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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

X-Ray Diamond Anvil Cell Facility at NSLS: 2010 Progress Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Diamond Anvil Cell Facility at NSLS: 2010 Progress Report Zhiqiang ChenZhiqiang Chen Stony) Powder X-ray Diffraction, Total Scattering Pair-Distributiony , g Function (PDF) under high P and high, yield strength, amorphization, texturing, compressibility Hydrothermal DAC (Bassett) Angle Dispersive X-ray

Duffy, Thomas S.

2

A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sidorowicz Named "Supervisor of the Year" Sidorowicz Named "Supervisor of the Year" SESS 2007: The School for Environmental Sciences with Synchrotrons Art and Science A Breakthrough in Interface Science APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS MARCH 11, 2008 Bookmark and Share The diamond anvil cell (DAC) is the most commonly used device for obtaining static high pressures above 3 GPa. Experiments in the DAC are frequently performed at the APS, in particular at GSECARS (Sector 13), HP-CAT (Sector 16), and at XOR sectors 1 and 3. In order to have the sample in the DAC be subject to a quasi-hydrostatic pressure it is necessary to surround the

3

Electrical resistance measurements in a diamond anvil cell to 40 GPa on ytterbium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An easily assembled setup employing diamond anvil cell stainless steel gasket and leads and mylar embedded Al 2 O 3 (alumina) pressure medium for the measurement of electrical resistance of materials under pressure is described. The use of a mylar sheet prevents the alumina layer from sticking to the anvil in the precompacting stage of Al 2 O 3 and also reduces the pressure gradients in the final assembly. The technique is used to reproduce the known transition in Si Ge and Fe. The results of measurements of electrical resistance of ytterbium up to 40 GPa are reported. In the hcp phase of ytterbium the electrical resistance increases with pressure. Efforts are made to explain the variation of resistance with pressure from known band structure calculations.

Alka B. Garg; V. Vijayakumar; B. K. Godwal

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Reevaluation of Type I Diamonds for Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy in High-Pressure Diamond Anvil Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Types Ia, IIa, and IIb diamonds have been compared for their use as anvils in infrared and Raman high-pressure spectroscopy. In the mid-infrared region above 2700 cm?1,...

Wong, P T T; Klug, D D

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

A compact bellows-driven diamond anvil cell for high-pressure, low-temperature magnetic measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design of an efficient bellows-controlled diamond anvil cell that is optimized for use inside the bores of high-field superconducting magnets in helium-3 cryostats, dilution refrigerators, and commercial physical property measurement systems. Design of this non-magnetic pressure cell focuses on in situ pressure tuning and measurement by means of a helium-filled bellows actuator and fiber-coupled ruby fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. We demonstrate the utility of this pressure cell with ac susceptibility measurements of superconducting, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic phase transitions to pressures exceeding 8 GPa. This cell provides an opportunity to probe charge and magnetic order continuously and with high resolution in the three-dimensional Magnetic Field–Pressure–Temperature parameter space.

Feng, Yejun [The Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [The Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Silevitch, D. M.; Rosenbaum, T. F. [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Time-Resolved Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction on Pulse Laser Heated Iron in Diamond Anvil Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present time-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction to probe the {var_epsilon}-{delta} phase transition of iron during pulse-laser heating in a diamond anvil cell. The system utilizes a monochromatic synchrotron x-ray beam, a two-dimensional pixel array x-ray detector and a dual beam, double side laser-heating system. Multiple frames of the diffraction images are obtained in real-time every 22 ms over 500 ms of the entire pulse heating period. The results show the structural evolution of iron phases at 17 GPa, resulting in thermal expansion coefficient 1/V({Delta}V/{Delta}T){sub p} = 7.1 * 10{sup -6}/K for {var_epsilon}-Fe and 2.4 * 10{sup -5}/K for {gamma}-Fe, as well as the evidence for metastability of {gamma}-Fe at low temperatures below the {var_epsilon}-{gamma} phase boundary.

Yoo, C S; Wei, H; Dias, R; Shen, G; Smith, J; Chen, J Y; Evans, W

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

7

Development of Designer Diamond Anvils for High Pressure-High-Temperature Experiments in Support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) is to develop the next generation of designer diamond anvils that can perform simultaneous joule heating and temperature profile measurements in a diamond anvil cell. A series of tungsten-rhenium thermocouples will be fabricated onto to the anvil and encapsulated by a chemical vapor deposited diamond layer to allow for a complete temperature profile measurement across the anvil. The tip of the diamond anvil will be engineered to reduce the thermal conductivity so that the tungsten-heating coils can be deposited on top of this layer. Several different approaches will be investigated to engineer the tip of the diamond anvil for reduction in thermal conductivity (a) isotopic mixture of 12C and 13C in the diamond layer, (b) doping of diamond with impurities (nitrogen and/or boron), and (c) growing diamond in a higher concentration of methane in hydrogen plasma. Under this academic alliance with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), PI and his graduate students will use the lithographic and diamond polishing facility at LLNL. This proposed next generation of designer diamond anvils will allow multi-tasking capability with the ability to measure electrical, magnetic, structural and thermal data on actinide materials with unparallel sensitivity in support of the stockpile stewardship program.

Yogesh K. Vohra

2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

8

Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

9

Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Superconducting, and other Phase Transitions in Novel f-Electron Materials at Ultra-high Pressures Using Designer Diamond Anvils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure is a powerful control parameter, owing to its ability to affect crystal and electronic structure without introducing defects, for the investigation of condensed matter systems. Some f-electron, heavy-fermion materials display interesting and novel behavior when exposed to pressures achievable with conventional experimental techniques; however, a growing number of condensed matter systems require extreme conditions such as ultrahigh pressures, high magnetic fields, and ultralow temperatures to sufficiently explore the important properties. To that end, we have been funded to develop an ultrahigh pressure facility at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) in order to investigate superconductivity, magnetism, non-Fermi liquid behavior, and other phenomena under extreme conditions. Our goals for the second year of this grant were as follows: (a) perform electrical resistivity measurements on novel samples at a myriad of pressures using conventional piston-cylinder techniques, Bridgman anvil techniques, and diamond anvil cell technology; (b) install, commission, and operate an Oxford Kelvinox MX-100 dilution refrigerator for access to ultralow temperatures and high magnetic fields. (c) continue the development of diamond anvil cell (DAC) technology. During the past year, we have successfully installed the Oxford Kelvinox MX-100 dilution refrigerator and verified its operability down to 12 mK. We have begun an experimental program to systematically investigate the f-electron compound URu2Si2 under pressure and in the presence of magnetic fields. We have also continued our collaborative work with Sam Weir at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on Au4V and implemented a new corollary study on Au1-xVx using ultrahigh pressures. We have continued developing our DAC facility by designing and constructing an apparatus for in situ pressure measurement as well as designing high pressure cells. This report serves to highlight the progress we have made towards developing an ultrahigh pressure research facility at UCSD, the research performed in the past year, as well as future directions we plan to pursue.

Maple, M. Brian

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

10

High efficiency diamond solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic device and method of making same. A layer of p-doped microcrystalline diamond is deposited on a layer of n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond such as by providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a first atmosphere containing about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 99% by volume H.sub.2 with dopant quantities of a boron compound, subjecting the atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer on the substrate, providing a second atmosphere of about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 89% by volume Ar and about 10% by volume N.sub.2, subjecting the second atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond layer on the p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer. Electrodes and leads are added to conduct electrical energy when the layers are irradiated.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

11

In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Texture development in halite - comparison of taylor modeland texture development in halite polycrystals: comparisonbeen documented in isostructural halite, where a strong cube

Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

A versatile medium-resolution x-ray emission spectrometer for diamond anvil cell applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present design and performance details for a polycapillary-coupled x-ray spectrometer that provides very high collection efficiency at a moderate energy resolution suitable for many studies of nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, especially for samples of heavy elements under high pressures. Using a single Bragg analyzer operating close to backscattering geometry so as to minimize the effect of the weak divergence of the quasicollimated exit beam from the polycapillary optic, this instrument can maintain a typical energy resolution of 5 eV over photon energies from 5 keV to 10 keV. We find dramatically improved count rates as compared to a traditional higher-resolution instrument based on a single spherically bent crystal analyzer.

Mortensen, D. R.; Seidler, G. T. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Bradley, J. A.; Lipp, M. J.; Evans, W. J. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Chow, P.; Xiao, Y.-M.; Boman, G. [HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bowden, M. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

sures between 0 and 10 GPa were applied with a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and were measured with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Faraday Soc. 1935 (1935). 18. X. Y. Li, R. Jeanloz, Phys. Rev. B 36, 474 (1987). 19. F. P. Bundy, Proc. K, Berke- ley (1997). 30. L. D. Landau, E. Lifshitz, Statistical physics, J. B. Sykes, M. J. Kearsley, Eds

Goddard III, William A.

14

Hydrogen Storage in Diamond Powder Utilizing Plasma NaF Surface Treatment for Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen Fuel Cells offer the vital solution to the world's socio-political dependence on oil. Due to existing difficulty in safe and efficient hydrogen storage for fuel cells, storing the hydrogen in hydrocarbon compounds such as artificial diamond is a realistic solution. By treating the surface of the diamond powder with a Sodium Fluoride plasma exposure, the surface of the diamond is cleaned of unwanted molecules. Due to fluorine's electro negativity, the diamond powder is activated and ready for hydrogen absorption. These diamond powder pellets are then placed on a graphite platform that is heated by conduction in a high voltage circuit made of tungsten wire. Then, the injection of hydrogen gas into chamber allows the storage of the Hydrogen on the surface of the diamond powder. By neutron bombardment in the nuclear reactor, or Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis, the samples are examined for parts per million amounts of hydrogen in the sample. Sodium Fluoride surface treatment allows for higher mass percentage of stored hydrogen in a reliable, resistant structure, such as diamond for fuel cells and permanently alters the diamonds terminal bonds for re-use in the effective storage of hydrogen. The highest stored amount utilizing the NaF plasma surface treatment was 22229 parts per million of hydrogen in the diamond powder which amounts to 2.2229% mass increase.

Leal, David A.; Leal-Quiros, E. [Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico); Velez, Angel; Prelas, Mark A.; Gosh, Tushar [University of Missouri-Columbia, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute (United States)

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

15

Hydrogen Storage in Diamond Powder Utilizing Plasma NaF Surface Treatment for Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Fuel Cells offer the vital solution to the world’s socio?political dependence on oil. Due to existing difficulty in safe and efficient hydrogen storage for fuel cells storing the hydrogen in hydrocarbon compounds such as artificial diamond is a realistic solution. By treating the surface of the diamond powder with a Sodium Fluoride plasma exposure the surface of the diamond is cleaned of unwanted molecules. Due to fluorine’s electro negativity the diamond powder is activated and ready for hydrogen absorption. These diamond powder pellets are then placed on a graphite platform that is heated by conduction in a high voltage circuit made of tungsten wire. Then the injection of hydrogen gas into chamber allows the storage of the Hydrogen on the surface of the diamond powder. By neutron bombardment in the nuclear reactor or Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis the samples are examined for parts per million amounts of hydrogen in the sample. Sodium Fluoride surface treatment allows for higher mass percentage of stored hydrogen in a reliable resistant structure such as diamond for fuel cells and permanently alters the diamonds terminal bonds for re?use in the effective storage of hydrogen. The highest stored amount utilizing the NaF plasma surface treatment was 22229 parts per million of hydrogen in the diamond powder which amounts to 2.2229% mass increase.

David A. Leal; Angel Velez; Mark A. Prelas; Tushar Gosh; E. Leal?Quiros

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

Ming, L. C. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Zinin, P. V. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Sharma, S. K. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

17

Focused ion beam preparation and characterization of single-crystal samples for high-pressure experiments in the diamond-anvil cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...foils to be used in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (Overwijk et al. 1993; Phaneuf 1999; Lee et al. 2003; Wirth 2004...applications. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. Overwijk, M.H.F. , van den Heuvel, F.C., and Bulle-Lieuwma...

Hauke Marquardt; Katharina Marquardt

18

Experiment Hazard Class 5.1 - High Pressures - Diamond Anvil...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- None Personal Protective Equipment - Safety glasses with side shields that meet ANSI Z87 requirements. Experiment Authorization Unless otherwise noted in the approved...

