National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dielectric loaded accelerating

  1. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  2. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  3. TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-05-30

    Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at {approx}30 GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio ({approx}12:1). Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.

  4. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-09-22

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 6 figs.

  5. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  6. DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-06

    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  7. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS operating at 30 GHz. It was shown that the ratio of maximum surface electric field to accelerating field at the metal wall is only 0.35-0.4 for DLA, much smaller than the value 2.2 for HDS; and the ratio of surface magnetic field to accelerating field is 3.0 mA/V for DLA, compared with 3.45 mA/V for HDS. These values bode well for DLA in helping to avoid breakdown and to reducing pulsed surface heating and fatigue. The shunt impedance is found to be 160-175 M{Omega}/m for DLA, as compared to 99 M{Omega}/m for HDS. Conclusions are reached from this project that CVD diamond appears promising as a dielectric with a high threshold for RF breakdown, and that rectangular accelerator structures can be devised using planar CVD diamond elements that could be operated at higher acceleration gradients with low probability of RF breakdown, as compared with corresponding all-metallic structures.

  8. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

  9. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  10. COAXIAL TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-04-30

    Theory, computations, and experimental apparatus are presented that describe and are intended to confirm novel properties of a coaxial two-channel dielectric wake field accelerator. In this configuration, an annular drive beam in the outer coaxial channel excites multimode wakefields which, in the inner channel, can accelerate a test beam to an energy much higher than the energy of the drive beam. This high transformer ratio is the result of judicious choice of the dielectric structure parameters, and of the phase separation between drive bunches and test bunches. A structure with cm-scale wakefields has been build for tests at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Laboratory, and a structure with mm-scale wakefields has been built for tests at the SLAC FACET facility. Both tests await scheduling by the respective facilities.

  11. Fabrication of a Prototype All-Dielectric Micro-Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, J.; McNeur, J.; Travish, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B. [UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yoder, R. B. [Manhattanville College, Department of Physics, Purchase, NY 10577 (United States)

    2010-11-04

    A laser-powered micron-scale, all-dielectric, slab-symmetric accelerator has been under development at UCLA for several years, with an experimental program underway. The device is built from dielectric Bragg reflectors and includes periodic nanoscale coupling structures, which requires micromanufacturing techniques and a cleanroom facility. We report here on results of fabrication experiments and the construction of a prototype device. A method for patterning the periodic coupling structures using electron beam lithography is described, and sputter deposition of thin films (such as ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}) to create a distributed Bragg reflector is discussed. Future plan includes reflection and transmission measurements using the drive laser on prototype devices, and the resonance frequency and strength will be evaluated.

  12. Experimental Plans to Explore Dielectric Wakefield Acceleration in the THZ Regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; /Northern Illinois U.; Piot, P.; /Fermilab; Behrens, C.; Elsen, E.; Flottmann, K.; Gerth, C.; Kube, G.; Schmidt, B.; /DESY; Osterhoff, J.; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Stoltz, P.

    2011-09-07

    Dielectric wakefield accelerators have shown great promise toward high-gradient acceleration. We investigate the performances of a possible experiment under consideration at the FLASH facility in DESY to explore wakefield acceleration with an enhanced transformer ratio. The experiment capitalizes on a unique pulse shaping capability recently demonstrated at this facility. In addition, the facility incorporates a superconducting linear accelerator that could generate bunch trains with closely spaced bunches thereby opening the exploration of potential dynamical effects in dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  13. Enhanced transmission modulation based on dielectric metasurfaces loaded with graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyropoulos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    We present a hybrid graphene dielectric metasurface design to achieve strong tunable and modulated transmission at near-infrared (near-IR) frequencies. The proposed device is constituted by periodic pairs of asymmetric silicon nanobars placed over a silica substrate. An one-atom-thick graphene sheet is positioned between the nanobars and the substrate. The in-plane electromagnetic fields are highly localized and enhanced with this all-dielectric metasurface due to its zero Ohmic losses at near-IR wavelengths. They strongly interact with graphene and couple to its properties. Sharp Fano transmission is obtained at the resonant frequency of this hybrid all-dielectric metasurface configuration due to the cancelation of the electric and magnetic dipole responses at this frequency point. The properties of the graphene monolayer flake can be adjusted by tuning its Fermi energy or chemical potential, leading to different doping levels and, equivalently, material parameters. As a result, the Q factor and the Fano res...

  14. Two Channel Dielectric-Lined Rectangular High Transformer Ratio Accelerator Structure Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shchelkunov, S. V.; LaPointe, M. A. [Beam Physics Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Hirshfield, J. L. [Beam Physics Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Omega-P, Inc., 258 Bradley St., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Marshall, T. C. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Omega-P, Inc., 258 Bradley St., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Sotnikov, G. [NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); Omega-P, Inc., 258 Bradley St., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Gai, Wei; Conde, M.; Power, J.; Mihalcea, D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-11-04

    Current status of a two-channel cm-scale rectangular dielectric lined wakefield accelerator structure is described. This structure is installed at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility (AWA), and is presently being evaluated. The device has a transformer ratio of {approx}12.5:1. When driven by a {approx}50 nC single drive bunch it is expected to obtain {approx}6 MV/m acceleration gradient. Related issues are discussed.

  15. Numerically optimized structures for dielectric asymmetric dual-grating laser accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimidula, A. [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bake, M. A.; Wan, F.; Xie, B. S., E-mail: bsxie@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Welsch, C. P. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom) [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Xia, G.; Mete, O. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom) [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Uesaka, M.; Matsumura, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan); Yoshida, M.; Koyama, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)] [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Optical scale dielectric structures are promising candidates to realize future compact, low cost particle accelerators, since they can sustain high acceleration gradients in the range of GeV/m. Here, we present numerical simulation results for a dielectric asymmetric dual-grating accelerator. It was found that the asymmetric dual-grating structures can efficiently modify the laser field to synchronize it with relativistic electrons, therefore increasing the average acceleration gradient by ?10% in comparison to symmetric structures. The optimum pillar height which was determined by simulation agrees well with that estimated analytically. The effect of the initial kinetic energy of injected electrons on the acceleration gradient is also discussed. Finally, the required laser parameters were calculated analytically and a suitable laser is proposed as energy source.

  16. Laser acceleration and deflection of 963 keV electrons with a silicon dielectric structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leedle, Kenneth J.; Pease, R. Fabian; Byer, Robert L.; Harris, James S.

    2015-02-12

    Radio frequency particle accelerators are ubiquitous in ultrasmall and ultrafast science, but their size and cost have prompted exploration of compact and scalable alternatives such as the dielectric laser accelerator. We present the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of high gradient laser acceleration and deflection of electrons with a silicon structure. Driven by a 5 nJ, 130 fs mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser at 907 nm wavelength, our devices achieve accelerating gradients in excess of 200 MeV/m and suboptical cycle streaking of 96.30 keV electrons. These results pave the way for high gradient silicon dielectric laser accelerators using commercialmore »lasers and subfemtosecond electron beam experiments.« less

  17. Three-dimensional theory of Smith-Purcell free-electron laser with dielectric loaded grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Miaomiao, E-mail: mona486@yeah.net; Li, Ke, E-mail: like3714@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Electronic Science and Technology, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Wenxin, E-mail: lwenxin@mail.ie.ac.cn; Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong3845@sina.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-14

    A dielectric loaded rectangular grating for Smith-Purcell devices is proposed in this paper. Regarding the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, a three dimensional (3D) linear theory of beam-wave interaction is developed. The first and second order growth rates are calculated, which are obtained by expanding hot dispersion equation at synchronous point. The results show that the cutoff frequency is affected by grating width. The dispersion curve becomes flatter and shifts towards lower frequency by loading dielectric in grooves. The simulation results, which are obtained by a 3D particle-in-cell code, are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Compared the first and second order growth rate, it shows that the discrepancy is large when beam parameters are selected with high values. In this case, it is necessary to apply the second order growth rate, which can accurately describe the process of beam-wave interaction.

  18. Use of dielectric material in muon accelerator RF cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    French, Katheryn Decker

    2011-01-01

    The building of a muon collider is motivated by the desire to collide point-like particles while reducing the limitations imposed by synchrotron radiation. The many challenges unique to muon accelerators are derived from ...

  19. SU-E-T-512: Electromagnetic Simulations of the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uselmann, A; Mackie, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize and parametrically study the key components of a dielectric wall accelerator through electromagnetic modeling and particle tracking. Methods: Electromagnetic and particle tracking simulations were performed using a commercial code (CST Microwave Studio, CST Inc.) utilizing the finite integration technique. A dielectric wall accelerator consists of a series of stacked transmission lines sequentially fired in synchrony with an ion pulse. Numerous properties of the stacked transmission lines, including geometric, material, and electronic properties, were analyzed and varied in order to assess their impact on the transverse and axial electric fields. Additionally, stacks of transmission lines were simulated in order to quantify the parasitic effect observed in closely packed lines. Particle tracking simulations using the particle-in-cell method were performed on the various stacks to determine the impact of the above properties on the resultant phase space of the ions. Results: Examination of the simulation results show that novel geometries can shape the accelerating pulse in order to reduce the energy spread and increase the average energy of accelerated ions. Parasitic effects were quantified for various geometries and found to vary with distance from the end of the transmission line and along the beam axis. An optimal arrival time of an ion pulse relative to the triggering of the transmission lines for a given geometry was determined through parametric study. Benchmark simulations of single transmission lines agree well with published experimental results. Conclusion: This work characterized the behavior of the transmission lines used in a dielectric wall accelerator and used this information to improve them in novel ways. Utilizing novel geometries, we were able to improve the accelerating gradient and phase space of the accelerated particle bunch. Through simulation, we were able to discover and optimize design issues with the device at low cost. Funding: Morgridge Institute for Research, Madison WI; Conflict of Interest: Dr. Mackie is an investor and board member at CPAC, a company developing compact accelerator designs similar to those discussed in this work, but designs discussed are not directed by CPAC. Funding: Morgridge Institute for Research, Madison WI; Conflict of Interest: Dr. Mackie is an investor and board member at CPAC, a company developing compact accelerator designs similar to those discussed in this work, but designs discussed are not directed by CPAC.

  20. HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-12

    The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P'�s approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-�but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in a future high energy, high gradient accelerator facility. We predict that the T of a high gradient CDWA can be increased by a substantial factor; this enhancement is dramatically greater than what has been demonstrated heretofore. This large enhancement in T that we predict arises from using a train of three or four drive bunches in which the spacing of the bunches and their respective charges are selected according to a simple principle that requires each bunch lose energy to the wakefields at the same rate, so as not to sacrifice drive beam efficiency�¢����as would be the case if one bunch exhausted its available energy while others had not. It is anticipated that results from the study proposed here can have a direct impact on design of the dielectric accelerator in a TeV-scale collider concept, and in the accelerator for an x-ray FEL.

  1. Load Schedule Coordination for a Large Linear Accelerator: An Operation Powerplay Concept 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    -power from Federal power projects, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at Los Alamos, New Mexico. With this variation, only the portion of LANL's total load requirement for the Linear Accelerator at the Meson Physics Facility is targeted...

  2. Optimal Design of Motor and Gear for Drives with High Acceleration and Load Torque

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Optimal Design of Motor and Gear for Drives with High Acceleration and Load Torque H. Grotstollen-acceleration product are transmitted unchanged by an ideal gear. At a first step those motors can be selected which offer sufficient rated power and power rate. When designing gears for each of these motors two ranges

  3. Optimal energy-harvesting cycles for load-driven dielectric generators in plane strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Springhetti; E. Bortot; G. deBotton; M. Gei

    2014-03-13

    The performances of energy harvesting generators based on dielectric elastomers are investigated. The configuration is of a thin dielectric film coated by stretchable electrodes at both sides. The film is first stretched, then charged and subsequently, afterwards it is released, and finally the charge is harvested at a higher electric potential. The amount of energy extracted by this cycle is bounded by the electric breakdown and the ultimate stretch ratio of the film as well as by structural instabilities due to loss of tension. To identify the optimal cycle that complies with these limits we formulate a constraint optimization problem and solve it with a dedicated solver for two typical classes of elastic dielectrics. As anticipated, we find that the performance of the generator depends critically on the ultimate stretch ratio of the film. However, more surprising is our finding of a universal limit on the dielectric strength of the film beyond which the optimal cycle is independent of this parameter. Thus, we reveal that, regardless of how large the dielectric strength of the material is, there is an upper bound on the amount of harvested energy that depends only on the ultimate stretch ratio. We conclude the work with detailed calculations of the optimal cycles for two commercially available elastic dielectrics.

  4. Emission Control Technology, Performance/Durability -POSTER Effect of Accelerated Ash Loading on Performance of Diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    on Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters and Morphology of Ash Layers Bruce G. Bunting and Todd J. Toops using a single-cylinder diesel engine has been developed for accelerated ash loading in catalyzed and non- catalyzed diesel particular filters (DPF) made of cordierite, SiC and mullite substrate

  5. High Transformer ratios in collinear wakefield accelerators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanreykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

    2008-01-01

    Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer ratio R2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (sigmaz=2 mm) of the new Argonne wakefield accelerator (AWA) drive gun (where the experiment will be performed), a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer ratio enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structures for future wakefield accelerators.

  6. Dielectric-Loaded Microwave Cavity for High-Gradient Testing of Superconducting Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pogue, Nathaniel Johnston

    2011-08-08

    A superconducting microwave cavity has been designed to test advanced materials for use in the accelerating structures contained within linear colliders. The electromagnetic design of this cavity produces surface magnetic fields on the sample wafer...

  7. An Accelerated Multiboson Algorithm for Coulomb Gases with Dynamical Dielectric Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Duncan; R. D. Sedgewick

    2006-02-27

    A recent reformulation [1] of the problem of Coulomb gases in the presence of a dynamical dielectric medium showed that finite temperature simulations of such systems can be accomplished on the basis of completely local Hamiltonians on a spatial lattice by including additional bosonic fields. For large systems, the Monte Carlo algorithm proposed in Ref. [1] becomes inefficient due to a low acceptance rate for particle moves in a fixed background multiboson field. We show here how this problem can be circumvented by use of a coupled particle-multiboson update procedure that improves acceptance rates on large lattices by orders of magnitude. The method is tested on a one-component plasma with neutral dielectric particles for a variety of system sizes.

  8. Beam loading in a laser-plasma accelerator using a near-hollow plasma channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-12-15

    Beam loading in laser-plasma accelerators using a near-hollow plasma channel is examined in the linear wake regime. It is shown that, by properly shaping and phasing the witness particle beam, high-gradient acceleration can be achieved with high-efficiency, and without induced energy spread or emittance growth. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in this plasma channel geometry. Matched propagation of electron beams can be achieved by the focusing force provided by the channel density. For positron beams, matched propagation can be achieved in a hollow plasma channel with external focusing. The efficiency of energy transfer from the wake to a witness beam is calculated for single ultra-short bunches and bunch trains.

  9. Plasma acceleration from radio-frequency discharge in dielectric capillary A. Dunaevskya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1063/1.2214127 Electric propulsion devices for spacecraft with masses of several tens of kilograms are in increasing, weight, and dimensions. Saturation and thermal load on the magnetic system limit miniaturization had only an efficiency of 6% at 100 W consumed power.4 Pulsing propulsion de- vices such as pulsed

  10. Surface runoff from full-scale coal combustion product pavements during accelerated loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, C.M.; Taerakul, P.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing coal combustion products (CCPs) was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under well-controlled conditions. An equivalent of 20 years of highway traffic loading was simulated at the OSU/OU Accelerated Pavement Load Facility (APLF). Three types of portland cement concrete driving surface layers were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (PC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). In general, the concentrations of minor and trace elements were higher in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates than in the leachates obtained from synthetic precipitation leaching procedure and ASTM leaching procedures. Importantly, none of the leachate concentrations exceeded the TCLP limits or primary drinking water standards. Surface runoff monitoring results showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, whereas there were little differences in release rates between PC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for Cr, elements were released as particulates (>0.45 {mu} m) rather than dissolved constituents. The incorporation of fly ash in the PC cement concrete pavements examined in this study resulted in little or no deleterious environmental impact from the leaching of inorganic elements over the lifetime of the pavement system.

  11. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  12. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  13. Compact accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  14. Effect of the change in the load resistance on the high voltage pulse transformer of the intense electron-beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Xinbing; Liu Jinliang; Qian Baoliang; Zhang Yu; Zhang Hongbo [College of Photoelectrical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A high voltage pulse transformer (HVPT) is usually used as a charging device for the pulse forming line (PFL) of intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBAs). Insulation of the HVPT is one of the important factors that restrict the development of the HVPT. Until now, considerable effort has been focused on minimizing high field regions to avoid insulation breakdown between windings. Characteristics of the HVPT have been widely discussed to achieve these goals, but the effects of the PFL and load resistance on HVPT are usually neglected. In this paper, a HVPT is used as a charging device for the PFL of an IEBA and the effect of the change in the load resistance on the HVPT of the IEBA is presented. When the load resistance does not match the wave impedance of the PFL, a high-frequency bipolar oscillating voltage will occur, and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage will increase with the decrease in the load resistance. The load resistance approximates to zero and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage is much higher. This makes it easier for surface flashover along the insulation materials to form and decrease the lifetime of the HVPT.

  15. RF cavity using liquid dielectric for tuning and cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popovic, Milorad (Warrenville, IL); Johnson, Rolland P. (Newport News, VA)

    2012-04-17

    A system for accelerating particles includes an RF cavity that contains a ferrite core and a liquid dielectric. Characteristics of the ferrite core and the liquid dielectric, among other factors, determine the resonant frequency of the RF cavity. The liquid dielectric is circulated to cool the ferrite core during the operation of the system.

  16. Fig. 1: Structure of drive consisting of motor, gear and load Abstract--In this paper the product of torque and acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    MOTOR LOAD MMG, M MGL, LMM ML GEAR Fig. 1: Structure of drive consisting of motor, gear and load because both products are transmitted unchanged by an ideal gear. By use of M-product design procedure because mechanical power is transmitted unchanged by an ideal gear. Consequently each motor is suitable

  17. Ceramic-polymer nanocomposites with increased dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhardwaj, Sumit Paul, Joginder; Raina, K. K.; Thakur, N. S.; Kumar, Ravi

    2014-04-24

    The use of lead free materials in device fabrication is very essential from environmental point of view. We have synthesized the lead free ferroelectric polymer nanocomposite films with increased dielectric properties. Lead free bismuth titanate has been used as active ceramic nanofillers having crystallite size 24nm and PVDF as the polymer matrix. Ferroelectric ?-phase of the polymer composite films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. Mapping data confirms the homogeneous dispersion of ceramic particles into the polymer matrix. Frequency dependent dielectric constant increases up to 43.4 at 100Hz, whereas dielectric loss decreases with 7 wt% bismuth titanate loading. This high dielectric constant lead free ferroelectric polymer films can be used for energy density applications.

  18. Power Converters for Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visintini, R

    2015-01-01

    Particle accelerators use a great variety of power converters for energizing their sub-systems; while the total number of power converters usually depends on the size of the accelerator or combination of accelerators (including the experimental setup), the characteristics of power converters depend on their loads and on the particle physics requirements: this paper aims to provide an overview of the magnet power converters in use in several facilities worldwide.

  19. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  20. Dielectric Theory of the Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson

    2006-12-11

    The vacuum is proposed to be a dielectric medium constituted of neutral but polarizable vacuuons based on overall experimental observations in separate publications. In the present paper I formally develop the dielectric theory for this dielectric vacuum.

  1. Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Loading by Distributed...

  2. Load-resistant coaxial transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

  3. Deposition of Dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    Deposition of Dielectrics Benjamin A. Small Cleanroom Technical Staff September 26th, 2000 #12 of Microelectronic Fabrication. 1996. MiRC cleanroom users PlasmaTherm, Inc. Surface Technology Systems, Inc. #12;

  4. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Xiaofan

    2013-01-01

    strain in dielectric elastomers, Journal of Polymer SciencePart B: Polymer Physics. 49 (2011) 504–515. [25] X. Zhao, Z.Electroactive nanostructured polymers as tunable actuators,

  5. LHCb GPU Acceleration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badalov, Alexey; Neufeld, Niko; Vilasis Cardona, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector is due to be upgraded for processing high-luminosity collisions, which will increase the load on its computation infrastructure from 100 GB/s to 4 TB/s, encouraging us to look for new ways of accelerating the Online reconstruction. The Coprocessor Manager is our new framework for integrating LHCb’s existing computation pipelines with massively parallel algorithms running on GPUs and other accelerators. This paper describes the system and analyzes its performance.

  6. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  7. Absorption in dielectric models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Churchill, R J

    2015-01-01

    We develop a classical microscopic model of a dielectric. The model features nonlinear interaction terms between polarizable dipoles and lattice vibrations. The lattice vibrations are found to act as a pseudo-reservoir, giving broadband absorption of electromagnetic radiation without the addition of damping terms in the dynamics. The effective permittivity is calculated using a perturbative iteration method and is found to have the form associated with real dielectrics. Spatial dispersion is naturally included in the model and we also calculate the wavevector dependence of the permittivity.

  8. Multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, M.D.; Britten, J.A.; Nguyen, H.T.; Boyd, R.; Shore, B.W.

    1999-05-25

    The design and fabrication of dielectric grating structures with high diffraction efficiency used in reflection or transmission is described. By forming a multilayer structure of alternating index dielectric materials and placing a grating structure on top of the multilayer, a diffraction grating of adjustable efficiency, and variable optical bandwidth can be obtained. Diffraction efficiency into the first order in reflection varying between 1 and 98 percent has been achieved by controlling the design of the multilayer and the depth, shape, and material comprising the grooves of the grating structure. Methods for fabricating these gratings without the use of ion etching techniques are described. 7 figs.

  9. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  10. Mechanical property changes in porous low-k dielectric thin films during processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan, G., E-mail: gheorghe.stan@nist.gov; Gates, R. S. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Kavuri, P. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Torres, J.; Michalak, D.; Ege, C.; Bielefeld, J.; King, S. W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    The design of future generations of Cu-low-k dielectric interconnects with reduced electronic crosstalk often requires engineering materials with an optimal trade off between their dielectric constant and elastic modulus. This is because the benefits associated with the reduction of the dielectric constant by increasing the porosity of materials, for example, can adversely affect their mechanical integrity during processing. By using load-dependent contact-resonance atomic force microscopy, the changes in the elastic modulus of low-k dielectric materials due to processing were accurately measured. These changes were linked to alterations sustained by the structure of low-k dielectric films during processing. A two-phase model was used for quantitative assessments of the elastic modulus changes undergone by the organosilicate skeleton of the structure of porous and pore-filled dielectrics.

  11. Molds for cable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, L.D.

    1996-12-10

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

  12. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Exploration of Ceramic Dielectrics for Microscale Dielectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Exploration of Ceramic Dielectrics silicon dioxide for the dielectric barrier with thicknesses of 5 and 10 µm. Using a ceramic dielectric

  13. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temkin, Richard J.; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  14. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Kishek, Rami

    2014-07-25

    This final report summarizes the research performed during the time period from 8/1/2010 to 7/31/2013. It consists of two parts describing our studies in two directions: (a) analysis of factors limiting operation of dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures where the main problem is the occurrence of multipactor on dielectric surfaces, and (b) studies of effects associated with either RF magnetic or RF electric fields which may cause the RF breakdown in high-gradient metallic accelerating structures. In the studies of DLA structures, at least, two accomplishments should be mentioned: the development of a 3D non-stationary, self-consistent code describing the multipactor phenomena and yielding very good agreement with some experimental data obtained in joint ANL/NRL experiments. In the metallic structures, such phenomena as the heating and melting of micro-particles (metallic dust) by RF electric and magnetic fields in single-shot and rep-rate regimes is analyzed. Also, such processes in micro-protrusions on the structure surfaces as heating and melting due to the field emitted current and the Nottingham effect are thoroughly investigated with the account for space charge of emitted current on the field emission from the tip.

  15. Adaptive control for accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, Lawrie E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jachim, Stephen P. (Los Alamos, NM); Natter, Eckard F. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive feedforward control loop is provided to stabilize accelerator beam loading of the radio frequency field in an accelerator cavity during successive pulses of the beam into the cavity. A digital signal processor enables an adaptive algorithm to generate a feedforward error correcting signal functionally determined by the feedback error obtained by a beam pulse loading the cavity after the previous correcting signal was applied to the cavity. Each cavity feedforward correcting signal is successively stored in the digital processor and modified by the feedback error resulting from its application to generate the next feedforward error correcting signal. A feedforward error correcting signal is generated by the digital processor in advance of the beam pulse to enable a composite correcting signal and the beam pulse to arrive concurrently at the cavity.

