R^{\\alpha}$ and we calculate the exponents $\\alpha$ for various initial states. For atomic separations equal to the size of the Rydberg electron wave function $R_n$ we find that $\\Gamma_A \\propto n^{-5}$. We discuss the importance of Auger decay compared to other contributions to the electron dynamics in the two Rydberg atom system.
Mesoscale polycrystal calculations of damage in spallation in metals
Tonks, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this project is to produce a damage model for spallation in metals informed by the polycrystalline grain structure at the mesoscale. Earlier damage models addressed the continuwn macroscale in which these effects were averaged out. In this work we focus on cross sections from recovered samples examined with EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction), which reveal crystal grain orientations and voids. We seek to understand the loading histories of specific sample regions by meshing up the crystal grain structure of these regions and simulating the stress, strain, and damage histories in our hydro code, FLAG. The stresses and strain histories are the fundamental drivers of damage and must be calculated. The calculated final damage structures are compared with those from the recovered samples to validate the simulations.
On the calculation of percentile-based bibliometric indicators
Waltman, Ludo
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A percentile-based bibliometric indicator is an indicator that values publications based on their position within the citation distribution of their field. The most straightforward percentile-based indicator is the proportion of frequently cited publications, for instance the proportion of publications that belong to the top 10% most frequently cited of their field. Recently, more complex percentile-based indicators were proposed. A difficulty in the calculation of percentile-based indicators is caused by the discrete nature of citation distributions combined with the presence of many publications with the same number of citations. We introduce an approach to calculating percentile-based indicators that deals with this difficulty in a more satisfactory way than earlier approaches suggested in the literature. We show in a formal mathematical framework that our approach leads to indicators that do not suffer from biases in favor of or against particular fields of science.
CALOR89 calorimeter simulations, benchmarking, and design calculations
Handler, T. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Panakkal, J.K.; Proudfoot, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Cremaldi, L.; Moore, B.; Reidy, J.J. (Mississippi Univ., University, MS (USA)); Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Fu, P.; Gabriel, T.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Results on CALOR89 benchmarking and design calculations utilizing the CALOR89 programs are presented. The benchmarking is done with respect to the ZEUS and DO calorimeters. The design calculations were done for a variety of absorbers (depleted uranium, lead, and iron) of various thickness for a given scintillator thickness and for a fixed absorber thickness using various thickness for the scintillator. These studies indicate that a compensating calorimeter can be built using lead as the absorber, whereas a purely iron calorimeter would be non-compensating. A depleted uranium calorimeter would possibly be unsuitable if used in a large configuration and a high luminosity machine because of the delayed energy release from capture gammas. 11 refs., 5 figs.
SOLGAS refined: A computerized thermodynamic equilibrium calculation tool
Trowbridge, L.D.; Leitnaker, J.M.
1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
SOLGAS, an early computer program for calculating equilibrium in a chemical system, has been made more user-friendly, and several{open_quote} bells and whistles{close_quotes} have been added. The necessity to include elemental species has been eliminated. The input of large numbers of starting conditions has been automated. A revised format for entering data simplifies and reduces chances for error. Calculated errors by SOLGAS are flagged, and several programming errors are corrected. Auxiliary programs are available to assemble and partially automate plotting of large amounts of data. Thermodynamic input data can be changed {open_quotes}on line.{close_quote} The program can be operated with or without a co-processor. Copies of the program, suitable for the IBM-PC or compatible with at least 384 bytes of low RAM, are available from the authors.
Calculating the probability of detecting radio signals from alien civilizations
Marko Horvat
2007-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
Although it might not be self-evident, it is in fact entirely possible to calculate the probability of detecting alien radio signals by understanding what types of extraterrestrial radio emissions can be expected and what properties these emissions can have. Using the Drake equation as the obvious starting point, and logically identifying and enumerating constraints of interstellar radio communications can yield the probability of detecting a genuine alien radio signal.
Calculating the probability of detecting radio signals from alien civilizations
Horvat, Marko
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Although it might not be self-evident, it is in fact entirely possible to calculate the probability of detecting alien radio signals by understanding what types of extraterrestrial radio emissions can be expected and what properties these emissions can have. Using the Drake equation as the obvious starting point, and logically identifying and enumerating constraints of interstellar radio communications can yield the probability of detecting a genuine alien radio signal.
Water coning calculations for vertical and horizontal wells
Yang, Weiping
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
recovery of several wells coning water. Since their type curves are specific for the data they investigated, it can not serve as a general method of coning evaluation. Addington'2 developed a set of gas coning correlations for 3-D coarse grid... for predicting (1) critical coning rate, (2) breakthrough time, and (3) WOR after breakthrough in both vertical and horizontal wells. Two hand calculation methods had been developed in this study. Either of them applies to both vertical and horizontal wells...
Productive Energy of Feeds Calculated from Feeding Experiments with Sheep.
Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)
1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
variables. The productive energy calculated from the feeding experi- ments agreed reasonably well with the productive energy cal- culated from analyses and production coefficients previously published, for alfalfa hay, corn, corn silage, corn gluten feed..., native hay, hominy feed, kafir, oats, oat and pea silage, peanut meal, roots, rutabagas, soy bean oil meal, soy bean hay, sugar beets, and timothy hay. Revised production coefficients, based upon the feeding experiments, are given for alfalfa hay, bean...
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of neutron-alpha scattering
Kenneth M. Nollett; Steven C. Pieper; R. B. Wiringa; J. Carlson; G. M. Hale
2006-12-09T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a new method to treat low-energy scattering problems in few-nucleon systems, and we apply it to the five-body case of neutron-alpha scattering. The method allows precise calculations of low-lying resonances and their widths. We find that a good three-nucleon interaction is crucial to obtain an accurate description of neutron-alpha scattering.
Validation of Criticality Safety Calculations with SCALE 6.2
Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL] [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL] [ORNL; Celik, Cihangir [ORNL] [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL] [ORNL
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
SCALE 6.2 provides numerous updates in nuclear data, nuclear data processing, and computational tools utilized in the criticality safety calculational sequences relative to SCALE 6.1. A new 252-group ENDF/B-VII.0 multigroup neutron library, improved ENDF/B-VII.0 continuous energy data, as well as the previously deployed 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron library are included in SCALE 6.2 for criticality safety analysis. The performance of all three libraries for keff calculations is examined with a broad sampling of critical experiment models covering a range of fuels and moderators. Critical experiments from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE) that are available in the SCALE Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) are used in this validation effort. Over 300 cases are used in the validation of KENO V.a, and a more limited set of approximately 50 configurations are used for KENO-VI validation. Additionally, some KENO V.a cases are converted to KENO-VI models so that an equivalent set of experiments can be used to validate both codes. For continuous-energy calculations, SCALE 6.2 provides improved performance relative to SCALE 6.1 in most areas with notable improvements in fuel pin lattice cases, particularly those with mixed oxide fuel. Multigroup calculations with the 252-group library also demonstrate improved performance for fuel lattices, uranium (high and intermediate enrichment) and plutonium metal experiments, and plutonium solution systems. Overall, SCALE 6.2 provides equivalent or smaller biases than SCALE 6.1, and the two versions of KENO provide similar results on the same suite of problems.
94 home power 95 / june & july 2003 Calculations
Johnson, Eric E.
94 home power 95 / june & july 2003 Code Calculations for an Off-Grid PV System The walls are up and the PV system is being assembled for the off-grid home described in Code Corner in HP94. This article National Laboratories Judy LaPointe's home is on its way to becoming a finished, off-grid home. #12;95www
Cluster-model calculations of exotic decays from heavy nuclei
Buck, B.; Merchant, A.C.
1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A cluster model employing a local, effective cluster-core potential is used to investigate exotic decay from heavy nuclei as a quantum tunneling phenomenon within a semiclassical approximation. Excellent agreement with all reported experimental measurements of the decay widths for /sup 14/C and /sup 24/Ne emission is obtained. As an added bonus, the width for alpha particle emission from /sup 212/Po is also calculated in good agreement with experiment.
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Statewide Air Emissions Calculations from Energy Efficiency, Wind and Renewables
Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Laboratory p. 1 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System STATEWIDE AIR EMISSIONS CALCULATIONS FROM ENERGY EFFICIENCY, WIND AND RENEWABLES May 2008 Energy... base year power production in the OSP. Energy Systems Laboratory p. 4 Next, looked at hourly electricity produced vs NOAA wind data. Issue: too much scatter. Hourly Turbine Power vs. Wind Speed (On-site) 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 25...
An alternative method for calculating the energy of gravitational waves
Miroslav Sukenik; Jozef Sima
1999-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
In the expansive nondecelerative universe model, creation of matter occurs due to which the Vaidya metrics is applied. This fact allows for localizing gravitational energy and calculating the energy of gravitational waves using an approach alternative to the well established procedure based on quadrupole formula. Rationalization of the gradual increase in entropy of the Universe using relation describing the total curvature of space-time is given too.
Statewide Air Emissions Calculations from Energy Efficiency, Wind and Renewables
Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.
Energy Systems Laboratory p. 1 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System STATEWIDE AIR EMISSIONS CALCULATIONS FROM ENERGY EFFICIENCY, WIND... AND RENEWABLES May 2008 Energy Systems Laboratory p. 2 Electricity Production from Wind Farms (2002-2007) ? Installed capacity of wind turbines was 3,026 MW (March 2007). ? Announced new project capacity is 3,125 MW by 2010. ? Lowest electricity period...
Transport calculation of dilepton production at ultrarelativistic energies
C. Ernst; S. A. Bass; S. Soff; H. Stöcker; W. Greiner
1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z
Dilepton spectra are calculated within the microscopic transport model UrQMD and compared to data from the CERES experiment. The invariant mass spectra in the region 300 MeV < M < 600 MeV depend strongly on the mass dependence of the $\\rho$ meson decay width which is not sufficiently determined by the Vector Meson Dominance model. A consistent explanation of both the recent Pb+Au data and the proton induced data can be given without additional medium effects.