19

diamond pipeline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

the various steps through, which a diamond passes from production to marketing not including the end consumer. Also called diamond chain , pipeline ...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Leading and Trailing Anvil Clouds of West African Squall Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anvil clouds of tropical squall-line systems over West Africa have been examined using cloud radar data and divided into those that appear ahead of the leading convective line and those on the trailing side of the system. The leading anvils ...

Jasmine Cetrone; Robert A. Houze Jr.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

Vohra, Yogesh, K.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: The evolution of anvil  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The evolution of anvil microphysics observed during CRYSTAL-FACE The evolution of anvil microphysics observed during CRYSTAL-FACE Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mather, James Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Deep convective cloud systems produce extensive cirrus anvils that play an important role in humidifying the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and strongly affect the radiative balance in the atmosphere, particularly in the tropics. Current general circulation models (GCMs) have difficulty predicting observed cloudiness in the tropics, which is attributed to the representation of cloud formation and feedback to the water and radiative budgets in the atmosphere. Understanding the evolution and dissipation of convective anvils and their relationship to the convective source will

23

Fabrication of highly transparent diamond-like carbon anti-reflecting coating for Si solar cell application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ARC grade highly transparent unhydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were produced, directly from a-C target, using RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique, for optoelectronic applications. Optical band gap, transmittance, reflectance, sp{sup 3} fraction, I{sub D}/I{sub G}, density, and refractive index of the films have been estimated with the help of optical tools like Uv-vis spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and micro-Raman. Optimum ARC-qualities have been identified in low-temperature grown DLC films at an Ar pressure of 4 mTorr in the reactor, accomplishing its key requirements for use in silicon solar cells.

Banerjee, Amit, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

24

Storing Hydrogen, by Enhancing Diamond Powder Properties under Hydrogen Plasma with CaF2 and KF for Use in Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A fuel cell is like a battery that instead of using electricity to recharge itself it uses hydrogen. In the fuel cell industry one of the main problems is storing hydrogen in a safe way and extracting it economically. Gaseous hydrogen requires high pressures which could be very dangerous in case of a collision. The success of hydrogen use depends largely on the development of an efficient storage and release method. In an effort to develop a better hydrogen storage system for fuel cells technology this research investigates the use of 99% pure diamond powder for storing hydrogen. Mixing this powder with a calcium fluoride and potassium fluoride compound in its solid form and treating the surface of the powder with hydrogen plasma modifies the surface of the diamond. After some filtration through distilled water and drying the modified diamond is treated with hydrogen. We expect hydrogen to be attracted to the diamond powder surface in higher quantities due to the CaF2 and KF treatment. Due to the large surface area of diamond nanopowder and the electronegative terminal bonds of the fluorine particles on the structure’s surface to the method shows promise in storing high densities of hydrogen.

Franklyn E. Colmenares Ochoa

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Diamond Nanophotonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The burgeoning field of nanophotonics has grown to be a major research area, primarily because of the ability to control and manipulate single quantum systems (emitters) and single photons on demand. For many years studying nanophotonic phenomena was limited to traditional semiconductors (including silicon and GaAs) and experiments were carried out predominantly at cryogenic temperatures. In the last decade, however, diamond has emerged as a new contender to study photonic phenomena at the nanoscale. Offering plethora of quantum emitters that are optically active at room temperature and ambient conditions, diamond has been exploited to demonstrate super-resolution microscopy and realize entanglement, Purcell enhancement and other quantum and classical nanophotonic effects. Elucidating the importance of diamond as a material, this review will highlight the recent achievements in the field of diamond nanophotonics, and convey a roadmap for future experiments and technological advancements.

Igor Aharonovich; Elke Neu

2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

26

Diamond Nanophotonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The burgeoning field of nanophotonics has grown to be a major research area, primarily because of the ability to control and manipulate single quantum systems (emitters) and single photons on demand. For many years studying nanophotonic phenomena was limited to traditional semiconductors (including silicon and GaAs) and experiments were carried out predominantly at cryogenic temperatures. In the last decade, however, diamond has emerged as a new contender to study photonic phenomena at the nanoscale. Offering plethora of quantum emitters that are optically active at room temperature and ambient conditions, diamond has been exploited to demonstrate super-resolution microscopy and realize entanglement, Purcell enhancement and other quantum and classical nanophotonic effects. Elucidating the importance of diamond as a material, this review will highlight the recent achievements in the field of diamond nanophotonics, and convey a roadmap for future experiments and technological advancements.

Aharonovich, Igor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Oppenheimer Diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...an uncut, light yellow, octahedral diamond crystal of 253.70 cts, found in 1964 in Dutoitspan Mine, South Africa. It was owned by Harry Winston and presented to Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, in...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Sandia National Laboratories: Diamond Plates Create Nanostructures...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Not Chemistry More Efficient Fuel Cells under Development by Engineers More California Gas Stations Can Provide Hydrogen than Previously Thought, Sandia Study Says Diamond...

29

Diamond fiber field emitters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B. (Wilmington, DE); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Eaton, David F. (Wilmington, DE); Silzars, Aris K. (Landenburg, PA); Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - african mcs anvils Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Leading and Trailing Anvil Clouds of West African Squall Lines JASMINE CETRONE AND ROBERT A. HOUZE JR. Summary: data in West African MCS anvils that...

31

A diamond-window XAFS cell for studies of high-temperature, high-pressure aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method to collect x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of ions in a supercritical water solvent. Supercritical water (SCW), at temperatures above water{close_quote}s critical point of 374{degree}C, is an interesting solvent for chemical reactions and hazardous waste destruction due to the high solubility of organics and the aggressive oxidizing environment. XAFS may provide a better understanding of the solvent environment in SCW. The XAFS cell used in these studies was composed of a block of high-nickel alloy, Hastelloy C-22, containing two windows for transmission of the x-ray beam and a single optical view window. All internal wetted surfaces were platinum plated. The maximum operating conditions for this design were 500{degree}C and 700 bar. The x-ray transmission windows consisted of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond windows (3 mm diameter {times}0.5 mm thick) that were brazed to the tip of a standard 1/4-in. high-pressure, coned-shape fitting. Spectra are reported for strontium and rubidium ions in a supercritical water solvent. This cell design could be used for a variety of other solvent systems at high temperatures and high pressures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fulton, J.L.; Pfund, D.M. [Chemical Sciences Department, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Chemical Sciences Department, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Ma, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510 E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510 E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

E-Print Network 3.0 - anvil project Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: in the storm anvil. Scenarios in which the NO production of an intracloud flash was 75 to 100... measurements of NO spikes during the EULINOX (European Lightning...

33

Testing the Fixed Anvil Temperature Hypothesis in a Cloud-Resolving Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using cloud-resolving simulations of tropical radiative–convective equilibrium, it is shown that the anvil temperature changes by less than 0.5 K with a 2-K change in SST, lending support to the fixed anvil temperature (FAT) hypothesis. The ...

Zhiming Kuang; Dennis L. Hartmann

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond. 1 figs.

Lundin, R.L.; Stewart, D.D.; Evans, C.J.

1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

35

CURRICULUM VITAE Howard J. Diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

______________________ CURRICULUM VITAE FOR Howard J. Diamond ______________________ NOAA.diamond@noaa.gov or hjdiamond45@gmail.com #12;Curriculum Vitae Mr. Howard Jeffrey Diamond NOAA/National Climatic Data Center

36

Diamond films: Historical perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C8, supplement au n l l , Tome 45, novembre 1984 page C8-141  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and promethium were i n v e s t i - gated to 40 GPa and above in a gasketed diamond anvil cell by energy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

The diamonds of South Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamonds in South Australia occur in kimberlites at Eurelia (Orroroo), and in placer deposits, which include the Springfield Basin and the historic Echunga goldfield. To identify the kimberlitic and mantle sources of the placer diamonds, and to determine any possible connections between the placer diamonds and the diamonds from the Eurelia kimberlites, we examined the physical and compositional characteristics, and the mineral inclusion content of 122 diamonds from the Springfield Basin and 43 diamonds from kimberlites at Eurelia. Additional morphological data for three Echunga diamonds are also given. Most of the diamonds from the Springfield Basin are similar to the diamonds from Eurelia with respect to their crystal shapes, surface textures, and colors. The diamond populations from both areas are characterized by a high abundance of low-nitrogen (Basin diamonds are similar to the Eurelia diamonds with ?13C values in the range ? 20.0 to ? 2.5‰, and a mode at ? 6.5‰. Ferropericlase inclusions in two diamonds from the Springfield Basin are consistent with ferropericlase-bearing mineral inclusion assemblages found in the Eurelia diamonds and indicate that part of the diamond population from both areas is of sublithospheric origin. One diamond from the Springfield Basin contained an inclusion of lherzolitic garnet. The overall similarities between the Springfield Basin and Eurelia diamonds indicates that the bulk of the Springfield Basin diamonds are derived from kimberlitic sources that are similar (or identical) to those at Eurelia. However, three diamonds from the Springfield Basin are markedly distinct. These have well-developed crystal shapes, large sizes, yellow body colorations, and brown irradiation spots. The brown irradiation spots and abrasion textures provide evidence that these diamonds are much older than the other diamonds in the Springfield Basin, and that they are derived from distal kimberlitic sources. The diamonds are most likely derived from Permian glacigene sediments and may ultimately be sourced from kimberlites on the East Antarctic craton. Abrasion textures and brown irradiation spots are also present on diamonds from Echunga. This provides a link to the three “old” Springfield Basin diamonds and other alluvial diamonds in Eastern Australia, and suggests that Permian glaciations caused a widespread distribution of diamonds over large parts of southern Australia, which at that time was part of the supercontinent Gondwana.

Ralf Tappert; John Foden; Thomas Stachel; Karlis Muehlenbachs; Michelle Tappert; Kevin Wills

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Anvil characteristics as seen by C-POL during the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the month-long field campaign. The morphology, evolution, and longevity of the anvil were analyzed as well as the relationship of the anvil to the rest of the precipitating system. In addition, idealized in-cloud radiative heating profiles were created based...

Frederick, Kaycee Loretta

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

40

Diamond nanobeam waveguide optomechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optomechanical devices sensitively transduce and actuate motion of nanomechanical structures using light, and are central to many recent fundamental studies and technological advances. Single--crystal diamond promises to improve the performance of optomechanical devices, while also providing opportunities to interface nanomechanics with diamond color center spins and related quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate measurement of diamond nanobeam resonators with a sensitivity of 9.5 fm/Hz^0.5 and bandwidth >120 nm through dissipative waveguide--optomechanical coupling. Nanobeams are fabricated from bulk single--crystal diamond using a scalable quasi--isotropic oxygen plasma undercut etching process, and support mechanical resonances with quality factor of 2.5 x 10^5 at room temperature, and 7.2 x 10^5 in cryogenic conditions (5K). Mechanical self--oscillations, resulting from interplay between optomechanical coupling and the photothermal response of nanobeams in a buckled state, are observed with amplitude e...

Khanaliloo, Behzad; Hryciw, Aaron C; Lake, David P; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Amorphous diamond films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

Falabella, S.

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide...

43

Aircraft Microphysical Documentation from Cloud Base to Anvils of Hailstorm Feeder Clouds in Argentina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aircraft Microphysical Documentation from Cloud Base to Anvils of Hailstorm Feeder Clouds Documentation during January and February 2000 of the structure of severe convective storms in Men- dozaI) rockets, guided by tracking radar, to seed the high-reflectivity cores of in- cipient hailstorms (Makitov

Daniel, Rosenfeld

44

Diamond-graphite field emitters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode of diamond and a conductive carbon, e.g., graphite, is provided.

Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A Climatology of Tropical Anvil and Its Relationship to the Large-Scale Circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research was sponsored by the ARM-DOE Grant DE-FG02-06ER64174. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT??????.???????????????????..??? iii DEDICATION... the climate feedback obtained from doubled CO 2 experiments with different parameterizations of large-scale clouds and moist convection by using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. They showed that the presence of optically thick anvil...