  16. Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faidas, Homer (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch empolying flashlamps.

  17. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  18. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  19. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  20. Multi-gigaelectronvolt, low-energy spread acceleration of positrons...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Multi-gigaelectronvolt, low-energy spread acceleration of positrons in a self-loaded plasma wakefield Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  1. Multilayer optical dielectric coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Emmett, John L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A highly damage resistant, multilayer, optical reflective coating includes alternating layers of doped and undoped dielectric material. The doping levels are low enough that there are no distinct interfaces between the doped and undoped layers so that the coating has properties nearly identical to the undoped material. The coating is fabricated at high temperature with plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques to eliminate defects, reduce energy-absorption sites, and maintain proper chemical stoichiometry. A number of differently-doped layer pairs, each layer having a thickness equal to one-quarter of a predetermined wavelength in the material are combined to form a narrowband reflective coating for a predetermined wavelength. Broadband reflectors are made by using a number of narrowband reflectors, each covering a portion of the broadband.

  2. Market Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market acceleration subprogram.

  3. Dielectric microscopy with submillimeter resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan S. Greeney; John A. Scales

    2007-06-20

    In analogy with optical near-field scanning methods, we use tapered dielectric waveguides as probes for a millimeter wave vector network analyzer. By scanning thin samples between two such probes we are able to map the spatially varying dielectric properties of materials with sub-wavelength resolution; using a 150 GHz probe in transmision mode we see spatial resolution of around 500 microns. We have applied this method to a variety of highly heterogeneous materials. Here we show dielectric maps of granite and oil shale.

  4. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  5. Towards all-dielectric metamaterials and nanophotonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnok, Alexander; Petrov, Mikhail; Savelev, Roman; Belov, Pavel; Kivshar, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    We review a new, rapidly developing field of all-dielectric nanophotonics which allows to control both magnetic and electric response of structured matter by engineering the Mie resonances in high-index dielectric nanoparticles. We discuss optical properties of such dielectric nanoparticles, methods of their fabrication, and also recent advances in all-dielectric metadevices including couple-resonator dielectric waveguides, nanoantennas, and metasurfaces.

  6. Petawatt pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stygar, William A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cuneo, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Headley, Daniel I. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, legal representative; Berry Cottrell (Albuquerque, NM); Leeper, Ramon J. (Albuquerque, NM); Mazarakis, Michael G. (Albuquerque, NM); Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM); Porter, John L. (Sandia Park, NM); Wagoner; Tim C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-16

    A petawatt pulsed-power accelerator can be driven by various types of electrical-pulse generators, including conventional Marx generators and linear-transformer drivers. The pulsed-power accelerator can be configured to drive an electrical load from one- or two-sides. Various types of loads can be driven; for example, the accelerator can be used to drive a high-current z-pinch load. When driven by slow-pulse generators (e.g., conventional Marx generators), the accelerator comprises an oil section comprising at least one pulse-generator level having a plurality of pulse generators; a water section comprising a pulse-forming circuit for each pulse generator and a level of monolithic triplate radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, that have variable impedance profiles, for each pulse-generator level; and a vacuum section comprising triplate magnetically insulated transmission lines that feed an electrical load. When driven by LTD generators or other fast-pulse generators, the need for the pulse-forming circuits in the water section can be eliminated.

  7. Terahertz electromagnetic wave generation and amplification by an electron beam in the elliptical plasma waveguides with dielectric rod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahmani, Z. Jazi, B.; Heidari-Semiromi, E.

    2014-09-15

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in an elliptical plasma waveguide including strongly magnetized plasma column and a dielectric rod is investigated. The dispersion relation of guided hybrid electromagnetic waves is obtained. Excitation of the waves by a thin annular relativistic elliptical electron beam will be studied. The time growth rate of electromagnetic waves is obtained. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, radius of dielectric rod, accelerating voltage, and current density of the annular elliptical beam on the growth rate and the frequency spectra are numerically presented.

  8. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malamud, Ernest

    2009-01-01

    became the APS Division of the Physics of Beams. If oneorganizes accelerator physics sessions at APS meetings, and,creating the APS topical group on beam physics, which later

  9. Electric and Magnetic Walls on Dielectric Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changbiao Wang

    2010-07-20

    Sufficient conditions of the existence of electric or magnetic walls on dielectric interfaces are given for a multizone uniform dielectric waveguiding system. If one of two adjacent dielectric zones supports a TEM field distribution while the other supports a TM (TE) field distribution, then the common dielectric interface behaves as an electric (magnetic) wall, that is, the electric (magnetic) field line is perpendicular to the interface while the magnetic (electric) field line is parallel to the interface.

  10. Accelerator Division

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposalsAboutAccelerating theAccelerator

  11. Accelerator Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge KiosksAbout UsAbout NewAccelerator Systems Accelerator

  12. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Foster, John E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  13. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  14. Tailoring dielectric properties of ferroelectric-dielectric multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesim, M. T.; Zhang, J.; Cole, M. W.; Misirlioglu, I. B.

    2014-01-13

    We develop a nonlinear thermodynamic model for multilayer ferroelectric heterostructures that takes into account electrostatic and electromechanical interactions between layers. We concentrate on the effect of relative layer fractions and in-plane thermal stresses on dielectric properties of Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3}-, BaTiO{sub 3}-, and PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PZT)-SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) multilayers on Si and c-sapphire. We show that dielectric properties of such multilayers can be significantly enhanced by tailoring the growth/processing temperature and the STO layer fraction. Our computations show that large tunabilities (?90% at 400?kV/cm) are possible in carefully designed barium strontium titanate-STO and PZT-STO even on Si for which there exist substantially large in-plane strains.

  15. Optimization of Drive-Bunch Current Profile for Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Beam-Driven Acceleration Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C.R.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2012-07-08

    In recent years, wakefield acceleration has gained attention due to its high acceleration gradients and cost effectiveness. In beam-driven wakefield acceleration, a critical parameter to optimize is the transformer ratio. It has been shown that current shaping of electron beams allows for enhanced (> 2) transformer ratios. In this paper we present the optimization of the pulse shape of the drive bunch for dielectric-wakefield acceleration.

  16. Analysis Code for High Gradient Dielectric Insulator Surface Breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc.; Verboncoeur, John [University of California - Berkeley; Aldan, Manuel [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-05-30

    High voltage (HV) insulators are critical components in high-energy, accelerator and pulsed power systems that drive diverse applications in the national security, nuclear weapons science, defense and industrial arenas. In these systems, the insulator may separate vacuum/non-vacuum regions or conductors with high electrical field gradients. These insulators will often fail at electric fields over an order of magnitude lower than their intrinsic dielectric strength due to flashover at the dielectric interface. Decades of studies have produced a wealth of information on fundamental processes and mechanisms important for flashover initiation, but only for relatively simple insulator configurations in controlled environments. Accelerator and pulsed power system designers are faced with applying the fundamental knowledge to complex, operational devices with escalating HV requirements. Designers are forced to rely on “best practices” and expensive prototype testing, providing boundaries for successful operation. However, the safety margin is difficult to estimate, and system design must be very conservative for situations where testing is not practicable, or replacement of failed parts is disruptive or expensive. The Phase I program demonstrated the feasibility of developing an advanced code for modeling insulator breakdown. Such a code would be of great interest for a number of applications, including high energy physics, microwave source development, fusion sciences, and other research and industrial applications using high voltage devices.

  17. PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; BEAM DUMPS; BENDING; CHANNELING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Channeling through Bent Crystals Mack, Stephanie; Ottawa U. SLAC 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; BEAM DUMPS; BENDING; CHANNELING; CRYSTAL LATTICES; DETECTION; FORTRAN;...

  18. High transformer ratio drive beams for wakefield accelerator studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    England, R. J.; Ng, C.-K.; Frederico, J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Muggli, P.; Joshi, C.; An, W.; Andonian, G.; Mori, W.; Lu, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Max Planck Institute for Physics, 80805 Munich (Germany); University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-21

    For wakefield based acceleration schemes, use of an asymmetric (or linearly ramped) drive bunch current profile has been predicted to enhance the transformer ratio and generate large accelerating wakes. We discuss plans and initial results for producing such bunches using the 20 to 23 GeV electron beam at the FACET facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and sending them through plasmas and dielectric tubes to generate transformer ratios greater than 2 (the limit for symmetric bunches). The scheme proposed utilizes the final FACET chicane compressor and transverse collimation to shape the longitudinal phase space of the beam.

  19. End moldings for cable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed is a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

  20. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  1. Peculiar acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Amendola; Claudia Quercellini; Amedeo Balbi

    2007-08-08

    It has been proposed recently to observe the change in cosmological redshift of distant galaxies or quasars with the next generation of large telescope and ultra-stable spectrographs (the so-called Sandage-Loeb test). Here we investigate the possibility of observing the change in peculiar velocity in nearby clusters and galaxies. This ``peculiar acceleration'' could help reconstructing the gravitational potential without assuming virialization. We show that the expected effect is of the same order of magnitude of the cosmological velocity shift. Finally, we discuss how to convert the theoretical predictions into quantities directly related to observations.

  2. Acceleration Fund

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposalsAboutAccelerating the transfer

  3. Energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf Leonhardt

    2005-12-21

    We calculate the energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics such as Bose-Einstein condensates. In agreement with the experiment [G. K. Campbell et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 170403 (2005)] variations of the Minkowski momentum are imprinted onto the phase, whereas the Abraham tensor drives the flow of the dielectric. Our analysis indicates that the Abraham-Minkowski controversy has its root in the Roentgen interaction of the electromagnetic field in dielectric media.

  4. Solar cell with silicon oxynitride dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Michael; Smith, David D

    2015-04-28

    Solar cells with silicon oxynitride dielectric layers and methods of forming silicon oxynitride dielectric layers for solar cell fabrication are described. For example, an emitter region of a solar cell includes a portion of a substrate having a back surface opposite a light receiving surface. A silicon oxynitride (SiO.sub.xN.sub.y, 0dielectric layer is disposed on the back surface of the portion of the substrate. A semiconductor layer is disposed on the silicon oxynitride dielectric layer.

  5. Proposed structure for a crossed-laser beam, GeV per meter gradient, vacuum electron linear accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Proposed structure for a crossed-laser beam, GeV per meter gradient, vacuum electron linear We propose a dielectric-based, multistaged, laser-driven electron linear accelerator structure operating in a vacuum that is capable of accelerating electrons to 1 TeV in 1 km. Our study shows that a Ge

  6. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using a multi layer configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A loss dielectric includes at least one high dielectric loss layer and at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. A method of manufacturing a loss dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. The systems and methods provide advantages because the loss dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  7. High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials Authors:...

  8. Dielectric liquid ionization chambers for detecting fast neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    Three ionization chambers with different geometries have been constructed and filled with dielectric liquids for detection of fast neutrons. The three dielectric liquids studied were Tetramethylsilane (TMS), Tetramethylpentane ...

  9. A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of Segmental Dynamics in PDMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of Segmental Dynamics in PDMSBoron Composite and Hybrid Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of...

  10. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nonlinear dielectric optomechanical metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nonlinear dielectric optomechanical metamaterials Jianfa Zhang1 , Kevin F MacDonald1 and Nikolay I Zheludev1,2 We introduce a dielectric photonic metamaterial presenting a giant Keywords: Metamaterial; optical bistability; optomechanical INTRODUCTION Optical forces are extremely

  12. Dielectric properties and electronic applications of aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Pekala, R.W.

    1993-07-01

    Among their other exceptional properties, aerogels also exhibits unusual dielectric properties due to their nano-sized structures and high porosities. For example, our measurements of the dielectric constants and loss tangents for several aerogel varieties at microwave frequencies show that they both vary linearly with the aerogel density, indicating that the dielectric behavior of aerogels is more gas-like than solid-like. We have also measured the dielectric strength of silica aerogels and find that they are better than ceramics for high voltage insulation. The low dielectric constants and loss tangents of aerogels, along with their controllable thermal expansion properties, make them desirable materials for use as thin films in high speed integrated digital and microwave circuitry.

  13. Summary report of working group 3: High gradient and laser-structure based acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyak, N.; Cowan, B.M.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-01-01

    The charge for the working group on high gradient and laser-structure based acceleration was to assess the current challenges involved in developing an advanced accelerator based on electromagnetic structures, and survey state-of-the-art methods to address those challenges. The topics of more than 50 presentations in the working group covered a very broad range of issues, from ideas, theoretical models and simulations, to design and manufacturing of accelerating structures and, finally, experimental results on obtaining extremely high accelerating gradients in structures from conventional microwave frequency range up to THz and laser frequencies. Workshop discussion topics included advances in the understanding of the physics of breakdown and other phenomena, limiting high gradient performance of accelerating structures. New results presented in this workshop demonstrated significant progress in the fields of conventional vacuum structure-based acceleration, dielectric wakefield acceleration, and laser-structure acceleration.

  14. Dielectric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent BondingMeeting

  15. Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested by one of us for devices that produce beams of chemically interesting species at relative kinetic

  16. Method of and apparatus for accelerating a projectile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Yeshayahu S. A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Tidman, Derek A. (Silver Spring, MD)

    1986-01-01

    A projectile is accelerated along a confined path by supplying a pulsed high pressure, high velocity plasma jet to the rear of the projectile as the projectile traverses the path. The jet enters the confined path at a non-zero angle relative to the projectile path. The pulse is derived from a dielectric capillary tube having an interior wall from which plasma forming material is ablated in response to a discharge voltage. The projectile can be accelerated in response to the kinetic energy in the plasma jet or in response to a pressure increase of gases in the confined path resulting from the heat added to the gases by the plasma.

  17. Thermoluminescence and dielectric response of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Sukhnandan, E-mail: sukhnandanphy@gmail.com; Singh, Surinder, E-mail: sukhnandanphy@gmail.com; Singh, Lakhwant, E-mail: sukhnandanphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005 (India); Lochab, S. P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effect of gamma radiation dose on the thermoluminescence (TL) and dielectric properties of muscovite mica was studied. TL glow curves exhibited a single peak around 141 {sup 0}C and its activation energy was estimated to be about 0.89 eV. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity have been calculated in both pristine and gamma irradiated samples. These dielectric parameters have been studied as a function of irradiation dose.

  18. Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois-60439 (United States)

    2007-04-06

    One approach to future high energy particle accelerators is based on the wakefield principle: a leading high-charge drive bunch is used to excite fields in an accelerating structure or plasma that in turn accelerates a trailing low-charge witness bunch. The transformer ratio R is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss of the drive bunch. In general, R<2 for this configuration. A number of techniques have been proposed to overcome the transformer ratio limitation. We report here the first experimental study of the ramped bunch train (RBT) technique in a dielectric based accelerating structure. A single drive bunch was replaced by two bunches with charge ratio of 1 ratio 2.5 and a separation of 10.5 wavelengths of the fundamental mode. An average measured transformer ratio enhancement by a factor of 1.31 over the single drive bunch case was obtained.

  19. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-06-14

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  20. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  1. Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) Accelerator Cavities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Reece, Charlie

    2014-05-22

    Charlie Reece, an accelerator technology scientist, explains how superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities work.

  2. Casimir Torque in Inhomogeneous Dielectric Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William Long; Lucas Schuermann

    2014-04-17

    In this work, we consider a torque caused by the well known quantum mechanical Casimir effect arising from quantized field fluctuations between plates with inhomogeneous, sharply discontinuous, dielectric properties. While the Casimir effect is a relatively well understood phenomenon, systems resulting in lateral or rotational forces are far less developed; to our knowledge, a theoretical study of discontinuous dielectric variants of such systems has not been attempted. We utilize a Proximity Force Approximation in conjunction with the Lifshitz dielectric formula to perform theoretical analyses of resultant torques in systems with bisected and quadrisected dielectric regions. We also develop a high precision Monte Carlo type numerical integrator to approximate our derived expressions. Our calculations of an energy density linear with the alignment angle result in a constant torque and have implications in NEMS (nano electromechanical systems) and MEMS (micro electromechanical systems), including a postulated nanoscale oscillating drive mechanism powered by quantum field interactions.

  3. Method of casting patterned dielectric structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A pattern of dielectric structures are formed directly on a substrate in a single step using sol-gel chemistry and molding procedures. The resulting dielectric structures are useful in vacuum applications for electronic devices. Porous, lightweight structures having a high aspect ratio that are suitable for use as spacers between the faceplate and baseplate of a field emission display can be manufactured using this method.

  4. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  5. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  6. Application of SiO2 aerogel film with low dielectric constant to intermetal dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    Application of SiO2 aerogel film with low dielectric constant to intermetal dielectrics Moon-Ho Jo aerogel film was characterized from its structural and chemical viewpoints. High porosity of material infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for their chemical states. The improved electrical properties of SiO2 aerogel

  7. Load Management for Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    categories: Thermal Energy Storage, Communication and Load Control, Interconnection and Operation of Power Systems, and Selective Load Promotions. The endeavors of the utility industry and Ohio Edison Company in three of the four categories are described...

  8. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  9. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  10. ULTRA-COMPACT ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR APPLICATION IN NUCLEAR TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Carazo, V; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Guse, S; Harris, J R; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Paul, A C; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Schmidt, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sitaraman, S; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2009-06-11

    We report on compact accelerator technology development for potential use as a pulsed neutron source quantitative post verifier. The technology is derived from our on-going compact accelerator technology development program for radiography under the US Department of Energy and for a clinic sized compact proton therapy systems under an industry sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. The accelerator technique relies on the synchronous discharge of a prompt pulse generating stacked transmission line structure with the beam transit. The goal of this technology is to achieve {approx}10 MV/m gradients for 10s of nanoseconds pulses and to {approx}100 MV/m gradients for {approx}1 ns systems. As a post verifier for supplementing existing x-ray equipment, this system can remain in a charged, stand-by state with little or no energy consumption. We detail the progress of our overall component development effort with the multilayer dielectric wall insulators (i.e., the accelerator wall), compact power supply technology, kHz repetition-rate surface flashover ion sources, and the prompt pulse generation system consisting of wide-bandgap switches and high performance dielectric materials.

  11. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D.; Waldhauer, Ann

    2015-08-18

    Method of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  12. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David; Waldhauer, Ann

    2012-12-18

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  13. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D; Waldhauer, Ann

    2014-04-29

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  14. Accelerator Development @ Daresbury Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -injectors ­ Superconducting RF acceleration ­ Cryogenic systems ­ Advanced diagnostics ­ Free Electron Lasers ­ Photon beam radioisotopes. 2 Treatment & Diagnostics #12;Basic Accelerator Configuration 3 Beam Source Low Energy Capture electron beam technology development. 4 Booster Compressor IR-FEL Photoinjector Laser Linac Acceleration

  15. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, D S; Pisenti, N C; Campbell, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  16. Shape Bifurcation of a Spherical Dielectric Elastomer Balloon under the Actions of Internal Pressure and Electric Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xudong Liang; Shengqiang Cai

    2015-06-12

    Under the actions of internal pressure and electric voltage, a spherical dielectric elastomer balloon usually keeps a sphere during its deformation, which has also been assumed in many previous studies. In this article, using linear perturbation analysis, we demonstrate that a spherical dielectric elastomer balloon may bifurcate to a non-spherical shape under certain electromechanical loading conditions. We also show that with a non-spherical shape, the dielectric elastomer balloon may have highly inhomogeneous electric field and stress/stretch distributions, which can lead to the failure of the system. In addition, we conduct stability analysis of the dielectric elastomer balloon in different equilibrium configurations by evaluating its second variation of free energy under arbitrary perturbations. Our analyses indicate that under pressure-control and voltage-control mode, non-spherical deformation of the dielectric elastomer balloon is energetically unstable. However, under charge-control or ideal gas mass-control mode, non-spherical deformation of the balloon is energetically stable.

  17. TE resonances in graphene-dielectric structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werra, Julia F M; Busch, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of the dispersion relations of TE resonances in different graphene-dielectric structures is presented. When a graphene layer is brought into contact with a dielectric material, a gap can appear in its electric band structure. This allows for the formation of TE-plasmons with unusual dispersion relations. In addition, if the dielectric has a finite thickness, graphene acts as a mode filter and strongly modifies the behavior of the waveguiding modes by introducing a frequency cutoff. This cutoff and the properties of TE-plasmons are closely related to the pair-creation threshold of graphene thus representing quantum mechanical effects that manifest themselves in the electromagnetic response. Our findings are of particular relevance to all forms of light-matter interaction in graphene-based systems, notably for the decay rates of emitters that are in close proximity to graphene.

  18. Method for fabrication of crack-free ceramic dielectric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Chao, Sheng; Liu, Shanshan; Narayanan, Manoj

    2014-02-11

    The invention provides a process for forming crack-free dielectric films on a substrate. The process comprise the application of a dielectric precursor layer of a thickness from about 0.3 .mu.m to about 1.0 .mu.m to a substrate. The deposition is followed by low temperature heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization step for each layer. The deposition, heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization are repeated until the dielectric film forms an overall thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m and providing a final crystallization treatment to form a thick dielectric film. Also provided was a thick crack-free dielectric film on a substrate, the dielectric forming a dense thick crack-free dielectric having an overall dielectric thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m.

  19. Viscoelastic effects on electromechanical instabilities in dielectric elastomers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Harold S.

    Viscoelastic effects on electromechanical instabilities in dielectric elastomers Harold S. Park on the electromechanical behavior of dielectric elastomers. A dynamic, finite deformation finite element formulation, we evaluate the effects of the shear and bulk relaxation times on the electromechanical instability

  20. Estimation of structural reliability under combined loads. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, M.; Kako, T.; Hwang, H.; Brown, P.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    For the overall safety evaluation of seismic category I structures subjected to various load combinations, a quantitative measure of the structural reliability in terms of a limit state probability can be conveniently used. For this purpose, the reliability analysis method for dynamic loads, which has recently been developed by the authors, was combined with the existing standard reliability analysis procedure for static and quasi-static loads. The significant parameters that enter into the analysis are: the rate at which each load (dead load, accidental internal pressure, earthquake, etc.) will occur, its duration and intensity. All these parameters are basically random variables for most of the loads to be considered. For dynamic loads, the overall intensity is usually characterized not only by their dynamic components but also by their static components. The structure considered in the present paper is a reinforced concrete containment structure subjected to various static and dynamic loads such as dead loads, accidental pressure, earthquake acceleration, etc. Computations are performed to evaluate the limit state probabilities under each load combination separately and also under all possible combinations of such loads.

  1. Method for producing high dielectric strength microvalves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Reichmuth, David S. (Oakland, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-04

    A microvalve having a cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, polymer monolith for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. The microvalve contains a porous fluorinated polymer monolithic element whose pores are filled with an electrically insulating, high dielectric strength fluid, typically a perfluorinated liquid. This combination provides a microvalve that combines high dielectric strength with extremely low electrical conductivity. These microvalves have been shown to have resistivities of at least 100 G.OMEGA. and are compatible with solvents such as water at a pH between 2.7 and 9.0, 1-1 propanol, acetonitrile, and acetone.

  2. Speed And Power Control Of An Engine By Modulation Of The Load Torque

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziph, Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI); Strodtman, Scott (Ypsilanti, MI); Rose, Thomas K (Chelsea, MI)

    1999-01-26

    A system and method of speed and power control for an engine in which speed and power of the engine is controlled by modulation of the load torque. The load torque is manipulated in order to cause engine speed, and hence power to be changed. To accomplish such control, the load torque undergoes a temporary excursion in the opposite direction of the desired speed and power change. The engine and the driven equipment will accelerate or decelerate accordingly as the load torque is decreased or increased, relative to the essentially fixed or constant engine torque. As the engine accelerates or decelerates, its power increases or decreases in proportion.

  3. Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Backward and forward modes guided by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides Arthur R. Davoyan by metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides Arthur R. Davoyan,a Ilya V. Shadrivov,a Sergey I.davoyan@gmail.com Abstract. We revisited the problem of the existence of plasmonic modes guided by metal- dielectric-metal

  4. Norbornylene-based polymer systems for dielectric applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-17

    A capacitor having at least one electrode pair being separated by a dielectric component, with the dielectric component being made of a polymer such as a norbornylene-containing polymer with a dielectric constant greater than 3 and a dissipation factor less than 0.1 where the capacitor has an operating temperature greater than 100.degree. C. and less than 170.degree. C.