Stochastic Boundary, Diffusion, Emittance Growth and Lifetime calculation for the RHIC e-lens
Abreu,N.P.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.
2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
To compensate the large tune shift and tune spread generated by the head-on beam-beam interactions in polarized proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a low energy electron beam with proper Gaussian transverse profiles was proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. In this article, using a modified version of SixTrack [1], we investigate stability of the single particle in the presence of head-on beam-beam compensation. The Lyapunov exponent and action diffusion are calculated and compared between the cases without and with beam-beam compensation for two different working points and various bunch intensities. Using the action diffusion results the emittance growth rate and lifetime of the proton beam is also estimated for the different scenarios.
Application of nuclear models to neutron nuclear cross section calculations
Young, P.G.
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nuclear theory is used increasingly to supplement and extend the nuclear data base that is available for applied studies. Areas where theoretical calculations are most important include the determination of neutron cross sections for unstable fission products and transactinide nuclei in fission reactor or nuclear waste calculations and for meeting the extensive dosimetry, activation, and neutronic data needs associated with fusion reactor development, especially for neutron energies above 14 MeV. Considerable progress has been made in the use of nuclear models for data evaluation and, particularly, in the methods used to derive physically meaningful parameters for model calculations. Theoretical studies frequently involve use of spherical and deformed optical models, Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory, preequilibrium theory, direct-reaction theory, and often make use of gamma-ray strength function models and phenomenological (or microscopic) level density prescriptions. The development, application, and limitations of nuclear models for data evaluation are discussed, with emphasis on the 0.1 to 50 MeV energy range. (91 references).
New quinternary selenides: Syntheses, characterizations, and electronic structure calculations
Chung, Ming-Yan; Lee, Chi-Shen, E-mail: chishen@mail.nctu.edu.tw
2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Five quinternary selenides, Sr?.??Y?.??Ge?.??Sb?.??Se? (I), Sr?.??La?.??Ge?.??Sb?.??Se? (II), Sr?.??La?.??Sn?.??Bi?.??Se? (III), Ba?.?? La?.?? Sn?.??Sb?.??Se? (IV), and Ba?.?? La?.??Sn?.??Bi?.??Se? (V), were synthesized by solid-state reaction in fused silica tubes. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the Sr?GeSb?Se? structural-type, which belongs to the orthorhombic space group Pnma (no. 62). Three structural units, ^{1}_{?}[MSe?], ^{1}_{?}[M?Se??] (M=Tt, Pn) and M´ (M´=groups II and III element), comprise the entire one-dimensional structure, separated by M´. Measurements of electronic resistivity and diffused reflectance suggest that IV and V have semiconducting properties. Electronic structure calculations confirm the site preferences of Sr/La element discovered by crystal structure refinement. - Graphical abstract: Quinternary selenides Ae?.??M?.??Tt?.??Pn?.??Se? (Ae, M, Tt, Pn=Sr/Ba, Y/La, Ge/Sn, Sb/Bi) were synthesized and their site preferences were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic structure calculation. Highlights: • Five new quinternary selenides were synthesized and characterized. • Structural units, ^{1}_{?}[MSe?] and ^{1}_{?}[M?Se??] (M=Tt, Pn), construct the one-dimensional structure. • Calculations of electronic structure confirm site preference of Sr/La sites.
Impact of the 235U Covariance Data in Benchmark Calculations
Leal, Luiz C [ORNL] [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL] [ORNL; Arbanas, Goran [ORNL] [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL] [ORNL; Derrien, Herve [ORNL] [ORNL
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The error estimation for calculated quantities relies on nuclear data uncertainty information available in the basic nuclear data libraries such as the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B). The uncertainty files (covariance matrices) in the ENDF/B library are generally obtained from analysis of experimental data. In the resonance region, the computer code SAMMY is used for analyses of experimental data and generation of resonance parameters. In addition to resonance parameters evaluation, SAMMY also generates resonance parameter covariance matrices (RPCM). SAMMY uses the generalized least-squares formalism (Bayes method) together with the resonance formalism (R-matrix theory) for analysis of experimental data. Two approaches are available for creation of resonance-parameter covariance data. (1) During the data-evaluation process, SAMMY generates both a set of resonance parameters that fit the experimental data and the associated resonance-parameter covariance matrix. (2) For existing resonance-parameter evaluations for which no resonance-parameter covariance data are available, SAMMY can retroactively create a resonance-parameter covariance matrix. The retroactive method was used to generate covariance data for 235U. The resulting 235U covariance matrix was then used as input to the PUFF-IV code, which processed the covariance data into multigroup form, and to the TSUNAMI code, which calculated the uncertainty in the multiplication factor due to uncertainty in the experimental cross sections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of the 235U covariance data in calculations of critical benchmark systems.
Stress Field at a Sliding Frictional Contact: Experiments and Calculations
Julien Scheibert; Alexis Prevost; Georges Debrégeas; Eytan Katzav; Mohktar Adda-Bedia
2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
A MEMS-based sensing device is used to measure the normal and tangential stress fields at the base of a rough elastomer film in contact with a smooth glass cylinder in steady sliding. This geometry allows for a direct comparison between the stress profiles measured along the sliding direction and the predictions of an original \\textit{exact} bidimensional model of friction. The latter assumes Amontons' friction law, which implies that in steady sliding the interfacial tangential stress is equal to the normal stress times a pressure-independent dynamic friction coefficient $\\mu_d$, but makes no further assumption on the normal stress field. Discrepancy between the measured and calculated profiles is less than 14% over the range of loads explored. Comparison with a test model, based on the classical assumption that the normal stress field is unchanged upon tangential loading, shows that the exact model better reproduces the experimental profiles at high loads. However, significant deviations remain that are not accounted for by either calculations. In that regard, the relevance of two other assumptions made in the calculations, namely (i) the smoothness of the interface and (ii) the pressure-independence of $\\mu_d$ is briefly discussed.
Atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the NRLMSISE00 atmospheric model
Honda, M; Kajita, T; Kasahara, K; Midorikawa, S
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we extend the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux~\\cite{hkkm2004,hkkms2006,hkkm2011} to the sites in polar and tropical regions. In our earliest full 3D-calculation~\\cite{hkkm2004}, we used DPMJET-III~\\cite{dpm} for the hadronic interaction model above 5~GeV, and NUCRIN~\\cite{nucrin} below 5~GeV. We modified DPMJET-III as in Ref.~\\cite{hkkms2006} to reproduce the experimental muon spectra better, mainly using the data observed by BESS group~\\cite{BESSTeVpHemu}. In a recent work~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we introduced JAM interaction model for the low energy hadronic interactions. JAM is a nuclear interaction model developed with PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System)~\\cite{phits}. In Ref.~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we could reproduce the observed muon flux at the low energies at balloon altitude with DPMJET-III above 32 GeV and JAM below that better than the combination of DPMJET-III above 5~GeV and NUCRIN below that. Besides the interaction model, we have also improved the calculation sche...
WIPP Benchmark calculations with the large strain SPECTROM codes
Callahan, G.D.; DeVries, K.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)
1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report provides calculational results from the updated Lagrangian structural finite-element programs SPECTROM-32 and SPECTROM-333 for the purpose of qualifying these codes to perform analyses of structural situations in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Results are presented for the Second WIPP Benchmark (Benchmark II) Problems and for a simplified heated room problem used in a parallel design calculation study. The Benchmark II problems consist of an isothermal room problem and a heated room problem. The stratigraphy involves 27 distinct geologic layers including ten clay seams of which four are modeled as frictionless sliding interfaces. The analyses of the Benchmark II problems consider a 10-year simulation period. The evaluation of nine structural codes used in the Benchmark II problems shows that inclusion of finite-strain effects is not as significant as observed for the simplified heated room problem, and a variety of finite-strain and small-strain formulations produced similar results. The simplified heated room problem provides stratigraphic complexity equivalent to the Benchmark II problems but neglects sliding along the clay seams. The simplified heated problem does, however, provide a calculational check case where the small strain-formulation produced room closures about 20 percent greater than those obtained using finite-strain formulations. A discussion is given of each of the solved problems, and the computational results are compared with available published results. In general, the results of the two SPECTROM large strain codes compare favorably with results from other codes used to solve the problems.
Exact-to-precision generalized perturbation for neutron transport calculation
Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S. [North Carolina State University, 911 Oval Dr., Centennial Campus, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This manuscript extends the exact-to-precision generalized perturbation theory (E{sub P}GPT), introduced previously, to neutron transport calculation whereby previous developments focused on neutron diffusion calculation only. The E{sub P}GPT collectively denotes new developments in generalized perturbation theory (GPT) that place premium on computational efficiency and defendable accuracy in order to render GPT a standard analysis tool in routine design and safety reactor calculations. EPGPT constructs a surrogate model with quantifiable accuracy which can replace the original neutron transport model for subsequent engineering analysis, e.g. functionalization of the homogenized few-group cross sections in terms of various core conditions, sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. This is achieved by reducing the effective dimensionality of the state variable (i.e. neutron angular flux) by projection onto an active subspace. Confining the state variations to the active subspace allows one to construct a small number of what is referred to as the 'active' responses which are solely dependent on the physics model rather than on the responses of interest, the number of input parameters, or the number of points in the state phase space. (authors)
Criticality calculations with MCNP{sup TM}: A primer
Mendius, P.W. [ed.; Harmon, C.D. II; Busch, R.D.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Forster, R.A.