Li, Wei

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

46

Lower pressure synthesis of diamond material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of synthesizing a diamond material, particularly nanocrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon and bucky diamond are provided. In particular embodiments, a composition including a carbon source, such as coal, is subjected to addition of energy, such as high energy reactive milling, producing a milling product enriched in hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon compared to the coal. A milling product is treated with heat, acid and/or base to produce nanocrystalline diamond and/or crystalline diamond-like carbon. Energy is added to produced crystalline diamond-like carbon in particular embodiments to produce bucky diamonds.

Lueking, Angela (State College, PA); Gutierrez, Humberto (State College, PA); Narayanan, Deepa (Redmond, WA); Burgess Clifford, Caroline E. (State College, PA); Jain, Puja (King Of Prussia, PA)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

47

DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

2005-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

48

Diamond turning of glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A Diamond Trilogy: Superplumes, Supercontinents, and Supernovae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the fourth most abundant element in the solar system after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen...explosions, other diamonds bear witness to solar system formation, and diamonds from our...the implications of diamond for Earth and solar system processes. Diamond Synthesis The many...

Stephen E. Haggerty

1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

50

Infrared refractive index of diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The refractive index of natural Type IIa diamond is reported for the spectral region 2.5-25 µm. The data have been fitted to a Herzberger-type dispersion formula with a quality of...

Edwards, David F; Ochoa, Ellen

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Amorphous-diamond electron emitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fabrication of amorphous diamond films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

Falabella, S.

1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

53

Method of Dehalogenation using Diamonds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.

1999-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

54

Calculations of Phosphorous Electronic Levels in Diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper is dedicated to the simulation of phosphorus entering into diamond and its influence upon the vacancy in diamond, using the theory of shallow donor states and the tight-binding theory (TBT).

Valentine V. Tokiy; Diana L. Savina

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL): Impact of Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations on Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor Content of the TTL Jiwen Fan Climate Physics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contributed by: Jennifer Comstock, Mikhail Ovtchinnikov, Sally McFarlane, and Greg McFarquhar OBJECTIVES Look into the effects of the commonly used heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing parameterizations on anvil properties and water vapor content in the TTL for the deep convective clouds developed in the contrasting environments. Examine the impact of the immersion-freezing on homogeneous freezing process. Homogeneous freezing parameterizations (HFPs) 1) Koop et al. (2000): J r depends on the water activity of the solution and is independent of the nature of solute.

56

Neutron Bombardment of Counting Diamonds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

21 February 1956 research-article Neutron Bombardment of Counting Diamonds A. H...Examination was also made of the effect of neutron bombardment on pulse-height distribution...additional charge traps produced by the neutrons. The layered crystal texture disclosed...

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Laser diagnostics of CVD diamond film growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond has one of hte most exciting combinations of properties known.{sup 1} It is the hardest material known, has extremely high thermal conductivity, wide optical transparency, and a durability that is unmatched by other substances. The scarcity and high cost of natural diamond has precluded its use in many potential applications that would benefit from this unique combination of properties. Over the last two decades, the technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond at low pressure has been developed, providing the technology to produce thin and thick film coatings on a variety of materials as well as freestanding films and plates of diamond. High optical clarity diamond plates grown by the CVD method are now available in diameters that exceed that of the largest natural diamond ever found. Products spanning from diamond coated machine t{sq_bullet}oling to semiconducting diamond-based electronics have been developed using this technology. Recent estimates suggest that the global market for chemical vapor deposited diamond and diamond-like carbon films will reach {dollar_sign}1 billion by 2000.

Feigerle, C.S.; Shaw, R.W.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Final Scientific Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Viscosities of water, nitrogen and carbon dioxide have been measured at elevated pressures and temperatures in the diamond-anvil cell. A strong correlation between viscosity and entropy has been confirmed.

Evan Abramson

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

59

Single-crystal elasticity of grossular-and almandine-rich garnets to 11 GPa by Brillouin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to 11 GPa in a diamond anvil cell. The experiments were carried out using a 16:3:1 methanol is the dissolution of pyroxene into the garnet structure producing Al-deficient garnets (majorite) that are stable

Duffy, Thomas S.

60

Generation of diamond wire sliced wafer surface based on the distribution of diamond grits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamond wire sawing is one of the abrasive machining processes. The cutting tool is a tiny steel wire coated with a large number of diamond grits. Although wire saw is widely used for slicing hard and brittle ...

Chunhui Chung; Le Van Nhat

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

EA-1795: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA EA-1795: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA April 1, 2011 EA-1795: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee to Diamond...

62

Epitaxial growth of europium monoxide on diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the epitaxial integration of phase-pure EuO on both single-crystal diamond and on epitaxial diamond films grown on silicon utilizing reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The epitaxial orientation relationship is (001) EuO ? (001) diamond and [110] EuO ?[100] diamond. The EuO layer is nominally unstrained and ferromagnetic with a transition temperature of 68 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 5.5 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the single-crystal diamond, and a transition temperature of 67 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 2.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the epitaxial diamond film.

Melville, A.; Heeg, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Mairoser, T.; Schmehl, A. [Zentrum für elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsstraße 1, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)] [Zentrum für elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsstraße 1, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Fischer, M.; Gsell, S.; Schreck, M. [Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany)] [Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Awschalom, D. D. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Holländer, B.; Schubert, J. [Peter Grünberg Institute, PGI9-IT, JARA-FIT, Research Centre Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)] [Peter Grünberg Institute, PGI9-IT, JARA-FIT, Research Centre Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Schlom, D. G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

63

Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

64

Diamond turning machine controller implementation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

On the nature and removal of saw marks on diamond wire sawn multicrystalline silicon wafers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Clearly visible saw marks are a significant barrier to commercial use of diamond wire sawn multicrystalline silicon wafers for solar cells. Two types of saw marks on the diamond-cut multicrystalline silicon wafers are identified—the millimeter scale round-run fringes caused by round-running of the saw wires, and the micron scale scratches caused by scribing of the diamond tips. The latter consists of smooth and shiny grooves covered by a thin layer of amorphous phase. The micro-roughness of diamond-cut wafers is actually ~25% less than that of the conventional slurry-cut wafers. The reason for the visibility of the round-run fringes to naked eyes, and for the relatively rough appearance of diamond-cut wafers, is the visual enhancement from the shiny scratches. Therefore, the key to remove the round-run fringes is to roughen the smooth grooves, as flattening the very slightly sloped fringe zones is very difficult due to lack of chemical contrast over them. Acid-etching texturization cannot remove the saw marks on the diamond-cut silicon wafers. Alkaline-etching can only remove the saw marks on grains near (0 0 1) orientation. A vapor blast etching method has been attempted. The preliminary result is encouraging—complete removal of the saw marks has been achieved, along with a good surface texture, which reduces the light reflectivity to 19%.

Wenhao Chen; Xiaomei Liu; Miao Li; Chuanqiang Yin; Lang Zhou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Energy Harvesting Diamond Channel with Energy Cooperation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Harvesting Diamond Channel with Energy Cooperation Berk Gurakan Sennur Ulukus Department@umd.edu Abstract--We consider the energy harvesting diamond channel, where the source and two relays harvest energy the option of wirelessly transferring some of its energy to the relays via energy cooperation. We find

Ulukus, Sennur

68

Fracture of synthetic diamond M. D. Droty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fracture of synthetic diamond M. D. Droty Ctystallume, 3506 Bassett Street, Santa Clara, California 1995) The fracture behavior of synthetic diamond has been investigated using indentation methods and by the tensile testing of pre-notched fracture-mechanics type samples. Specifically, the fracture toughness

Ritchie, Robert

69

Diamond as an inert substrate of graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interaction between graphene and semiconducting diamond substrate has been examined with large-scale density functional theory calculations. Clean and hydrogenated diamond (100) and (111) surfaces have been studied. It turns out that weak van der Waals interactions dominate for graphene on all these surfaces. High carrier mobility of graphene is almost not affected, except for a negligible energy gap opening at the Dirac point. No charge transfer between graphene and diamond (100) surfaces is detected, while different charge-transfer complexes are formed between graphene and diamond (111) surfaces, inducing either p-type or n-type doping on graphene. Therefore, diamond can be used as an excellent substrate of graphene, which almost keeps its electronic structures at the same time providing the flexibility of charge doping.

Hu Wei; Li Zhenyu; Yang Jinlong [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

70

Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

Gruen, Dieter M.

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

71

Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

72

Diamond switches for high temperature electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond switches are well suited for use in high temperature electronics. Laboratory feasibility of diamond switching at 1 kV and 18 A was demonstrated. DC blocking voltages up to 1 kV were demonstrated. A 50 {Omega} load line was switched using a diamond switch, with switch on-state resistivity {approx}7 {Omega}-cm. An electron beam, {approx}150 keV energy, {approx}2 {mu}s full width at half maximum was used to control the 5 mm x 5 mm x 100 {mu}m thick diamond switch. The conduction current temporal history mimics that of the electron beam. These data were taken at room temperature.

Prasad, R.R.; Rondeau, G.; Qi, Niansheng [Alameda Applied Sciences Corp., San Leandro, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

73

Electronic Impact of Inclusions in Diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray topography data are compared with photodiode responsivity maps to identify potential candidates for electron trapping in high purity, single crystal diamond. X-ray topography data reveal the defects that exist in the diamond material, which are dominated by non-electrically active linear dislocations. However, many diamonds also contain defects configurations (groups of threading dislocations originating from a secondary phase region or inclusion) in the bulk of the wafer which map well to regions of photoconductive gain, indicating that these inclusions are a source of electron trapping which affect the performance of diamond X-ray detectors. It was determined that photoconductive gain is only possible with the combination of an injecting contact and charge trapping in the near surface region. Typical photoconductive gain regions are 0.2 mm across; away from these near-surface inclusions the device yields the expected diode responsivity.

Muller, E.M.; Smedley, J.; Raghothamachar, B.; Gaowei, M.; Keister, J.W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Dudley, M.; Wu, Q.

2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

74

Effective placement of detectors at diamond interchanges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most signalized interchanges in Texas are tight urban diamond interchanges of freeways having one-way frontage roads. At these interchanges, traffic actuated control with improper location of detectors may result in inefficient traffic operations...

Prabhakar, Dayakar

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

carbide (SiC) binders. These composites are stable up to 1,200C, but have reduced fracture toughness (6-8 MPam 12 ) due to the brittleness of the SiC and diamond. This...

76

Diamond film growth argon-carbon plasmas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing a gas stream of argon, hydrogen and hydrocarbon and combining the gas with the carbonaceous vapor, passing the combined carbonaceous vapor and gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the carbonaceous and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 29 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; Liu, S.Z.; Pan, X.Z.; Zuiker, C.D.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Diamond film growth from fullerene precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a fullerene vapor, providing a noble gas stream and combining the gas with the fullerene vapor, passing the combined fullerene vapor and noble gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the fullerene and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 10 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Liu, S.; Krauss, A.R.; Pan, X.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Effects of diamond nanoparticle exposure on the internal structure and reproduction of Daphnia magna  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanomaterials have significant technological advantages but their release into the environment also carry potential ecotoxicological risks. Carbon-based nanoparticles and particularly diamond nanoparticles have numerous industrial and medical applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of diamond nanoparticles with an average particle size of 20 nm on the survival, reproduction and tissue structure of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The chronic toxicity test results showed 100% mortality at concentrations higher than 12.5 mg l?1 and that reproduction inhibition occurred in concentrations higher than 1.3 mg l?1. Light microscopy showed that diamond nanoparticles adhere to the exoskeleton surface and accumulate within the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that food absorption by the gut cells may be blocked. The results support the use of chronic approaches in environmental protection as part of an integrated environmental monitoring and assessment strategy.

Elsa Mendonça; Mário Diniz; Luís Silva; Isabel Peres; Luísa Castro; José Brito Correia; Ana Picado

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Diamond and Related Materials 8 (1999) 13881392 www.elsevier.com/locate/diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the hot-filament diamond CVD gas-phase environment: direct comparison with experimental measurements R diamond reactor. These simulations have been compared to data measured using an in-situ molecular beam atoms, was found to be very important since it controlled the whole gas-phase chemistry. Comparison

Bristol, University of

80

Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Price, R. Eugene (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and composition is disclosed for the deposition of a thick layer of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate. The softened or molten composition crystallizes on the substrate to form a thick deposition layer comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent and may include at least one secondary constituent. Preferably, the secondary constituents are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) powder and mixtures thereof. 9 figs.