  5. Analysis of viscoelastic soft dielectric elastomer generators operating in an electrical circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eliana Bortot; Ralf Denzer; Andreas Menzel; Massimiliano Gei

    2014-11-13

    A predicting model for soft Dielectric Elastomer Generators (DEGs) must consider a realistic model of the electromechanical behaviour of the elastomer filling, the variable capacitor and of the electrical circuit connecting all elements of the device. In this paper such an objective is achieved by proposing a complete framework for reliable simulations of soft energy harvesters. In particular, a simple electrical circuit is realised by connecting the capacitor, stretched periodically by a source of mechanical work, in parallel with a battery through a diode and with an electrical load consuming the energy produced. The electrical model comprises resistances simulating the effect of the electrodes and of the conductivity current invariably present through the dielectric film. As these devices undergo a high number of electro-mechanical loading cycles at large deformation, the time-dependent response of the material must be taken into account as it strongly affects the generator outcome. To this end, the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer and the possible change of permittivity with strains are analysed carefully by means of a proposed coupled electro-viscoelastic constitutive model, calibrated on experimental data available in the literature for an incompressible polyacrilate elastomer (3M VHB4910). Numerical results showing the importance of time-dependent behaviour on the evaluation of performance of DEGs for different loading conditions, namely equi-biaxial and uniaxial, are reported in the final section.

  6. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  7. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview Vitrification - general background Joule...

  8. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  9. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  10. Electromagnetic Interrogation of Dielectric Materials 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Interrogation of Dielectric Materials 1 H.T. Banks M.W. Buksas Center for Research grant P200A40730. #12; Abstract We investigate time domain based electromagnetic inverse problems electromagnetic phenomenon. For our purposes, we categorize the materials and the models employed to describe them

  11. Gate dielectric development for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, P. C.; Voutsas, A. T.; Hartzell, J. W. [LCD Process Technology Laboratories, SHARP Laboratories of America, Inc., 5700 NW Pacific Rim Blvd., Camas, Washington 98607 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Thin film transistors integrated on flexible substrates are becoming increasingly attractive for low cost displays, sensors, and rf communication applications. The successful development of the flexible devices will be dictated by the enhancement in the thermal stability of the substrates and the low temperature (<300 deg. C) processing of the gate dielectric. The plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) technique has successfully met the demands of the gate dielectric for display devices at processing temperatures lower than 600 deg. C. However, a further reduction in the processing temperatures below 300 deg. C is essential to realize low cost, highly functional devices on flexible substrates. The low temperature processing of gate dielectric films necessitates the development of processes and techniques with plasma controlled reaction kinetics dominating the thin film growth rather than the thermal state of the substrate. In the present work, the authors report on the processing of high quality gate dielectric films by high density PECVD technique at process temperatures lower than 300 deg. C. The bulk and interfacial electrical quality and reliability of the metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors as a function of process temperature are discussed in this article. A comparison with the high temperature gate oxide films deposited by PECVD technique employing capacitively coupled plasma source has been made to establish the film quality and reliability. The films processed at low temperatures have shown good electrical performance and reliability as evaluated in terms of the leakage current, flatband voltage, midgap interface trap concentration, and bias temperature stress reliability characteristics.

  12. Energy conditions outside a dielectric ball

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D.; Schwartz-Perlov, Delia [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

    2004-11-15

    We show analytically that the vacuum electromagnetic stress-energy tensor outside a ball with constant dielectric constant and permeability always obeys the weak, null, dominant, and strong energy conditions. There are still no known examples in quantum field theory in which the averaged null energy condition in flat spacetime is violated.

  13. Electric field shielding in dielectric nanosolutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey Bastrukov; Pik-Yin Lai; Irina Molodtsova

    2014-03-26

    To gain some insight into electrochemical activity of dielectric colloids of technical and biomedical interest we investigate a model of dielectric nanosolution whose micro-constitution is dominated by dipolarions -- positively and negatively charged spherically symmetric nano-structures composed of ionic charge surrounded by cloud of radially polarized dipoles of electrically neutral molecules of solvent. Combing the standard constitutive equations of an isotropic dielectric liquid with Maxwell equation of electrostatics and presuming the Boltzmann shape of the particle density of bound-charge we derive equation for the in-medium electrostatic field. Particular attention is given to numerical analysis of obtained analytic solutions of this equation describing the exterior fields of dipolarions with dipolar atmospheres of solvent molecules endowed with either permanent or field-induced dipole moments radially polarized by central symmetric field of counterions. The presented computations show that the electric field shielding of dipolarions in dielectric nanosolutions is quite different from that of counterionic nano-complexes of Debye-H\\"uckel theory of electrolytes.

  14. Dielectric and microwave attenuation properties of graphene nanoplatelet–epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhou; Luo, Jia; Zhao, Guang–Lin, E-mail: guang-lin-zhao@subr.edu [Department of Physics, Southern University and A and M college, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Southern University and A and M college, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)–epoxy composites were fabricated for the investigation of the dielectric permittivity and microwave absorption in a frequency range from 8 to 20 GHz. The intrinsically conductive GNP particles and polarized interfacial centers in the composites contribute to the microwave absorption. A minimum reflection loss of ?14.5 dB at 18.9 GHz is observed for the GNP–epoxy composites with 15 wt. % GNP loading, which is mainly attributed to electric conductivity and the charge multipoles at the polarized interfaces in the GNP–epoxy composites.

  15. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  16. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushal Shah; Vassili Gelfreich; Vered Rom-Kedar; Dmitry Turaev

    2015-04-03

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  17. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  18. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  19. From Autos to Accelerators

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In a town haunted by the remains of fallen automobile plants, some companies are hiring workers to put their car-manufacturing skills toward building particle accelerators.

  20. Accelerating Majorization Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    incomplete data via the em algorithm. Journal of the RoyalACCELERATING MAJORIZATION ALGORITHMS JAN DE LEEUW Abstract.construc- tion of majorization algorithms and their rate of

  1. Accelerating Majorization Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leeuw, Jan de

    2008-01-01

    incomplete data via the em algorithm. Journal of the RoyalACCELERATING MAJORIZATION ALGORITHMS JAN DE LEEUW Abstract.construc- tion of majorization algorithms and their rate of

  2. Market Acceleration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market acceleration subprogram.

  3. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Robert B. (Shoreham, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  4. Lab announces Venture Acceleration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a 3D virtualization company, enabling the use of 3D virtualization in art and cultural preservation markets. LAVA Chief Operations Officer Steve Smith said the "acceleration"...

  5. A New Cavity Design For Medium Beta Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feisi [Peking University, Beijing (China); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Heavy duty or cw, superconducting proton and heavy ion accelerators are being proposed and constructed worldwide. The total length of the machine is one of the main drivers in terms of cost. Thus hwr and spoke cavities at medium beta are usually optimized to achieve low surface field and high gradient. A novel accelerating structure at beta=0.5 evolved from spoke cavity is proposed, with lower surface fields but slightly higher heat load. It would be an interesting option for pulsed and cw accelerators with beam energy of more than 200mev/u.

  6. Operational status of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, A.S.; Gallardo, J.; Jialin, Xie; Kirk, H.G.; Malone, R.G.; Parsa, Z.; Palmer, R.B.; Rao, T.; Rogers, J.; Sheehan, J.; Tsang, T.Y.F.; Ulc, S.; van Steenbergen, A.; Woodle, M.; Zhang, R.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Bigio, I.; Kurnit, N.; Shimada, T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); McDonald, K.T.; Russel, D.P. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Jiang,

    1990-01-01

    Initial design parameters and early operational results of a 50 MeV high brightness electron linear accelerator are described. The system utilizes a radio frequency electron gun operating at a frequency of 2.856 GHz and a nominal output energy of 4.5 MeV followed by two, 2{pi}/3 mode, disc loaded, traveling wave accelerating sections. The gun cathode is photo excited with short (6 psec) laser pulses giving design peak currents of a few hundred amperes. The system will be utilized to carry out infra-red FEL studies and investigation of new high gradient accelerating structures.

  7. Performance Optimization Criteria for Pulsed Inductive Plasma Acceleration Kurt A. Polzin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the discharge is inductively driven. In ad- dition, a wider variety of propellants (e.g. CO2, H2O) be- comes as a greater fraction of the propellant is loaded nearer to the inductive acceleration coil. I. INTRODUCTION

  8. Investigation on dielectric properties of atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y?ld?z, Dilber Esra; Y?ld?r?m, Mert; Gökçen, Muharrem

    2014-05-15

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were fabricated using atomic layer deposition technique in order to investigate dielectric properties of SBDs. For this purpose, admittance measurements were conducted at room temperature between ?1?V and 3?V in the frequency range of 10 kHz and 1?MHz. In addition to the investigation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphology using atomic force microscope, dielectric parameters; such as dielectric constant (??), dielectric loss (??), dielectric loss tangent (tan??), and real and imaginary parts of dielectric modulus (M? and M?, respectively), were calculated and effect of frequency on these parameters of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Si SBDs was discussed. Variations in these parameters at low frequencies were associated with the effect of interface states in low frequency region. Besides dielectric parameters, ac electrical conductivity of these SBDs was also investigated.

  9. Adhesion clusters under shared linear loading: a stochastic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Erdmann; U. S. Schwarz

    2004-03-22

    We study the cooperative rupture of multiple adhesion bonds under shared linear loading. Simulations of the appropriate Master equation are compared with numerical integration of a rate equation for the mean number of bonds and its scaling analysis. In general, force-accelerated rupture is rather abrupt. For small clusters and slow loading, large fluctuations occur regarding the timepoint of final rupture, but not the typical shape of the rupture trajectory. For vanishing rebinding, our numerical results confirm three scaling regimes predicted before for cluster lifetime as a function of loading rate. For finite rebinding, the intermediate loading regime becomes irrelevant, and a sequence of two new scaling laws can be identified in the slow loading regime.

  10. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  11. Accelerators (5/5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-09

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  12. Accelerators (4/5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-08

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  13. Accelerators (3/5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-07

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  14. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  15. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  16. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  17. Accelerators (5/5)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  18. Safety of Accelerator Facilities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-07-23

    To establish accelerator-specific safety requirements which, when supplemented by other applicable safety and health requirements, will serve to prevent injuries and illnesses associated with Department of Energy (DOE) or National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) accelerator operations. Cancels DOE O 420.2A. Certified 5-13-08. Canceled by DOE O 420.2C.

  19. Safety of Accelerator Facilities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-07-21

    The order defines accelerators and establishes accelerator specific safety requirements and approval authorities which, when supplemented by other applicable safety and health requirements, promote safe operations to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Supersedes DOE O 420.2B.

  20. Safety of Accelerator Facilities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-01-08

    To establish accelerator-specific safety requirements which, when supplemented by other applicable safety and health requirements, will serve to prevent injuries and illnesses associated with Department of Energy (DOE) or National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) accelerator operations. Cancels DOE O 420.2. Canceled by DOE O 420.2B.

  1. Note: Numerical simulation and experimental validation of accelerating voltage formation for a pulsed electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, I.

    2014-06-15

    This paper describes the development of a computation model of a pulsed voltage generator for a repetitive electron accelerator. The model is based on a principle circuit of the generator, supplemented with the parasitics elements of the construction. Verification of the principle model was achieved by comparison of simulation with experimental results, where reasonable agreement was demonstrated for a wide range of generator load resistance.

  2. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  3. Dielectric anisotropy in polar solvents under external fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin Buyukdagli

    2015-07-23

    We investigate dielectric saturation and increment in polar liquids under external fields. We couple a previously introduced dipolar solvent model to a uniform electric field and derive the electrostatic kernel of interacting dipoles. This procedure allows an unambiguous definition of the liquid dielectric permittivity embodying non-linear dielectric response and correlation effects.We find that the presence of the external field results in a dielectric anisotropy characterized by a two-component dielectric permittivity tensor. The increase of the electric field amplifies the permittivity component parallel to the field direction, i.e. dielectric increment is observed along the field. However, the perpendicular component is lowered below the physiological permittivity, indicating dielectric saturation perpendicular to the field. By comparison with Molecular Dynamics simulations from the literature, we show that the mean-field level dielectric response theory underestimates dielectric saturation. The inclusion of dipolar correlations at the weak-coupling level intensify the mean-field level dielectric saturation and improves the agreement with simulation data at weak electric fields. The correlation-corrected theory predicts as well the presence of a metastable configuration corresponding to the antiparallel alignment of dipoles with the field. This prediction can be verified by solvent-explicit simulations where solvent molecules are expected to be trapped transiently in this metastable state.

  4. Accelerated Quantum Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Morgan H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we establish a formalism for the computation of observables due to acceleration-induced particle physics processes. General expressions for the transition rate, multiplicity, power, spectra, and displacement law of particles undergoing time-dependent acceleration and transitioning into a final state of arbitrary particle number are obtained. The transition rate, power, and spectra are characterised by unique polynomials of multiplicity and thermal distributions of both bosonic and fermionic statistics. The acceleration dependent multiplicity is computed in terms of the branching fractions of the associated inertial processes. The displacement law of the spectra predicts the energy of the emitted particles are directly proportional to the accelerated temperature. These results extend our understanding of particle physics into the high acceleration sector.

  5. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  6. Nano-optomechanical Nonlinear Dielectric Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karvounis, Artemios; MacDonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    By harnessing the resonant nature of localized electromagnetic modes in a nanostructured silicon membrane, an all-dielectric metamaterial can act as nonlinear medium at optical telecommunications wavelengths. We show that such metamaterials provide extremely large optomechanical nonlinearities, operating at intensities of only a few {\\mu}W per unit cell and modulation frequencies as high as 152 MHz, thereby offering a path to fast, lossless, compact and energy efficient all-optical metadevices.

  7. Dielectric characterization of unstabilized aggregate base materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guthrie, William Spencer

    1999-01-01

    Measurements. Moisture-Density Test Results . Effect of Temperature on Moisture Ingress . . . . . Frost Heave Measurements . . Effect of Moisture on Strength. Page . . . . 21 . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . 45 . . . . . 47 . . . . 50 5-5 Dielectric..., the increased moisture content can reduce the strength of the soil as mentioned earlier. For sustained freezing temperatures, if the road bed has a high moisture content or access to free moisture, high suction properties can lead to significant frost action...

  8. Structural features of dielectric oxide laser ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Taranov, A V; Khazanov, E N; Akchurin, M Sh

    2012-10-31

    The relation between the transport characteristics of subterahertz thermal phonons and the structural features of singlephase dielectric crystalline laser ceramics based on cubic oxides synthesised in different technological regimes is studied. The effect of plastic deformation on the formation of the grain structure and intergrain layers (boundaries), as well as on the thermophysical, acoustic, optical, and laser characteristics of the materials is analysed. (active media)

  9. Testing a combined vibration and acceleration environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jepsen, Richard Alan; Romero, Edward F.

    2005-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has previously tested a capability to impose a 7.5 g-rms (30 g peak) radial vibration load up to 2 kHz on a 25 lb object with superimposed 50 g acceleration at its centrifuge facility. This was accomplished by attaching a 3,000 lb Unholtz-Dickie mechanical shaker at the end of the centrifuge arm to create a 'Vibrafuge'. However, the combination of non-radial vibration directions, and linear accelerations higher than 50g's are currently not possible because of the load capabilities of the shaker and the stresses on the internal shaker components due to the combined centrifuge acceleration. Therefore, a new technique using amplified piezo-electric actuators has been developed to surpass the limitations of the mechanical shaker system. They are lightweight, modular and would overcome several limitations presented by the current shaker. They are 'scalable', that is, adding more piezo-electric units in parallel or in series can support larger-weight test articles or displacement/frequency regimes. In addition, the units could be mounted on the centrifuge arm in various configurations to provide a variety of input directions. The design along with test results will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the new piezo-electric Vibrafuge.

  10. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  11. Casimir effect in dielectrics Surface area contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molina-Paris, C; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Visser, Matt

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we take a deeper look at the technically elementary but physically robust viewpoint in which the Casimir energy in dielectric media is interpreted as the change in the total zero point energy of the electromagnetic vacuum summed over all states. Extending results presented in previous papers [hep-th/9609195; hep-th/9702007] we approximate the sum over states by an integral over the density of states including finite volume corrections. For an arbitrarily-shaped finite dielectric, the first finite-volume correction to the density of states is shown to be proportional to the surface area of the dielectric interface and is explicitly evaluated as a function of the permeability and permitivity. Since these calculations are founded in an elementary and straightforward way on the underlying physics of the Casimir effect they serve as an important consistency check on field-theoretic calculations. As a concrete example we discuss Schwinger's suggestion that the Casimir effect might be the underlying ph...

  12. Casimir effect in dielectrics: Surface area contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmen Molina-Paris; Matt Visser

    1997-07-08

    In this paper we take a deeper look at the technically elementary but physically robust viewpoint in which the Casimir energy in dielectric media is interpreted as the change in the total zero point energy of the electromagnetic vacuum summed over all states. Extending results presented in previous papers [hep-th/9609195; hep-th/9702007] we approximate the sum over states by an integral over the density of states including finite volume corrections. For an arbitrarily-shaped finite dielectric, the first finite-volume correction to the density of states is shown to be proportional to the surface area of the dielectric interface and is explicitly evaluated as a function of the permeability and permitivity. Since these calculations are founded in an elementary and straightforward way on the underlying physics of the Casimir effect they serve as an important consistency check on field-theoretic calculations. As a concrete example we discuss Schwinger's suggestion that the Casimir effect might be the underlying physical basis behind sonoluminescence}. The recent controversy concerning the relative importance of volume and surface contributions is discussed. For sufficiently large bubbles the volume effect is always dominant. Furthermore we can explicitly calculate the surface area contribution as a function of refractive index.

  13. PERFORMANCE OF CAPILLARY DISCHARGE GUIDED LASER PLASMA WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    -injection causes increased beam loading leading to broadband lower energy electron beam generation. The trigger] because the characteristic scale length of the accelerating structure is the plasma wave- length, which of Tokyo, Japan EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The schematic of the CDG-LWFA and the diagnostic system is shown in Fig

  14. Viscoelastic effects on frequency tuning of a dielectric elastomer membrane resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying, E-mail: lyjiang@eng.uwo.ca; Khayat, Roger E. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-03-28

    As a recent application of dielectric elastomers (DEs), DE resonators have become an alternative to conventional silicon-based resonators used in MEMS and have attracted much interest from the research community. However, most existing modeling works for the DE resonators ignore the intrinsic viscoelastic effect of the material that may strongly influence their dynamic performance. Based on the finite-deformation viscoelasticity theory for dielectrics, this paper theoretically examines the in-plane oscillation of a DE membrane resonator to demonstrate how the material viscoelasticity affects the actuation and frequency tuning processes of the resonator. From the simulation results, it is concluded that not only the applied voltage can change the natural frequency of the resonator, but also the inelastic deformation contributes to frequency tuning. Due to the viscoelasticity of the material, the electrical loading rate influences the actuation process of the DE resonator, while it has little effect on the final steady frequency tuned by the prescribed voltage within the safety range. With the consideration of the typical failure modes of the resonator and the evolution process of the material, the tunable frequency range and the safe range of the applied voltage of the DE membrane resonator with different dimension parameters are determined in this work, which are found to be dependent on the electrical loading rate. This work is expected to provide a better understanding on the frequency tuning of viscoelastic DE membrane resonators and a guideline for the design of DE devices.

  15. The design and performance of Static Var Compensators for particle accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahle, Karsten; Genton, Charles-Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Particle accelerators, and in particular synchrotrons, represent large cycling non-linear loads connected to the electrical distribution network. This paper discusses the typical design and performance of Static Var Compensators (SVCs) to obtain the excellent power quality levels required for particle accelerator operation.

  16. The MESA accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aulenbacher, Kurt [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannnes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Germany)

    2013-11-07

    The MESA accelerator will operate for particle and nuclear physics experiments in two different modes. A first option is conventional c.w. acceleration yielding 150-200MeV spin-polarized external beam. Second, MESA will be operated as a superconducting multi-turn energy recovery linac (ERL), opening the opportunity to perform experiments with a windowless target with beam current of up to 10 mA. The perspectives for innovative experiments with such a machine are discussed together with a sketch of the accelerator physics issues that have to be solved.

  17. Electromagnetic field quantization in a linear dielectric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Kheirandish; M. Amooshahi

    2005-11-13

    By modeling a dielectric medium with two independent reservoirs, i.e., electric and magnetic reservoirs, the electromagnetic field is quantized in a linear dielectric medium consistently. A Hamiltonian is proposed from which using the Heisenberg equations, not only the Maxwell equations but also the structural equations can be obtained. Using the Laplace transformation, the wave equation for the electromagnetic vector potential is solved in the case of a homogeneous dielectric medium. Some examples are considered showing the applicability of the model to both absorptive and nonabsorptive dielectrics.

  18. Light propagation around a relativistic vortex flow of dielectric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Linet

    2000-11-06

    We determine the path of the light around a dielectric vortex described by the relativistic vortex flow of a perfect fluid.

  19. Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials Authors: Sun, Lei ; Li, Zhigang ; Luk, Ting S. ; Yang, Xiaodong ; Gao, Jie Publication Date:...

  20. Accelerator on a Chip

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    England, Joel

    2014-07-16

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  1. About Accelerators | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser, though powered by a smaller SRF accelerator, holds power records in the production of infrared, ultraviolet and terahertz beams. The FEL has been used in a variety of...

  2. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-09-09

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  3. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Briner, C.F.; Martin, S.B.

    1993-12-21

    A rolamite acceleration sensor is described which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently. 6 figures.

  4. Breakthrough: Fermilab Accelerator Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-08-12

    There are more than 30,000 particle accelerators in operation around the world. At Fermilab, scientists are collaborating with other laboratories and industry to optimize the manufacturing processes for a new type of powerful accelerator that uses superconducting niobium cavities. Experimenting with unique polishing materials, a Fermilab team has now developed an efficient and environmentally friendly way of creating cavities that can propel particles with more than 30 million volts per meter.

  5. Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Nancy Margaret; Blackwood, Larry Gene; Torres, Lucinda Laine; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo; Yoder, Timothy Scott

    1999-03-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  6. Tailored electron bunches with smooth current profiles for enhanced transformer ratios in beam-driven acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemery, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Collinear high-gradient ${\\cal O} (GV/m)$ beam-driven wakefield methods for charged-particle acceleration could be critical to the realization of compact, cost-efficient, accelerators, e.g., in support of TeV-scale lepton colliders or multiple-user free-electron laser facilities. To make these options viable, the high accelerating fields need to be complemented with large transformer ratios $>2$, a parameter characterizing the efficiency of the energy transfer between a wakefield-exciting "drive" bunch to an accelerated "witness" bunch. While several potential current distributions have been discussed, their practical realization appears challenging due to their often discontinuous nature. In this paper we propose several alternative current profiles which are smooth which also lead to enhanced transformer ratios. We especially explore a laser-shaping method capable of generating one the suggested distributions directly out of a photoinjector and discuss a linac concept that could possible drive a dielectric ...

  7. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  8. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  9. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  10. Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, Steven H.

    2013-10-13

    This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a successful experiment was carried out that demonstrated suppression of multipactor in the uniform-field region of a TW DLA structure. However, in accordance with theory, the multipactor was enhanced in regions of the structure with lower values of axial magnetic field. Under Task 2, there were two two-month experimental runs at NRL that were used to characterize the performance of high power two-channel dual-mode active microwave pulse compressor configurations that used electron-beam triggered switch cavities. The pulse compressors were designed and fabricated by Omega-P, Inc. and the Russian Institute of Applied Physics and tested in the Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. These pulse compressors made use of an electron beam discharge from a cylindrical knife-edged Mo cathode coated with a CVD diamond film that was driven by a ?100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The electron beam was used to change the resonant frequency of the switch cavities in order to create the output microwave pulse. The compressor channels included a TE01 input and output section and a TE02 energy storage cavity, followed by a switch assembly that controlled the coupling between the TE01 and TE02 modes. In the initial state, the switch cavity was in resonance, the reflection from the cavity was out of phase, and the mode conversion was only ~2-3%, allowing the energy storage cavity to fill. When the electron beam was discharged into the switch cavity, the cavity was shifted out of resonance, causing the phase of the reflection to change by ~?. As a result of the change in the reflection phase, the mode coupling in the conical taper was greatly increased, and could approach ~100%, permitting the energy storage cavity to empty in one cavity round trip time of the TE02 mode to produce a high power output pulse. The second experiment runs demonstrated a 190 MW, ~20 ns compressed pulse at 25.7 gain and ~50% efficiency, using a 7.4 MW, 1 ?s drive pulse from the magnicon. The success of this experiment suggests a path to future high gain active versions of the SLED 2 pulse compressor at SLAC.