1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this Primer is to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst to perform computer calculations using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Because of the closure of many experimental facilities, reliance on computer simulation is increasing. Often the analyst has little experience with specific codes available at his/her facility. This Primer helps the analyst understand and use the MCNP Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality analyses. It assumes no knowledge of or particular experience with Monte Carlo codes in general or with MCNP in particular. The document begins with a Quickstart chapter that introduces the basic concepts of using MCNP. The following chapters expand on those ideas, presenting a range of problems from simple cylinders to 3-dimensional lattices for calculating keff confidence intervals. Input files and results for all problems are included. The Primer can be used alone, but its best use is in conjunction with the MCNP4A manual. After completing the Primer, a criticality analyst should be capable of performing and understanding a majority of the calculations that will arise in the field of nuclear criticality safety.
An efficient basis set representation for calculating electrons in molecules
Jeremiah R. Jones; Francois-Henry Rouet; Keith V. Lawler; Eugene Vecharynski; Khaled Z. Ibrahim; Samuel Williams; Brant Abeln; Chao Yang; Daniel J. Haxton; C. William McCurdy; Xiaoye S. Li; Thomas N. Rescigno
2015-07-13T23:59:59.000Z
The method of McCurdy, Baertschy, and Rescigno, J. Phys. B, 37, R137 (2004) is generalized to obtain a straightforward, surprisingly accurate, and scalable numerical representation for calculating the electronic wave functions of molecules. It uses a basis set of product sinc functions arrayed on a Cartesian grid, and yields 1 kcal/mol precision for valence transition energies with a grid resolution of approximately 0.1 bohr. The Coulomb matrix elements are replaced with matrix elements obtained from the kinetic energy operator. A resolution-of-the-identity approximation renders the primitive one- and two-electron matrix elements diagonal; in other words, the Coulomb operator is local with respect to the grid indices. The calculation of contracted two-electron matrix elements among orbitals requires only O(N log(N)) multiplication operations, not O(N^4), where N is the number of basis functions; N = n^3 on cubic grids. The representation not only is numerically expedient, but also produces energies and properties superior to those calculated variationally. Absolute energies, absorption cross sections, transition energies, and ionization potentials are reported for one- (He^+, H_2^+ ), two- (H_2, He), ten- (CH_4) and 56-electron (C_8H_8) systems.
Range and modulation dependencies for proton beam dose per monitor unit calculations
Hsi, Wen C.; Schreuder, Andries N.; Moyers, Michael F.; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E. [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and University Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); Proton Therapy, Inc., Colton, California 92324 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum, Universitaetsklinikum, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen (Germany); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)
2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
Calculations of dose per monitor unit (D/MU) are required in addition to measurements to increase patient safety in the clinical practice of proton radiotherapy. As in conventional photon and electron therapy, the D/MU depends on several factors. This study focused on obtaining range and modulation dependence factors used in D/MU calculations for the double scattered proton beam line at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. Three dependencies on range and one dependency on modulation were found. A carefully selected set of measurements was performed to discern these individual dependencies. Dependencies on range were due to: (1) the stopping power of the protons passing through the monitor chamber; (2) the reduction of proton fluence due to nuclear interactions within the patient; and (3) the variation of proton fluence passing through the monitor chamber due to different source-to-axis distances (SADs) for different beam ranges. Different SADs are produced by reconfigurations of beamline elements to provide different field sizes and ranges. The SAD effect on the D/MU varies smoothly as the beam range is varied, except at the beam range for which the first scatterers are exchanged and relocated to accommodate low and high beam ranges. A geometry factor was devised to model the SAD variation effect on the D/MU. The measured D/MU variation as a function of range can be predicted within 1% using the three modeled dependencies on range. Investigation of modulated beams showed that an analytical formula can predict the D/MU dependency as a function of modulation to within 1.5%. Special attention must be applied when measuring the D/MU dependence on modulation to avoid interplay between range and SAD effects.
Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in orthorhombic velocity models with differently rotated tensors
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in orthorhombic velocity models with differently rotated tensors use the ray-based Kirchhoff prestack depth migration to calculate migrated sections in simple with a differently rotated tensor of elastic moduli. We apply the Kirchhoff prestack depth migration to single
Multipole moments of water molecules in clusters and ice Ih from first principles calculations
Batista, E.R. [Department of Physics, Box 351560, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Box 351560, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); [Department of Chemistry, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States); Xantheas, S.S. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 906 Battelle Boulevard, PO Box 999, MS K8-91, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 906 Battelle Boulevard, PO Box 999, MS K8-91, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Jonsson, H. [Department of Chemistry, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)
1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
We have calculated {ital molecular} multipole moments for water molecules in clusters and in ice Ih by partitioning the charge density obtained from first principles calculations. Various schemes for dividing the electronic charge density among the water molecules were used. They include Bader{close_quote}s zero flux surfaces and Voronoi partitioning schemes. A comparison was also made with an induction model including dipole, dipole-quadrupole, quadrupole-quadrupole polarizability and first hyperpolarizability as well as fixed octopole and hexadecapole moments. We have found that the different density partitioning schemes lead to widely different values for the molecular multipoles, illustrating how poorly defined molecular multipoles are in clusters and condensed environments. For instance, the magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in ice Ih ranges between 2.3 D and 3.1 D depending on the partitioning scheme used. Within each scheme, though, the value for the molecular dipole moment in ice is larger than in the hexamer. The magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in the clusters shows a monotonic increase from the gas phase value to the one in ice Ih, with the molecular dipole moment in the water ring hexamer being smaller than the one in ice Ih for all the partitioning schemes used. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water
Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)] [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Cabral, Benedito J. Costa, E-mail: ben@cii.fc.ul.pt [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal) [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.
Calculation of Design Parameters for an Equilibrium LEU Core in the NBSR
Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.
2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
A plan is being developed for the conversion of the NIST research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Previously, the design of the LEU fuel had been determined in order to provide the users of the NBSR with the same cycle length as exists for the current HEU fueled reactor. The fuel composition at different points within an equilibrium fuel cycle had also been determined. In the present study, neutronics parameters have been calculated for these times in the fuel cycle for both the existing HEU and the proposed LEU equilibrium cores. The results showed differences between the HEU and LEU cores that would not lead to any significant changes in the safety analysis for the converted core. In general the changes were reasonable except that the figure-of-merit for neutrons that can be used by experimentalists shows there will be a 10% reduction in performance. The calculations included kinetics parameters, reactivity coefficients, reactivity worths of control elements and abnormal configurations, and power distributions.
Pre-test CFD Calculations for a Bypass Flow Standard Problem
Rich Johnson
2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is the flow that occurs between adjacent graphite blocks. Gaps exist between blocks due to variances in their manufacture and installation and because of the expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. Although the temperature of fuel compacts and graphite is sensitive to the presence of bypass flow, there is great uncertainty in the level and effects of the bypass flow. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program at the Idaho National Laboratory has undertaken to produce experimental data of isothermal bypass flow between three adjacent graphite blocks. These data are intended to provide validation for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of the bypass flow. Such validation data sets are called Standard Problems in the nuclear safety analysis field. Details of the experimental apparatus as well as several pre-test calculations of the bypass flow are provided. Pre-test calculations are useful in examining the nature of the flow and to see if there are any problems associated with the flow and its measurement. The apparatus is designed to be able to provide three different gap widths in the vertical direction (the direction of the normal coolant flow) and two gap widths in the horizontal direction. It is expected that the vertical bypass flow will range from laminar to transitional to turbulent flow for the different gap widths that will be available.
Recovering Flare Gas Energy - A Different Approach
Brenner, W.
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
simultaneously opening a bleed valve between them - a typical "double block and bleed" arrangement. The boiler can' also be fired on natural gas and is provided with'0 trim control and other 2 typical burner management and burner controls associated with a... or natural gas. About three years ago, it was decided to save the cost of purge gases by operating the flare system at a' constant positive pressure. This was accomplished by installing a liquid seal upstream of the flare stack. It was estimated...
TheRate: Program for Ab Initio Direct Dynamics Calculations of Thermal and
Truong, Thanh N.
, and the convergence of the rate constants with respect to the number of electronic structure calculations. 1998 John is that such limited potential energy information may be obtained from accurate electronic structure calculations-- --Dynamics Calculations of Thermal and Vibrational
Papez, K.L.; Risher, D.H.
1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The loss-of-main-feedwater transient without reactor trip (scram) has received particular attention in pressurized water reactor (PWR) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) analysis primarily due to the potential for reactor coolant system over pressurization. To assist in the licensing of the U.K. PWR, Sizewell 'B', comparative calculations of a loss-of-feedwater ATWS have been performed using the Westinghouse-developed LOFTRAN loop analysis code and the Electric Power Research Institute/ Energy Incorporated-developed RETRAN-01 code. The calculations were performed with and without the emergency boration system (EBS), which is included in the Sizewell reference design. Initial results showed good agreement between the codes for the major features of the transient, but also a time shift in the transient profiles at the time of the pressurizer pressure peak. This was found to be due to differences in the steam generator modeling, which resulted in a difference in the onset of the very rapid degradation in heat transfer as the steam generators approach dryout. When the same model was used in both codes, very good agreement was obtained. Remaining differences in the results are attributed primarily to differences in the boron injection models, which resulted in an over-prediction of the core boron concentration in the RETRAN calculation. The results with an EBS indicate that the peak pressurizer pressure is relatively insensitive to variations in modeling.
New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Yu [White Box Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Childs, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kriner, Scott [Green Metal Consulting, Inc., Macungie, PA (United States)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) was developed through collaborations among Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), White Box Technologies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the Environmental Protection Agency in the context of a California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research project to make cool-color roofing materials a market reality. The RSC website and a simulation engine validated against demonstration homes were developed to replace the liberal DOE Cool Roof Calculator and the conservative EPA Energy Star Roofing Calculator, which reported different roof savings estimates. A preliminary analysis arrived at a tentative explanation for why RSC results differed from previous LBNL studies and provided guidance for future analysis in the comparison of four simulation programs (doe2attic, DOE-2.1E, EnergyPlus, and MicroPas), including heat exchange between the attic surfaces (principally the roof and ceiling) and the resulting heat flows through the ceiling to the building below. The results were consolidated in an ORNL technical report, ORNL/TM-2013/501. This report is an in-depth inter-comparison of four programs with detailed measured data from an experimental facility operated by ORNL in South Carolina in which different segments of the attic had different roof and attic systems.
Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories
Ross, B. (ed.)
1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.
Safety analysis of the MYRRHA facility with different core configurations
Arien, B.; Heusdains, S.; Alt Abderrahim, H.; Malambu, E. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)
2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Studies of Innovative Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste', a benchmark exercise was undertaken to analyse the behaviour of the MYRRHA facility in various accidental conditions. The transients were simulated by means of the RELAP and SITHER codes and the following set of accident scenarios was considered: loss of flow, loss of heat sink, overpower transient, overcooling and partial blockage of a subassembly. In addition, those accidents were simulated in two different situations depending on whether the proton beam is cut off (protected case) or not (unprotected case). In the IAEA benchmark two subcritical core configurations are considered: a typical core configuration composed only of (U-Pu)O{sub 2} MOX fuel assemblies and another one including additional U-free minor actinides fuel assemblies. The present paper summarized the main results obtained with the first core configuration. (authors)
Sex differences in intimate relationships
Palchykov, Vasyl; Kertész, János; Barabási, Albert-László; Dunbar, Robin I M
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Social networks have turned out to be of fundamental importance both for our understanding human sociality and for the design of digital communication technology. However, social networks are themselves based on dyadic relationships and we have little understanding of the dynamics of close relationships and how these change over time. Evolutionary theory suggests that, even in monogamous mating systems, the pattern of investment in close relationships should vary across the lifespan when post-weaning investment plays an important role in maximising fitness. Mobile phone data sets provide us with a unique window into the structure of relationships and the way these change across the lifespan. We here use data from a large national mobile phone dataset to demonstrate striking sex differences in the pattern in the gender-bias of preferred relationships that reflect the way the reproductive investment strategies of the two sexes change across the lifespan: these differences mainly reflect women's shifting pattern...
Cardan, R [UAB University of Alabama, Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Faught, A [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Huang, M; Benhabib, S [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Brezovich, I; Popple, R [University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Determine the dose calculation accuracy of a preconfigured Mobius server for use in secondary checks of a treatment planning system. Methods: 10 plans were created for irradiation on two of the IROC (formerly RPC) accreditation phantoms: 4 for the head and neck phantom and 6 for the lung phantom. The plans each were created using one of four different photon energies (6FFF, 10 FFF, 6X, and 15X) and were varied in treatment type including VMAT, step and shoot IMRT, dynamic MLC IMRT (DMLC), and conformal RT (CRT). The TLDs in the phantoms were contoured, and each plan was sent for calculation to Mobius software (Mobius Medical Systems, Houston, TX) with a default configuration. Each plan was then irradiated on the planned phantom 3 times to create an average reading across 56 TLDs. These readings were then compared against the corresponding Mobius calculation at each TLD location. Results: The mean difference (MD) normalized to the plan prescription dose between each TLD and Mobius calculation for all measurements was 0.5 ± 3.3%, with a maximum difference of 8.4%. The MD was 0.6 ± 3.8%, ? 2.0 ± 1.9%, 1.7 ± 3.7%, and 1.9 ± 1.2% across the 6FFF, 10FFF, 6X and 15X energies respectively. The MD was ?1.2 ± 2.3% for lung plans and 1.8 ± 3.5% for head/neck plans. Across treatment types, the MD ranged from ? 1.8 ± 1.7% for CRT to 4.3 ± 2.4 % for DMLC. Conclusion: Out of the box and preconfigured, Mobius provides accurate dose calculations with respect to beam energy, treatment type, and treatment site.
Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Several authors report the accuracy of the ASHRAE zone method of R-value calculation of metal frame walls as unsatisfactory. A series of more than 1,000 two-dimensional computer simulations was conducted for several metal frame wall configurations. Several wall design parameters, such as stud spacing, stud (depth) size, stud flange size, stud metal thickness, thermal resistance of cavity insulation, and thermal resistance of exterior sheathing, were considered during modeling. This allowed the influence of each above-mentioned designing parameter on metal frame wall thermal performance to be assessed. Wall R-values calculated by the ASHRAE zone method were compared with the results of the computer simulation. The comparison showed that the differences in the thermal calculations are caused by the metal stud zone area estimation. Based on results of finite-difference thermal modeling and regression analysis, a new, more precise technique of estimating zones of thermal anomalies caused by metal studs for metal frame walls was developed. The effects of several wall design parameters were calculated. An improved method of R-value predictions for metal frame walls is proposed.
Pyranometers and Reference Cells, What's the Difference?: Preprint
Meydbray, J.; Emery, K.; Kurtz, S.
2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
As the photovoltaic industry has grown exponentially in the past decade, large photovoltaic (PV) fields have become more common. The investors for these projects calculate the expected return on investment based on expected electricity generation and adjust the interest rates and other financial terms according to the perceived risk. These calculations usually assume worst case according to the listed warranty and any uncertainty in the measurement is translated directly into a reduced predicted performance. Because a 1% difference in predicted output could represent a large fraction of the expected return on investment, a small reduction in uncertainty translates into a much larger value to the entity making investment decisions. To reduce perceived risk in large-scale solar investments power plant performance (or production) guarantees have become increasingly common. This two part article explores some subtleties of accurately measuring PV efficiency in the field.
Color Printer Characterization Adjustment for Different
Sharma, Gaurav
is often implemented as a 3D look-up table that maps from a device independent color space (e.g. CIELAB by printing a number of color patches with known device control values, measuring the colors obtained-uniformity). Typically, the impact of these factors is minimized through careful design of the printing system. However
APE project: a Gigaflop processor for lattice calculations
Bacilieri, P.; Cabasino, S.; Marzano, F.; Paohicci, P.; Petrarce, S.; Salina, G.; Cabibo, H.; Giovannella, C.; Marinari, E.; Parisi, G.
1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new special purpose parallel processor (APE) presently under development is presented. The theoretical computing power of the processor is 1 Giga-Flop and the memory can be expanded to 512 Mega-bytes. Sixteen 52 bit floating point processors each with a computing power of 64 Mega-Flops are driven in parallel as a single instruction multiple data machine under the control of a 3081/E. Each floating point unit is connected to two 8 Mega-byte memories which can also be accessed by the 3081.E. Though this machine can be used as a general purpose array processor the hardware has been optimized for lattice QCD calculations.
Accelerating Ab Initio Nuclear Physics Calculations with GPUs
Hugh Potter; Dossay Oryspayev; Pieter Maris; Masha Sosonkina; James Vary; Sven Binder; Angelo Calci; Joachim Langhammer; Robert Roth; Ümit Çatalyürek; Erik Saule
2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes some applications of GPU acceleration in ab initio nuclear structure calculations. Specifically, we discuss GPU acceleration of the software package MFDn, a parallel nuclear structure eigensolver. We modify the matrix construction stage to run partly on the GPU. On the Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, this produces a speedup of approximately 2.2x - 2.7x for the matrix construction stage and 1.2x - 1.4x for the entire run.
The calculated rovibronic spectrum of scandium hydride, ScH
Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson\\, Jonathan
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The electronic structure of six low-lying electronic states of scandium hydride, $X\\,{}^{1}\\Sigma^+$, $a\\,{}^{3}\\Delta$, $b\\,{}^{3}\\Pi$, $A\\,{}^{1}\\Delta$ $c\\,{}^{3}\\Sigma^+$, and $B\\,{}^{1}\\Pi$, is studied using multi-reference configuration interaction as a function of bond length. Diagonal and off-diagonal dipole moment, spin-orbit coupling and electronic angular momentum curves are also computed. The results are benchmarked against experimental measurements and calculations on atomic scandium. The resulting curves are used to compute a line list of molecular ro-vibronic transitions for $^{45}$ScH.
Semiclassical framework for the calculation of transport anisotropies
Vyborny, Karel; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Semiclassical framework for the calculation of transport anisotropies Karel V?born?, 1 Alexey A. Kovalev,2 Jairo Sinova,2,1 and T. Jungwirth1,3 1Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Cukrovarnick? 10, Praha 6 CZ...-16253, Czech Republic 2Department of Physics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242, USA 3School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom #1;Received 26 October 2008; published 29 January...
Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362Transmission:portion of the Raver07-1001Department of Energy Report toofThis tool calculates
Natural Gas Vehicle Cost Calculator | Open Energy Information
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Turbulent energy exchange: Calculation and relevance for profile prediction
Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)] [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The anomalous heat production due to turbulence is neither routinely calculated in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations nor routinely retained in profile prediction studies. In this work, we develop a symmetrized method to compute the exchange which dramatically reduces the intermittency in the time-dependent moment, thereby improving the accuracy of the time-average. We also examine the practical impact on transport-timescale simulations, and show that the exchange has only a minor impact on profile evolution for a well-studied DIII-D discharge.
Proliferation Potential of Accelerator-Drive Systems: Feasibility Calculations
Riendeau, C.D.; Moses, D.L.; Olson, A.P.
1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Accelerator-driven systems for fissile materials production have been proposed and studied since the early 1950s. Recent advances in beam power levels for small accelerators have raised the possibility that such use could be feasible for a potential proliferator. The objective of this study is to review the state of technology development for accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources and subcritical reactors. Energy and power requirements were calculated for a proton accelerator-driven neutron spallation source and subcritical reactors to produce a significant amount of fissile material--plutonium.
Field calculation of D0 toroids and comparison with measurement
Yamada, R.; Ostiguy, F.; Brzezniak, J.