Holcombe, C.E.; Seals, R.D.; Price, R.E.

1997-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

82

Argonne licenses diamond semiconductor discoveries to AKHAN Technologies |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

licenses diamond semiconductor discoveries to AKHAN Technologies licenses diamond semiconductor discoveries to AKHAN Technologies By Joseph Bernstein * By Jared Sagoff * March 4, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory announced today that the laboratory has granted AKHAN Technologies exclusive diamond semiconductor application licensing rights to breakthrough low-temperature diamond deposition technology developed by Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM). The Argonne-developed technology allows for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond on a variety of wafer substrate materials at temperatures as low as 400 degrees Celsius. The combination of the Argonne's low-temperature diamond technology with AKHAN's Miraj Diamond(tm) process represents the state of the art in diamond semiconductor

83

Sparkling Diamonds – Reducing High Energy in the Frozen North  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

De Beers, the undisputed world leader in diamond mining, in a typically proactive approach, completed an energy review at the Snap Lake Diamond Mine in the Northwest Territories. What makes the approach unique is that the mine is still under...

Feldman, J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Laser annealing of neutron irradiated boron-10 isotope doped diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

10B isotope doped p-type diamond epilayer grown by chemical vapor deposition on (110) oriented type IIa diamond single crystal substrate was subjected to neutron transmutation at a fluence of 2.4...

K. Jagannadham; M. J. Lance; J. E. Butler

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading electron gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the electron emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge transport modeling, and spatial uniformity.

Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Materials science Nanotubes get hard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials science Nanotubes get hard under pressure Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA doi:10.1073/pnas.0405877101 (2004) When Zhongwu Wang et al. squeezed carbon nanotubes in a diamond anvil cell, they made nanotubes into diamond itself: the carbon material formed under compression at room temperature seems

Downs, Robert T.

87

EIS-0070: Mining, Construction and Operation for a Full-size Module at the Anvil Points Oil Shale Facility, Rifle, Garfield County, Colorado  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement to assess the environmental and socioeconomic implications of its proposal to mine 11 million tons of oil shale from the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) at Anvil Points, Colorado; to construct an experimental full-size shale retort module on a 365-acre lease tract having a 4700 bbl/day production capacity; and to consider extension, modification or new leasing of the facility.

88

Fuel Cells Get New BFF | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Get New BFF Fuel Cells Get New BFF Artificial diamonds may lead to affordable, efficient fuel cells Oxygen (red spheres) migrates from one vacancy to another inside the...

89

Diamond Energy Pty Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Diamond Energy Pty Ltd Diamond Energy Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Diamond Energy Pty Ltd Place Melbourne, Australia Zip 3124 Product Victoria based clean energy project developer. Coordinates -37.817532°, 144.967148° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":-37.817532,"lon":144.967148,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

90

Accepted to Diamond and Related Materials A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted to Diamond and Related Materials A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA Abstract The presence of thin silicon carbide diffusion of carbon atoms into the silicon carbide layer, and the morphology and orientation of the diamond

Dandy, David

91

Hydrogen-doped cubic diamond and the crystal structure of n-diamond Bin Wen a,b,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen-doped cubic diamond and the crystal structure of n-diamond Bin Wen a,b, , Roderick Melnik. In particular, hydrogen concen- tration dependent elastic constants and lattice parameters for the H-doped diamond have been analyzed. Our results indicate that when the hydrogen concentration is less than 19 at

Melnik, Roderick

92

Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Diamond and diamond-like carbon films for advanced electronic applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aim of this laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project was to develop diamond and/or diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for electronic applications. Quality of diamond and DLC films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is not adequate for electronic applications. Nucleation of diamond grains during growth typically results in coarse films that must be very thick in order to be physically continuous. DLC films grown by CVD are heavily hydrogenated and are stable to temperatures {le} 400{degrees}C. However, diamond and DLC`s exceptional electronic properties make them candidates for integration into a variety of microelectronic structures. This work studied new techniques for the growth of both materials. Template layers have been developed for the growth of CVD diamond films resulting in a significantly higher nucleation density on unscratched or unprepared Si surfaces. Hydrogen-free DLC with temperature stability {le} 800{degrees}C has been developed using energetic growth methods such as high-energy pulsed-laser deposition. Applications with the largest system impact include electron-emitting materials for flat-panel displays, dielectrics for interconnects, diffusion barriers, encapsulants, and nonvolatile memories, and tribological coatings that reduce wear and friction in integrated micro-electro-mechanical devices.

Siegal, M.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P. [and others

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Diamond-free Families Jerrold R. Griggs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of times a random full chain meets a P-free family, called the Lubell function, and use it for P = Dk, the Lubell function of a family, which gives the average number of times a random full chain meets the family. The Lubell function yields an upper bound on the size of a family. For diamond-free families, we observe

Griggs, Jerrold R.

96

Diamond Beamline I16 (Materials and Magnetism)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe the key features and performance specifications of a facility for high-resolution single-crystal x-ray diffraction at Diamond Light Source. The scientific emphasis of the beamline is materials- and x-ray-physics, including resonant and magnetic scattering. We highlight some of the more novel aspects of the beamline design.

Collins, S. P.; Bombardi, A.; Marshall, A. R.; Williams, J. H.; Barlow, G.; Day, A. G.; Pearson, M. R.; Woolliscroft, R. J.; Walton, R. D.; Beutier, G.; Nisbet, G. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

97

Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films functionalized with therapeutically active collagen networks.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fabrication of biologically amenable interfaces in medicine bridges translational technologies with their surrounding biological environment. Functionalized nanomaterials catalyze this coalescence through the creation of biomimetic and active substrates upon which a spectrum of therapeutic elements can be delivered to adherent cells to address biomolecular processes in cancer, inflammation, etc. Here, we demonstrate the robust functionalization of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) with type I collagen and dexamethasone (Dex), an anti-inflammatory drug, to fabricate a hybrid therapeutically active substrate for localized drug delivery. UNCD oxidation coupled with a pH-mediated collagen adsorption process generated a comprehensive interface between the two materials, and subsequent Dex integration, activity, and elution were confirmed through inflammatory gene expression assays. These studies confer a translational relevance to the biofunctionalized UNCD in its role as an active therapeutic network for potent regulation of cellular activity toward applications in nanomedicine.

Huang, H.; Chen, M.; Bruno, P.; Lam, R.; Robinson, E.; Gruen, D.; Ho, D.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Diamond Shaving of Contaminated Concrete Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decommissioning and decontamination of existing facilities presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of surface contamination from concrete floors and walls while eliminating the spread of contamination and volumetric reduction of the waste stream. Numerous methods have been tried with a varying degree of success. Recent technology has made this goal achievable and has been used successfully. This new technology is the Diamond Floor Shaver and Diamond Wall shaver. The Diamond Floor Shaver is a self-propelled, walk behind machine that literally shaves the contaminated concrete surface to specified depths. This is accomplished by using a patented system of 100 dry cutting diamond blades with offset diamond segments that interlock to provide complete shaving of the concrete surface. Grooves are eliminated which allows for a direct frisk reading to analyze results. When attached to an appropriate size vacuum, the dust produced is 100% contained. Dust is collected in drums ready for disposition and disposal. The waste produced in shaving 7,500 square feet at 1/8 inch thickness would fill a single 55 gallon drum. Production is dependent on depth of shaving but averages 100 square feet per hour. The wall shaver uses the same patented diamond drum and blades but is hydraulically driven and is deployed using a robotic arm allowing its operation to be to totally remote. It can reach ceilings as high as 20 feet. Numerous small projects were successfully completed using this technology. Large scale deployment came in 2003. Bluegrass, in conjunction with Bartlett Services, deployed this technology to support decontamination activities for closing of the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons site. Up to six floor shavers and one wall shaver were deployed in buildings B371 and B374. These buildings had up to one half-inch, fixed plutonium and beryllium contamination. Hundred-thousands of square feet of floors and walls were shaved successfully to depths of up to one half inch. Decontamination efforts were so successful the balance of the buildings could be demolished using conventional methods. The shavers helped keep the project on schedule while the vacuum system eliminated the potential for contaminants becoming airborne.

Mullen, Lisa K. [Bluegrass Concrete Cutting Inc., 107 Mildred Street PO Box 427, Greenville, Alabama 36037 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Laser Method for Synthesis and Processing of Continuous Diamond Films on Nondiamond Substrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...GRAIN-BOUNDARIES IN CVD DIAMOND THIN-FILMS...continuous diamond thin film. Carbon ions were...continuous diamond thin film. Carbon ions were...vapor deposition (CVD) methods such as...while usefilf for coating applications, are not suitable...

J. NARAYAN; V. P. GODBOLE; C. W. WHITE

1991-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

100

Diamond optics V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 20, 21, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attention is given to unconventional diamond and DLC deposition processes, deposition characterization; diamond characterization, and structural, thermal, and optical properties. Particular attention is given to diamond CVD growth chemistry; a synthesis technique of diamondlike carbon films by a laser ablation ion source in the atmosphere; mass spectrometry studies of diamond deposition; characterization of electron cyclotron resonance plasmas for diamond deposition; thinning and polishing of diamond films by a diffusional reaction with metals; twin quituplets in a CVD diamond; characterization of diamond films deposited by hot-filament CVD using CF4 as a doping gas by Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy; properties of optically smooth diamond thin films produced by ECR-PACVD; calculations of energy barriers to CVD diamon growth; thermal properties of optical-quality diamond films; attenuated total reflectance infrared absorption in CVD diamond films; and optical properties of boron-doped diamond films.

Feldman, A.; Sandor, H.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Diamonds are an Electronic Device's Best Friend | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Diamonds are an Electronic Device's Best Friend Diamonds are an Electronic Device's Best Friend Diamonds are an Electronic Device's Best Friend April 17, 2012 - 11:43am Addthis Ultrananocrystalline diamond has a diverse range of applications from the next generation of high-definition flat panel displays to coatings for mechanical pump seals and tools. | Photo courtesy of Argonne National Lab Ultrananocrystalline diamond has a diverse range of applications from the next generation of high-definition flat panel displays to coatings for mechanical pump seals and tools. | Photo courtesy of Argonne National Lab Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science How does it work? As computer performance has improved, engineers have had a hard time dissipating the heat produced. Diamond film may be the answer, as it's much better at absorbing and

102

Effectiveness of guidelines for retiming signalized diamond interchanges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Civil Engineering EFFECTIVENESS OF GUIDELINES FOR RETIMING SIGNALIZED DIAMOND INTERCHANGES A Thesis by YVONNE DENISE IRVINE Approved as to style and content by: Daniel B. Fambro (Chair of Committee) Thomas Urbanik.... For the diamond interchange test, the participants were randomly assigned to two groups: the control group with no guidelines as reference or the second group, with the guidelines. The average scores on the diamond interchange test were compared using analysis...

Irvine, Yvonne Denise

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

Morales, Alfredo M; Anderson, Richard J; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L; Rye, Michael J

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

104

Diamond Walnut Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Walnut Biomass Facility Walnut Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Diamond Walnut Biomass Facility Facility Diamond Walnut Sector Biomass Location San Joaquin County, California Coordinates 37.9175935°, -121.1710389° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.9175935,"lon":-121.1710389,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

105

Diamond Willow Extension | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Extension Extension Jump to: navigation, search Name Diamond Willow Extension Facility Diamond Willow Extension Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Montana-Dakota Utilities Developer Montana-Dakota Utilities Energy Purchaser Montana-Dakota Utilities Location Near Baker MT Coordinates 46.281621°, -104.271355° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":46.281621,"lon":-104.271355,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

106

Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Diamond/aluminium nitride composites for efficient thermal management applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthetic diamond/AlN composite materials have been fabricated by a combination of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. These wide band gap semiconductor heterojunctions show promises for many applications, including thermal management, deep ultraviolet light emitting devices, and high power and high temperature electronics. Here, we report results of an interface study of polycrystalline diamond layers grown on single crystal AlN(0001). High resolution transmission microscopy revealed atomically sharp interfaces between diamond and AlN. Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy measurements showed reduced thermal resistance on diamond-coated AlN substrates compared to uncoated AlN at temperatures above 330 K.