  11. Basics of Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Agilent Basics of Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Materials Application Note #12;Contents 2 the dielectric properties of materials. Agilent measure- ment instruments, such as network analyzers, LCR meters......................................................................................32 #12;Introduction Every material has a unique set of electrical characteristics that are dependent

  12. Giant optical forces in planar dielectric photonic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Giant optical forces in planar dielectric photonic metamaterials Jianfa Zhang,1,2 Kevin F. Mac Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK 2 College of Optoelectronic within all-dielectric planar photonic metamaterials at near- infrared illumination wavelengths can

  13. Dielectric function of diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguado, R.; Lopez-Sancho, MP; Sinova, Jairo; Brey, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the dielectric function of metallic (III,Mn)V diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime. Our theoretical approach is based on the kinetic exchange model for carrier induced (III,Mn)V ferromagnetism. The dielectric...

  14. Modeling of Field Distribution and Energy Storage in Diphasic Dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    Modeling of Field Distribution and Energy Storage in Diphasic Dielectrics S. K. Patil, M. Y, USA Modeling of electrostatic field distribution and energy storage in diphasic dielectrics containing to the increased energy storage density. For composites with lower volume fractions of high-permittivity inclusions

  15. Dielectric Elastomer Generators for Foot Plantar Pressure Based Energy Scavenging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    . Dielectric Elastomers (DEs) are now gaining notice as low-cost electrostatic transducers with high energy to a need for high energy-density harvesters. DEs are a promising new class of low-cost materials capableDielectric Elastomer Generators for Foot Plantar Pressure Based Energy Scavenging Vishwa Goudar

  16. Reliability characterization and prediction of high k dielectric thin film 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Wen

    2006-04-12

    on dielectric relaxation and transient current show that the relaxation current of high k dielectrics is distinctive to the trapping/detrapping current of SiO2; high k ?lms have a lower leakage current but a higher relaxation current than SiO...

  17. Load Management Made Simple 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.

    1985-01-01

    Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...

  18. Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-02

    The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.

  19. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate. 1 fig.

  20. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate.

  1. Electromagnetic Siegert states for periodic dielectric structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friends R. Ndangali; Sergei V. Shabanov

    2011-08-09

    The formalism of Siegert states to describe the resonant scattering in quantum theory is extended to the resonant scattering of electromagnetic waves on periodic dielectric arrays. The excitation of electromagnetic Siegert states by an incident wave packet and their decay is studied. The formalism is applied to develop a theory of coupled electromagnetic resonances arising in the electromagnetic scattering problem for two such arrays separated by a distance 2h (or, generally, when the physical properties of the scattering array depend on a real coupling parameter h). Analytic properties of Siegert states as functions of the coupling parameter h are established by the Regular Perturbation Theorem which is an extension the Kato-Rellich theorem to the present case. By means of this theorem, it is proved that if the scattering structure admits a bound state in the radiation continuum at a certain value of the coupling parameter h, then there always exist regions within the structure in which the near field can be amplified as much as desired by adjusting the value of h. This establishes a rather general mechanism to control and amplify optical nonlinear effects in periodically structured planar structures possessing a nonlinear dielectric susceptibility.

  2. Electrode Polarization Effects in Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Emmert; M. Wolf; R. Gulich; S. Krohns; S. Kastner; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

    2011-06-07

    In the present work, we provide broadband dielectric spectra showing strong electrode polarization effects for various materials, belonging to very different material classes. This includes both ionic and electronic conductors as, e.g., salt solutions, ionic liquids, human blood, and colossal-dielectric-constant materials. These data are intended to provide a broad data base enabling a critical test of the validity of phenomenological and microscopic models for electrode polarization. In the present work, the results are analyzed using a simple phenomenological equivalent-circuit description, involving a distributed parallel RC circuit element for the modeling of the weakly conducting regions close to the electrodes. Excellent fits of the experimental data are achieved in this way, demonstrating the universal applicability of this approach. In the investigated ionically conducting materials, we find the universal appearance of a second dispersion region due to electrode polarization, which is only revealed if measuring down to sufficiently low frequencies. This indicates the presence of a second charge-transport process in ionic conductors with blocking electrodes.

  3. Anomalous optical nonlinearity of dielectric nanodispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milichko, V A; Dzyuba, V P; Kul'chin, Yurii N

    2013-06-30

    We present the results of studying the nonlinear optical response of nanodispersions of semiconductor (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO) and dielectric (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles of spherical, spheroidal and flake shape, suspended in polar and nonpolar dielectric matrices (water, isopropanol, polymethylsiloxane and transformer oil) by means of z-scanning in the field of low-intensity visible laser radiation. It is found that, unlike semiconductor nanoparticles and particles of spherical shape, flake-shaped SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles suspended in nonpolar matrices exhibit nonlinear optical response within the intensity interval from 0 to 500 W cm{sup -2} that vanishes at higher intensities. The diagrams of energy states of the optical electrons in nanoparticles that allow explanation of differences in the nonlinear-optical properties of nanodispersions are proposed. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical dependences of nonlinear refractive indices and absorption coefficients on the intensity of radiation is observed. (optical nanostructures)

  4. Method for preparing dielectric composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.; Felten, John J.

    2004-11-23

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense beads of dielectric materials with selected compositions, which are incorporated into a polymeric matrix for use in capacitors, filters, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous metal oxide containing titanium or zirconium is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead may be washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) at elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous titanium- or zirconium-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. Alternatively, the gel bead may be made by coprecipitation. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried and calcined to produce the desired (BaTiO.sub.3, PbTiO.sub.3, SrZrO.sub.3) structure. The sintered beads are incorporated into a selected polymer matrix. The resulting dielectric composite material may be electrically "poled" if desired.

  5. Dielectric composite materials and method for preparing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.; Felten, John J.

    2003-07-29

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense beads of dielectric materials with selected compositions, which are incorporated into a polymeric matrix for use in capacitors, filters, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous metal oxide containing titanium or zirconium is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead may be washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) at elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous titanium- or zirconium-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. Alternatively, the gel bead may be made by coprecipitation. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried and calcined to produce the desired (BaTiO.sub.3, PbTiO.sub.3, SrZrO.sub.3) structure. The sintered beads are incorporated into a selected polymer matrix. The resulting dielectric composite material may be electrically "poled" if desired.

  6. Computational evaluation of the flexoelectric effect in dielectric solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdollahi, Amir; Peco, Christian; Millán, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Arias, Irene

    2014-09-07

    Flexoelectricity is a size-dependent electromechanical mechanism coupling polarization and strain gradient. It exists in a wide variety of materials, and is most noticeable for nanoscale objects, where strain gradients are higher. Simulations are important to understand flexoelectricity because experiments at very small scales are difficult, and analytical solutions are scarce. Here, we computationally evaluate the role of flexoelectricity in the electromechanical response of linear dielectric solids in two-dimensions. We deal with the higher-order coupled partial differential equations using smooth meshfree basis functions in a Galerkin method, which allows us to consider general geometries and boundary conditions. We focus on the most common setups to quantify the flexoelectric response, namely, bending of cantilever beams and compression of truncated pyramids, which are generally interpreted through approximate solutions. While these approximations capture the size-dependent flexoelectric electromechanical coupling, we show that they only provide order-of-magnitude estimates as compared with a solution fully accounting for the multidimensional nature of the problem. We discuss the flexoelectric mechanism behind the enhanced size-dependent elasticity in beam configurations. We show that this mechanism is also responsible for the actuation of beams under purely electrical loading, supporting the idea that a mechanical flexoelectric sensor also behaves as an actuator. The predicted actuation-induced curvature is in a good agreement with experimental results. The truncated pyramid configuration highlights the critical role of geometry and boundary conditions on the effective electromechanical response. Our results suggest that computer simulations can help understanding and quantifying the physical properties of flexoelectric devices.

  7. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  8. Buildings Stock Load Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...

  9. Computing the dielectric constant of liquid water at constant dielectric displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The static dielectric constant of liquid water is computed using classical force field based molecular dynamics simulation at fixed electric displacement D. The method to constrain the electric displacement is the finite temperature classical variant of the constant-D method developed by Stengel, Spaldin and Vanderbilt (Nat. Phys. 2009, 5: 304). There is also a modification of this scheme imposing fixed values of the macroscopic field E. The method is applied to the popular SPC/E model of liquid water. We compare four different estimates of the dielectric constant, two obtained from fluctuations of the polarization at D = 0 and E = 0 and two from the variation of polarization with finite D and E. It is found that all four estimates agree when properly converged. The computational effort to achieve convergence varies however, with constant D calculations being substantially more efficient. We attribute this difference to the much shorter relaxation time of longitudinal polarization compared to transverse polar...

  10. Radiation Damage: Accelerator Surprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    of this process. · Helium gas production adds, becoming increasingly important at high energies. · Graphite as material properties including its temperature. These dependencies ­ amplified by increased helium gas production for high-energy beams - are responsible for "surprises/unknowns" learned recently at accelerators

  11. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  12. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  13. Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Males, R.; Hassig, N.

    1981-01-01

    larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...

  14. Effects of Plasma Dielectric Properties on Thomson Scattering of Millimetre Waves in Tokamak Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of Plasma Dielectric Properties on Thomson Scattering of Millimetre Waves in Tokamak Plasmas

  15. Spherical cloaking using multilayer shells of ordinary dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Chen, Fang; Semouchkina, Elena, E-mail: esemouch@mtu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    An approach for spherical cloaking using multilayer ordinary dielectric materials has been developed. The total scattering cross section (TSCS) of the spherical multilayer shell with metallic core was derived based on the Mie theory. The dielectric profile of the shell was optimized to minimize the TSCS of the cloaked target. The specific directions, at which the scattering could be practically eliminated, were detected. The influence of the target size and the dielectric material loss on the cloaking efficiency was analyzed. It was shown that the cloaking efficiency for larger targets could be improved by employing lossy materials in the shell.

  16. Millimeter wave analysis of the dielectric properties of oil shales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John A. Scales; Michael Batzle

    2006-06-06

    Natural sedimentation processes give rise to fine layers in shales. If these layers alternate between organic-rich and organic-poor sediments, then the contrast in dielectric properties gives rise to an effective birefringence as the presence of hydrocarbons suppresses the dielectric constant of the host rock. We have measured these effects with a quasioptical millimeter wave setup that is rapid and noncontacting. We find that the strength of this birefringence and the overall dielectric permittivity provide two useful diagnostic of the organic content of oil shales.

  17. Collective Acceleration in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barletta, W.

    2008-01-01

    Collective Acceleration in Solar Flares w. Barletta, S.S.COLLECTIVE ACCELERATION IN SOLAR FLARES* W. Barletta (1), S.Park, MD 20742 Abstract Solar flare data are examined with

  18. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Acceleration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration Conventional Water Power: Market AccelerationTara...

  19. Theory Challenges of the Accelerating Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Eric V.

    2009-01-01

    of the accelerating universe. Acknowledgments I thankof the Accelerating Universe Eric V. Linder Berkeley Lab,of the Accelerating Universe Eric V. Linder Berkeley Lab,

  20. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using co-densified multilayer configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    2003-06-17

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A method of manufacturing a lossy dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer and then densifying together. The systems and methods provide advantages because the lossy dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  1. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  2. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  3. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  4. Advanced medical accelerator design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, J.R.; Elioff, T.; Garren, A.

    1982-11-01

    This report describes the design of an advanced medical facility dedicated to charged particle radiotherapy and other biomedical applications of relativistic heavy ions. Project status is reviewed and some technical aspects discussed. Clinical standards of reliability are regarded as essential features of this facility. Particular emphasis is therefore placed on the control system and on the use of technology which will maximize operational efficiency. The accelerator will produce a variety of heavy ion beams from helium to argon with intensities sufficient to provide delivered dose rates of several hundred rad/minute over large, uniform fields. The technical components consist of a linac injector with multiple PIG ion sources, a synchrotron and a versatile beam delivery system. An overview is given of both design philosophy and selected accelerator subsystems. Finally, a plan of the facility is described.

  5. Review of ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, J.

    1990-06-01

    The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here.

  6. An accelerated closed universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio del Campo; Mauricio Cataldo; Francisco Pena

    2004-08-03

    We study a model in which a closed universe with dust and quintessence matter components may look like an accelerated flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe at low redshifts. Several quantities relevant to the model are expressed in terms of observed density parameters, $\\Omega_M$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}$, and of the associated density parameter $\\Omega_Q$ related to the quintessence scalar field $Q$.

  7. Accelerator simulation using computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.; Corbett, W.

    1992-01-01

    Every accelerator or storage ring system consists of a charged particle beam propagating through a beam line. Although a number of computer programs exits that simulate the propagation of a beam in a given beam line, only a few provide the capabilities for designing, commissioning and operating the beam line. This paper shows how a ``multi-track`` simulation and analysis code can be used for these applications.

  8. Accelerator simulation using computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.; Corbett, W.

    1992-01-01

    Every accelerator or storage ring system consists of a charged particle beam propagating through a beam line. Although a number of computer programs exits that simulate the propagation of a beam in a given beam line, only a few provide the capabilities for designing, commissioning and operating the beam line. This paper shows how a multi-track'' simulation and analysis code can be used for these applications.

  9. Linear induction accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  10. Accelerating QDP++ using GPUs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Winter

    2011-05-11

    Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) are getting increasingly important as target architectures in scientific High Performance Computing (HPC). NVIDIA established CUDA as a parallel computing architecture controlling and making use of the compute power of GPUs. CUDA provides sufficient support for C++ language elements to enable the Expression Template (ET) technique in the device memory domain. QDP++ is a C++ vector class library suited for quantum field theory which provides vector data types and expressions and forms the basis of the lattice QCD software suite Chroma. In this work accelerating QDP++ expression evaluation to a GPU was successfully implemented leveraging the ET technique and using Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation. The Portable Expression Template Engine (PETE) and the C API for CUDA kernel arguments were used to build the bridge between host and device memory domains. This provides the possibility to accelerate Chroma routines to a GPU which are typically not subject to special optimisation. As an application example a smearing routine was accelerated to execute on a GPU. A significant speed-up compared to normal CPU execution could be measured.

  11. Surface-PlasmonoDielectric-polaritonic devices and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karalis, Aristeidis; Joannopoulos, John; Soljacic, Marin

    2013-06-25

    There is provided a structure for supporting propagation of surface plasmon polaritons. The structure includes a plasmonic material region and a dielectric material region, disposed adjacent to a selected surface of the plasmonic material region. At least one of the plasmonic material region and the dielectric material region have a dielectric permittivity distribution that is specified as a function of depth through the corresponding material region. This dielectric permittivity distribution is selected to impose prespecified group velocities, v.sub.gj, on a dispersion relation for a surface polaritonic mode of the structure for at least one of a corresponding set of prespecified frequencies, .omega..sub.j, and corresponding set of prespecified wavevectors, where j=1 to N.

  12. Keer electro-optic measurements in liquid dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xuewei

    2014-01-01

    Kerr electro-optic technique has been used to measure the electric field distribution in high voltage stressed dielectric liquids, where the difference between refractive indices for light polarized parallel and perpendicular ...

  13. Quantum mechanical theory of dynamic nuclear polarization in solid dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Kan-Nian

    Microwave driven dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a process in which the large polarization present in an electron spin reservoir is transferred to nuclei, thereby enhancing NMR signal intensities. In solid dielectrics ...

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROSTATIC MEMS WITH TAILORED DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelesko, John

    of electrostatically actuated MEMS devices. Key words. MEMS, microelectromechanical system, exact shooting, semilinear. The advent of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has revolutionized numerous branches of scienceMATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROSTATIC MEMS WITH TAILORED DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES JOHN A. PELESKO

  15. Near field radiative heat transfer between two nonlocal dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, F; Joulain, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We explore in the present work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel nonlocal dielectric planes by means of fluctuational electrodynamics. We use atheory for the nonlocal dielectric permittivityfunction proposed byHalevi and Fuchs. This theory has the advantage to includedifferent models performed in the literature. According to this theory, the nonlocal dielectric function is described by a Lorenz-Drude like single oscillator model, in which the spatial dispersion effects are represented by an additional term depending on the square of the total wavevector k. The theory takes into account the scattering of the electromagneticexcitation at the surface of the dielectric material, which leads to the need of additional boundary conditions in order to solve Maxwell's equations and treat the electromagnetic transmission problem. The additional boundary conditions appear as additional surface scattering parameters in the expressions of the surface impedances. It is shown that the...

  16. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF DIELECTRIC AND SEMICONDUCTOR I. Chambouleyron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martínez, José Mario

    Chapter 12 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF DIELECTRIC AND SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILMS I. Chambouleyron Instituto, Young sketched the current theory of color vision in terms of three different (pri- Handbook of Thin

  17. Development of dielectric elastomer actuators for MRI devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogan, John D. (John DeWayne), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators are an emerging class of polymer actuation devices. They exhibit large strains and have high force and energy densities. They can be designed in a variety of geometries and are inexpensive ...

  18. Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayertransition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides:MoS2,MoSe2,WS2, andWSe2 This content will become publicly available on November 17,...

  19. Encapsulation methods and dielectric layers for organic electrical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, Yigal D; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijan

    2013-07-02

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers and dielectric layers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device with a dielectric layer comprising alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  20. Cube-corner reflectors with interference dielectric coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, A L; Murashkin, V V; Akent'ev, A S; Karaseva, E A

    2013-09-30

    The cube-corner reflectors (CCRs) with a special interference dielectric coating intended for ring retroreflector systems of space vehicles with uniaxial orientation are considered. The diffraction patterns of radiation reflected from the CCRs with different face coatings are studied. It is shown that the choice of the angle between the faces, the size and the coating of CCR faces allow essential variation in the diffraction pattern, thereby providing its optimisation for solving different navigation problems. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

  1. Integration of MHD load models with circuit representations the Z generator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Jones, Brent Manley; McBride, Ryan D.; Bailey, James E.; Jones, Michael C.; Gomez, Matthew Robert.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Nakhleh, Charles; Stygar, William A.; Savage, Mark Edward; Wagoner, Timothy C.; Moore, James K.

    2013-03-01

    MHD models of imploding loads fielded on the Z accelerator are typically driven by reduced or simplified circuit representations of the generator. The performance of many of the imploding loads is critically dependent on the current and power delivered to them, so may be strongly influenced by the generators response to their implosion. Current losses diagnosed in the transmission lines approaching the load are further known to limit the energy delivery, while exhibiting some load dependence. Through comparing the convolute performance of a wide variety of short pulse Z loads we parameterize a convolute loss resistance applicable between different experiments. We incorporate this, and other current loss terms into a transmission line representation of the Z vacuum section. We then apply this model to study the current delivery to a wide variety of wire array and MagLif style liner loads.

  2. Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, Solon, OH-44139 (United States); Power, J.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL-60439 (United States)

    2006-11-27

    The transformer ratio R is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the energy transferred from the drive beam to the trailing witness beam passing through a wakefield accelerating structure (all metal or dielectric based) or a plasma chamber. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2 for a single bunch in a collinear wakefield accelerator. The RBT is a train of electron bunches separated by half integer multiples wavelength of the wakefield. The charge of the leading bunch is lowest and subsequent bunch charges are increased in such a way as to maximize R. In this article, an experimental study of this scheme is presented in which an RBT of 2 bunches with charge ratio of 1:2.5 and bunch length {sigma}z = 2 mm were used to enhance the transformer ratio. Measurement results and data analysis show good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ETR technique demonstrated here can be used in any collinear wakefield accelerator configuration, either structure- or plasma-based.

  3. Observation of enhanced transformer ratio in collinear Wakefield acceleration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

    2006-01-01

    The transformer ratio R is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the energy transferred from the drive beam to the trailing witness beam passing through a wakefield accelerating structure (all metal or dielectric based) or a plasma chamber. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2 for a single bunch in a collinear wakefield accelerator. The RBT is a train of electron bunches separated by half integer multiples wavelength of the wakefield. The charge of the leading bunch is lowest and subsequent bunch charges are increased in such a way as to maximize R. In this article, an experimental study of this scheme is presented in which an RBT of 2 bunches with charge ratio of 1:2.5 and bunch length {sigma}{sub z} = 2 mm were used to enhance the transformer ratio. Measurement results and data analysis show good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ETR technique demonstrated here can be used in any collinear wakefield accelerator configuration, either structure- or plasma-based.

  4. Charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajeev Kumar; Bobby G. Sumpter; S. Michael Kilbey II

    2012-06-20

    Understanding the effect of inhomogeneity on the charge regulation and dielectric properties, and how it depends on the conformational characteristics of the macromolecules is a long-standing problem. In order to address this problem, we have developed a field-theory to study charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes. The theory is used to study a polyacid brush, which is comprised of chains end-grafted at the solid-fluid interface, in equilibrium with a bulk solution containing monovalent salt ions, solvent molecules and pH controlling acid. In particular, we focus on the effects of the concentration of added salt and pH of the bulk in determining the local charge and dielectric function. Our theoretical investigations reveal that the dipole moment of the ion-pairs formed as a result of counterion adsorption on the chain backbones play a key role in affecting the local dielectric function. For polyelectrolytes made of monomers having dipole moments lower than the solvent molecules, dielectric decrement is predicted inside the brush region. However, the formation of ion-pairs (due to adsorption of counterions coming from the dissociation of added salt) more polar than the solvent molecules is shown to increase the magnitude of the dielectric function with respect to its bulk value. Furthermore, an increase in the bulk salt concentration is shown to increase the local charge inside the brush region.

  5. Residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film tunable dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten, L. M., E-mail: lmg309@psu.edu; Trolier-McKinstry, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lam, P.; Harris, D.; Maria, J.-P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Loss reduction is critical to develop Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} thin film tunable microwave dielectric components and dielectric energy storage devices. The presence of ferroelectricity, and hence the domain wall contributions to dielectric loss, will degrade the tunable performance in the microwave region. In this work, residual ferroelectricity—a persistent ferroelectric response above the global phase transition temperature—was characterized in tunable dielectrics using Rayleigh analysis. Chemical solution deposited Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} films, with relative tunabilities of 86% over 250?kV/cm at 100?kHz, demonstrated residual ferroelectricity 65?°C above the ostensible paraelectric transition temperature. Frequency dispersion observed in the dielectric temperature response was consistent with the presence of nanopolar regions as one source of residual ferroelectricity. The application of AC electric field for the Rayleigh analysis of these samples led to a doubling of the dielectric loss for fields over 10?kV/cm at room temperature.

  6. Silica aerogel: An intrinsically low dielectric constant material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1995-04-01

    Silica aerogels are highly porous solids having unique morphologies in wavelength of visible which both the pores and particles have sizes less than the wavelength of visible light. This fine nanostructure modifies the normal transport mechanisms within aerogels and endows them with a variety of exceptional physical properties. For example, aerogels have the lowest measured thermal conductivity and dielectric constant for any solid material. The intrinsically low dielectric properties of silica aerogels are the direct result of the extremely high achievable porosities, which are controllable over a range from 75% to more than 99.8 %, and which result in measured dielectric constants from 2.0 to less than 1.01. This paper discusses the synthesis of silica aerogels, processing them as thin films, and characterizing their dielectric properties. Existing data and other physical characteristics of bulk aerogels (e.g., thermal stablity, thermal expansion, moisture adsorption, modulus, dielectric strength, etc.), which are useful for evaluating them as potential dielectrics for microelectronics, are also given.

  7. A multi beam proton accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolya, S N

    2015-01-01

    The article considers a proton accelerator containing seven independent beams arranged on the accelerator radius. The current in each beam is one hundred milliamps. The initial part of the accelerator consists of shielded spiral waveguides assembled in the common screen. The frequency of the acceleration: three hundred megahertz, high-frequency power twenty-five megawatts, the length of the accelerator six meters. After reaching the proton energy of six megaelektronvolts the protons using lenses with the azimuthal magnetic field are collected in one beam. Further beam acceleration is performed in the array of superconducting cavities tuned to the frequency one and three tenths gigahertz. The acceleration rate is equal to twenty megavolt per meter, the high-frequency power consumption fifteen megawatts per meter.