1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The magnetic structure of the D0 detector is described in an earlier report. The two-dimensional code POISSON was used for the initial design of the magnetic structures and the magnetic properties of the D0 toroids. During the construction, the two-dimensional code ANSYS was used to perform more detailed calculations. Full three-dimensional analysis was also performed using the code TOSCA. These new results are reported here and compared with measurements. In this study the magnetic flux in all toroids, CF, EF, and SAMUS is set in the same direction.
Using short time pressure buildup tests to calculate gas reserves
Vu, Trang Dinh
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. There are no techniques currently available for using isochronal, short time pressure buildup tests to estimate original gas in place. A method to extrapolate the slope of a line generated from two or more isochronal, short time pressure buildup tests to initial...USING SHORT TIME PRESSURE BUILDUP TESTS TO CALCULATE GAS RESERVES A Thesis by TRANG DINH VU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...
SU-E-I-28: Evaluating the Organ Dose From Computed Tomography Using Monte Carlo Calculations
Ono, T; Araki, F [Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To evaluate organ doses from computed tomography (CT) using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. Methods: A Philips Brilliance CT scanner (64 slice) was simulated using the GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) based on the EGSnrc user code. The X-ray spectra and a bowtie filter for MC simulations were determined to coincide with measurements of half-value layer (HVL) and off-center ratio (OCR) profile in air. The MC dose was calibrated from absorbed dose measurements using a Farmer chamber and a cylindrical water phantom. The dose distribution from CT was calculated using patient CT images and organ doses were evaluated from dose volume histograms. Results: The HVLs of Al at 80, 100, and 120 kV were 6.3, 7.7, and 8.7 mm, respectively. The calculated HVLs agreed with measurements within 0.3%. The calculated and measured OCR profiles agreed within 3%. For adult head scans (CTDIvol) =51.4 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 23.2, 34.2, and 37.6 mGy, respectively. For pediatric head scans (CTDIvol =35.6 mGy), mean doses for brain stem, eye, and eye lens were 19.3, 24.5, and 26.8 mGy, respectively. For adult chest scans (CTDIvol=19.0 mGy), mean doses for lung, heart, and spinal cord were 21.1, 22.0, and 15.5 mGy, respectively. For adult abdominal scans (CTDIvol=14.4 mGy), the mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 17.4, 16.5, 16.8, 16.8, and 13.1 mGy, respectively. For pediatric abdominal scans (CTDIvol=6.76 mGy), mean doses for kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and spinal cord were 8.24, 8.90, 8.17, 8.31, and 6.73 mGy, respectively. In head scan, organ doses were considerably different from CTDIvol values. Conclusion: MC dose distributions calculated by using patient CT images are useful to evaluate organ doses absorbed to individual patients.
Vilkas, Marius J.; Lopez-Encarnacion, Juan M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23346, San Juan, PR 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Ishikawa, Yasuyuki [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23346, San Juan, PR 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico)], E-mail: yishikawa@uprrp.edu
2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistic multireference many-body Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MR-MP) calculations have been performed on neonlike xenon, tungsten, and uranium ions. The 2s{sup -1}nl and 2p{sup -1}nl (n {<=} 5, l {<=} 4) energy levels, lifetimes and transition probabilities are reported. The second-order MR-MP calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent first-order Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies are compared with other theoretical and experimental data. The synthetic radiative spectra is presented for different wavelength regions.
exhibit typical foliar injury symptoms when exposed to ambient ozone, making them useful as bioindicators ozone monitors are not available. Bioindicators are often introduced plant species known as sentinels. They are known to be sensitive to ozone and will respond rapidly if they are given special care to ensure ozone
Ruzich, E.; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon
2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
spectrum traits predict the neural response to eye gaze in typical individuals. Neuroimage. 2012;59:3356–63. 59. Webb SJ, Merkle K, Murias M, Richards T, Aylward E, Dawson G. ERP responses differentiate inverted but not upright face processing in adults...
Few-body calculations of $?$-nuclear quasibound states
N. Barnea; E. Friedman; A. Gal
2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of $\\eta NN$ and $\\eta NNN$ quasibound states, using energy dependent $\\eta N$ interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the $S_{11}$ $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ nucleon resonance. The $\\eta N$ attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No $\\eta NN$ bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\lesssim 1$ fm, with $a_{\\eta N}$ the $\\eta N$ scattering length, covering thereby the majority of $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ resonance models. A near-threshold $\\eta NNN$ bound-state solution, with $\\eta$ separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green-Wycech model where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\approx 1$ fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold $\\eta N$ interaction is carefully studied.
Adaptations in Electronic Structure Calculations in Heterogeneous Environments
Talamudupula, Sai
2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
Modern quantum chemistry deals with electronic structure calculations of unprecedented complexity and accuracy. They demand full power of high-performance computing and must be in tune with the given architecture for superior e#14;ciency. To make such applications resourceaware, it is desirable to enable their static and dynamic adaptations using some external software (middleware), which may monitor both system availability and application needs, rather than mix science with system-related calls inside the application. The present work investigates scienti#12;c application interlinking with middleware based on the example of the computational chemistry package GAMESS and middleware NICAN. The existing synchronous model is limited by the possible delays due to the middleware processing time under the sustainable runtime system conditions. Proposed asynchronous and hybrid models aim at overcoming this limitation. When linked with NICAN, the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method is capable of adapting statically and dynamically its fragment scheduling policy based on the computing platform conditions. Signi#12;cant execution time and throughput gains have been obtained due to such static adaptations when the compute nodes have very di#11;erent core counts. Dynamic adaptations are based on the main memory availability at run time. NICAN prompts FMO to postpone scheduling certain fragments, if there is not enough memory for their immediate execution. Hence, FMO may be able to complete the calculations whereas without such adaptations it aborts.
Recent Developments in No-Core Shell-Model Calculations
Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Stetcu, I; Barrett, B R
2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
We present an overview of recent results and developments of the no-core shell model (NCSM), an ab initio approach to the nuclear many-body problem for light nuclei. In this aproach, we start from realistic two-nucleon or two- plus three-nucleon interactions. Many-body calculations are performed using a finite harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis. To facilitate convergence for realistic inter-nucleon interactions that generate strong short-range correlations, we derive effective interactions by unitary transformations that are tailored to the HO basis truncation. For soft realistic interactions this might not be necessary. If that is the case, the NCSM calculations are variational. In either case, the ab initio NCSM preserves translational invariance of the nuclear many-body problem. In this review, we, in particular, highlight results obtained with the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions. We discuss efforts to extend the applicability of the NCSM to heavier nuclei and larger model spaces using importance-truncation schemes and/or use of effective interactions with a core. We outline an extension of the ab initio NCSM to the description of nuclear reactions by the resonating group method technique. A future direction of the approach, the ab initio NCSM with continuum, which will provide a complete description of nuclei as open systems with coupling of bound and continuum states is given in the concluding part of the review.
Calculation of a BWR partial ATWS using RAMONA-3B
Garber, D.I.; Diamond, D.J.; Cheng, H.S.
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The RAMONA-3B code has been used to simulate a boiling water reactor (BWR) transient initiated by the closure of the main steam line isolation valves in which all the control rods in one-half the core fail to scram after reactor trip. The modeling of the nuclear steam supply system included three-dimensional neutron kinetics and parallel hydraulic channels (including a bypass channel). The transient is characterized by an initial pressure spike and then by oscillations in the pressure due to the opening and closing of relief valves. These oscillations in turn affect all thermohydraulic properties in the vessel. The simulation was continued for 7 minutes of reactor time at which point boron began to accumulate in the core. The calculation demonstrates the importance of using three-dimensional neutron kinetics in conjunction with the modeling of the nuclear steam supply system for this type of transient. RAMONA-3B is unique in its ability to do this type of calculation.
Coupled-channels calculations of $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O fusion
H. Esbensen
2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z
Fusion data for $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O are analyzed by coupled-channels calculations. It is shown that the calculated cross sections are sensitive to the couplings to the $2^+$ and $3^-$ excitation channels even at low energies, where these channels are closed. The sensitivity to the ion-ion potential is investigated by applying a conventional Woods-Saxon potential and the M3Y+repulsion potential, consisting of the M3Y double-folding potential and a repulsive term that simulates the effect of the nuclear incompressibility. The best overall fit to the data is obtained with a M3Y+repulsion potential which produces a shallow potential in the entrance channel. The stepwise increase in measured fusion cross sections at high energies is also consistent with such a shallow potential. The steps are correlated with overcoming the barriers for the angular momenta $L$ = 12, 14, 16, and 18. To improve the fit to the low-energy data requires a shallower potential and this causes a even stronger hindrance of fusion at low energies. It is therefore difficult, based on the existing fusion data, to make an accurate extrapolation to energies that are of interest to astrophysics.
Few-body calculations of $?$-nuclear quasibound states
N. Barnea; E. Friedman; A. Gal
2015-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of $\\eta NN$ and $\\eta NNN$ quasibound states, using energy dependent $\\eta N$ interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the $S_{11}$ $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ nucleon resonance. The $\\eta N$ attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No $\\eta NN$ bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\lesssim 1$ fm, with $a_{\\eta N}$ the $\\eta N$ scattering length, covering thereby the majority of $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ resonance models. A near-threshold $\\eta NNN$ bound-state solution, with $\\eta$ separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green-Wycech model where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\approx 1$ fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold $\\eta N$ interaction is carefully studied.
Microcomputer aided calculations of parameters for spray dryer operation
Yeh, J.T.; Gyorke, D.F.; Pennline, H.W.; Drummond, C.J.