Cervenka, J.; Dontschuk, N.; Prawer, S. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ladouceur, F. [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Duvall, S. G. [Silanna Semiconductor Pty Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

Thin Sheet of Diamond Has Worlds of Uses  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

A new technique from Argonne National Laboratory creates thin diamond films that are helping industry save energy and could even be used in heart and eye implants.

Sagoff, Jared

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Black Diamond Power Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Black Diamond Power Co Black Diamond Power Co Place West Virginia Utility Id 1764 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Residential: $0.1200/kWh Commercial: $0.0685/kWh The following table contains monthly sales and revenue data for Black Diamond Power Co (West Virginia). Month RES REV (THOUSAND $) RES SALES (MWH) RES CONS COM REV (THOUSAND $) COM SALES (MWH) COM CONS IND_REV (THOUSAND $) IND SALES (MWH) IND CONS OTH REV (THOUSAND $) OTH SALES (MWH) OTH CONS TOT REV (THOUSAND $) TOT SALES (MWH) TOT CONS

111

Patterning of nanocrystalline diamond films for diamond microstructures useful in MEMS and other devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

MEMS structure and a method of fabricating them from ultrananocrystalline diamond films having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm and feature resolution of less than about one micron . The MEMS structures are made by contacting carbon dimer species with an oxide substrate forming a carbide layer on the surface onto which ultrananocrystalline diamond having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm is deposited. Thereafter, microfabrication process are used to form a structure of predetermined shape having a feature resolution of less than about one micron.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Busmann, Hans-Gerd (Bremen, DE); Meyer, Eva-Maria (Bremen, DE); Auciello, Orlando (Bolingbrook, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (late of Naperville, IL); Krauss, Julie R. (Naperville, IL)

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

112

Diamond thin films: a 21st-century material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research in Inorganic Materials (NIRIM) brought all...diamond lm with lament material. For diamond to be...molecules, the formation of active species, and nally...dia- mond cold cathode eld emission displays...over other electrode materials, such as Pt, which...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The Phase I MX Beamlines at Diamond Light Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography, I02, I03 and I04 at Diamond Light Source are presented. These beamlines formed the life science component of Phase 1 of Diamond Light Source. The article provides details of the design and the current status of the beamlines.

Duke, E. M. H.; Evans, G.; Flaig, R.; Hall, D. R.; Latchem, M.; McAuley, K. E.; Sandy, D. J.; Sorensen, T. L-M.; Waterman, D.; Johnson, L. N. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon. OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

114

COMPACTIFICATIONS OF ADJOINT ORBITS AND THEIR HODGE DIAMONDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manifold X, a symplectic Lefschetz fibration (SLF) on X is a fibration f : X C that has only Morse type of the SLF. Calculating such Hodge diamonds is computationally heavy, so we used Macaulay2. Details as for the fibres of the SLF can be read off the Hodge diamonds. Remark 1. Choosing a compactification is in general

Gasparim, Elizabeth

115

The Polishing, Surface Flow and Wear of Diamond and Glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Polishing, Surface Flow and Wear of Diamond and Glass F. P. Bowden H. G. Scott It has been shown that a diamond sliding on glass can under suitable conditions induce surface flow of the glass. The speed (v) and load (W) necessary to cause...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of diamond surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Second harmonic generation (SHG) and infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopies have been shown to be powerful and versatile for studying surfaces with submonolayer sensitivity. They have been used in this work to study bare diamond surfaces and molecular adsorption on them. In particular, infrared-visible SFG as a surface vibrational spectroscopic technique has been employed to identify and monitor in-situ surface bonds and species on the diamond (111) surface. The CH stretch spectra allow us to investigate hydrogen adsorption, desorption, abstraction, and the nature of the hydrogen termination. The C(111) surface dosed with atomic hydrogen was found to be in a monohydride configuration with the hydrogen atoms situated at top-sites. The ratio of the abstraction rate to the adsorption rate was appreciable during atomic hydrogen dosing. Kinetic parameters for thermal desorption of H on C(111) were determined showing a near first-order kinetics. For the fully H-terminated (111) surface, a large (110 cm{sup {minus}1}) anharmonicity and {approximately}19 psec lifetime were measured for the first-excited CH stretch mode. The bare reconstructed C(111)-(2 {times} l) surface showed the presence of CC stretch modes which were consistent with the Pandey {pi}-bonded chain structure. When exposed to the methyl radical, the SFG spectra of the C(111) surface showed features suggesting the presence of adsorbed methyl species. After heating to sufficiently high temperatures, they were converted into the monohydride species. Preliminary results on the hydrogen-terminated diamond (100) surface are also presented.

Chin, R.P.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Diamond machine tool face lapping machine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

Yetter, H.H.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

118

Nano-diamonds in the Universe A.C. Andersen,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nano-diamonds in the Universe A.C. Andersen,1 H. Mutschke,2 L. Binette3 , S. Höfner4 1 NORDITA, SE-75120 Uppsala Sweden The first direct evidence for nano-diamonds in space came from meteorites. Laboratory analyses on fine-grained diamond residues from primitive meteorites have shown that nano- diamonds

Andersen, Anja C.

119

Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a GaP waveguide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optical coupling of guided modes in a GaP waveguide to nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is demonstrated. The electric field penetration into diamond and the loss of the guided mode are measured. The results indicate that the GaP-diamond system could be useful for realizing coupled microcavity-NV devices for quantum information processing in diamond.

K. -M. C. Fu; C. Santori; P. E. Barclay; I. Aharonovich; S. Prawer; N. Meyer; A. M. Holm; R. G. Beausoleil

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

120

Performance evaluation of bound diamond ring tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LLNL is collaborating with the Center for Optics Manufacturing (COM) and the American Precision Optics Manufacturers Association (APOMA) to optimize bound diamond ring tools for the spherical generation of high quality optical surfaces. An important element of this work is establishing an experimentally-verified link between tooling properties and workpiece quality indicators such as roughness, subsurface damage and removal rate. In this paper, we report on a standardized methodology for assessing ring tool performance and its preliminary application to a set of commercially-available wheels. Our goals are to (1) assist optics manufacturers (users of the ring tools) in evaluating tools and in assessing their applicability for a given operation, and (2) provide performance feedback to wheel manufacturers to help optimize tooling for the optics industry. Our paper includes measurements of wheel performance for three 2-4 micron diamond bronze-bond wheels that were supplied by different manufacturers to nominally- identical specifications. Preliminary data suggests that the difference in performance levels among the wheels were small.

Piscotty, M.A.; Taylor, J.S.; Blaedel, K.L.

1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ANL/APS/TB-24 Diamond Monochromators for APS Undulator-A Beamlines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 4 Diamond Monochromators for APS Undulator-A Beamlines R.C. Blasdell, L. A. Assoufid, and D. M. Mills TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................1 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DIAMONDS ..................................................5 2.1 Varieties of Diamonds ....................................................................5 2.2 The Lattice Parameter .....................................................................5 2.3 Bulk Thermal and Mechanical Properties ...............................................6 2.4 Typical Surface and Lattice Plane Morphology ......................................8 2.5 The Liquid-GaIn/Diamond Interface ...................................................10 3. DIFFRACTION PROPERTIES OF DIAMOND

122

Software optimization for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We previously reported on an electrical conductivity imaging instrument developed for measurements on polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. The instrument uses electrical impedance tomography to profile the conductivity in the diamond table. Conductivity images must be acquired quickly, on the order of 5 sec per cutter, to be useful in the manufacturing process. This paper reports on successful efforts to optimize the conductivity reconstruction routine, porting major portions of it to NVIDIA GPUs, including a custom CUDA kernel for Jacobian computation.

Bogdanov, G.; Ludwig, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K. [US Synthetic, 1260 South 1600 West, Orem, UT 84058 (United States)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

123

Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Very low friction for diamond sliding on diamond in water Plasma Processing Laboratory, Auburn University, 200 Broun Hall, Auburn, Alabama 36849  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Very low friction for diamond sliding on diamond in water Y. Tzeng Plasma Processing Laboratory for publication 17 September 1993) This letter reports the lowest coefficient of friction measured for diamond a load of 50 g, the coefficient of friction falls to -0.001. This clearly shows the effectiveness

Tzeng, Yonhua

125

Electrodeposited coatings for diamond turning applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrodeposited coatings are attractive for precision machining operations because thick coatings can be economically applied, with good adhesion, to a variety of substrates. Approximately 20 pure metals and a large number of alloys can be deposited from aqueous solutions. Fused salt and organic solvent electrolytes can be used to lengthen the list of metals that can be electrodeposited. However, both the choice of the metallic coating and the control of the plating process are critical for success in precision finishing of electrodeposited coatings. Some preliminary results at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory suggest that electrodeposited nickel-phosphorus alloys are excellent coatings for single point diamond turning from the standpoint of material properties and low tool wear. Electrodeposited aluminum and aluminum alloy coatings also merit consideration for precision finishing where weight is an important factor. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Mayer, A.; Bramlett, R.D.; Day, R.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Evans, C.J.; Polvani, R.S. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Test beamline B16 has been built on the 3 GeV Diamond synchrotron radiation source. The beamline covers a wide photon energy range from 2 to 25 keV. The beamline is highly flexible and versatile in terms of the available beam size (a micron to 100 mm) and the range of energy resolution and photon flux; by virtue of its several operational modes, and the different inter-changeable instruments available in the experiments hutch. Diverse experimental configurations can be flexibly configured using a five-circle diffractometer, a versatile optics test bench, and a suite of detectors. Several experimental techniques including reflectivity, diffraction and imaging are routinely available. Details of the beamline and its measured performance are presented.

Sawhney, K. J. S.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Tiwari, M. K.; Alianelli, L.; Scott, S. M.; Preece, G. M.; Pedersen, U. K.; Walton, R. D. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire-OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

127

Diamond based single molecule magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The detection of a nuclear spin in an individual molecule represents a key challenge in physics and biology whose solution has been pursued for many years. The small magnetic moment of a single nucleus and the unavoidable environmental noise present the key obstacles for its realization. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond can be used to construct a nano-scale single molecule spectrometer that is capable of detecting the position and spin state of a single nucleus and can determine the distance and alignment of a nuclear or electron spin pair. The proposed device will find applications in single molecule spectroscopy in chemistry and biology, such as in determining protein structure or monitoring macromolecular motions and can thus provide a tool to help unravelling the microscopic mechanisms underlying bio-molecular function.

Jianming Cai; Fedor Jelezko; Martin B. Plenio; Alex Retzker

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

128

Diamond Green Diesel: Diversifying Our Transportation Fuel Supply |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Diamond Green Diesel: Diversifying Our Transportation Fuel Supply Diamond Green Diesel: Diversifying Our Transportation Fuel Supply Diamond Green Diesel: Diversifying Our Transportation Fuel Supply January 20, 2011 - 3:48pm Addthis Jonathan Silver Jonathan Silver Executive Director of the Loan Programs Office What does this project do? Nearly triples the amount of renewable diesel produced domestically Diversifies the U.S. fuel supply Today, Secretary Chu announced the offer of a conditional commitment for a $241 million loan guarantee to Diamond Green Diesel, LLC., the DOE Loan Program's first conditional commitment for an advanced biofuels plant. The loan guarantee will support the construction of a 137-million gallon per year renewable diesel facility that will produce renewable diesel fuel primarily from animal fats, used cooking oil and other waste grease

129

Argonne researchers develop two new diamond inventions | Argonne...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

develop two new diamond inventions By Jared Sagoff * October 10, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory...

130

Low-Pressure, Metastable Growth of Diamond and "Diamondlike" Phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HYDROCARBON PLASMA, THIN SOLID...MICROWAVE PLASMA, JOURNAL...KAWARADA, H, LARGE AREA CHEMICAL...MAGNETOMICROWAVE PLASMA, JAPANESE...CARBON-FILMS BY RF GLOW-DISCHARGE...INDUCTION THERMAL PLASMA...DIAMOND AT ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE...JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE...