  8. Materials Classification & Accelerated Property Predictions using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials Classification & Accelerated Property Predictions using Machine Learning Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials Classification & Accelerated Property...

  9. APT accelerator. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  10. Laser plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malka, V. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2012-05-15

    This review article highlights the tremendous evolution of the research on laser plasma accelerators which has, in record time, led to the production of high quality electron beams at the GeV level, using compact laser systems. I will describe the path we followed to explore different injection schemes and I will present the most significant breakthrough which allowed us to generate stable, high peak current and high quality electron beams, with control of the charge, of the relative energy spread and of the electron energy.

  11. Reframing Accelerator Simulations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout Us HanfordReferenceReframing Accelerator

  12. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  13. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  14. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors for each shift... The purpose of this paper is to analyze operating hours of small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in the United States and develop ranges of load factors for use as diagnostic tools for effective energy management. Load factor is defined...

  15. Development of compact linear accelerator in KBSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Jang-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Park, Jin Yong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Won, Mi-Sook [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    The compact linear accelerator using a 28 GHz ECRIS is under construction in KBSI, South Korea. The main capability of this facility is the production of fast neurons for the neutron radiography. The designing of a superconducting magnet, microwave transmission system, beam extraction, and plasma chamber of ECRIS were finished. The nominal axial design fields of the magnets are 3.6 T at injection and 2.2 T at extraction; the nominal radial design field strength at the plasma chamber wall is 2.1 T. We already installed 10 kW, 28 GHz gyrotron, and tested a microwave power from gyrotron using a dummy load. The current status will be discussed in this paper.

  16. The Sustainable Building-Accelerator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maassen, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    , that it is necessary to accelerate innovations in the built environment, to achieve the high ambitions on sustainability in time. The ideas for the ??Sustainable Building - Accelerator?? originated from the assumptions that the required acceleration... of innovations within the built environment is not yet achieved due to: ? the small amount of innovative solutions which are generated by design teams, because (i) the design process is characterized by mono- disciplinary sequential steps and (ii) the design...

  17. Enhanced Optomechanical Levitation of Minimally Supported Dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tina Müller; Christoph Reinhardt; Jack C. Sankey

    2015-04-30

    Optically levitated mechanical sensors promise isolation from thermal noise far beyond what is possible using flexible materials alone. One way to access this potential is to apply a strong optical trap to a minimally supported mechanical element, thereby increasing its quality factor $Q_m$. Current schemes, however, require prohibitively high laser power ($\\sim10$ W), and the $Q_m$ enhancement is ultimately limited to a factor of $\\sim$ 50 by hybridization between the trapped mode and the dissipative modes of the supporting structure. Here we propose a levitation scheme taking full advantage of an optical resonator to reduce the circulating power requirements by many orders of magnitude. Applying this scheme to the case of a dielectric disk in a Fabry-Perot cavity, we find a tilt-based tuning mechanism for optimizing both center-of-mass and torsional mode traps. Notably, the two modes are trapped with comparable efficiency, and we estimate that a 10-micron-diameter, 100-nm-thick Si disc could be trapped to a frequency of $\\sim$ 10 MHz with only $30$ mW circulating in a cavity of (modest) finesse 1500. Finally, we simulate the effect such a strong trap would have on a realistic doubly-tethered disc. Of central importance, we find torsional motion is comparatively immune to $Q_m$-limiting hybridization, allowing a $Q_m$ enhancement factor of $\\sim$ 1500. This opens the possibility of realizing a laser-tuned 10 MHz mechanical system with a quality factor of order a billion.

  18. Compact accelerator for medical therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Paul, Arthur C.

    2010-05-04

    A compact accelerator system having an integrated particle generator-linear accelerator with a compact, small-scale construction capable of producing an energetic (.about.70-250 MeV) proton beam or other nuclei and transporting the beam direction to a medical therapy patient without the need for bending magnets or other hardware often required for remote beam transport. The integrated particle generator-accelerator is actuable as a unitary body on a support structure to enable scanning of a particle beam by direction actuation of the particle generator-accelerator.

  19. Neutrino oscillations in accelerated states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, Dharam Vir; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the inverse $\\beta$-decay of accelerated protons in the context of neutrino oscillations. The process $p\\rightarrow n \\ell^+ \

  20. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nation, John A. (Ithaca, NY); Greenwald, Shlomo (Haifa, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  1. Nuclear Physics: Archived Talks - Accelerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Electron Laser (FEL) Medical Imaging Physics Topics Campaigns Meetings Recent Talks Archived Talks Accelerator Hall A Hall B Hall C 12 GeV Upgrade Experimental Techniques...

  2. Challenges in Accelerator Beam Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, M.

    2009-12-01

    The challenges in beam instrumentation and diagnostics for present and future particle accelerator projects are presented. A few examples for advanced hadron and lepton beam diagnostics are given.

  3. Lab Breakthrough: Fermilab Accelerator Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fermilab scientists developed techniques to retrofit some of the 30,000 particle accelerators in use around the world to make them more efficient and powerful.

  4. Accelerators for research and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs.

  5. 2012 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downer, Michael C.

    2015-03-23

    We report on the organization and outcome of the 2012 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, held in Austin, Texas in June 2012.

  6. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  7. Load Management - A Better Way 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows...

  8. The Radiological Research Accelerator THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility #12;84 THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY Director: David J. Brenner, Ph.D., D.Sc., Manager: Stephen A. Marino, M.S. An NIH SupportedV/µm 4 He ions using the microbeam facility (Exp. 73) also continued. The transformation frequency

  9. THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY 71 The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility the irradiated cells. Both the microbeam and the track segment facilities continue to be utilized in various investigations of this phenomenon. The single- particle microbeam facility provides precise control of the number

  10. THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY 1 The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility for Radiological Research (CRR). Using the mi- crobeam facility, 10% of the cells were irradiated through particle beam as well as the first fo- cused microbeam in the new microbeam facility. · Another significant

  11. Numerical simulation of electron energy loss near inhomogeneous dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    The nonrelativistic energy loss suffered by fast electrons passing near dielectric interfaces of arbitrary shape is calculated by solving Poisson{close_quote}s equation using the boundary-charge method. The potential induced by a moving electron is expressed in terms of surface-charge distributions placed at the interfaces. These surface charges, obtained by self-consistently solving the resulting integral equation, act back on the electron producing a retarding force and hence energy loss. The dielectrics are described by frequency-dependent dielectric functions. Two particular cases are discussed in further detail: interfaces invariant under translation along one particular direction and axially symmetric interfaces. Previous results for simple geometries, such as planes, spheres, and cylinders, based upon analytical solutions, are fully reproduced within this approach. Calculations are presented for electrons moving near wedges, coupled parallel cylinders, coupled spheres, and toroidal surfaces. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Surface participation and dielectric loss in superconducting qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen Wang; Christopher Axline; Yvonne Y. Gao; Teresa Brecht; Luigi Frunzio; Michel H. Devoret; Robert J. Schoelkopf

    2015-10-15

    We study the energy relaxation times ($T_1$) of superconducting transmon qubits in 3D cavities as a function of dielectric participation ratios of material surfaces. This surface participation ratio, representing the fraction of electric field energy stored in a dissipative surface layer, is computed by a two-step finite-element simulation and experimentally varied by qubit geometry. With a clean electromagnetic environment and suppressed non-equilibrium quasiparticle density, we find an approximately proportional relation between the transmon relaxation rates and surface participation ratios. These results suggest dielectric dissipation arising from material interfaces is the major limiting factor for the $T_1$ of transmons in 3D cQED architecture. Our analysis also supports the notion of spatial discreteness of surface dielectric dissipation.

  13. Surface participation and dielectric loss in superconducting qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen Wang; Christopher Axline; Yvonne Y. Gao; Teresa Brecht; Luigi Frunzio; Michel H. Devoret; Robert J. Schoelkopf

    2015-09-06

    We study the energy relaxation times ($T_1$) of superconducting transmon qubits in 3D cavities as a function of dielectric participation ratios of material surfaces. This surface participation ratio, representing the fraction of electric field energy stored in a dissipative surface layer, is computed by a two-step finite-element simulation and experimentally varied by qubit geometry. With a clean electromagnetic environment and suppressed non-equilibrium quasiparticle density, we find an approximately proportional relation between the transmon relaxation rates and surface participation ratios. These results suggest dielectric dissipation arising from material interfaces is the major limiting factor for the $T_1$ of transmons in 3D cQED architecture. Our analysis also supports the notion of spatial discreteness of surface dielectric dissipation.

  14. Dielectric relaxation and conduction in SrTiO{sub 3} thin films under dc bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, Chen; Yu, Zhi; Cross, L. E.; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, A. S.

    2001-08-06

    The dielectric and conduction behavior of SrTiO{sub 3} thin films deposited on a SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystal substrate is studied. Without dc bias, an obvious dielectric 'defect mode' in the dielectric loss is observed in the temperature range of {approx}100--200 K; however, no noticeable corresponding dielectric constant peak is observed. By applying a high dc bias ({>=}40 kV/cm), a dielectric constant peak with frequency dispersion appears in the same temperature range, the dielectric loss is increased, and simultaneously high dc conduction is observed. The induced dielectric constant peak is related to dc conduction and attributed to the coupling effect of the mobile carriers with the dielectric defect mode. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Dielectric and electrical conduction behavior of carbon paste electrochemical electrodes, with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    and supercapacitors; strong dielectric properties are attractive for supercapacitors but not batteries. Exfoliated graphite provides handleability and excellent volumetric and interfacial conductivities. It gives low carbon dielectric constant, but contributes to the interfacial capacitances. Activated graphite

  16. Preliminary non-destructive assessment of moisture content, hydration and dielectric properties of Portland cement concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avelar Lezama, Ivan

    2007-04-25

    ) where ? is graphically the angle between the two vectorial components (dielectric constant and loss) of the complex permittivity. The dielectric constant can be thought of as a measure of the ability of a material to store charge or electrical...

  17. THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY #12;115 THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY An NIH-Supported Resource Center WWW.RARAF.ORG Director: David J. Brenner, Ph.D., D.Sc. Manager delighted that NIH funding for continued development of our single-particle microbeam facility was renewed

  18. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  19. Laser acceleration of ion beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Egorova; A. V. Filatov; A. V. Prozorkevich; S. A. Smolyansky; D. B. Blaschke; M. Chubaryan

    2007-02-01

    We consider methods of charged particle acceleration by means of high-intensity lasers. As an application we discuss a laser booster for heavy ion beams provided, e.g. by the Dubna nuclotron. Simple estimates show that a cascade of crossed laser beams would be necessary to provide additional acceleration to gold ions of the order of GeV/nucleon.

  20. I Investigation of Pellet Acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I Investigation of Pellet Acceleration by an Arc heated Gas Gun An Interim Report INVESTIGATION OP PELLET ACCELERATION BY AN ARC HEATED GAS GUN* An Interim Report on the Investigations carried, and K.-V. Weisberg Abstract. Deep penetration of pellets into the JET plasma may prove to be a useful

  1. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Witzke, Edward L. (Edgewood, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  2. Electromagnetic Field Quantization in Time-Dependent Dielectric Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Min Bei; Zhong-Zhu Liu

    2011-04-18

    We present a Gupta-Bleuler quantization scheme for the electromagnetic field in time-dependent dielectric media. Starting from the Maxwell equations, a generalization of the Lorentz gauge condition adapted to time varying dielectrics is derived. Using this gauge, a Gupta-Bleuler approach to quantize all polarizations of the radiation field and the corresponding constraint condition are introduced. This new approach is different from the quantized electromagnetic field in vacuum in the sense that here the contributions of unphysical photons cannot be thoroughly eliminated, which further lead to a surface charge density. Finally, a discussion of potential experimental tests and possible implication is also made.

  3. Double dielectric passivation layer on InAs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egley, James Lee

    1985-01-01

    quality and the dielectric layer of an InAs sample with an anodic oxide/SiOz passivation layer. KOH was the electrolyte used for anodization and the SiOz was deposited by RF sputtering. The equipment that was built for testing of the samples at 77K... is briefly described. The processing steps required for the fabrication of a MOSFET and a mobility measurement device utilizing an anodic oxide/SisNq dielectric layer are explained. The anodic oxides grown here are shown to be semiconductors. Methods...

  4. Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium bismuth titanate ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S.

    2014-04-24

    Barium Modified Strontium Bismuth Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1?xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba{sup 2+} ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba{sup 2+} ion in SBT lattice.

  5. Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amato, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical sources are extremely efficient accelerators. Some sources emit photons up to multi-TeV energies, a signature of the presence, within them, of particles with energies much higher than those achievable with the largest accelerators on Earth. Even more compelling evidence comes from the study of Cosmic Rays, charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with incredibly high energies: at the highest energy end of their spectrum, these subatomic particles are carrying a macroscopic energy, up to a few Joules. Here I will address the best candidate sources and mechanisms as cosmic particle accelerators. I will mainly focus on Galactic sources such as Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, which being close and bright, are the best studied among astrophysical accelerators. These sources are held responsible for most of the energy that is put in relativistic particles in the Universe, but they are not thought to accelerate particles up to the highest individual energies, $\\approx 10^{20}$ eV...

  6. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  7. Magnetic, dielectric, and magneto-dielectric properties of rare-earth-substituted Aurivillius phase Bi?Fe?.?Co?.?Ti?O??

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, X. Z.; Yang, J., E-mail: jyang@issp.ac.cn; Yuan, B.; Tang, X. W.; Zhang, K. J.; Zhu, X. B.; Song, W. H.; Dai, J. M., E-mail: jmdai@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Song, D. P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Sun, Y. P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-10-21

    We investigate the magnetic, dielectric, and magnetodielectric properties of rare-earth-substituted Aurivillius phase Bi?Fe?.?Co?.?Ti?O??. The room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior is observed in all samples, and the rare-earth-substituted samples exhibit an enhanced magnetization. The weak ferromagnetism can be ascribed to the spin canting of the antiferromagnetic coupling of the Fe-based and Co-based sublattices via Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. The dielectric loss of all samples exhibits two dielectric relaxation peaks corresponding to two different relaxation mechanisms. One relaxation process with E{sub a}=0.5 eV is related to the hoping process of oxygen vacancies and the other one with E{sub a}=1.6 eV can be ascribed to the intrinsic conduction. The Gd-doped sample exhibits a remarkable magnetodielectric effect (9.4%) at RT implying this Aurivillius phase may be the potential candidate for magnetodielectric applications.

  8. Colossal dielectric and electromechanical responses in self-assembled polymeric nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jiangyu

    Colossal dielectric and electromechanical responses in self-assembled polymeric nanocomposites to exhibit colossal dielectric and electromechanical responses with very low volume fraction of the high composite with much higher o-CuPc content 16% of o-CuPc shows much lower dielectric and electromechanical

  9. Dependence of exciton transition energy of single-walled carbon nanotubes on surrounding dielectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Dependence of exciton transition energy of single-walled carbon nanotubes on surrounding dielectric 11, 2007) We theoretically investigate the dependence of exciton transition energies on dielectric transition energy dependence on dielectric constant of various surrounding materials. PACS numbers: 78.67.Ch

  10. Cryogenic system for the MYRRHA superconducting linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chevalier, Nicolas R.; Junquera, Tomas; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre; Romão, Luis Medeiros; Vandeplassche, Dirk

    2014-01-29

    SCK?CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, is designing MYRRHA, a flexible fast spectrum research reactor (80 MW{sub th}), conceived as an accelerator driven system (ADS), able to operate in sub-critical and critical modes. It contains a continuous-wave (CW) superconducting (SC) proton accelerator of 600 MeV, a spallation target and a multiplying core with MOX fuel, cooled by liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi). From 17 MeV onward, the SC accelerator will consist of 48 ?=0.36 spoke-loaded cavities (352 MHz), 34 ?=0.47 elliptical cavities (704 MHz) and 60 ?=0.65 elliptical cavities (704 MHz). We present an analysis of the thermal loads and of the optimal operating temperature of the cryogenic system. In particular, the low operating frequency of spoke cavities makes their operation in CW mode possible both at 4.2 K or at 2 K. Our analysis outlines the main factors that determine at what temperature the spoke cavities should be operated. We then present different cryogenic fluid distribution schemes, important characteristics (storage, transfer line, etc.) and the main challenges offered by MYRRHA in terms of cryogenics.

  11. Testing in a combined vibration and acceleration environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jepsen, Richard Alan; Romero, Edward F.

    2004-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has previously tested a capability to impose a 7.5 g-rms (30 g peak) radial vibration load up to 2 kHz on a 25 lb object with superimposed 50 g acceleration at its centrifuge facility. This was accomplished by attaching a 3,000 lb Unholtz-Dickie mechanical shaker at the end of the centrifuge arm to create a 'Vibrafuge'. However, the combination of non-radial vibration directions, and linear accelerations higher than 50g's are currently not possible because of the load capabilities of the shaker and the stresses on the internal shaker components due to the combined centrifuge acceleration. Therefore, a new technique using amplified piezo-electric actuators has been developed to surpass the limitations of the mechanical shaker system. They are lightweight, modular and would overcome several limitations presented by the current shaker. They are 'scalable', that is, adding more piezo-electric units in parallel or in series can support larger-weight test articles or displacement/frequency regimes. In addition, the units could be mounted on the centrifuge arm in various configurations to provide a variety of input directions. The design along with test results will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the new piezo-electric Vibrafuge.

  12. Accelerated stress rupture lifetime assessment for fiber composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groves, S.E.; DeTeresa, S.J.; Sanchez, R.J.; Zocher, M.A.; Christensen, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    Objective was to develop a theoretical and experimental framework for predicting stress rupture lifetime for fiber polymer composites based on short-term accelerated testing. Originally a 3-year project, it was terminated after the first year, which included stress rupture experiments and viscoelastic material characterization. In principle, higher temperature, stress, and saturated environmental conditions are used to accelerate stress rupture. Two types of specimens were to be subjected to long-term and accelerated static tensile loading at various temperatures, loads in order to quantify both fiber and matrix dominated failures. Also, we were to apply state-of-the-art analytical and experimental characterization techniques developed under a previous DOE/DP CRADA for capturing and tracking incipient degradation mechanisms associated with mechanical performance. Focus was increase our confidence to design, analyze, and build long-term composite structures such as flywheels and hydrogen gas storage vessels; other applications include advanced conventional weapons, infrastructures, marine and offshore systems, and stockpile stewardship and surveillance. Capabilities developed under this project, though not completed or verified, are being applied to NIF, AVLIS, and SSMP programs.

  13. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Brentwood, CA); Reginato, Louis L. (Orinda, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially 0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  14. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1984-03-22

    An electron beam accelerator is described comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of greater than or equal to .1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electron by about .1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of less than or equal to 1 ..mu..sec.

  15. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Brentwood, CA); Reginato, Louis L. (Orinda, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .gtoreq.0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  16. Testing Doppler type shift for an accelerated source and determination of the universal maximal acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaakov Friedman

    2010-06-10

    An experiment for testing Doppler type shift for an accelerated source and determination of the universal maximal acceleration is proposed.

  17. RFQ accelerator tuning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolie, V.W.

    1990-07-03

    A cooling system is provided for maintaining a preselected operating temperature in a device, which may be an RFQ accelerator, having a variable heat removal requirement, by circulating a cooling fluid through a cooling system remote from the device. Internal sensors in the device enable an estimated error signal to be generated from parameters which are indicative of the heat removal requirement from the device. Sensors are provided at predetermined locations in the cooling system for outputting operational temperature signals. Analog and digital computers define a control signal functionally related to the temperature signals and the estimated error signal, where the control signal is defined effective to return the device to the preselected operating temperature in a stable manner. The cooling system includes a first heat sink responsive to a first portion of the control signal to remove heat from a major portion of the circulating fluid. A second heat sink is responsive to a second portion of the control signal to remove heat from a minor portion of the circulating fluid. The cooled major and minor portions of the circulating fluid are mixed in response to a mixing portion of the control signal, which is effective to proportion the major and minor portions of the circulating fluid to establish a mixed fluid temperature which is effective to define the preselected operating temperature for the remote device. In an RFQ environment the stable temperature control enables the resonant frequency of the device to be maintained at substantially a predetermined value during transient operations. 3 figs.

  18. RFQ accelerator tuning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolie, Victor W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A cooling system is provided for maintaining a preselected operating temperature in a device, which may be an RFQ accelerator, having a variable heat removal requirement, by circulating a cooling fluid through a cooling system remote from the device. Internal sensors in the device enable an estimated error signal to be generated from parameters which are indicative of the heat removal requirement from the device. Sensors are provided at predetermined locations in the cooling system for outputting operational temperature signals. Analog and digital computers define a control signal functionally related to the temperature signals and the estimated error signal, where the control signal is defined effective to return the device to the preselected operating temperature in a stable manner. The cooling system includes a first heat sink responsive to a first portion of the control signal to remove heat from a major portion of the circulating fluid. A second heat sink is responsive to a second portion of the control signal to remove heat from a minor portion of the circulating fluid. The cooled major and minor portions of the circulating fluid are mixed in response to a mixing portion of the control signal, which is effective to proportion the major and minor portions of the circulating fluid to establish a mixed fluid temperature which is effective to define the preselected operating temperature for the remote device. In an RFQ environment the stable temperature control enables the resonant frequency of the device to be maintained at substantially a predetermined value during transient operations.

  19. Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams , H. Ludewig1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams N. Simos1* , H. Kirk1 , H on the behavior of special materials and composites under irradiation conditions and their potential use irradiated target material. The ever greater deposited energy and induced thermo-mechanical loads combined

  20. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  1. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  2. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  3. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  4. Radiological Research Accelerator Facility Service Request Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiological Research Accelerator Facility Service Request Form National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Radiological Research Accelerator Facility Service request form Estimate when(s) to control for this experiment (if more than one, please prioritize): Radiological Research Accelerator

  5. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanni, Emilio Alessandro; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Miller, R J Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X

    2014-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators is dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency (RF) accelerating structures operate with 30-50 MeV/m gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional RF structures. However, laser-driven electron accelerators require intense sources and suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here, we demonstrate the first linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically-generated terahertz (THz) pulses. THz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. Increasing the operational frequency of accelerators into the THz band allows for greatly increased accelerating ...

  6. The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briggs, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    field model of the pulse- line accelerator; relationship to3, 2006 LBNL-59492 The pulse line ion accelerator conceptCalifornia, 94507 The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator concept was

  7. SNEAP 80: symposium of Northeastern Accelerator personnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billen, J.H. (ed.) ed.

    1980-01-01

    Reports of operations are presented for twenty-seven facilities, along with reports on accelerators in progress, ion sources, insulating gases, charging systems, stripping foils, accelerating tubes, and upgraded accelerator systems. (GHT)

  8. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...

  9. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  10. Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and Huygens’ metasurfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campione, Salvatore; Basilio, Lorena I.; Warne, Larry K.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2015-01-28

    In this paper we describe a methodology for tailoring the design of metamaterial dielectric resonators, which represent a promising path toward low-loss metamaterials at optical frequencies. We first describe a procedure to decompose the far field scattered by subwavelength resonators in terms of multipolar field components, providing explicit expressions for the multipolar far fields. We apply this formulation to confirm that an isolated high-permittivity dielectric cube resonator possesses frequency separated electric and magnetic dipole resonances, as well as a magnetic quadrupole resonance in close proximity to the electric dipole resonance. We then introduce multiple dielectric gaps to the resonator geometrymore »in a manner suggested by perturbation theory, and demonstrate the ability to overlap the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, thereby enabling directional scattering by satisfying the first Kerker condition. We further demonstrate the ability to push the quadrupole resonance away from the degenerate dipole resonances to achieve local behavior. These properties are confirmed through the multipolar expansion and show that the use of geometries suggested by perturbation theory is a viable route to achieve purely dipole resonances for metamaterial applications such as wave-front manipulation with Huygens’ metasurfaces. Our results are fully scalable across any frequency bands where high-permittivity dielectric materials are available, including microwave, THz, and infrared frequencies.« less

  11. DIELECTRIC RESONATOR FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY METHODS FOR TERAHERTZ METAMATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    DIELECTRIC RESONATOR FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY METHODS FOR TERAHERTZ METAMATERIALS BY JAMES MARK AND ASSEMBLY METHODS FOR TERAHERTZ METAMATERIALS BY JAMES MARK LELAND CRAMER ABSTRACT OF A DISSERTATION was the design and manufacture of a negative index of refraction metamaterial having an isotropic negative

  12. Ion composition of expanding microdischarges in dielectric barrier discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    square wave voltage pulses, the residual charge on the dielectric after the microdischarge, which contributes to the gap voltage on the next voltage pulse, is largely determined by the attachment rate of SO2 and oxides of nitrogen (NxOy) from combustion of fossil fuels,4­7 and to treat volatile organic

  13. Optimum Performance of UHF RFID Tags in Dielectric Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosuru, Lakshmi Anusha

    2011-09-08

    and present the trade-off to be made with the power transfer efficiency to obtain a tag working in wider range of dielectric materials. We make two specific recommendations for future work to increase the accuracy and usefulness of this work....