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper provides a series of practical microcomputer programs that can be used as a tool by engineers and researchers working with spray dryers for combustion process effluent control. The microcomputer programs calculate flue gas composition (CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and SO/sub 2/) from the composition of the fuel. The residence time of the flue gas in a spray dryer can be estimated, and using values provided by the user for the flow of water and absorbent slurry in the spray dryer, the program recalculates the flue gas composition and heat capacity at the exit of the spray dryer without accounting for any SO/sub 2/ removal that could occur in the spray dryer. From these values and the system pressure, the dew point and flue gas temperature at the spray dryer exit are calculated, providing the approach to saturation resulting from this choice of operating parameters. This computer code would enable a process engineer to quickly evaluate effects of important process parameters, such as flue gas temperature at the inlet to the spray dryer, atomizer water feed rate, and absorbent slurry concentration and feed rate, on the operation of a spray dryer.
Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control
Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III
1993-10-27T23:59:59.000Z
Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.
Mullins, J; Duan, X; Kruse, J; Herman, M [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Bues, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To determine the suitability of dual-energy CT (DECT) to calculate relative electron density (RED) of tissues for accurate proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: DECT images of RED tissue surrogates were acquired at 80 and 140 kVp. Samples (RED=0.19?2.41) were imaged in a water-equivalent phantom in a variety of configurations. REDs were calculated using the DECT numbers and inputs of the high and low energy spectral weightings. DECT-derived RED was compared between geometric configurations and for variations in the spectral inputs to assess the sensitivity of RED accuracy versus expected values. Results: RED accuracy was dependent on accurate spectral input influenced by phantom thickness and radius from the phantom center. Material samples located at the center of the phantom generally showed the best agreement to reference RED values, but only when attenuation of the surrounding phantom thickness was accounted for in the calculation spectra. Calculated RED changed by up to 10% for some materials when the sample was located at an 11 cm radius from the phantom center. Calculated REDs under the best conditions still differed from reference values by up to 5% in bone and 14% in lung. Conclusion: DECT has previously been used to differentiate tissue types based on RED and Z for binary tissue-type segmentation. To improve upon the current standard of empirical conversion of CT number to RED for treatment planning dose calculation, DECT methods must be able to calculate RED to better than 3% accuracy throughout the image. The DECT method is sensitive to the accuracy of spectral inputs used for calculation, as well as to spatial position in the anatomy. Effort to address adjustments to the spectral calculation inputs based on position and phantom attenuation will be required before DECT-determined RED can achieve a consistent level of accuracy for application in dose calculation.
Calculation of dose to soft tisse from implanted beta sources
Dauffy, Lucile
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
different geometries: point, line, shell cylinder, solid cylinder and solid sphere. Since the particles injected into the blood vessels can be modeled as a line of spheres, this work focuses on the development of a computational method for estimating...
Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types
Muir, B. R., E-mail: Bryan.Muir@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rogers, D. W. O., E-mail: drogers@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 ColonelBy Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)
2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors avoid the use of gradient correction factors as used in the TG-51 protocol although a chamber dependent optimal shift in the EPOM is required when using plane-parallel chambers while no shift is needed with cylindrical chambers. The sensitivity of these results to parameters used to model the ion chambers is discussed and the uncertainty related to the practical use of these results is evaluated. Conclusions: These results will prove useful as electron beam reference dosimetry protocols are being updated. The analysis of this work indicates that cylindrical ion chambers may be appropriate for use in low-energy electron beams but measurements are required to characterize their use in these beams.
Drover, Damion, Ryan
2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a laser altimetry remote sensing method, obtained from the USDA Forest Service at Savannah River Site. The specific DEM resolutions were chosen because they are common grid cell sizes (10m, 30m, and 50m) used in mapping for management applications and in research. The finer resolutions (2m and 5m) were chosen for the purpose of determining how finer resolutions performed compared with coarser resolutions at predicting wetness and related soil attributes. The wetness indices were compared across DEMs and with each other in terms of quantile and distribution differences, then in terms of how well they each correlated with measured soil attributes. Spatial and non-spatial analyses were performed, and predictions using regression and geostatistics were examined for efficacy relative to each DEM resolution. Trends in the raw data and analysis results were also revealed.
E. Hiyama; M. Kamimura
2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
In a previous work [Phys. Rev. A 85, 022502 (2012)] we calculated, with the use of our Gaussian expansion method for few-body systems, the energy levels and spatial structure of the 4He trimer and tetramer ground and excited states using the LM2M2 potential, which has a very strong short-range repulsion. In this work, we calculate the same quantities using the presently most accurate 4He-4He potential [M. Przybytek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 183003 (2010)] that includes the adiabatic, relativistic, QED and residual retardation corrections. Contributions of the corrections to the tetramer ground-(excited-)state energy, -573.90 (-132.70) mK, are found to be, respectively, -4.13 (-1.52) mK, +9.37 (+3.48) mK, -1.20 (-0.46) mK and +0.16 (+0.07) mK. Further including other realistic 4He potentials, we calculated the binding energies of the trimer and tetramer ground and excited states, B_3^(0), B_3^(1), B_4^(0) and B_4^(1), respectively. We found that the four kinds of the energies for the different potentials exhibit perfect linear correlations between any two of them over the range of binding energies relevant for 4He atoms (namely, six types of the generalized Tjon lines are given). The dimerlike-pair model for 4He clusters, proposed in the previous work, predicts a simple universal relation B_4^(1)/B_2 =B_3^(0)/B_2 + 2/3, which precisely explains the correlation between the tetramer excited-state energy and the trimer ground-state energy, with B_2 being the dimer binding energy.
Muir, B. R., E-mail: bmuir@physics.carleton.ca; Rogers, D. W. O., E-mail: drogers@physics.carleton.ca [Physics Department, Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)] [Physics Department, Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To investigate recommendations for reference dosimetry of electron beams and gradient effects for the NE2571 chamber and to provide beam quality conversion factors using Monte Carlo simulations of the PTW Roos and NE2571 ion chambers. Methods: The EGSnrc code system is used to calculate the absorbed dose-to-water and the dose to the gas in fully modeled ion chambers as a function of depth in water. Electron beams are modeled using realistic accelerator simulations as well as beams modeled as collimated point sources from realistic electron beam spectra or monoenergetic electrons. Beam quality conversion factors are calculated with ratios of the doses to water and to the air in the ion chamber in electron beams and a cobalt-60 reference field. The overall ion chamber correction factor is studied using calculations of water-to-air stopping power ratios. Results: The use of an effective point of measurement shift of 1.55 mm from the front face of the PTW Roos chamber, which places the point of measurement inside the chamber cavity, minimizes the difference betweenR{sub 50}, the beam quality specifier, calculated from chamber simulations compared to that obtained using depth-dose calculations in water. A similar shift minimizes the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth to the practical range and reduces the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors at the reference depth as a function of R{sub 50}. Similarly, an upstream shift of 0.34 r{sub cav} allows a more accurate determination of R{sub 50} from NE2571 chamber calculations and reduces the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth. The determination of the gradient correction using a shift of 0.22 r{sub cav} optimizes the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors if all beams investigated are considered. However, if only clinical beams are considered, a good fit to results for beam quality conversion factors is obtained without explicitly correcting for gradient effects. The inadequacy of R{sub 50} to uniquely specify beam quality for the accurate selection of k{sub Q} factors is discussed. Systematic uncertainties in beam quality conversion factors are analyzed for the NE2571 chamber and amount to between 0.4% and 1.2% depending on assumptions used. Conclusions: The calculated beam quality conversion factors for the PTW Roos chamber obtained here are in good agreement with literature data. These results characterize the use of an NE2571 ion chamber for reference dosimetry of electron beams even in low-energy beams.
Moeller, M. P.; Urbanik, II, T.; Desrosiers, A. E.
1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuatlon tlmes for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies.
Analytical calculation of neutral transport and its effect on ions
Calvin, M.D.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Valanju, P.M.; Solano, E.R. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Inst. for Fusion Studies Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Fusion Research Center)
1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
We analytically calculate the neutral particle distribution and its effects on ion heat and momentum transport in three-dimensional plasmas with arbitrary temperature and density profiles. A general variational principle taking advantage of the simplicity of the charge-exchange (CX) operator is derived to solve self-consistently the neutral-plasma interaction problem. To facilitate an extremal solution, we use the short CX mean-free-path ({lambda}{sub x}) ordering. Further, a non-variational, analytical solution providing a full set of transport coefficient is derived by making the realistic assumption that the product of the CX cross section with relative velocity is constant. The effects of neutrals on plasma energy loss and rotation appear in simple, sensible forms. We find that neutral viscosity dominates ion viscosity everywhere, and in the edge region by a large factor. 13 refs.
Calculation of a fluctuating entropic force by phase space sampling
Waters, James T
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A polymer chain pinned in space exerts a fluctuating force on the pin point in thermal equilibrium. The average of such fluctuating force is well understood from statistical mechanics as an entropic force, but little is known about the underlying force distribution. Here, we introduce two phase space sampling methods that can produce the equilibrium distribution of instantaneous forces exerted by a terminally pinned polymer. In these methods, both the positions and momenta of mass points representing a freely jointed chain are perturbed in accordance with the spatial constraints and the Boltzmann distribution of total energy. The constraint force for each conformation and momentum is calculated using Lagrangian dynamics. Using terminally pinned chains in space and on a surface, we show that the force distribution is highly asymmetric with both tensile and compressive forces. Most importantly, the mean of the distribution, which is equal to the entropic force, is not the most probable force even for long chain...
Glueball matrix elements: a lattice calculation and applications
Harvey B. Meyer
2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
We compute the matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor between glueball states and the vacuum in SU(3) lattice gauge theory and extrapolate them to the continuum. These matrix elements may play an important phenomenological role in identifying glue-rich mesons. Based on a relation derived long ago by the ITEP group for J/psi radiative decays, the scalar matrix element leads to a branching ratio for the glueball that is at least three times larger than the experimentally observed branching ratio for the f_0 mesons above 1GeV. This suggests that the glueball component must be diluted quite strongly among the known scalar mesons. Finally we review the current best continuum determination of the scalar and tensor glueball masses, the deconfining temperature, the string tension and the Lambda parameter, all in units of the Sommer reference scale, using calculations based on the Wilson action.
Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation
Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.
2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.
Sex-specific tissue weighting factors for effective dose equivalent calculations
Xu, X.G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Reece, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The effective dose equivalent was defined in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 26 in 1977 and later adopted by the U.S. Nuclear REgulatory Commission. To calculate organ doses and effective dose equivalent for external exposures using Monte Carlo simulations, sex-specific anthropomorphic phantoms and sex-specific weighting factors are always employed. This paper presents detailed mathematical derivation of a set of sex-specific tissue weighting factors and the conditions which the weighting factors must satisfy. Results of effective dose equivalent calculations using female and male phantoms exposed to monoenergetic photon beams of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV are provided and compared with results published by other authors using different sex-specific weighting factors and phantoms. The results indicate that females always receive higher effective dose equivalent than males for the photon energies and geometries considered and that some published data may be wrong due to mistakes in deriving the sex-specific weighting factors. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
A simplified spherical harmonic method for coupled electron-photon transport calculations
Josef, J.A.
1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis the author has developed a simplified spherical harmonic method (SP{sub N} method) and associated efficient solution techniques for 2-D multigroup electron-photon transport calculations. The SP{sub N} method has never before been applied to charged-particle transport. He has performed a first time Fourier analysis of the source iteration scheme and the P{sub 1} diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) scheme applied to the 2-D SP{sub N} equations. The theoretical analyses indicate that the source iteration and P{sub 1} DSA schemes are as effective for the 2-D SP{sub N} equations as for the 1-D S{sub N} equations. In addition, he has applied an angular multigrid acceleration scheme, and computationally demonstrated that it performs as well as for the 2-D SP{sub N} equations as for the 1-D S{sub N} equations. It has previously been shown for 1-D S{sub N} calculations that this scheme is much more effective than the DSA scheme when scattering is highly forward-peaked. The author has investigated the applicability of the SP{sub N} approximation to two different physical classes of problems: satellite electronics shielding from geomagnetically trapped electrons, and electron beam problems.
Development of HyPEP, A Hydrogen Production Plant Efficiency Calculation Program
C. H. Oh; C. B. Davis; S. R. Sherman; S. Vilim; Y. J. Lee; W. J. Lee
2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Department of Energy envisions the next generation very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) as a single-purpose or dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the Republic of Korea also selected VHTR for the Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) Project. The report will address the evaluation of hydrogen and electricity production cycle efficiencies for such systems as the VHTR and NHDD, and the optimization of system configurations. Optimization of such complex systems as VHTR and NHDD will require a large number of calculations involving a large number of operating parameter variations and many different system configurations. The research will produce (a) the HyPEP which is specifically designed to be an easy-to-use and fast running tool for the hydrogen and electricity production evaluation with flexible system layout, (b) thermal hydraulic calculations using reference design, (c) verification and validation of numerical tools used in this study, (d) transient analyses during start-up operation and off-normal operation. This project will also produce preliminary cost estimates of the major components.
Systematic calculations of $?$-decay half-lives with an improved empirical formula
Z. Y. Wang; Z. M. Niu; Q. Liu; J. Y. Guo
2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the recent data in NUBASE2012, an improved empirical formula for evaluating the $\\alpha$-decay half-lives is presented, in which the hindrance effect resulted from the change of the ground state spins and parities of parent and daughter nuclei is included, together with a new correction factor for nuclei near the shell closures. The calculated $\\alpha$-decay half-lives are found to be in better agreements with the experimental data, and the corresponding root-mean-square (rms) deviation is reduced to $0.433$ when the experimental $Q$-values are employed. Furthermore, the $Q$-values derived from different nuclear mass models are used to predict $\\alpha$-decay half-lives with this improved formula. It is found that the calculated half-lives are very sensitive to the $Q$-values. Remarkably, when mass predictions are improved with the radial basis function (RBF), the resulting rms deviations can be significantly reduced. With the mass prediction from the latest version of Weizs\\"{a}cker-Skyrme (WS4) model, the rms deviation of $\\alpha$-decay half-lives with respect to the known data falls to $0.697$.
Direct Calculation of Ice Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for a Molecular Model of Water
Amir Haji-Akbari; Pablo G. Debenedetti
2015-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
Ice formation is ubiquitous in nature, with important consequences in a variety of environments, including biological cells, soil, aircraft, transportation infrastructure and atmospheric clouds. However, its intrinsic kinetics and microscopic mechanism are difficult to discern with current experiments. Molecular simulations of ice nucleation are also challenging, and direct rate calculations have only been performed for coarse-grained models of wate. For molecular models, only indirect estimates have been obtained, e.g. by assuming the validity of classical nucleation theory. We use a path sampling approach to perform the first direct rate calculation of homogeneous nucleation of ice in a molecular model of water. We use TIP4P/Ice, the most accurate among existing molecular models for studying ice polymorphs. By using a novel topological approach to distinguish different polymorphs, we are able to identify a freezing mechanism that involves a competition between cubic and hexagonal ice in the early stages of nucleation. In this competition, the cubic polymorph takes over since the addition of new topological structural motifs consistent with cubic ice leads to the formation of more compact crystallites. This is not true for topological hexagonal motifs, which give rise to elongated crystallites that are not able to grow. This leads to transition states that are rich in cubic ice, and not the thermodynamically stable hexagonal polymorph. This mechanism provides a molecular explanation to the earlier experimental and computational observations of the preference for cubic ice in the literature.
Systematic calculations of $\\alpha$-decay half-lives with an improved empirical formula
Wang, Z Y; Liu, Q; Guo, J Y
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the recent data in NUBASE2012, an improved empirical formula for evaluating the $\\alpha$-decay half-lives is presented, in which the hindrance effect resulted from the change of the ground state spins and parities of parent and daughter nuclei is included, together with a new correction factor for nuclei near the shell closures. The calculated $\\alpha$-decay half-lives are found to be in better agreements with the experimental data, and the corresponding root-mean-square (rms) deviation is reduced to $0.433$ when the experimental $Q$-values are employed. Furthermore, the $Q$-values derived from different nuclear mass models are used to predict $\\alpha$-decay half-lives with this improved formula. It is found that the calculated half-lives are very sensitive to the $Q$-values. Remarkably, when mass predictions are improved with the radial basis function (RBF), the resulting rms deviations can be significantly reduced. With the mass prediction from the latest version of Weizs\\"{a}cker-Skyrme (WS4) mode...
Criticality calculations with MCNP{trademark}: A primer
Harmon, C.D. II; Busch, R.D.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Forster, R.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1994-06-06T23:59:59.000Z
With the closure of many experimental facilities, the nuclear criticality safety analyst increasingly is required to rely on computer calculations to identify safe limits for the handling and storage of fissile materials. However, in many cases, the analyst has little experience with the specific codes available at his/her facility. This primer will help you, the analyst, understand and use the MCNP Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that you have a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with MCNP in particular. Appendix A gives an introduction to Monte Carlo techniques. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of MCNP that are useful in criticality analyses. Beginning with a Quickstart chapter, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for MCNP input and allows you to run a simple criticality problem with MCNP. This chapter is not designed to explain either the input or the MCNP options in detail; but rather it introduces basic concepts that are further explained in following chapters. Each chapter begins with a list of basic objectives that identify the goal of the chapter, and a list of the individual MCNP features that are covered in detail in the unique chapter example problems. It is expected that on completion of the primer you will be comfortable using MCNP in criticality calculations and will be capable of handling 80 to 90 percent of the situations that normally arise in a facility. The primer provides a set of basic input files that you can selectively modify to fit the particular problem at hand.
Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ?}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ?} ? 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ?} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.
Johnson, M.W.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A comparison of electron densities calculated from the Utah State University First-Principals Ionospheric Model with simultaneous observations taken at Sondrestrom, Millstone, and Arecibo incoherent-scatter radars was undertaken to better understanding the response of the ionosphere at these longitudinally similar yet latitudinally separated locations. The comparison included over 50 days distributed over 3 1/2 years roughly symmetrical about the last solar-minimum in 1986. The overall trend of the comparison was that to first-order the model reproduces electron densities responding to diurnal, seasonal, geomagnetic, and solar-cycle variations for all three radars. However, some model-observation discrepancies were found. These include, failure of the model to correctly produce an evening peak at Millstone, fall-spring equinox differences at Sondrestrom, tidal structure at Arecibo, and daytime NmF2 values at Arecibo.
Calculation technique for simulation of wave and fracture dynamics in a reinforced sheet
M. Ayzenberg-Stepanenko; Z. Yanovitsky; G. Osharovich
2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z
Mathematical models and computer algorithms are developed to calculate dynamic stress concentration and fracture wave propagation in a reinforced composite sheet. The composite consists of a regular system alternating extensible fibers and pliable adhesive layers. In computer simulations, we derive difference algorithms preventing or minimizing the parasite distortions caused by the mesh dispersion and obtain precise numerical solutions in the plane fracture problem of a pre-stretched sheet along the fibers. Interactive effects of microscale dynamic deformation and multiple damage in fibers and adhesive are studied. Two engineering models of the composite are considered: the first assumes that adhesive can be represented by inertionless bonds of constant stiffness, while in the second one an adhesive is described by inertial medium perceived shear stresses. Comparison of results allows the evaluation of facilities of models in wave and fracture patterns analysis.
Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Four different numerical algorithms suitable for a linear scaling implementation of time-dependent Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham self-consistent field theories are examined. We compare the performance of modified Lanczos, Arooldi, Davidson, and Rayleigh quotient iterative procedures to solve the random-phase approximation (RPA) (non-Hermitian) and Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) (Hermitian) eigenvalue equations in the molecular orbital-free framework. Semiempirical Hamiltonian models are used to numerically benchmark algorithms for the computation of excited states of realistic molecular systems (conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes). Convergence behavior and stability are tested with respect to a numerical noise imposed to simulate linear scaling conditions. The results single out the most suitable procedures for linear scaling large-scale time-dependent perturbation theory calculations of electronic excitations.