JOHN C. ANGUS; CLIFF C. HAYMAN

1988-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

131

Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Diamond graphs and super-reflexivity William B. Johnson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diamond graphs and super-reflexivity William B. Johnson and Gideon Schechtman Abstract The main results is that dimension reduction a-la Johnson­Lindenstrauss fails in any non super reflexive space

Johnson, William B.

133

Thin diamond films provide new material for micro-machines |...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thin diamond films provide new material for micro-machines By Jared Sagoff * July 31, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - Airbags, inkjet printers and video projectors may not...

134

HODGE DIAMONDS OF ADJOINT ORBITS BRIAN CALLANDER AND ELIZABETH GASPARIM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- pactifications of adjoint orbits and of the fibres of symplectic Lefschetz fibra- tions (SLF) on them. The Macaulay2 function hh can then be used to calculate the corresponding Hodge diamonds. An SLF is a fibration

Gasparim, Elizabeth

135

Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability to manipulate nano-particles at the nano-scale is critical for the development of active quantum systems. This paper presents a technique to manipulate diamond...

Ampem-Lassen, Eric; Simpson, D A; Gibson, B C; Trpkovski, S; Hossain, F M; Huntington, S T; Ganesan, K; Hollenberg, L C; Prawer, S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Argonne CNM News: State-of-the-Art Diamond Semiconductor Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

State-of-the-Art Diamond Semiconductor Technology Licensed to AKHAN Technologies State-of-the-Art Diamond Semiconductor Technology Licensed to AKHAN Technologies The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory announced today that the laboratory has granted AKHAN Technologies, Inc., exclusive diamond semiconductor application licensing rights to breakthrough low-temperature diamond deposition technology developed by Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM). The method allows for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond on a variety of wafer substrate materials at temperatures as low as 400°C, highly advantageous for integration with processed semiconductor electronic materials and resulting in the deposition of low-defect nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films. The combination of CNM's low-temperature diamond technology with the AKHAN Miraj Diamond(tm) process represents the state of the art in diamond semiconductor thin-film technology.

137

Yield Optimization of Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/nmg2870 ………………………………………………………………. 21 3-7 The minimum implantation time to prevent graphitization versus temperature for various doses of 2 MeV nitrogen implantation………… 22 x FIGURE... is feasible and allows removal of most dirt, some amorphous carbon, and graphite on surface without eroding the diamond. The bond strength of diamond also allows heating in vacuum to high temperature up to 1700°C and can be baked in air up to 700°C...

Chen, Jeson

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

138

Analysis of the influence of tool dynamics in diamond turning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the progress in defining the role of machine and interface dynamics on the surface finish in diamond turning. It contains a review of literature from conventional and diamond machining processes relating tool dynamics, material interactions and tool wear to surface finish. Data from experimental measurements of tool/work piece interface dynamics are presented as well as machine dynamics for the DTM at the Center.

Fawcett, S.C.; Luttrell, D.E.; Keltie, R.F.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Elasticity, strength, and toughness of single crystal silicon carbide, ultrananocrystalline diamond, and hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elasticity, strength, and toughness of single crystal silicon carbide, ultrananocrystalline diamond carbide 3C-SiC , ultrananocrystalline diamond, and hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous carbon

Espinosa, Horacio D.

140

Mechanical Behavior of Diamond-Sawn Multi-Crystalline Silicon Wafers and its Improvement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Poor mechanical property is identified as a potential barrier to commercial development of diamond wire sawn multi-crystalline silicon wafers. 3-point bending tests of the diamond-sawn multi-crystalline silico...

Hongchen Meng; Lang Zhou

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous diamond flat Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on an interme- diate layer of diamond-like amorphous carbon 9-11,30,35,61, metal carbides 12,14,16,22,23, 25... ,13,72. Nucleation on an intermediate layer of diamond-like...

142

Cost-effective upgrade of a focusing system for inelastic X-ray scattering experiments under high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a scheme utilizing a set of low-cost and compact Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for upgrading the optical system of the Taiwan Inelastic X-ray Scattering beamline at SPring-8 for high-pressure experiments using diamond-anvil cells. The scheme as implemented improves the focus to 13 µm × 16 µm with transmission of up to 72%.

Huang, C.-Y.

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

143

High-pressure magnetic transition in hcp-Fe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...samples, by solving electronic quantum-mechanical equations using...experiments were carried out in a motor-driven diamond anvil cell...2006) suggested that the quantum fluctuations of magnetic structure...by the Mossbauer method in a future study. Table 2 shows a comparison...

Shigeaki Ono; Takumi Kikegawa; Naohisa Hirao; Kenji Mibe

144

Equation of state of adamite up to 11 GPa: a synchrotron X-ray diffraction study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The compression behavior of natural adamite [Zn2AsO4OH] has been investigated up to 11.07 GPa at room temperature utilizing in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and a diamond anvil cell. No phase transitio...

Jingui Xu; Maining Ma; Shuyi Wei; Xianxu Hu…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Isothermal and isochoric crystallization of highly hygroscopic pyridine N-oxide of aqueous solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An oil-like aqueous solution of highly hygroscopic pyridine N-oxide (PNO) has been compressed in a diamond-anvil cell and single crystals of PNO have been grown under isothermal and isochoric conditions. The PNO anhydrate ambient-pressure structure is stabilized by CHO contacts up to 2 GPa at least.

Patyk, E.

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

A quenchable superhard carbon phase synthesized by cold compression of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A quenchable superhard carbon phase synthesized by cold compression of carbon nanotubes Zhongwu) A quenchable superhard high-pressure carbon phase was synthe- sized by cold compression of carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were placed in a diamond anvil cell, and x-ray diffraction measure- ments were conducted

Downs, Robert T.

147

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Dark matter lost and found  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-component condensate.They considered the limited access inherent to samples confined in a diamond anvil cell the gas disks of two spiral galaxies merge. As spirals have dark-matter haloes, their elliptical offspring­Einstein condensate within a ring- shaped magnetic trap (Phys. Rev. Lett. (in the press); preprint at http

Loss, Daniel

148

Single-crystal x-ray diffraction of brucite to 14 GPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-crystal brucite, Mg(OH)2, was studied to 14 GPa in a quasi-hydrostatic pressure medium using a diamond anvil cell and energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The parameters of a third-order Birch-...

Thomas S. Duffy; Jinfu Shu; Ho-kwang Mao…

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Superconductivity for CaC6 to 32 GPa hydrostatic pressure M. Debessai,* J. J. Hamlin, and J. S. Schilling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Schilling Department of Physics, Washington University, CB 1105, One Brookings Dr., Saint Louis, Missouri determined as a function of hydrostatic pressure in both helium-loaded gas and diamond-anvil cells to 0.6 GPa.48 K/GPa to 1.6 GPa ,4 where the pressure medium used was, respectively, kerosene or silicone oil

Schilling, James

150

Is there life on ... Titan?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......seasonal modulations of solar insolation as a function...subsurface ocean, to the organic-rich surface environment...study of the likely organic chemical processes...demonstrated the production of tholins (complex...recognized that the organic chemistry in Titan's...using a diamond anvil cell. This extends the......

Lucy H Norman

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids at deep crustal pressure and temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids at deep crustal pressure and temperature Mainak Mookherjee a Abstract We investigated aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids in equilibrium with corundum using in situ Raman spectroscopy in hydrothermal diamond anvil cells to 20 kbar and 1000 °C. We have studied aluminum

Manning, Craig

152

High-pressure crystallography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

Katrusiak, A.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

153

Science and technology review, March 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication contains two feature articles and one research highlight. The first feature article is on the safe disposal of nuclear wastes. The second article is about using the Lab`s diamond anvil cell to probe the behavior of nuclear weapons related materials. The research highlight is on using hydrogen fuel for hybrid vehicles.

Failor, B.; Wheatcraft, D. [eds.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Synchronized B and 13 C Diamond Delta Structures for an Ultimate In-Depth Chemical Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) profiles in diamond was achieved by the determination of the depth resolution function (DRF). The measurement of this DRF was performed thanks to isotopic-enriched diamond. Applied to boron delta-doped diamond structures, this analysis has resolved edge widths close to 0.3 nm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Current Issues and Problems in the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...FOR DIAMOND COATINGS, JOURNAL...TO DIAMOND COATINGS, THIN SOLID...SAVVIDES, N, OPTICAL-CONSTANTS...DIAMOND CERAMIC COATING OF THE FUTURE...AND THEIR APPLICATION AS OVERCOATS ON THIN-FILM MEDIA FOR...EFFECT IN THE CVD GROWTH OF...

Walter A. Yarbrough; Russell Messier

1990-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

156

Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, , Ronald D Available online xxxx Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma Diamond-like carbon deposition DLC PECVD The atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) has been

Hicks, Robert F.

157

Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Phase Diamond at High Temperature and Its Release  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this proposed research were: 91) Separation and storage of hydrogen on nanophase diamonds. It is expected that the produced hydrogen, which will be in a mixture, can be directed to a nanophase diamond system directly, which will not only store the hydrogen, but also separate it from the gas mixture, and (2) release of the stored hydrogen from the nanophase diamond.

Tushar K Ghosh

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

158

BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO October 27, 1989 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Prepared by: R.F. Weston/Office of Technical Services BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a program to identify and examine the radiological conditions at sites used in the early years of nuclear energy development by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer's Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), is administered by the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy through the

159

Is Graphite a Diamonds Best Friend? New Information on Material  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

November 18th, 2003 November 18th, 2003 Is Graphite a Diamond's Best Friend? New Information on Material Transformation Science has yet to achieve the alchemist's dream of turning lead into gold. But a group of re-searchers using the GeoSoilEn-viroCARS (GSECARS) and High-Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HP-CAT) facilities at the Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, may have found a way to turn ordinary soft graphite (source of the "lead" found in pencils) into a new, super-hard material that "looks" just like diamond. Using the high-brilliance x-ray beams from the APS, the group discovered that, under extreme pressure, graphite (among the softest of materials and the source of the lead found in pencils) becomes as hard as diamond, the

160

Photonic nano-structures on (111)-oriented diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the fabrication of single-crystalline diamond nanopillars on a (111)-oriented chemical vapor deposited diamond substrate. This crystal orientation offers optimal coupling of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center emission to the nanopillar mode and is thus advantageous over previous approaches. We characterize single native NV centers in these nanopillars and find one of the highest reported saturated fluorescence count rates in single crystalline diamond in excess of 10{sup 6} counts per second. We show that our nano-fabrication procedure conserves the preferential alignment as well as the spin coherence of the NVs in our structures. Our results will enable a new generation of highly sensitive probes for NV magnetometry and pave the way toward photonic crystals with optimal orientation of the NV center's emission dipole.

Neu, Elke; Appel, Patrick; Ganzhorn, Marc; Miguel-Sánchez, Javier; Maletinsky, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.maletinsky@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Lesik, Margarita; Jacques, Vincent [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud and Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, F-91405 Orsay (France); Mille, Vianney; Tallaire, Alexandre; Achard, Jocelyn [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (CNRS UPR 3407), F-93430 Villetaneuse (France)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Capacitively coupled RF diamond-like-carbon reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of coating a non-conductive fiber with diamond-like carbon, including passing a non-conductive fiber between a pair of parallel metal grids within a reaction chamber, introducing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber, forming a plasma within the reaction chamber for a sufficient period of time whereby diamond-like carbon is formed upon the non-conductive fiber, is provided together with a reactor chamber for deposition of diamond-like carbon upon a non-conductive fiber, including a vacuum chamber, a cathode assembly including a pair of electrically isolated opposingly parallel metal grids spaced apart at a distance of less than about 1 centimeter, an anode, a means of introducing a hydrocarbon gas into said vacuum chamber, and a means of generating a plasma within said vacuum chamber.