  14. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells Aaswath Raman, Zongfu@stanford.edu Abstract: Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model

  15. Electromechanical instability on dielectric polymer surface: Modeling and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Harold S.

    Electromechanical instability on dielectric polymer surface: Modeling and experiment Harold S. Park this by modifying the Q1P0 formulation of Simo et al. [1], and adapting it to the electromechanical coupling on the critical electric fields that are necessary to induce electromechanical instabilities such as creasing

  16. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES IN FIELD SOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES IN FIELD SOILS J.M.H. Hendrickx, B. Borchers and J detection sensors are affected by soil properties such as water content, temperature, electrical measurements in the Netherlands, Panama, and New Mexico on spatial variability of soil water content. We also

  17. Temperature and moisture dependence of dielectric constant for silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.H., LLNL

    1997-03-01

    The dielectric constants of silica aerogels are among the lowest measured for any solid material. The silica aerogels also exhibit low thermal expansion and are thermally stable to temperatures exceeding 500{degrees}C. However, due to the open porosity and large surface areas for aerogels, their dielectric constants are strongly affected by moisture and temperature. This paper presents data for the dielectric constants of silica aerogels as a function of moisture content at 25{degrees}C, and as a function of temperature, for temperatures in the range from 25{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C. Dielectric constant data are also given for silica aerogels that are heat treated in dry nitrogen at 500{degrees}C, then cooled to 25{degrees}C for measurements in dry air. All measurements are made on bulk aerogel spheres at 22GHz microwave frequency, using a cavity perturbation method. The results of the dependence found here for bulk materials can be inferred to apply also to thin films of silica aerogels having similar nano-structures and densities.

  18. THZ TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY APPLIED TO DIELECTRICS AND MICROWAVE CERAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KuÂ?el, Petr

    THZ TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY APPLIED TO DIELECTRICS AND MICROWAVE CERAMICS ALEXEJ PASHKIN, ELENA of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BMT) high-permittivity microwave ceramics was measured in the sub; time-resolved spectroscopy; microwave ceramics INTRODUCTION The method of time-domain terahertz

  19. Canonical and kinetic forms of the electromagnetic momentum in an ad hoc quantization scheme for a dispersive dielectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.C.; Chiao, R.Y.

    2004-11-01

    An ad hoc quantization scheme for the electromagnetic field in a weakly dispersive, transparent dielectric leads to the definition of canonical and kinetic forms for the momentum of the electromagnetic field in a dispersive medium. The canonical momentum is uniquely defined as the operator that generates spatial translations in a uniform medium, but the quantization scheme suggests two possible choices for the kinetic momentum operator, corresponding to the Abraham or the Minkowski momentum in classical electrodynamics. Another implication of this procedure is that a wave packet containing a single dressed photon travels at the group velocity through the medium. The physical significance of the canonical momentum has already been established by considerations of energy and momentum conservation in the atomic recoil due to spontaneous emission, the Cerenkov effect, the Doppler effect, and phase matching in nonlinear optical processes. In addition, the data of the Jones and Leslie radiation pressure experiment is consistent with the assignment of one ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})k unit of canonical momentum to each dressed photon. By contrast, experiments in which the dielectric is rigidly accelerated by unbalanced electromagnetic forces require the use of the Abraham momentum.

  20. Study of electron acceleration and x-ray radiation as a function of plasma density in capillary-guided laser wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, J.; Döpp, A.; Cros, B.; Svensson, K.; Genoud, G.; Wojda, F.; Burza, M.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Ferrari, H.

    2013-08-15

    Laser wakefield electron acceleration in the blow-out regime and the associated betatron X-ray radiation were investigated experimentally as a function of the plasma density in a configuration where the laser is guided. Dielectric capillary tubes were employed to assist the laser keeping self-focused over a long distance by collecting the laser energy around its central focal spot. With a 40 fs, 16 TW pulsed laser, electron bunches with tens of pC charge were measured to be accelerated to an energy up to 300 MeV, accompanied by X-ray emission with a peak brightness of the order of 10{sup 21} ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1%BW. Electron trapping and acceleration were studied using the emitted X-ray beam distribution to map the acceleration process; the number of betatron oscillations performed by the electrons was inferred from the correlation between measured X-ray fluence and beam charge. A study of the stability of electron and X-ray generation suggests that the fluctuation of X-ray emission can be reduced by stabilizing the beam charge. The experimental results are in good agreement with 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation.

  1. Electromagnetic acceleration of permanent magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolya, S N

    2015-01-01

    We consider the acceleration of the permanent magnets, consisting of neodymium iron boron by means of the running magnetic field gradient. It is shown that the specific magnetic moment per nucleon in neodymium iron boron is determined by the remained magnetization of the substance. The maximum accessable gradient of the magnetic field accelerating the permanent magnets is determined by the coercive force thirty kilogauss. For the neodymium iron boron magnets this gradient is equal to twenty kilogauss divided by one centimeter. The finite velocity of the magnets six kilometers per second, the length of acceleration is six hundred thirty-seven meters.

  2. Cosmic Particle Acceleration: Basic Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. W. Jones

    2000-12-22

    Cosmic-rays are ubiquitous, but their origins are surprisingly difficult to understand. A review is presented of some of the basic issues common to cosmic particle accelerators and arguments leading to the likely importance of diffusive shock acceleration as a general explanation. The basic theory of diffusive shock acceleration is outlined, followed by a discussion of some of the key issues that still prevent us from a full understanding of its outcomes. Some recent insights are mentioned at the end that may help direct ultimate resolution of our uncertainties.

  3. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  4. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  5. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  6. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...

  7. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  8. Accelerating DSMC data extraction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2006-10-01

    In many direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations, the majority of computation time is consumed after the flowfield reaches a steady state. This situation occurs when the desired output quantities are small compared to the background fluctuations. For example, gas flows in many microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have mean speeds more than two orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal speeds of the molecules themselves. The current solution to this problem is to collect sufficient samples to achieve the desired resolution. This can be an arduous process because the error is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of samples so we must, for example, quadruple the samples to cut the error in half. This work is intended to improve this situation by employing more advanced techniques, from fields other than solely statistics, for determining the output quantities. Our strategy centers on exploiting information neglected by current techniques, which collect moments in each cell without regard to one another, values in neighboring cells, nor their evolution in time. Unlike many previous acceleration techniques that modify the method itself, the techniques examined in this work strictly post-process so they may be applied to any DSMC code without affecting its fidelity or generality. Many potential methods are drawn from successful applications in a diverse range of areas, from ultrasound imaging to financial market analysis. The most promising methods exploit relationships between variables in space, which always exist in DSMC due to the absence of shocks. Disparate techniques were shown to produce similar error reductions, suggesting that the results shown in this report may be typical of what is possible using these methods. Sample count reduction factors of approximately three to five were found to be typical, although factors exceeding ten were shown on some variables under some techniques.

  9. ASTA at Fermilab: Accelerator Physics and Accelerator Education Programs at the Modern Accelerator R&D Users Facility for HEP and Accelerator Applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiltsev, V.; Piot, P.

    2013-09-01

    We present the current and planned beam physics research program and accelerator education program at Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab.

  10. How Particle Accelerators Work | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cancer patients. The vast majority of these irradiations are now performed with microwave linear accelerators producing electron beams and x-rays. Accelerator technology,...

  11. Accelerating Investments in the Geothermal Sector, Indonesia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Accelerating Investments in the Geothermal Sector, Indonesia (Presentation) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Accelerating...

  12. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Accelerated Milestones

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    RECOVERY PROJECT OR ACTIVITY ACCELERATED MILESTONE TITLE MILESTONE DUE DATE EXPECTED ACCELERATED COMPLETION DATE WITH ARRA FUNDING STATUS INL - Cleanup of Surplus Nuclear...

  13. Accelerators for high energy physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, A.

    1995-12-01

    A brief survey of particle accelerators as research tools for high energy physics is given. The survey includes existing accelerators, as well as those envisioned for the future.

  14. Substrate dielectric effects on graphene field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhaoying; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Ung Lee, Ji, E-mail: jlee1@albany.edu; Liehr, Michael [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, The State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Graphene is emerging as a promising material for future electronics and optoelectronics applications due to its unique electronic structure. Understanding the graphene-dielectric interaction is of vital importance for the development of graphene field effect transistors (FETs) and other novel graphene devices. Here, we extend the exploration of substrate dielectrics from conventionally used thermally grown SiO{sub 2} and hexagonal boron nitride films to technologically relevant deposited dielectrics used in semiconductor industry. A systematic analysis of morphology and optical and electrical properties was performed to study the effects of different substrates (SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-oxide, and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) on the carrier transport of chemical vapor deposition-derived graphene FET devices. As baseline, we use graphene FETs fabricated on thermal SiO{sub 2} with a relatively high carrier mobility of 10?000 cm{sup 2}/(V s). Among the deposited dielectrics studied, silicon nitride showed the highest mobility, comparable to the properties of graphene fabricated on thermal SiO{sub 2}. We conclude that this result comes from lower long range scattering and short range scattering rates in the nitride compared those in the other deposited films. The carrier fluctuation caused by substrates, however, seems to be the main contributing factor for mobility degradation, as a universal mobility-disorder density product is observed for all the dielectrics examined. The extrinsic doping trend is further confirmed by Raman spectra. We also provide, for the first time, correlation between the intensity ratio of G peak and 2D peak in the Raman spectra to the carrier mobility of graphene for different substrates.

  15. Local Dielectric Environment of B-DNA in Solution: Results from a 14 ns Molecular Dynamics Trajectory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

    around DNA provides an accurate account of the dielectric behavior observed from fluorescence studies

  16. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated aging of roofing surfaces Hugo Destaillats, Ph.D. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory HDestaillats@LBL.gov (510) 486-5897 http:HeatIsland.LBL.gov April 4, 2013...

  17. Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piot, P; Gerth, C; Dohlus, M; Lemery, F; Mihalcea, D; Stoltz, P; Vogt, M

    2011-01-01

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced $\\sim 700$-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Amp\\`ere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.

  18. Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piot, P [Northern Illinois U.; Fermilab; Behrens, C; Gerth, C; Dohlus, M [DESY; Lemery, F; Mihalcea, D [Northern Illinois U.; Stoltz, P [Tech-X, Boulder; Vogt, M [DESY

    2011-09-07

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.

  19. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Patterson, CA); Poole, Brian R. (Tracy, CA)

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  20. Accelerated Expansion: Theory and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Polarski

    2001-09-20

    The present paradigm in cosmology is the usual Big-Bang Cosmology in which two stages of accelerated expansion are incorporated: the inflationary phase in the very early universe which produces the classical inhomogeneities observed in the universe, and a second stage of acceleration at the present time as the latest Supernovae observations seem to imply. Both stages could be produced by a scalar field and observations will strongly constrain the microscopic lagrangian of any proposed model.

  1. {Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, William Jerome

    2010-01-01

    modeling and control of load management. Further, withoutA profit-based load management using linear programming”.with applica- tions to load management assessment and load

  2. Staying FIT: Efficient Load Shedding Techniques for Distributed Stream Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bottlenecks slow down processing and network transmission, and cause delayed outputs. Load management has been. Common load management techniques include adaptive load distribution, admis- sion control, and load

  3. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  4. DNA and RNA sequencing by nanoscale reading through programmable electrophoresis and nanoelectrode-gated tunneling and dielectric detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James W.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for performing nucleic acid (DNA and/or RNA) sequencing on a single molecule. The genetic sequence information is obtained by probing through a DNA or RNA molecule base by base at nanometer scale as though looking through a strip of movie film. This DNA sequencing nanotechnology has the theoretical capability of performing DNA sequencing at a maximal rate of about 1,000,000 bases per second. This enhanced performance is made possible by a series of innovations including: novel applications of a fine-tuned nanometer gap for passage of a single DNA or RNA molecule; thin layer microfluidics for sample loading and delivery; and programmable electric fields for precise control of DNA or RNA movement. Detection methods include nanoelectrode-gated tunneling current measurements, dielectric molecular characterization, and atomic force microscopy/electrostatic force microscopy (AFM/EFM) probing for nanoscale reading of the nucleic acid sequences.

  5. Pre-breakdown cavitation development in the dielectric fluid in the inhomogeneous, pulsed electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail N. Shneider; Mikhail Pekker

    2014-12-01

    We consider the development of pre-breakdown cavitation nanopores appearing in the dielectric fluid under the influence of the electrostrictive stresses in the inhomogeneous pulsed electric field. It is shown that three characteristic regions can be distinguished near the needle electrode. In the first region, where the electric field gradient is greatest, the cavitation nanopores, occurring during the voltage nanosecond pulse, may grow to the size at which an electron accelerated by the field inside the pores can acquire enough energy for excitation and ionization of the liquid on the opposite pore wall, i.e., the breakdown conditions are satisfied. In the second region, the negative pressure caused by the electrostriction is large enough for the cavitation initiation (which can be registered by optical methods), but, during the voltage pulse, the pores do not reach the size at which the potential difference across their borders becomes sufficient for ionization or excitation of water molecules. And, in the third, the development of cavitation is impossible, due to an insufficient level of the negative pressure: in this area, the spontaneously occurring micropores do not grow and collapse under the influence of surface tension forces. This paper discusses the expansion dynamics of the cavitation pores and their most probable shape.

  6. Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol T.R. Meerburg , R.J. Boucherie , M.J.A.L. van objective is to guarantee safety, efficiency, and protection of the environment, that includes noise load contributes to the noise load at these points. If the cumulative load in an aviation year at an enforce- ment

  7. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  8. Reliability assessment of Indian Point Unit 3 containment structure under combined loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, H.; Shinozuka, M.; Kawakami, J.; Reich, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the current design criteria, the load combinations specified for design of concrete containment structures are in the deterministic format. However, by applying the probability-based reliability analysis method developed by BNL to the concrete containment structures designed according to the criteria, it is possible to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria. For this purpose, the reliability analysis is applied to the Indian Point Unit No. 3 containment. The details of the containment structure such as the geometries and the rebar arrangements, etc., are taken from the working drawings and the Final Safety Analysis Report. Three kinds of loads are considered in the reliability analysis. They are, dead load, accidental pressure due to a large LOCA, and earthquake ground acceleration. This paper presents the reliability analysis results of the Indian Point Unit 3 containment subjected to all combinations of loads.

  9. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  10. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  11. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  12. Numerical Regularization of Electromagnetic Quantum Fluctuations in Inhomogeneous Dielectric Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin-itiro Goto; Alison C. Hale; Robin W. Tucker; Timothy J. Walton

    2012-01-05

    Electromagnetic Casimir stresses are of relevance to many technologies based on mesoscopic devices such as MEMS embedded in dielectric media, Casimir induced friction in nano-machinery, micro-fluidics and molecular electronics. Computation of such stresses based on cavity QED generally require numerical analysis based on a regularization process. A new scheme is described that has the potential for wide applicability to systems involving realistic inhomogeneous media. From a knowledge of the spectrum of the stationary modes of the electromagnetic field the scheme is illustrated by estimating numerically the Casimir stress on opposite faces of a pair of perfectly conducting planes separated by a vacuum and the change in this result when the region between the plates is filled with an incompressible inhomogeneous non-dispersive dielectric.

  13. Defect density and dielectric constant in perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samiee, Mehran; Konduri, Siva; Abbas, Hisham A.; Joshi, Pranav; Zhang, Liang; Dalal, Vikram; Ganapathy, Balaji; Kottokkaran, Ranjith; Noack, Max; Kitahara, Andrew

    2014-10-13

    We report on measurement of dielectric constant, mid-gap defect density, Urbach energy of tail states in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub x}Cl{sub 1?x} perovskite solar cells. Midgap defect densities were estimated by measuring capacitance vs. frequency at different temperatures and show two peaks, one at 0.66?eV below the conduction band and one at 0.24?eV below the conduction band. The attempt to escape frequency is in the range of 2?×?10{sup 11}/s. Quantum efficiency data indicate a bandgap of 1.58?eV. Urbach energies of valence and conduction band are estimated to be ?16 and ?18?meV. Measurement of saturation capacitance indicates that the relative dielectric constant is ?18.

  14. Dielectric waveguide gas-filled stark shift modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Richards, Roger K.

    2003-07-22

    An optical modulator includes a dielectric waveguide for receiving an optical beam and coupling energy of the optical beam into the waveguide. At least one Stark material is provided in the waveguide. A bias circuit generates a bias signal to produce an electrical field across the Stark material to shift at least one of the Stark absorption frequencies towards the frequency of the optical beam. A circuit for producing a time varying electric field across the Stark material modulates the optical beam. At least a portion of the bias field can be generated by an alternating bias signal, such as a square wave. A method of modulating optical signals includes the steps of providing a dielectric waveguide for receiving an optical beam and coupling energy of the optical beam into the waveguide, the waveguide having at least one Stark material disposed therein, and varying an electric field imposed across the Stark material.

  15. Waves of spin-current in magnetized dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreev, P A

    2012-01-01

    Spin-current is the important physical quantity in present day spintronics and it might be very usefull in the physics of quantum plasma of spinning particles. Thus it is important to have an equation of spin-current dynamical evolution. This equation naturally appears as a part of a set of the quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) equations. Consequently, we present the set of the QHD equations derived from the many-particle microscopic Schrodinger equation, which consists of the continuity equation, the Euler equation, the Bloch equation and equation of spin-current evolution. We use these equations to study dispersion of collective excitations in three dimensional samples of magnetized dielectrics. We show that dynamics of spin-current leads to formation of new type of collective excitations in magnetized dielectrics, which we called spin-current waves.

  16. Spin photonics and spin-photonic devices with dielectric metasurfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Zhou, Xinxing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric metasurfaces with spatially varying birefringence and high transmission efficiency can exhibit exceptional abilities for controlling the photonic spin states. We present here some of our works on spin photonics and spin-photonic devices with metasurfaces. We develop a hybrid-order Poincare sphere to describe the evolution of spin states of wave propagation in the metasurface. Both the Berry curvature and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase on the hybrid-order Poincare sphere are demonstrated to be proportional to the variation of total angular momentum. Based on the spin-dependent property of Pancharatnam-Berry phase, we find that the photonic spin Hall effect can be observed when breaking the rotational symmetry of metasurfaces. Moreover, we show that the dielectric metasurfaces can provide great flexibility in the design of novel spin-photonic devices such as spin filter and spin-dependent beam splitter.

  17. Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @compute.dtu.dk www.compute.dtu.dk M.Sc.-2013-87 #12;Summary (English) The Danish power production coming from energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present Thesis

  18. Scaling the Web Load Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Load Testing of Web Sites D evelopers typically measure a Web appli- cation on a Web site's IT infrastructure are a function of the site's expect- ed traffic. Ideally, you want, you shouldn't upgrade your Web servers if customers experience most delays in the database server

  19. Experimentally excellent beaming in a two-layer dielectric structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasolamprou, Anna C.; Zhang, Lei; Kafesaki, Maria; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-09-15

    We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that a two-layer dielectric structure can provide collimation and enhanced transmission of a Gaussian beam passing through it. This is due to formation of surface localized states along the layered structure and the coupling of these states to outgoing propagating waves. As a result, a system of multiple cascading two-layers can sustain the beaming for large propagation distances.

  20. Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Issadore; Katherine J. Humphry; Keith A. Brown; Lori Sandberg; David Weitz; Robert M. Westervelt

    2009-01-09

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature, such as PCR amplification of DNA, and can benefit from this new technique.

  1. Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.

    2015-04-10

    There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screeningmore »length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.« less

  2. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2000-01-01

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  3. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.

  4. Heavy ion medical accelerator options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, R.A.; Alonso, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper briefly explores the accelerator technology available for heavy ion medical accelerators in the mass range of 1 to 40 (protons through argon). Machines that are designed to produce the required intensities of a particular design ion, such as silicon (mass 28), can satisfy the intensity requirements for all lighter ions, and can produce beams with higher mass, such as argon, at somewhat reduced, but still useful intensity levels. They can also provide beams of radioactive ions, such as carbon-11 and neon-19, which are useful in diagnostic imaging and for directly verifiable treatments. These accelerators are all based on proven technology, and can be built at predictable costs. It is the conclusion of several design studies that they can be operated reliably in a hospital-based environment. 8 refs., 22 figs.

  5. Accelerated expansion without dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominik J. Schwarz

    2002-10-03

    The fact that the LambdaCDM model fits the observations does not necessarily imply the physical existence of `dark energy'. Dropping the assumption that cold dark matter (CDM) is a perfect fluid opens the possibility to fit the data without dark energy. For imperfect CDM, negative bulk pressure is favoured by thermodynamical arguments and might drive the cosmic acceleration. The coincidence between the onset of accelerated expansion and the epoch of structure formation at large scales might suggest that the two phenomena are linked. A specific example is considered in which effective (anti-frictional) forces, which may be due to dissipative processes during the formation of inhomogeneities, give rise to accelerated expansion of a CDM universe.

  6. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  7. Weak-Chaos Ratchet Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itzhack Dana; Vladislav B. Roitberg

    2012-05-28

    Classical Hamiltonian systems with a mixed phase space and some asymmetry may exhibit chaotic ratchet effects. The most significant such effect is a directed momentum current or acceleration. In known model systems, this effect may arise only for sufficiently strong chaos. In this paper, a Hamiltonian ratchet accelerator is introduced, featuring a momentum current for arbitrarily weak chaos. The system is a realistic, generalized kicked rotor and is exactly solvable to some extent, leading to analytical expressions for the momentum current. While this current arises also for relatively strong chaos, the maximal current is shown to occur, at least in one case, precisely in a limit of arbitrarily weak chaos.

  8. Accelerator dynamics and beam aperture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z.

    1986-10-01

    We present an analytical method for analyzing accelerator dynamics, including higher order effects of multipoles on the beam. This formalism provides a faster alternative to particle tracking. Simplectic expressions for the emittance and phase describing the dynamical behavior of a particle in a circular accelerator are derived using second order perturbation theory (in the presence of nonlinear elements, e.g., sextupoles, octupoles). These expressions are successfully used to calculate the emittance growth, smear and linear aperture. Our findings compare well with results obtained from tracking programs. In addition perturbation to betatron tune; resonance strengths; stop bandwidth; fixed points; island width; and Chirikov criteria are calculated.

  9. Seismic response of linear accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collette, C; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper is divided into two parts. The first part presents recent measurements of ground motion in the LHC tunnel at CERN. From these measurements, an update of the ground motion model currently used in accelerator simulations is presented. It contains new features like a model of the lateral motion and the technical noise. In the second part, it is shown how this model can be used to evaluate the seismic response of a linear accelerator in the frequency domain. Then, the approach is validated numerically on a regular lattice, taking the dynamic behavior of the machine alignment stage and the mechanical stabilization of the quadrupoles into account.

  10. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Andrei Seryi

    2010-01-08

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  11. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  12. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  13. THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    175 THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY #12;176 #12;177 THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH the microbeam and the track-segment facilities have been utilized in various investigations. Table 1 lists-segment facility. Samples are treated with graded doses of radical scavengers to observe changes in the cluster

  14. High Performance Outdoor Lighting Accelerator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIPO), this webinar covered the expansion of the Better Buildings platform to include the newest initiative for the public sector: the High Performance Outdoor Lighting Accelerator (HPOLA).

  15. Accelerators for Intensity Frontier Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derwent, Paul; /Fermilab

    2012-05-11

    In 2008, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel identified three frontiers for research in high energy physics, the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. In this paper, I will describe how Fermilab is configuring and upgrading the accelerator complex, prior to the development of Project X, in support of the Intensity Frontier.

  16. Magnetic origin of dielectric transition in BiFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J.; Biswal, A. K.; Vishwakarma, P. N.; Babu, P. D.; Siruguri, V.