Chibani, Omar, E-mail: omar.chibani@fccc.edu; C-M Ma, Charlie [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)] [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR brachytherapy planning.
Sutherland, J. G. H.; Miksys, N.; Thomson, R. M., E-mail: rthomson@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Furutani, K. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To investigate methods of generating accurate patient-specific computational phantoms for the Monte Carlo calculation of lung brachytherapy patient dose distributions. Methods: Four metallic artifact mitigation methods are applied to six lung brachytherapy patient computed tomography (CT) images: simple threshold replacement (STR) identifies high CT values in the vicinity of the seeds and replaces them with estimated true values; fan beam virtual sinogram replaces artifact-affected values in a virtual sinogram and performs a filtered back-projection to generate a corrected image; 3D median filter replaces voxel values that differ from the median value in a region of interest surrounding the voxel and then applies a second filter to reduce noise; and a combination of fan beam virtual sinogram and STR. Computational phantoms are generated from artifact-corrected and uncorrected images using several tissue assignment schemes: both lung-contour constrained and unconstrained global schemes are considered. Voxel mass densities are assigned based on voxel CT number or using the nominal tissue mass densities. Dose distributions are calculated using the EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose for{sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 131}Cs seeds and are compared directly as well as through dose volume histograms and dose metrics for target volumes surrounding surgical sutures. Results: Metallic artifact mitigation techniques vary in ability to reduce artifacts while preserving tissue detail. Notably, images corrected with the fan beam virtual sinogram have reduced artifacts but residual artifacts near sources remain requiring additional use of STR; the 3D median filter removes artifacts but simultaneously removes detail in lung and bone. Doses vary considerably between computational phantoms with the largest differences arising from artifact-affected voxels assigned to bone in the vicinity of the seeds. Consequently, when metallic artifact reduction and constrained tissue assignment within lung contours are employed in generated phantoms, this erroneous assignment is reduced, generally resulting in higher doses. Lung-constrained tissue assignment also results in increased doses in regions of interest due to a reduction in the erroneous assignment of adipose to voxels within lung contours. Differences in dose metrics calculated for different computational phantoms are sensitive to radionuclide photon spectra with the largest differences for{sup 103}Pd seeds and smallest but still considerable differences for {sup 131}Cs seeds. Conclusions: Despite producing differences in CT images, dose metrics calculated using the STR, fan beam + STR, and 3D median filter techniques produce similar dose metrics. Results suggest that the accuracy of dose distributions for permanent implant lung brachytherapy is improved by applying lung-constrained tissue assignment schemes to metallic artifact corrected images.
Zhao, Shijun; Xue, Jianming, E-mail: jmxue@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Yugang [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang, Qing [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, Zhejiang (China)
2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
Layered ternary M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} (MAX) materials are recently proposed to be promising candidates for future fission and fusion programmes because of their unique properties inherited from both ceramics and metals. However, different M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} materials demonstrate different behaviors when exposed to energetic neutron or ion irradiations. Based on first-principles calculations, we have investigated the irradiation tolerance of two typical M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} materials: Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2} from two aspects. First, we make a detailed analysis on the interatomic bonding characters, which are believed to be responsible for the resistance to radiation-induced amorphization. Second, the formation energies of various intrinsic and antisite defects in these two compounds are calculated in order to elucidate their amorphization mechanism. Our results show that the absence of orbitals overlap of Al-C in Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2} renders it more resistant to amorphization compared to Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}. In addition, the antisite defects Al{sub Ti(1)} and Al{sub Ti(2)} in Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2} have much lower formation energies compared to Si{sub Ti(1)} and Si{sub Ti(2)} in Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}, which implies that the replacement of Ti with Al is easier than Si, thus providing an alternative way to accommodate the defects resulted from irradiation damage cascades. These results indicate that Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2} is more irradiation tolerant than Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}, in accordance with experimental observations. Our results have profound implications for the choice of appropriate MAX phase with best performance to be used in next reaction reactors.
Ab initio NMR Chemical Shift Calculations for Biomolecular Systems
, the chemical shift describes the dependence of nuclear magnetic energy levels on the electronic environment nuclear magnetic shielding tensor as mixed derivatives of the energy E with respect to an external between nuclei placed in different molecular environments. This means that the chemical shift is sensitive
Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Over the past several years, the OECD/NEA and CEC sponsored an international program intercomparing a group of six probabilistic consequence assessment (PCA) codes designed to simulate health and economic consequences of radioactive releases into atmosphere of radioactive materials following severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs): ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this effort, two separate groups performed similar calculations using the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Results produced in the MACCS Users Group (Greece, Italy, Spain, and USA) calculations and their comparison are contained in the present report. Version 1.5.11.1 of the MACCS code was used for the calculations. Good agreement between the results produced in the four participating calculations has been reached, with the exception of the results related to the ingestion pathway dose predictions. The main reason for the scatter in those particular results is attributed to the lack of a straightforward implementation of the specifications for agricultural production and counter-measures criteria provided for the exercise. A significantly smaller scatter in predictions of other consequences was successfully explained by differences in meteorological files and weather sampling, grids, rain distance intervals, dispersion model options, and population distributions.
Mai, V. T.; Fujii, T.; Wada, K.; Kitada, T. [Osaka Univ., 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takaki, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Watanabe, H. [Tokai Univ., 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa, 259-1292 (Japan); Unesaki, H. [Kyoto Univ. Research Reactor Inst., Asahiro-nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Considering the importance of thorium data and concerning about the accuracy of Th-232 cross section library, a series of experiments of thorium critical core carried out at KUCA facility of Kyoto Univ. Research Reactor Inst. have been analyzed. The core was composed of pure thorium plates and 93% enriched uranium plates, solid polyethylene moderator with hydro to U-235 ratio of 140 and Th-232 to U-235 ratio of 15.2. Calculations of the effective multiplication factor, control rod worth, reactivity worth of Th plates have been conducted by MVP code using JENDL-4.0 library [1]. At the experiment site, after achieving the critical state with 51 fuel rods inserted inside the reactor, the measurements of the reactivity worth of control rod and thorium sample are carried out. By comparing with the experimental data, the calculation overestimates the effective multiplication factor about 0.90%. Reactivity worth of the control rods evaluation using MVP is acceptable with the maximum discrepancy about the statistical error of the measured data. The calculated results agree to the measurement ones within the difference range of 3.1% for the reactivity worth of one Th plate. From this investigation, further experiments and research on Th-232 cross section library need to be conducted to provide more reliable data for thorium based fuel core design and safety calculation. (authors)
Kerr, H.G.; White, N. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
A general, automatic method for determining the three-dimensional geometry of a normal fault of any shape and size is applied to a three-dimensional seismic reflection data set from the Nun River field, Nigeria. In addition to calculating fault geometry, the method also automatically retrieves the extension direction without requiring any previous information about either the fault shape or the extension direction. Solutions are found by minimizing the misfit between sets of faults that are calculated from the observed geometries of two or more hanging-wall beds. In the example discussed here, the predicted fault surface is in excellent agreement with the shape of the seismically imaged fault. Although the calculated extension direction is oblique to the average strike of the fault, the value of this parameter is not well resolved. Our approach differs markedly from standard section-balancing models in two important ways. First, we do not assume that the extension direction is known, and second, the use of inverse theory ensures that formal confidence bounds can be determined for calculated fault geometries. This ability has important implications for a range of geological problems encountered at both exploration and production scales. In particular, once the three-dimensional displacement field has been constrained, the difficult but important problem of three-dimensional palinspastic restoration of hanging-wall structures becomes tractable.
Myint, P C; Firoozabadi, A
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamic property calculations of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO$_2$) and water, including brines, are essential in theoretical models of many natural and industrial processes. The properties of greatest practical interest are density, solubility, and enthalpy. Many models for density and solubility calculations have been presented in the literature, but there exists only one study, by Spycher and Pruess, that has compared theoretical molar enthalpy predictions with experimental data. In this report, we recommend two different models for enthalpy calculations: the CPA equation of state by Li and Firoozabadi, and the CO$_2$ activity coefficient model by Duan and Sun. We show that the CPA equation of state, which has been demonstrated to provide good agreement with density and solubility data, also accurately calculates molar enthalpies of pure CO$_2$, pure water, and both CO$_2$-rich and aqueous (H$_2$O-rich) mixtures of the two species. It is applicable to a wider range of conditions than the Spy...
Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .)
2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).
High precision electrostatic potential calculations for cylindrically symmetric lenses
Edwards, David Jr. [238 Marylyn Lane, Newark, Vermont 05871 (United States)
2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
A method is developed for a potential calculation within cylindrically symmetric electrostatic lenses using mesh relaxation techniques, and it is capable of considerably higher accuracies than currently available. The method involves (i) creating very high order algorithms (orders of 6, 8, and 10) for determining the potentials at points in the net using surrounding point values, (ii) eliminating the effect of the large errors caused by singular points, and (iii) reducing gradients in the high gradient regions of the geometry, thereby allowing the algorithms used in these regions to achieve greater precisions--(ii) and (iii) achieved by the use of telescopic multiregions. In addition, an algorithm for points one unit from a metal surface is developed, allowing general mesh point algorithms to be used in these situations, thereby taking advantage of the enhanced precision of the latter. A maximum error function dependent on a sixth order gradient of the potential is defined. With this the single point algorithmic errors are able to be viewed over the entire net. Finally, it is demonstrated that by utilizing the above concepts and procedures, the potential of a point in a reasonably high gradient region of a test geometry can realize a precision of less than 10{sup -10}.