Devlin, David James (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don Mayo (Santa Fe, NM); Archuleta, Thomas Arthur (Espanola, NM); Barbero, Robert Steven (Santa Cruz, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Diamond-Silicon Carbide Composite And Method For Preparation Thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5-8 GPa, T=1400K-2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.multidot.m.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

Qian, Jiang (Los Alamos, NM); Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

163

Smooth diamond films as low friction, long wear surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article and method of manufacture of a nanocrystalline diamond film. The nanocrystalline film is prepared by forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing an inert gas containing gas stream and combining the gas stream with the carbonaceous containing vapor. A plasma of the combined vapor and gas stream is formed in a chamber and fragmented carbon species are deposited onto a substrate to form the nanocrystalline diamond film having a root mean square flatness of about 50 nm deviation from flatness in the as deposited state.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Bindal, Cuma (Woodridge, IL); Zuiker, Christopher D. (LaGrange, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Polycrystal diamond growth in a microwave plasma torch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond films of different structures were deposited on quartz, WC-Co, and molybdenum substrates in a microwave plasma torch discharge in an argon-hydrogen-methane gas mixture in a sealed chamber at pressures close to atmospheric by using the chemical vapor deposition technique. Images of diamond polycrystal films and separate crystals, as well as results of Raman spectroscopy, are presented. The spectra of optical plasma radiation recorded during film deposition demonstrate the presence of intense H{sub {alpha}} hydrogen and C{sub 2} radical bands known as Swan bands.

Sergeichev, K. F.; Lukina, N. A.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Arutyunyan, N. R.; Vlasov, I. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Laser-processed three dimensional graphitic electrodes for diamond radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used an original approach for diamond detectors where three dimensional buried graphitic electrodes are processed in the bulk of a diamond substrate via laser-induced graphitization. Prototype made of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond was fabricated using a nanosecond UV laser. Its charge collection efficiency was evaluated using ?-particles emitted by a 241-Americium source. An improved charge collection efficiency was measured proving that laser micro-machining of diamond is a valid option for the future fabrication of three dimensional diamond detectors.

Caylar, Beno?-carett; Pomorski, Michal; Bergonzo, Philippe [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)] [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

167

Controlled incorporation of mid-to-high Z transition metals in CVD diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a general method to fabricate transition metal related defects in diamond. Controlled incorporation of Mo and W in synthetic CVD diamond was achieved by adding volatile metal precursors to the diamond chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth process. Effects of deposition temperature, grain structure and precursor exposure on the doping level were systematically studied, and doping levels of up to 0.25 at.% have been achieved. The metal atoms are uniformly distributed throughout the diamond grains without any indication of inclusion formation. These results are discussed in context of the kinetically controlled growth process of CVD diamond.

Biener, M M; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, Y M; El-Dasher, B; Teslich, N E; Hamza, A V; Obloh, H; Mueller-Sebert, W; Wolfer, M; Fuchs, T; Grimm, M; Kriele, A; Wild, C

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

168

A Photo-Stimulated Low Electron Temperature High Current Diamond Film Field  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Photo-Stimulated Low Electron Temperature High Current Diamond A Photo-Stimulated Low Electron Temperature High Current Diamond Film Field Emission Cathode A Photo-Stimulated Low Electron Temperature High Current Diamond Film Field Emission Cathode Nanostructure diamond cathodes can operate at relatively moderate vacuum pressures due to the inert surface/vacuum interface. September 27, 2013 A Photo-Stimulated Low Electron Temperature High Current Diamond Film Field Emission Cathode Researchers at LANL have developed a novel, ultra-high-quality, robust electron source, which uses nanostructured polycrystalline diamond in a matrix with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs). Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email A Photo-Stimulated Low Electron Temperature High Current Diamond Film Field Emission Cathode

169

The chemistry of halogens on diamond: effects on growth and electron emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond growth using halogenated precursors was studied in several diamond growth reactors. In a conventionao plasma reactor, diamond growth using the following gas mixtures was studied: CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}F/H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}CL/H{sub 2}. Both the diamond growth measurements demonstrated ineffective transport of halogen radicals to the diamond surface during the growth process. In order to transport radical halogen species to the diamond surface during growth, a flow-tube reactor was constructed which minimized gas phase reactions. Also, the flow-tube reactor enabled pulsed gs transport to the diamond surface by fast-acting valves. Molecular beam mass spectroscopy was used to find condition which resulted in atomic hydrogen and/or atomic fluorine transport to the growing diamond surface. Although such conditions were found, they required very low pressures (0.5 Torr and below); these low pressures produce radical fluxes which are too low to sustain a reasonable diamond growth rate. The sequential reactor at Stanford was modified to add a halogen-growth step to the conventinoal atomic hydrogen/atomic carbon diamond growth cycle. Since the atomic fluorine, hydrogen and carbon environments are independent in the sequential reactor, the effect of fluorine on diamond growth could be studied independently of gas phase reactions. Although the diamond growth rate was increased by the use of fluorine, the film quality was seen to deteriorate as well as the substrate surface. Moreover, materials incompatibilities with fluorine significantly limited the use of fluorine in this reactor. A diamond growth model incorporating both gas phase and surface reactions was developed for the halocarbon system concurrent with the film growth efforts. In this report, we review the results of the growth experiments, the modeling, and additional experiments done to understand fluorine with diamond surfaces.

Hsu, W.L.; Pan, L.S.; Brown, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

LEFT The electron gun at the Diamond Synchrotron in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LEFT The electron gun at the Diamond Synchrotron in Didcot, Oxfordshire WWW.HOWITWORKSDAILY.COM026" Electron guns are a very versatile electrical component. They are essential to a number of devices, from 3D currents. When installed in an electrical device's vacuum tube, the gun turns electrons and ions

Crowther, Paul

171

Single Crystal Diamond Beam Position Monitors with Radiofrequency Electronic Readout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the energy range 5{approx}30 keV a suitably contacted, thin ({approx}100 {mu}m) diamond plate can be operated in situ as a continuous monitor of X-ray beam intensity and position as the diamond absorbs only a small percentage of the incident beam. Single crystal diamond is a completely homogeneous material showing fast (ns), spatially uniform signal response and negligible (diamond beam position monitors of simple quadrant electrode designs with metal contacts, operated using wideband electronic readout corresponding to the RF accelerator frequency. The instrumentation for these monitors must cover a large range of operating conditions: different beam sizes, fluxes, energies and time structure corresponding to the synchrotron fill patterns. Sophisticated new RF sampling electronics can satisfy most requirements: using a modified Libera Brilliance readout system, we measured the center of gravity position of a 25 {mu}m beam at the DORIS III F4 beam line at a rate of 130 Msample/s with narrowband filtering of a few MHz bandwidth. Digitally averaging the signal further provided a spatial resolution {approx}20 nm.

Solar, B.; Graafsma, H.; Potdevin, G.; Trunk, U. [Hasylab, Deutsches Elektronen Synchroton, Hamburg (Germany); Morse, J.; Salome, M. [Instrumentation Services and Development Division, European Synchroton Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

172

Diamond Lattice Model of Semicrystalline Polyethylene in the Amorphous Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diamond Lattice Model of Semicrystalline Polyethylene in the Amorphous Region Zhong­Hui Duan Abstract The statistics of polyethylene chains in the amorphous region between two crystallites have been as models of the chain molecules in the amorphous region of semicrystalline polyethylene, both

Aluffi, Paolo

173

An UV-range photodetector based on a diamond photosensor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new UV-range photodetector based on a diamond one-element photosensor has been designed, manufactured and studied. The photodetector possesses the operating range between 180 and 225 nm (the maximum is attained around 220 nm), and the threshold of ...

V. S. Feshchenko; A. A. Altukhov; S. A. L'Vov; Yu. A. Mityagin; V. A. Shepelev

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

New route to the fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films offer applications in various fields, but the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and destructive. A major breakthrough has been achieved by our group in the direction of a non-destructive, scalable, and economic process of NCD thin-film fabrication. Here, we report a cheap precursor for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond in the form of paraffin wax. We show that NCD thin films can be fabricated on a copper support by using simple, commonplace paraffin wax under reaction conditions of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD). Surprisingly, even the presence of any catalyst or seeding that has been conventionally used in the state-of-the-art is not required. The structure of the obtained films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K-edge region confirm the presence of nanocrystalline diamond. The process is a significant step towards cost-effective and non-cumbersome fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for commercial production.

Varshney, Deepak, E-mail: deepvar20@gmail.com; Morell, Gerardo [Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, Puerto Rico (United States); Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PO Box 70377, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States); Palomino, Javier; Resto, Oscar [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PO Box 70377, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States); Gil, Jennifer [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States); Weiner, Brad R. [Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, Puerto Rico (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

175

Synthesis and characterization of a nanocrystalline diamond aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...this nanocrystalline diamond aerogel. Aerogels are a fascinating class of high surface-area...been made in the case of polycrystalline aerogels through the oxidative aggregation of...radiation detector with high density aerogels . IEEE T Nucl Sci 56 : 1475 – 1478 . 7 Schaefer...

Peter J. Pauzauskie; Jonathan C. Crowhurst; Marcus A. Worsley; Ted A. Laurence; A. L. David Kilcoyne; Yinmin Wang; Trevor M. Willey; Kenneth S. Visbeck; Sirine C. Fakra; William J. Evans; Joseph M. Zaug; Joe H. Satcher; Jr.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Low substrate temperature deposition of diamond coatings derived from glassy carbon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for depositing a diamond coating on a substrate at temperatures less than about 550 C. A powder mixture of glassy carbon and diamond particles is passed through a high velocity oxy-flame apparatus whereupon the powders are heated prior to impingement at high velocity against the substrate. The powder mixture contains between 5 and 50 powder volume percent of the diamond particles, and preferably between 5 and 15 powder volume percent. The particles have a size from about 5 to about 100 micrometers, with the diamond particles being about 5 to about 30 micrometers. The flame of the apparatus provides a velocity of about 350 to about 1000 meters per second, with the result that upon impingement upon the substrate, the glassy carbon is phase transformed to diamond as coaxed by the diamond content of the powder mixture. 2 figs.

Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Seals, R.D.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

177

Black Diamond, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Diamond, Washington: Energy Resources Diamond, Washington: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 47.3087121°, -122.0031691° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.3087121,"lon":-122.0031691,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

178

Strategies for improving traffic operations at oversaturated signalized diamond interchanges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

street improvement goals should include improved traffic flow along with reductions in congestion, air pollution, and energy use, without major new construction. Super-street arterials, which are multi-lane arterials with limited access and a limited...STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING TRAFFIC OPERATIONS AT OVERSATURATED SIGNALIZED DIAMOND INTERCHANGES A Thesis by GEORGE CURTIS HERRICK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Herrick, George Curtis

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Method of forming fluorine-bearing diamond layer on substrates, including tool substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a fluorine-bearing diamond layer on non-diamond substrates, especially on tool substrates comprising a metal matrix and hard particles, such as tungsten carbide particles, in the metal matrix. The substrate and a fluorine-bearing plasma or other gas are then contacted under temperature and pressure conditions effective to nucleate fluorine-bearing diamond on the substrate. A tool insert substrate is treated prior to the diamond nucleation and growth operation by etching both the metal matrix and the hard particles using suitable etchants.

Chang, R. P. H. (Glenview, IL); Grannen, Kevin J. (Evanston, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Perfect preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy defects in a synthetic diamond sample  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that the orientation of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in diamond can be efficiently controlled through chemical vapor deposition growth on a (111)-oriented diamond substrate. More precisely, we demonstrate that spontaneously generated NV defects are oriented with a ?97% probability along the [111] axis, corresponding to the most appealing orientation among the four possible crystallographic axes. Such a nearly perfect preferential orientation is explained by analyzing the diamond growth mechanism on a (111)-oriented substrate and could be extended to other types of defects. This work is a significant step towards the design of optimized diamond samples for quantum information and sensing applications.

Lesik, M.; Roch, J.-F. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud and Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, 91405 Orsay (France); Tetienne, J.-P.; Jacques, V., E-mail: vjacques@ens-cachan.fr [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud and Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, 91405 Orsay (France); Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moléculaire, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan and CNRS UMR 8537, 94235 Cachan (France); Tallaire, A., E-mail: alexandre.tallaire@lspm.cnrs.fr; Achard, J.; Mille, V.; Gicquel, A. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, CNRS and Université Paris 13, 93340 Villetaneuse (France)

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

New Superhard Form of Carbon Dents Diamond | U.S. DOE Office...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

exists in many different structures, each having different properties (e.g. graphite, graphene, and diamond). This research demonstrated yet another structure that is superhard,...