    2014-04-24

    Magnetic relaxation measurements at 5K, 50K and 120K on BiFeO{sub 3} prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method shows stretched -exponential decay. These results shows the two factors viz, cooperative dynamics and rate of dynamics of spin, may be responsible for the low temperature magnetic-glassy behavior, concluded from bifurcation of zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) data of dc magnetization. Temperature dependent dielectric measurement shows a possible phase transition, seen in the dielectric-relaxation time and dielectric constant in the range 200 – 240K. Comparison of dielectric and magnetization data indicates a possibility of magneto-electric coupling.

  17. Dielectric function of sol-gel prepared nano-granular zinc oxide by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilliot, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.gilliot@univ-reims.fr; Hadjadj, Aomar [LISM, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims (France); Eypert, Céline [HORIBA Jobin Yvon S.A.S., Palaiseau (France)

    2013-11-14

    ZnO thin films have been prepared by sol gel and deposited by spin coating. The dielectric function has been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Ellipsometric spectra are inverted by a direct numerical method without using the standard fitting procedures. The obtained dielectric function presents a broad excitonic effect. The dielectric function is studied using Elliot excitonic theory including exciton plus band-to-band Coulomb interactions with standard Lorentzian broadening. A modification of this model dielectric function with independent bound and unbound exciton contributions is empirically proposed to improve modelling of the band gap excitonic peak.

  18. Layered Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide Thin-Film-Based Devices Technology available for licenisng: A multilayer thin-film device containing copper layers...

  19. Fresnel diffraction patterns as accelerating beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that beams originating from Fresnel diffraction patterns are self-accelerating in free space. In addition to accelerating and self-healing, they also exhibit parabolic deceleration property, which is in stark contrast to other accelerating beams. We find that the trajectory of Fresnel paraxial accelerating beams is similar to that of nonparaxial Weber beams. Decelerating and accelerating regions are separated by a critical propagation distance, at which no acceleration is present. During deceleration, the Fresnel diffraction beams undergo self-smoothing, in which oscillations of the diffracted waves gradually focus and smooth out at the critical distance.

  20. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  1. COMPASS, the COMmunity Petascale project for Accelerator Science and Simulation, a board computational accelerator physics initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cary, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    computational accelerator physics initiative † J R Carycomputational accelerator physics initiative J R Cary 1,9 ,colliders for particle physics and nuclear science and light

  2. Increasing the transformer ratio at the Argonne wakefield accelerator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J.G.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. (High Energy Physics); (Euclid Techlabs, LLC)

    2011-01-01

    The transformer ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss experienced by the drive bunch (or a bunch within a multidrive bunch train). This plays an important role in the collinear wakefield acceleration scheme. A high transformer ratio is desirable since it leads to a higher overall efficiency under similar conditions (e.g. the same beam loading, the same structure, etc.). One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 is to use a ramped bunch train. The first experimental demonstration observed a transformer ratio only marginally above 2 due to the mismatch between the drive microbunch length and the frequency of the accelerating structure [C. Jing, A. Kanareykin, J. Power, M. Conde, Z. Yusof, P. Schoessow, and W. Gai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 144801 (2007)]. Recently, we revisited this experiment with an optimized microbunch length using a UV laser stacking technique at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and measured a transformer ratio of 3.4. Measurements and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

  3. Study of beam loading and its compensation in the Compact Ultrafast Terahertz Free-Electron Laser injector linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lal, Shankar Pant, K. K.

    2014-12-15

    The RF properties of an accelerating structure, and the pulse structure and charge per bunch in the electron beam propagating through it are important parameters that determine the impact of beam loading in the structure. The injector linac of the Compact Ultrafast Terahertz Free-Electron Laser (CUTE-FEL) has been operated with two different pulse structures during initial commissioning experiments and the effect of beam loading on the accelerated electron beam parameters has been studied analytically for these two pulse structures. This paper discusses the analytical study of beam loading in a Standing Wave, Plane Wave Transformer linac employed in the CUTE-FEL setup, and a possible technique for its compensation for the electron beam parameters of the CUTE-FEL. A parametric study has been performed to study beam loading for different beam currents and to optimize injection time of the electron beam to compensate beam loading. Results from the parametric study have also been used to explain previously observed results from acceleration experiments in the CUTE-FEL setup.

  4. Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and Grid Power Limitation For Inductive Load Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossini, Stefano; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Le Godec, Gilles; Retegui, Rogelio Garcia; Maestri, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates a grid interface for power supplies used in particle accelerators for cycling loads such as large electromagnets. Two topologies are discussed integrating magnetic energy recovery. For each topology, the associated energy management strategies are examined with the objective to control the grid current profile. A model is established for each of the proposed solutions and the simulation results are presented. A critical review of the investigated energy management solutions is attempted.

  5. Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forecast of 4) Calculate Hourly Load Allocation Factor s for each day for 2019 For use in RA analysis as a function ofthe load for electricity in the region as a function of cyclical, weather and economic variables

  6. Residential Load Management Program and Pilot 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haverlah, D.; Riordon, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1986 LCRA embarked on residential load management to control peak summer loads. At that time, LCRA was considered a summer peaking utility, and residential air conditioning and water heating systems were selected for control. The program...

  7. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  8. Microstructure-based laser-driven free-electron laser T. Plettner , R.L. Byer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Keywords: Dielectric-structure undulator Laser-driven particle acceleration Phase-synchronous deflection with future structure-loaded laser-driven particle accelerators. These accelerators are expected to operate-tabletop system that is based on this accelerator, a matching compact undulator is highly desirable. To this end

  9. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  10. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  11. Wind induced torsional loads on structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    -level crosswind loading on a square cross-section building. Reinhold et al.4 instrumented a building model

  12. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  13. Accelerator on a Chip: How It Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-06-30

    In an advance that could dramatically shrink particle accelerators for science and medicine, researchers used a laser to accelerate electrons at a rate 10 times higher than conventional technology in a nanostructured glass chip smaller than a grain of rice.

  14. Symposium report on frontier applications of accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z.

    1993-09-28

    This report contains viewgraph material on the following topics: Electron-Positron Linear Colliders; Unconventional Colliders; Prospects for UVFEL; Accelerator Based Intense Spallation; Neutron Sources; and B Physics at Hadron Accelerators with RHIC as an Example.

  15. Creation mechanism of quantum accelerator modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summy, G. S.

    We investigate the creation mechanism of quantum accelerator modes which are attributed to the existence of the stability islands in an underlying pseudoclassical phase space of the quantum delta-kicked accelerator. Quantum ...

  16. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Becker Tjus, Julia [Fakultät für Physik and Astronomie, Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10{sup 13} keV cm{sup –1}. At gradients above 1.6 keV cm{sup –1}, muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  17. EM Structure Based and Vacuum Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, E.R.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The importance of particle acceleration may be judged from the number of applications which require some sort of accelerated beam. In addition to accelerator-based high energy physics research, non-academic applications include medical imaging and treatment, structural biology by x-ray diffraction, pulse radiography, cargo inspection, material processing, food and medical instrument sterilization, and so on. Many of these applications are already well served by existing technologies and will profit only marginally from developments in accelerator technology. Other applications are poorly served, such as structural biology, which is conducted at synchrotron radiation facilities, and medical treatment using proton accelerators, the machines for which are rare because they are complex and costly. Developments in very compact, high brightness and high gradient accelerators will change how accelerators are used for such applications, and potentially enable new ones. Physical and technical issues governing structure-based and vacuum acceleration of charged particles are reviewed, with emphasis on practical aspects.

  18. Elucidating mechanisms of accelerated neurological aging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhall, Jennifer Anne

    2008-01-01

    C. (2005). Mechanisms of aging in senescence- accelerated2.2 Strain-specific aging gene-expression profiles…………………..C. (2005). Mechanisms of aging in senescence-accelerated

  19. Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    for the same data. Two methods are described for forecasting daily peak loads up to one week ahead through, including generator unit commitment, hydro-thermal coordination, short-term maintenance, fuel allocation forecasting accuracies. STLF forecasting covers the daily peak load, total daily energy, and daily load curve

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  1. Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load Vsevolod V. Panteleenko and Vincent W. Freeh A modern web-hosting site is designed to handle load that is sometimes an order of magnitude greater than and performance study of the web booster architecture, which reduces web server load during peak periods. A web

  2. LASER-PLASMA-ACCELERATOR-BASED GAMMA GAMMA COLLIDERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    LASER-PLASMA-ACCELERATOR-BASED ?? COLLIDERS ? C. B.linear col- lider based on laser-plasma-accelerators arediscussed, and a laser-plasma-accelerator-based gamma-

  3. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    MODELS FOR ACCELERATOR PHYSICS * Robert D. Ryne, Lawrencetools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction Icomputing in accelerator physics. INTRODUCTION To begin I

  4. The final technical report of the CRADA, Medical Accelerator Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, William T.; Rawls, John M.

    2000-01-01

    the marketplace. Final Technical Report: Medical AcceleratorPTCOG XXV, 1996. Final Technical Report: Medical AcceleratorFinal Technical Report: Medical Accelerator Technology (SC-

  5. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration: How it Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-05

    This animation explains how electrons can be efficiently accelerated to high energy using wakes created in a plasma.

  6. Comments on backreaction and cosmic acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabinio; Riotto, Antonion; /CERN

    2005-11-01

    In this brief WEB note we comment on recent papers related to our paper ''On Acceleration Without Dark Energy''.

  7. Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences: Accelerating Scientific Discovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hules, John A

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry Fusion Energy Materials Science Accelerating Scienti?c Discovery High Energy Physics Nuclear Physics Visualization & Analytics

  8. The circular loop antenna over a lossy dielectric slab 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overly, Michael Robert

    1984-01-01

    antenna above a lossy dielectric slab has applicat1ons in undergraound communications/direction find1ng and in the hyperthermic treatment of cancer tumors. Integral equations are derived through the enforcement of boundary conditions at the material... tumor's temperature: lavaersion in a heated liqu1d, irradiation with ultrason1c waves, and the use of perspiration-prevent1ng garments. It is a fact [6]-[9] that the environment inside a tumor enhances its susceptibility to the cytotoxic effects...

  9. Tunable dark modes in one-dimensional “diatomic” dielectric gratings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeng, Bo; Majumdar, Arka; Wang, Feng

    2015-05-04

    Recently researchers have demonstrated ultra high quality factor (Q) resonances in one-dimensional (1D) dielectric gratings. Here we theoretically investigate a new class of subwavelength 1D gratings, namely “diatomic” gratings with two nonequivalent subcells in one period, and utilize their intrinsic dark modes to achieve robust ultra high Q resonances. Such “diatomic” gratings provide extra design flexibility, and enable high Q resonators using thinner geometry with smaller filling factors compared to conventional designs like the high contrast gratings (HCGs). More importantly, we show that these high Q resonances can be efficiently tuned in situ, making the design appealing in various applicationsmore »including optical sensing, filtering and displays.« less

  10. Femtosecond laser pulse train interaction with dielectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caulier, O Dematteo; Chimier, B; Skupin, S; Bourgeade, A; Léger, C Javaux; Kling, R; Hönninger, C; Lopez, J; Tikhonchuk, V; Duchateau, G

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of trains of femtosecond microjoule laser pulses with dielectric materials by means of a multi-scale model. Our theoretical predictions are directly confronted with experimental observations in soda-lime glass. We show that due to the low heat conductivity, a significant fraction of the laser energy can be accumulated in the absorption region. Depending on the pulse repetition rate, the material can be heated to high temperatures even though the single pulse energy is too low to induce a significant material modification. Regions heated above the glass transition temperature in our simulations correspond very well to zones of permanent material modifications observed in the experiments.

  11. Surface polaritons in a dielectric – anisotropic nanocomposite system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sannikov, D G; Sementsov, D I; Filatov, L D [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    We have studied the peculiarities of propagation of surface polaritons at a planar interface between an isotropic dielectric and anisotropic nanocomposite with metal inclusions of ellipsoidal shape. For the case when the axes of all nanoellipsoids of revolution are perpendicular to the propagation direction and parallel to the medium interface, we have obtained frequency dependences of the propagation constant and transverse wave vector components, penetration depth and path length, longitudinal and transverse energy fluxes for surface polaritons. The shape of nanoellipsoids is shown to have an effect on the wave characteristics of surface polaritons. (nanostructures)

  12. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  13. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  14. 205:20130828.1126 Dust Accelerator Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    205:20130828.1126 Dust Accelerator Laboratory Through the Dust Accelerator Laboratory, LASP, and laboratory experiments. Our goal is to address basic physical and applied exploration questions, including Laboratory is home to world-class facilities, including the largest dust accelerator in the world

  15. Naked singularities as particle accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandar Patil; Pankaj S. Joshi

    2010-11-25

    We investigate here the particle acceleration by naked singularities to arbitrarily high center of mass energies. Recently it has been suggested that black holes could be used as particle accelerators to probe the Planck scale physics. We show that the naked singularities serve the same purpose and probably would do better than their black hole counterparts. We focus on the scenario of a self-similar gravitational collapse starting from a regular initial data, leading to the formation of a globally naked singularity. It is seen that when particles moving along timelike geodesics interact and collide near the Cauchy horizon, the energy of collision in the center of mass frame will be arbitrarily high, thus offering a window to Planck scale physics.

  16. Naked singularities as particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, Mandar; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2010-11-15

    We investigate here the particle acceleration by naked singularities to arbitrarily high center of mass energies. Recently it has been suggested that black holes could be used as particle accelerators to probe the Planck scale physics. We show that the naked singularities serve the same purpose and probably would do better than their black hole counterparts. We focus on the scenario of a self-similar gravitational collapse starting from a regular initial data, leading to the formation of a globally naked singularity. It is seen that when particles moving along timelike geodesics interact and collide near the Cauchy horizon, the energy of collision in the center of mass frame will be arbitrarily high, thus offering a window to Planck scale physics.

  17. The US Muon Accelerator Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torun, Y.; Kirk, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, Steve; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Zisman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-01

    An accelerator complex that can produce ultra-intense beams of muons presents many opportunities to explore new physics. A facility of this type is unique in that, in a relatively straightforward way, it can present a physics program that can be staged and thus move forward incrementally, addressing exciting new physics at each step. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics, the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) and the Fermilab Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) have recently submitted a proposal to create a Muon Accelerator Program that will have, as a primary goal, to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for an energy-frontier Muon Collider by the end of a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a description of a Muon Collider facility and gives an overview of the proposal.

  18. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  19. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  20. Decoherence in an accelerated universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Robles-Perez; A. Alonso-Serrano; P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

    2011-11-14

    In this paper we study the decoherence processes of the semiclassical branches of an accelerated universe due to their interaction with a scalar field with given mass. We use a third quantization formalism to analyze the decoherence between two branches of a parent universe caused by their interaction with the vaccum fluctuations of the space-time, and with other parent unverses in a multiverse scenario.

  1. Accelerator R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposalsAboutAccelerating

  2. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  3. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  4. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hisham Kamal Sayed

    2011-05-31

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  5. Analytical tools in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-09-01

    This paper is a sub-set of my lectures presented in the Accelerator Physics course (USPAS, Santa Rosa, California, January 14-25, 2008). It is based on my notes I wrote during period from 1976 to 1979 in Novosibirsk. Only few copies (in Russian) were distributed to my colleagues in Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The goal of these notes is a complete description starting from the arbitrary reference orbit, explicit expressions for 4-potential and accelerator Hamiltonian and finishing with parameterization with action and angle variables. To a large degree follow logic developed in Theory of Cyclic Particle Accelerators by A.A.Kolmensky and A.N.Lebedev [Kolomensky], but going beyond the book in a number of directions. One of unusual feature is these notes use of matrix function and Sylvester formula for calculating matrices of arbitrary elements. Teaching the USPAS course motivated me to translate significant part of my notes into the English. I also included some introductory materials following Classical Theory of Fields by L.D. Landau and E.M. Liftsitz [Landau]. A large number of short notes covering various techniques are placed in the Appendices.

  6. INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    May 27-30, 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR12048 May 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FORfor increases in the building cooling load resulting from

  7. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

  8. Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi; Nuzzo, Pierluigi; Iandola, Forrest; Kamgarpour, Maryam; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto; Tomlin, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Poweris to develop an optimal load management system based on thescheme where a high-level load management system receives as

  9. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Development Commission. Load Management in California. Staffon the Challenge of Load Management, Conservation Paper No.for Electric Utility Load Management. New York, New York:

  10. A new single surface integral equation for light scattering by circular dielectric cylinders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    A new single surface integral equation for light scattering by circular dielectric cylinders Chang A new single surface integral equation is derived for light scattering by circular dielectric cylinders is directly derived from coupled-surface integral equations by the prop- erty of commutative matrices of Green

  11. Graphene field-effect transistors based on boron nitride gate dielectrics Inanc Meric1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Kenneth

    Graphene field-effect transistors based on boron nitride gate dielectrics Inanc Meric1 , Cory Dean1, 10027 Tel: (212) 854-2529, Fax: (212) 932-9421, Email: shepard@ee.columbia.edu Abstract Graphene field of graphene, as the gate dielectric. The devices ex- hibit mobility values exceeding 10,000 cm2 /V

  12. On the validity of dielectric continuum models in application to solvation in molecular solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    On the validity of dielectric continuum models in application to solvation in molecular solvents simulations of solvation of a point dipole in dipolar­quadrupolar solvents of varying dipole moment and axial of a monotonic increase of the absolute value of the solvation chemical potential p with the solvent dielectric

  13. Thermoplastic Green Machining for Textured Dielectric Substrate for Broadband Miniature Antenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sendur, Gullu Kiziltas

    Thermoplastic Green Machining for Textured Dielectric Substrate for Broadband Miniature Antenna dielectric substrate for a broadband miniature an- tenna was fabricated using a thermoplastic green machining­Ba­Nd­Titania; BBNT) and an epoxy. At first, a thermoplastic compound, consisting of BBNT particles and thermoplastic

  14. Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of volcanic ash from 4 to 19 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perger, Warren F.

    Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of volcanic ash from 4 to 19 GHz R. J. Adams,1 W. F. Perger,2 W. I. Rose,3 and A. Kostinski4 Abstract Dielectric data in volcanic ash at weather radar wavelengths (centimeter range) are extremely sparse and are crucial for radar sensing of ash clouds

  15. All-Angle Negative Refraction for Surface Plasmon Waves Using a Metal-Dielectric-Metal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    All-Angle Negative Refraction for Surface Plasmon Waves Using a Metal-Dielectric-Metal Structure, California 94305, USA (Received 16 September 2005; published 24 February 2006) We show that a metal-dielectric-metal structure can function as a negative refraction lens for surface plasmon waves on a metal surface

  16. Estimation of Distributed Parameters in Permittivity Models of Composite Dielectric Materials Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are currently being studied for their use in a wide rangeEstimation of Distributed Parameters in Permittivity Models of Composite Dielectric Materials Using the feasibility of quantifying properties of a composite dielectric ma- terial through the reflectance, where

  17. Leakage current and dielectric breakdown behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    Leakage current and dielectric breakdown behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films Moon-Ho Jo behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films for intermetal dielectric applications was investigated in a metal­insulator­semiconductor structure. SiO2 aerogel films with porosities of 70% exhibited Poole­Frenkel conduction both before

  18. Zirconium-doped tantalum oxide high-k gate dielectric films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tewg, Jun-Yen

    2005-02-17

    ) is unacceptable for many practical reasons. By replacing the SiO2 layer with a high dielectric constant material (high-k), many of the problems can be solved. In this study, a novel high-k dielectric thin film, i.e., TaOx doped with Zr, was deposited and studied...

  19. Mode competition and output power in regular and chaotic dielectric cavity lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, A. Douglas

    Mode competition and output power in regular and chaotic dielectric cavity lasers Hakan E. T many modes and their competition can address the mode selection and output power of these lasers lasing patterns of two- dimensional dielectric microcavity lasers of different shape, including

  20. Metal Ion Implanted Compliant Electrodes in Dielectric Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    whose stiffness is dominated by the metallic film. Advances in Science and Technology Vol. 61 (2008) ppMetal Ion Implanted Compliant Electrodes in Dielectric Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Membranes P.dadras@unine.ch, e herbert.shea@epfl.ch Keywords: dielectric electroactive polymer actuators, EAP, DEAP, ion

  1. Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells M. van Lare,1 of dielectric and metallic backscattering patterns in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We compare devices for Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells", in Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar

  2. Influence of the Combustion Energy Release on Surface Accelerations of an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massey, Jeffery A; Eaton, Scott J; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Large cyclic variability along with increased combustion noise present in low temperature combustion (LTC) modes of internal combustion engines has driven the need for fast response, robust sensors for diagnostics and feedback control. Accelerometers have been shown as a possible technology for diagnostics and feedback control of advanced LTC operation in internal combustion engines. To make better use of this technology, an improved understanding is necessary of the effect of energy release from the combustion process on engine surface vibrations. This study explores the surface acceleration response for a single-cylinder engine operating with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Preliminary investigation of the engine surface accelerations is conducted using a finite element analysis of the engine cylinder jacket along with consideration of cylindrical modes of the engine cylinder. Measured in-cylinder pressure is utilized as a load input to the FE model to provide an initial comparison of the computed and measured surface accelerations. Additionally, the cylindrical cavity resonant modes of the engine geometry are computed and the in-cylinder pressure frequency content is examined to verify this resonant behavior. Experimental correlations between heat release and surface acceleration metrics are then used to identify specific acceleration frequency bands in which characteristics of the combustion heat release process is detected with minimal structural resonant influence. Investigation of a metric capable of indicting combustion phasing is presented. Impact of variations in the combustion energy release process on the surface accelerations is discussed.

  3. Efficient Heterogeneous Execution on Large Multicore and Accelerator Platforms: Case Study Using a Block Tridiagonal Solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Alfred J [ORNL] [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The algorithmic and implementation principles are explored in gainfully exploiting GPU accelerators in conjunction with multicore processors on high-end systems with large numbers of compute nodes, and evaluated in an implementation of a scalable block tridiagonal solver. The accelerator of each compute node is exploited in combination with multicore processors of that node in performing block-level linear algebra operations in the overall, distributed solver algorithm. Optimizations incorporated include: (1) an efficient memory mapping and synchronization interface to minimize data movement, (2) multi-process sharing of the accelerator within a node to obtain balanced load with multicore processors, and (3) an automatic memory management system to efficiently utilize accelerator memory when sub-matrices spill over the limits of device memory. Results are reported from our novel implementation that uses MAGMA and CUBLAS accelerator software systems simultaneously with ACML for multithreaded execution on processors. Overall, using 940 nVidia Tesla X2090 accelerators and 15,040 cores, the best heterogeneous execution delivers a 10.9-fold reduction in run time relative to an already efficient parallel multicore-only baseline implementation that is highly optimized with intra-node and inter-node concurrency and computation-communication overlap. Detailed quantitative results are presented to explain all critical runtime components contributing to hybrid performance.

  4. Parametric study of cantilever walls subjected to seismic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comina, Cesare; Foti, Sebastiano; Lancellotta, Renato; Leuzzi, Francesco; Pettiti, Alberto; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.; Nicosia, Giovanni Li Destri; Psarropoulos, Prodromos N.; Paolucci, Roberto; Zanoli, Omar

    2008-07-08

    The design of flexible earth retaining structures under seismic loading is a challenging geotechnical problem, the dynamic soil-structure interaction being of paramount importance for this kind of structures. Pseudo-static approaches are often adopted but do not allow a realistic assessment of the performance of the structure subjected to the seismic motions. The present paper illustrates a numerical parametric study aimed at estimating the influence of the dynamic soil-structure interaction in the design. A series of flexible earth retaining walls have been preliminary designed according to the requirements of Eurocode 7 and Eurocode 8--Part 5; their dynamic behaviour has been then evaluated by means of dynamic numerical simulations in terms of bending moments, accelerations and stress state. The results obtained from dynamic analyses have then been compared with those determined using the pseudo-static approach.

  5. Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Piot, P; Fermilab; Behrens, C; Gerth, C; Dohlus, M; Lemery, F; Mihalcea, D; Stoltz, P; Vogt, M

    2011-09-07

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak acceleratingmore »electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.« less

  6. Accelerated learning approaches for maintenance training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    As a training tool, Accelerated Learning techniques have been in use since 1956. Trainers from a variety of applications and disciplines have found success in using Accelerated Learning approaches, such as training aids, positive affirmations, memory aids, room arrangement, color patterns, and music. Some have thought that maintenance training and Accelerated Learning have nothing in common. Recent training applications by industry and education of Accelerated Learning are proving very successful by several standards. This paper cites available resource examples and challenges maintenance trainers to adopt new ideas and concepts to accelerate learning in all training setting. 7 refs.

  7. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  8. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schriber, S.O.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Heighway, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; Defense Free-Electron Lasers; AXY Programs; A Next Generation High-Power Neutron-Scattering Facility; JAERI OMEGA Project and Intense Neutron Sources for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Supercollider; The High-Power Microwave (HPM) Program; Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Power Systems Highlights; Industrial Partnering; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Theory and Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  9. Use of a hard mask for formation of gate and dielectric via nanofilament field emission devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device in which a via in a dielectric layer is self-aligned to gate metal via structure located on top of the dielectric layer. By the use of a hard mask layer located on top of the gate metal layer, inert to the etch chemistry for the gate metal layer, and in which a via is formed by the pattern from etched nuclear tracks in a trackable material, a via is formed by the hard mask will eliminate any erosion of the gate metal layer during the dielectric via etch. Also, the hard mask layer will protect the gate metal layer while the gate structure is etched back from the edge of the dielectric via, if such is desired. This method provides more tolerance for the electroplating of a nanofilament in the dielectric via and sharpening of the nanofilament.

  10. Electron dynamics and plasma jet formation in a helium atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algwari, Q. Th. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Electronic Department, College of Electronics Engineering, Mosul University, Mosul 41002 (Iraq); O'Connell, D. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-19

    The excitation dynamics within the main plasma production region and the plasma jets of a kHz atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet operated in helium was investigated. Within the dielectric tube, the plasma ignites as a streamer-type discharge. Plasma jets are emitted from both the powered and grounded electrode end; their dynamics are compared and contrasted. Ignition of these jets are quite different; the jet emitted from the powered electrode is ignited with a slight time delay to plasma ignition inside the dielectric tube, while breakdown of the jet at the grounded electrode end is from charging of the dielectric and is therefore dependent on plasma production and transport within the dielectric tube. Present streamer theories can explain these dynamics.

  11. Water and Ice Dielectric Spectra Scaling at 0 °C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. G. Artemov; A. A. Volkov

    2013-08-06

    Dielectric spectra (10^4-10^11 Hz) of water and ice at 0 {\\deg}C are considered in terms of proton conductivity and compared to each other. In this picture, the Debye relaxations, centered at 1/{\\tau}_W ~ 20 GHz (in water) and 1/{\\tau}_I ~ 5 kHz (in ice), are seen as manifestations of diffusion of separated charges in the form of H3O+ and OH- ions. The charge separation results from the self-dissociation of H2O molecules, and is accompanied by recombination in order to maintain the equilibrium concentration, N. The charge recombination is a diffusion-controlled process with characteristic lifetimes of {\\tau}_W and {\\tau}_I, for water and ice respectively. The static permittivity, {\\epsilon}(0), is solely determined by N. Both, N and {\\epsilon}(0), are roughly constant at the water-ice phase transition, and both increase, due to a slowing down of the diffusion rate, as the temperature is lowered. The transformation of the broadband dielectric spectra at 0 {\\deg}C with the drastic change from {\\tau}_W to {\\tau}_I is mainly due to an abrupt (by 0.4 eV) change of the activation energy of the charge diffusion.

  12. Structural and Dielectric Properties of Quartz-Water Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wander, Matthew C.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2008-11-19

    The structure, orientation, and dielectric of water at the quartz|water interface has been examined under different hydration levels using classical molecular dynamics. The properties of 1H?O/10 Ų, 2H?O/10 Ų, 4H?O/10 Ų, and bulk water on quartz have been benchmarked against experimental data. Structurally, the simulations match existing sum-frequency spectroscopy data, which indicate the existence and orientation of both frozen and loosely bound water on the quartz surface. Good agreement has also been found with existing experimental dielectric data for the 1H?O/10 Ų level of hydration, and a clear difference has been found in the values of ?s = 48, ?| = 48, and ?? = 40 for the first slice of a bulk-water-solid interface and ?s= 30, ?| = 30, and ?? = 10 for that of 1H?O/10 Ų water coverage. Overall there is a fundamental difference in shielding between a single interface and the 1H?O/10 Å2 level of hydration.

  13. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 30, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2007 569 Processing and Dielectric Properties of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    decade. Currently, popular ceramic-polymer com- posites can only provide limited capacitance, typically of the dielectrics. Though the nanostructured carbon black epoxy composites showed high dielectric constant of 1000 times that of the base polymer matrix. The measured dielectric constant at gigahertz frequencies

  15. FFAG ACCELERATOR PROTON DRIVER FOR NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUGGIERO, A.

    2005-06-21

    This paper is the summary of a conceptual study of a Proton Driver for Neutrino Factory based on the use of a Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) Accelerator. The required proton energy range for an optimum neutrino production is 5 to 12 GeV. This can be accomplished with a group of three concentric rings each with 807 m circumference [1]. FFAG Accelerators [2] have the capability to accelerate charged particles over a large momentum range ({+-}30-50%) and the feature of constant bending and focusing fields. Particles can be accelerated very fast at the rate given by the accelerating field of RF cavities placed in proper locations between magnets. The performance of FFAG accelerators is to be placed between that of Super-Conducting Linear Accelerators (SCL), with which they share the fast acceleration rate, and Rapid-Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS), as they allow the beam to re-circulate over fewer revolutions. Brookhaven National Laboratory is involved in the study of feasibility of FFAG Accelerators to accelerate intense beams of protons in the GeV energy range for a variety of applications the most important of which is the Upgrade of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) with a new FFAG injector [3] accelerating from 400 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The ring would be housed in the AGS tunnel and has henceforth a circumference of 807 m.

  16. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Pushpalatha

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed...

  17. Fermilab | Illinois Accelerator Research Center | Accelerators and Society

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGasEnergy Technologies |FeatureFellowsAccelerators and

  18. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current,more »90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less

  19. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Cary, J.; /Tech-X, Boulder; McInnes, L.C.; /Argonne; Mori, W.; /UCLA; Ng, C.; /SLAC; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-14

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors. ComPASS is in the first year of executing its plan to develop the next-generation HPC accelerator modeling tools. ComPASS aims to develop an integrated simulation environment that will utilize existing and new accelerator physics modules with petascale capabilities, by employing modern computing and solver technologies. The ComPASS vision is to deliver to accelerator scientists a virtual accelerator and virtual prototyping modeling environment, with the necessary multiphysics, multiscale capabilities. The plan for this development includes delivering accelerator modeling applications appropriate for each stage of the ComPASS software evolution. Such applications are already being used to address challenging problems in accelerator design and optimization. The ComPASS organization for software development and applications accounts for the natural domain areas (beam dynamics, electromagnetics, and advanced acceleration), and all areas depend on the enabling technologies activities, such as solvers and component technology, to deliver the desired performance and integrated simulation environment. The ComPASS applications focus on computationally challenging problems important for design or performance optimization to all major HEP, NP, and BES accelerator facilities. With the cost and complexity of particle accelerators rising, the use of computation to optimize their designs and find improved operating regimes becomes essential, potentially leading to significant cost savings with modest investment.

  20. High Performance Computing in Accelerator Science: Past Successes. Future Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryne, R.

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Computing in Accelerator Science: PastAC02- 05CH11231. High Performance Computing in Accelerator

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of Load Management for Electricity End Users 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The planning, design and implementation of load management is complex and expensive. The results of a load management program are subject to numerous uncertainties related to load characteristics, power cost savings, load management costs...

  2. Characteristic impedance and capacitance analysis of Blumlein type pulse forming line of accelerator based on tape helix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yu; Liu Jinliang; Fan Xuliang; Zhang Hongbo; Wang Shiwen; Feng Jiahuai [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073 (China)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, the electromagnetic dispersion theory and the classic telegraph equations were combined to calculate the important parameters of the helical Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL) of accelerator based on tape helix. In the work band of the BPFL at several hundred ns range, electromagnetic dispersion characteristics were almost determined by the zeroth harmonic. In order to testify the dispersion theory of BPFL in this paper, filling dielectrics, such as de-ionized water, transformer oil, and air were employed in the helical BPFL, respectively. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, characteristic impedance, and pulse duration of the BPFL were calculated. Effects of dispersion on these parameters were analyzed. Circuit simulation and electromagnetic simulation were carried out to prove these parameters of BPFL filled with these three kinds of dielectrics, respectively. The accelerator system was set up, and experimental results also corresponded to the theoretical calculations. The average theoretical errors of impedances and pulse durations were 3.5% and 3.4%, respectively, which proved the electromagnetic dispersion analyses in this paper.

  3. BARYON LOADING OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS MEDIATED BY NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toma, K.; Takahara, F.

    2012-08-01

    Plasmas of geometrically thick, black hole (BH) accretion flows in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are generally collisionless for protons, and involve magnetic field turbulence. Under such conditions a fraction of protons can be accelerated stochastically and create relativistic neutrons via nuclear collisions. These neutrons can freely escape from the accretion flow and decay into protons in the dilute polar region above the rotating BH to form relativistic jets. We calculate geometric efficiencies of the neutron energy and mass injections into the polar region, and show that this process can deposit luminosity as high as L{sub j}{approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M-dot c{sup 2} and mass loading M-dot{sub j}{approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M-dot for the case of the BH mass M {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate. The terminal Lorentz factors of the jets are {Gamma} {approx} 3, and they may explain the AGN jets having low luminosities. For higher luminosity jets, which can be produced by additional energy inputs such as Poynting flux, the neutron decay still can be a dominant mass loading process, leading to, e.g., {Gamma} {approx} 50 for L{sub j,tot}{approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M-dot c{sup 2}.

  4. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  5. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  6. FermilabAcceleratorCapabilities.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) | SciTechSubmitted MoreTraffic SafetyIllinois Accelerator

  7. The Stanford Mark III linear accelerator and speculations concerning the multi-Bev applications of electron linear accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neal, R B

    1956-01-01

    The Stanford Mark III linear accelerator and speculations concerning the multi-Bev applications of electron linear accelerators

  8. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Publications Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Load Participation...

  9. NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG OCTOBER 1999 #12;DISCLAIMER Government or any agency thereof. #12;GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG by General Atomics IR&D Funds GA PROJECT 4437 OCTOBER 1999 #12;C.P.C. WONG NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK

  10. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  11. Decomposition of the total momentum in a linear dielectric into field and matter components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crenshaw, Michael E., E-mail: michael.crenshaw@us.army.mil

    2013-11-15

    The long-standing resolution of the Abraham–Minkowski electromagnetic momentum controversy is predicated on a decomposition of the total momentum of a closed continuum electrodynamic system into separate field and matter components. Using a microscopic model of a simple linear dielectric, we derive Lagrangian equations of motion for the electric dipoles and show that the dielectric can be treated as a collection of stationary simple harmonic oscillators that are driven by the electric field and produce a polarization field in response. The macroscopic energy and momentum are defined in terms of the electric, magnetic, and polarization fields that travel through the dielectric together as a pulse of electromagnetic radiation. We conclude that both the macroscopic total energy and the macroscopic total momentum are entirely electromagnetic in nature for a simple linear dielectric in the absence of significant reflections. -- Highlights: •The total momentum in a dielectric is identified by conservation principles. •The total momentum in a dielectric cannot be decomposed into field and matter parts. •A component of momentum in a dielectric is due to motion of the polarization field.

  12. Improved gas sensing and dielectric properties of Fe doped hydroxyapatite thick films: Effect of molar concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mene, Ravindra U. [PDEA's, Annasaheb Waghire College of Science, Arts and Commerce, Otur 412409, M.S. (India); School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, M.S. (India); Mahabole, Megha P. [School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, M.S. (India); Mohite, K.C. [Haribhai. V. Desai College, Pune 411002, M.S. (India); Khairnar, Rajendra S., E-mail: rskhairnarsps@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, M.S. (India)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We report improved gas sensing and dielectric characteristics of Fe ion exchanged HAp films. • Fe doped HAp film shows maximum gas response at relatively lower temperature. • Response and gas uptake capacity of sensors is improved for appropriate amount of Fe ions in HAp matrix. • Fe-HAp films exhibit remarkable improvement in dielectric properties compared to pure HAp. • Fe doped HAp films show significant improvement in gas sensing as well as in dielectric properties. - Abstract: In the present work Fe doped hydroxyapatite (Fe-HAp) thick films has been successfully utilized to improve the gas sensing as well as its dielectric properties. Initially, HAp nano powder is synthesized by chemical precipitation process and later on Fe ions are doped in HAp by ion exchange process. Structural and morphological modifications are observed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The sensing parameters such as operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity are experimentally determined. The Fe-HAp (0.05 M) film shows improved CO and CO{sub 2} gas sensing capacity at lower operating temperature compared to pure HAp. Moreover, variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss for pure and Fe-HAp thick films are studied as a function of frequency in the range of 10 Hz–1 MHz. The study reveals that Fe doped HAp thick films improve the sensing and dielectric characteristics as compared to pure HAp.

  13. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John; /Tech-X, Boulder; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; /Argonne; Mori, Warren; /UCLA; Ng, Cho; /SLAC; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2008-07-01

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators is essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modeling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multi-physics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  14. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science And Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators And Accelerator Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John; /Tech-X, Boulder; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; /Argonne; Mori, Warren; /UCLA; Ng, Cho; /SLAC; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-10-21

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  15. Testing general relativity on accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tigran Kalaydzhyan

    2015-09-09

    Within the general theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime is related to the energy and momentum of the present matter and radiation. One of the more specific predictions of general relativity is the deflection of light and particle trajectories in the gravitational field of massive objects. Bending angles for electromagnetic waves and light in particular were measured with a high precision. However, the effect of gravity on relativistic massive particles was never studied experimentally. Here we propose and analyze experiments devoted to that purpose. We demonstrate a high sensitivity of the laser Compton scattering at high energy accelerators to the effects of gravity. The main observable -- maximal energy of the scattered photons -- would experience a significant shift in the ambient gravitational field even for otherwise negligible violation of the equivalence principle. We confirm predictions of general relativity for ultrarelativistic electrons of energy of tens of GeV at a current level of resolution and expect our work to be a starting point of further high-precision studies on current and future accelerators, such as PETRA, European XFEL and ILC.

  16. Technologies for Advanced Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Kamin, G.; Hanks, R.; Sharp, W.; Duncan, G.; Sangster, C.; Ahle, L.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Autrey, D.; Halaxa, E; Williams, C.

    2000-04-20

    To harness fusion energy is one of today's greatest technological challenges, and one well worth pursuing. Success in the development of fusion power would result in a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. The fusion reaction, the process that powers the sun and the stars, can be duplicated on Earth. However, to date these fusion processes have been the products of large-scale experimental efforts. They have yet to achieve fusion in a manner that is cost effective and efficient enough to be applied in a commercial reactor. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been centrally involved in the Nation's inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program for over 25 years. Much of the focus of the LLNL ICF Program has been the well-known effort to develop high power, short wavelength laser drivers to create the conditions necessary for the fusion process. But the ICF Program has also been investigating, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the potential of heavy-ion accelerators as possible drivers. The objectives of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project described in this report have been to develop some of the enabling technologies necessary for this type of heavy-ion fusion (HIF) driver. In particular, to apply adaptive control to the problem of tailored acceleration and steering of a pulsed ion beam.

  17. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2007-01-27

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  18. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, A E

    2006-01-01

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  19. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  20. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in Switzerland (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Decentralized customerlevel under frequency...

  1. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan; O'Malley, Mark; Ma, Ookie; Cappers, Peter; Corbus, Dave; Kiliccote, Sila; Onar, Omer; Starke, Michael; Steinberg, Dan

    2011-10-25

    Developing load participation in ancillary services to the electric grid. Challenges: coordination among multiple entities, targeted R&D for market conditions and regulatory and policy environments.

  2. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  3. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in

  4. Scattering of infrared light by dielectric core-shell particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiessen, E; Heinisch, R L; Fehske, H

    2015-01-01

    We study the scattering of infrared light by small dielectric core-shell particles taking a sapphire sphere with a CaO core as an example. The extinction efficiency of such a particle shows two intense series of resonances attached, respectively, to in-phase and out-of-phase multipolar polarization-induced surface charges build-up, respectively, at the core-shell and the shell-vacuum interface. Both series, the character of the former may be labelled bonding and the character of the latter antibonding, give rise to anomalous scattering. For a given particle radius and filling factor the Poynting vector field shows therefore around two wave numbers the complex topology of this type of light scattering. Inside the particle the topology depends on the character of the resonance. The dissipation of energy inside the particle also reflects the core-shell structure. It depends on the resonance and shows strong spatial variations.

  5. Generalized Brewster-Kerker effect in dielectric metasurfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paniagua-Dominguez, Ramon; Miroschnichenko, Andrey E; Krivitsky, Leonid A; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Valuckas, Vytautas; Gonzaga, Leonard; Toh, Yeow Teck; Kay, Anthony Yew Seng; Luk'yanchuk, Boris; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I

    2015-01-01

    Polarization is one of the key properties defining the state of light. It was discovered in the early 19th century by Brewster, among others, while studying light reflected from materials at different angles. These studies led to the first polarizers, based on Brewster's effect. One of the most active trends in photonics now is devoted to the study of miniaturized, sub-wavelength devices exhibiting similar, or even improved, functionalities compared to those achieved with bulk optical elements. In the present work, it is theoretically predicted that a properly designed all-dielectric metasurface exhibits a generalized Brewster effect potentially for any angle, wavelength and polarization of choice. The effect is experimentally demonstrated for an array of silicon nanodisks at visible wavelengths. The underlying physics of this effect can be understood in terms of the suppressed scattering at certain angles that results from the interference between the electric and magnetic dipole resonances excited in the na...

  6. Radiofrequency sheath fields above a metal-dielectric interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnat, E.V.; Hebner, G.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1423 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Two-dimensional maps of the sheath electric fields formed around a metal-dielectric interface were measured in a radio frequency (rf) argon plasma using laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy. Experimentally determined Stark shifts of the argon Rydberg 13d[3/2]{sub 1} state were used to quantify the electric fields in the sheath as functions of the rf cycle, voltage, and pressure. Both the structure of the sheath fields and the discharge characteristics in the region above the electrode depend on the discharge conditions and the configuration of the surface. Dissimilar materials placed adjacent to each other result in electric fields with a component parallel to the electrode surface.

  7. Parallel vacuum arc discharge with microhollow array dielectric and anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jinghua; Zhou, Lin; Fu, Yuecheng; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Rongkun; Chen, Faxin; Li, Linbo; Meng, Shijian

    2014-07-15

    An electrode configuration with microhollow array dielectric and anode was developed to obtain parallel vacuum arc discharge. Compared with the conventional electrodes, more than 10 parallel microhollow discharges were ignited for the new configuration, which increased the discharge area significantly and made the cathode eroded more uniformly. The vacuum discharge channel number could be increased effectively by decreasing the distances between holes or increasing the arc current. Experimental results revealed that plasmas ejected from the adjacent hollow and the relatively high arc voltage were two key factors leading to the parallel discharge. The characteristics of plasmas in the microhollow were investigated as well. The spectral line intensity and electron density of plasmas in microhollow increased obviously with the decease of the microhollow diameter.

  8. Investigation on collisions of filament pairs in dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Lifang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ben; Zhang, Xinpu; He, Yafeng; Li, Xuechen; Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information Materials, Baoding 071002

    2013-12-15

    Collisions of filament pairs in a hexagonal superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge are investigated on different timescales. In the evolution of the pattern, the space scale of each hexagon cell decreases with the increasing voltage. The duration of one collision is seven half voltage cycles at least. Two stable orientations of a pair are approximately perpendicular to each other and the orientational changes occurring during the entire colliding process should be a multiple of 30°. The time interval between two consecutive collisions decreases with the increasing voltage. The distance between the paired spots decreases nonmonotonically. Based on the discharge order of the pattern, it is inferred that the collision should be the interaction between a discharging filament and the surface charges deposited by another discharged filament, and the nonmonotonic decrease of distance D is explained.

  9. Continuous Self Energy of Ions at the Dielectric Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rui Wang; Zhen-Gang Wang

    2014-03-01

    We present a simple, unified theory for the self-energy of an ion near a dielectric interface. Our theory accounts for both the short-range (solvation) and long-range (image force) electrostatic forces, charge polarization induced by these forces, and the cavity energy. In contrast to previous models, our self energy is continuous across the interface and thus applicable to both the water and air (oil) sides of the interface. With no fitting parameters, we predict the specific ion effect on the interfacial affinity of halogen anions at the water/air interface, and the strong adsorption of hydrophobic ions at the water/oil interface, in agreement with experiments and atomistic simulations.

  10. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet [Terahertz Systems Laboratory (TeSLa) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  11. Relativistic Shocks: Particle Acceleration and Magnetization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sironi, Lorenzo; Lemoine, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We review the physics of relativistic shocks, which are often invoked as the sources of non-thermal particles in pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets, and as possible sources of ultra-high energy cosmic-rays. We focus on particle acceleration and magnetic field generation, and describe the recent progress in the field driven by theory advances and by the rapid development of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In weakly magnetized or quasi parallel-shocks (where the magnetic field is nearly aligned with the flow), particle acceleration is efficient. The accelerated particles stream ahead of the shock, where they generate strong magnetic waves which in turn scatter the particles back and forth across the shock, mediating their acceleration. In contrast, in strongly magnetized quasi-perpendicular shocks, the efficiencies of both particle acceleration and magnetic field generation are suppressed. Particle acceleration, when efficient, modifies the turbulence ...

  12. Optically induced magnetization in homogeneous, undoped dielectric media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    frequencies is one half the electric dipole (ED) moment. As a consequence, magnetic dipole radiation generated dipole (ED). This is because only the electric field can generate linear charge acceleration and, and H2O at the fundamental input frequency. Excellent agreement is obtained with a classical magnetic

  13. Solar system constraints on Rindler acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sante Carloni; Daniel Grumiller; Florian Preis

    2011-05-09

    We discuss the classical tests of general relativity in the presence of Rindler acceleration. Among these tests the perihelion shifts give the tightest constraints and indicate that the Pioneer anomaly cannot be caused by a universal solar system Rindler acceleration. We address potential caveats for massive test-objects. Our tightest bound on Rindler acceleration that comes with no caveats is derived from radar echo delay and yields |a|<3nm/s^2.

  14. Three-dimensional Accelerating Electromagnetic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel A. Bandres; Miguel A. Alonso; Ido Kaminer; Mordechai Segev

    2013-03-25

    We present a general theory of three-dimensional nonparaxial spatially-accelerating waves of the Maxwell equations. These waves constitute a two-dimensional structure exhibiting shape-invariant propagation along semicircular trajectories. We provide classification and characterization of possible shapes of such beams, expressed through the angular spectra of parabolic, oblate and prolate spheroidal fields. Our results facilitate the design of accelerating beams with novel structures, broadening scope and potential applications of accelerating beams.

  15. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schriber, S.O.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Heighway, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: A Next-Generation Spallation-Neutron Source; Accelerator Performance Demonstration Facility; APEX Free-Electron Laser Project; The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) Program; Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Linac Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operation.

  16. Theory of suppressing avalanche process of carrier in short pulse laser irradiated dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Hongxiang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, WG; Yuan, XD; Xiang, Xia; Sun, Kai; Gao, Fei

    2014-05-28

    A theory for controlling avalanche process of carrier during short pulse laser irradiation is proposed. We show that avalanche process of conduction band electrons (CBEs) is determined by the occupation number of phonons in dielectrics. The theory provides a way to suppress avalanche process and a direct judgment for the contribution of avalanche process and photon ionization process to the generation of CBEs. The obtained temperature dependent rate equation shows that the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics, e.g., fused silica, increase nonlinearly with the decreases of temperature. Present theory predicts a new approach to improve the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics.

  17. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Steven J.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  18. Improved Accelerated Stress Tests Based on Fuel Cell Vehicle Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Timothy; Motupally, Sathya

    2012-06-01

    UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.

  19. Jefferson Lab accelerator upgrade completed: Initial operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    visiting scientists may continue commissioning the accelerator and dependent upon funding availability, some limited early physics running may be feasible as the capabilities of...

  20. The Illinois Accelerator Research Center, or IARC,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will work side-by-side with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in accelerator technology and new applications in energy and environment, medicine, industry, national...