182

Corrosive Resistant Diamond Coatings for the Acid Based Thermo-Chemical Hydrogen Cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was designed to test diamond, diamond-like and related materials in environments that are expected in thermochemical cycles. Our goals were to build a High Temperature Corrosion Resistance (HTCR) test stand and begin testing the corrosive properties of barious materials in a high temperature acidic environment in the first year. Overall, we planned to test 54 samples each of diamond and diamond-like films (of 1 cm x 1 cm area). In addition we use a corrosion acceleration method by treating the samples at a temperature much larger than the expected operating temperature. Half of the samples will be treated with boron using the FEDOA process.

Mark A. Prelas

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

183

E-Print Network 3.0 - adherent diamond-like carbon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science and Metallurgy, Composites and Coatings Group Collection: Materials Science 31 Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b,...

184

Characterization of hydrocarbons found in the arctic aquatic environment near the Ekati diamond mine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment of the Ekati Diamond Mine were evaluated in snow, sediment, air and water (via passive membrane samplers).… (more)

Nabess, Stephanie Ann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Origin of sub-lithospheric diamonds from the Juina-5 kimberlite (Brazil): constraints from carbon isotopes and inclusion compositions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Forty-one diamonds sourced from the Juina-5 kimberlite pipe in Southern Brazil, which contain optically identifiable inclusions, have been studied using an integrated approach. The diamonds contain <20 ppm ni...

A. R. Thomson; S. C. Kohn; G. P. Bulanova…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical February 2005 Available online 7 April 2005 Abstract The presence of thin silicon carbide intermediate of carbon atoms into the silicon carbide layer and the morphology and orientation of the diamond film

Dandy, David

187

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor S. W. Reevea) and W. A precursor in our dc arcjet reactor.1 Based on conclusions drawn from that work, an optimization strategy diamond film growth in a dc arcjet chemical vapor deposition reactor has been developed. Introducing

Dandy, David

188

Current Issues and Problems in the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...SEMICONDUCTORS DIAMOND, GALLIUM NITRIDE AND SILICON-CARBIDE...FROM METHANE HYDROGEN WATER MIXED GAS-USING A MICROWAVE...diamond and cubic boron nitride (c-BN; Bora-zon...be related to a high solubility or mobility for C on...

Walter A. Yarbrough; Russell Messier

1990-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

189

Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond–like carbon, and nanodiamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...varying excitation energy. By visible and ultra- violet excitation measurements, the...diamond, also refereed to as nanodiamond or ultra-nanocrystalline diamond. The chemical...phononfrequency(cm-1) M K GE aexp GE ath exp. MK M K GE aexp GI ath q = (0, , 0) q...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres P and A. Yacoby1 * The nitrogen-vacancy defect centre in diamond1­4 has potential applications processing9 and bioimaging10 . These applications rely on the ability to pos- ition a single nitrogen-vacancy

Walsworth, Ronald L.

191

Vacuum encapsulated hermetically sealed diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first cold-weld ring disposed between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and a second cold-weld ring disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the diamond window element. The cathode capsule is formed by a vacuum cold-weld process such that the first cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and the second cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the diamond window element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

Rao, Triveni; Walsh, John; Gangone, Elizabeth

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

Structure and superconductivity of isotope-enriched boron-doped diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconducting boron-doped diamond samples were synthesized with isotopes of {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C. We claim the presence of a carbon isotope effect on the superconducting transition temperature, which supports the 'diamond-carbon'-related nature of superconductivity and the importance of the electron-phonon interaction as the mechanism of superconductivity in diamond. Isotope substitution permits us to relate almost all bands in the Raman spectra of heavily boron-doped diamond to the vibrations of carbon atoms. The 500 cm{sup 01} Raman band shifts with either carbon or boron isotope substitution and may be associated with vibrations of paired or clustered boron. The absence of a superconducting transition (down to 1.6 K) in diamonds synthesized in the Co-C-B system at 1900 K correlates with the small boron concentration deduced from lattice parameters.

Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ekimov, E A [INSTIT OF HIGH PRESSURE; Sidorov, V A [INSTIT OF HIGH PRESSURE; Zoteev, A [MOSCOW SU; Lebed, Y [INST FOR NUCI RES; Stishov, S M [INST FOR HIGH PRESSURE

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Enhancement of the nucleation of smooth and dense nanocrystalline diamond films by using molybdenum seed layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for the nucleation enhancement of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on silicon substrates at low temperature is discussed. A sputter deposition of a Mo seed layer with thickness 50 nm on Si substrates was applied followed by an ultrasonic seeding step with nanosized detonation diamond powders. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) was used to nucleate and grow NCD films on substrates heated up at 550 deg. C. The nucleation of diamond and the early stages of NCD film formation were investigated at different methane percentages in methane/hydrogen gas mixtures by atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and grazing incidence x-ray analyses in order to gain specific insight in the nucleation process of NCD films. The nucleation kinetics of diamond on the Mo-coated Si substrates was found to be up to ten times higher than on blank Si substrates. The enhancement of the nucleation of diamond on thin Mo interlayers results from two effects, namely, (a) the nanometer rough Mo surface shows an improved embedding of ultrasonically introduced nanosized diamond seeds that act as starting points for the diamond nucleation during HF-CVD and (b) the rapid carbonization of the Mo surface causes the formation of Mo{sub 2}C onto which diamond easily nucleates. The diamond nucleation density progressively increases at increasing methane percentages and is about 5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} at 4.0% methane. The improved nucleation kinetics of diamond on Mo interlayers facilitates the rapid formation of NCD films possessing a very low surface roughness down to {approx}6 nm, and allows a submicron thickness control.

Buijnsters, J. G. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dreumel, G. W. G. van; Meulen, J. J. ter; Enckevort, W. J. P. van [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Celis, J. P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Diamond Patterns in the Cellular Front of an Overdriven Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonlinear integral-differential equation describing the cellular front of an overdriven detonation is obtained by an analysis carried out in the neighborhood of the instability threshold. The analysis reveals both an unusual mean streaming motion, resulting from the rotational part of the oscillatory flow, and pressure bursts generated by the crossover of cusps representative of Mach stems propagating on the detonation front. A numerical study of the nonlinear equation exhibits the “diamond” patterns observed in experiments. An overall physical understanding is provided.

P. Clavin and B. Denet

2002-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

195

Nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging with a single diamond NV center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid-state quantum emitters, such as artificially engineered quantum dots or naturally occurring defects in solids, are being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to biomedical imaging. Recently, these same systems have also been studied from the perspective of nanoscale metrology. In this letter we study the near-field optical properties of a diamond nanocrystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy center. We find that the nitrogen vacancy center is a sensitive probe of the surrounding electromagnetic mode structure. We exploit this sensitivity to demonstrate nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with a single nitrogen vacancy center by imaging the local density of states of an optical antenna.

Ryan Beams; Dallas Smith; Timothy W. Johnson; Sang-Hyun Oh; Lukas Novotny; Nick Vamivakas

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

196

Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of synthetic diamond using an in situ nitrogen delta-doping technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Despite their proximity to the surface, doped NV centers with depths (d) ranging from 5 to 100 nm display long spin coherence times, T{sub 2} > 100 {mu}s at d = 5 nm and T{sub 2} > 600 {mu}s at d {>=} 50 nm. The consistently long spin coherence observed in such shallow NV centers enables applications such as atomic-scale external spin sensing and hybrid quantum architectures.

Ohno, Kenichi; Joseph Heremans, F.; Bassett, Lee C.; Myers, Bryan A.; Toyli, David M.; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.; Palmstrom, Christopher J.; Awschalom, David D. [Center for Spintronics and Quantum Computation, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

197

Diamond Willow Wind (08) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Willow Wind (08) Wind Farm Willow Wind (08) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Diamond Willow Wind (08) Wind Farm Facility Diamond Willow Wind (08) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Montana-Dakota Utilities Developer Montana-Dakota Utilities Energy Purchaser Montana-Dakota Utilities Location Near Baker MT Coordinates 46.268046°, -104.201742° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":46.268046,"lon":-104.201742,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

198

Diamond Willow Wind (07) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind (07) Wind Farm Wind (07) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Diamond Willow Wind (07) Wind Farm Facility Diamond Willow Wind (07) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Montana-Dakota Utilities Developer Montana-Dakota Utilities Energy Purchaser Montana-Dakota Utilities Location Near Baker MT Coordinates 46.274903°, -104.183013° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":46.274903,"lon":-104.183013,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

199

Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Colour centres in diamond have emerged as versatile tools for solid-state quantum technologies ranging from quantum information to metrology, where the nitrogen-vacancy centre is the most studied to-date. Recently, this toolbox has expanded to include different materials for their nanofabrication opportunities, and novel colour centres to realize more efficient spin-photon quantum interfaces. Of these, the silicon-vacancy centre stands out with ultrabright single photon emission predominantly into the desirable zero-phonon line. The challenge for utilizing this centre is to realise the hitherto elusive optical access to its electronic spin. Here, we report spin-tagged resonance fluorescence from the negatively charged silicon-vacancy centre. In low-strain bulk diamond spin-selective excitation under finite magnetic field reveals a spin-state purity approaching unity in the excited state. We also investigate the effect of strain on the centres in nanodiamonds and discuss how spin selectivity in the excited state remains accessible in this regime.

Tina Muller; Christian Hepp; Benjamin Pingault; Elke Neu; Stefan Gsell; Matthias Schreck; Hadwig Sternschulte; Doris Steinmueller-Nethl; Christoph Becher; Mete Atature

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

200

Mechanical stiffness and dissipation in ultrananocrystalline diamond micro-resonators.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have characterized mechanical properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films grown using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique at 680 C, significantly lower than the conventional growth temperature of {approx}800 C. The films have {approx}4.3% sp{sup 2} content in the near-surface region as revealed by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The films, {approx}1 {micro}m thick, exhibit a net residual compressive stress of 370 {+-} 1 MPa averaged over the entire 150 mm wafer. UNCD microcantilever resonator structures and overhanging ledges were fabricated using lithography, dry etching, and wet release techniques. Overhanging ledges of the films released from the substrate exhibited periodic undulations due to stress relaxation. This was used to determine a biaxial modulus of 838 {+-} 2 GPa. Resonant excitation and ring-down measurements in the kHz frequency range of the microcantilevers were conducted under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions in a customized UHV atomic force microscope system to determine Young's modulus as well as mechanical dissipation of cantilever structures at room temperature. Young's modulus is found to be 790 {+-} 30 GPa. Based on these measurements, Poisson's ratio is estimated to be 0.057 {+-} 0.038. The quality factors (Q) of these resonators ranged from 5000 to 16000. These Q values are lower than theoretically expected from the intrinsic properties of diamond. The results indicate that surface and bulk defects are the main contributors to the observed dissipation in UNCD resonators.

Sumant, A. V.; Adiga, V. P.; Suresh, S.; Gudeman, C.; Auciello, O.; Carlis, J. A.; Carpick, R. W.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) is a novel approach to generating electrons. By following the primary electron beam, which is generated by traditional electron sources, with an amplifier, the electron beam available to the eventual application is increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in current. Diamond has a very wide band gap of 5.47eV which allows for a good negative electron affinity with simple hydrogenation, diamond can hold more than 2000MV/m field before breakdown. Diamond also provides the best rigidity among all materials. These two characters offer the capability of applying high voltage across very thin diamond film to achieve high SEY and desired emission phase. The diamond amplifier also is capable of handling a large heat load by conduction and sub-nanosecond pulse input. The preparation of the diamond amplifier includes thinning and polishing, cleaning with acid etching, metallization, and hydrogenation. The best mechanical polishing available can provide high purity single crystal diamond films with no less than 100 {micro}m thickness and <15 nm Ra surface roughness. The ideal thickness for 700MHz beam is {approx}30 {micro}m, which requires further thinning with RIE or laser ablation. RIE can achieve atomic layer removal precision and roughness eventually, but the time consumption for this procedure is very significant. Laser ablation proved that with <266nm ps laser beam, the ablation process on the diamond can easily achieve removing a few microns per hour from the surface and <100nm roughness. For amplifier application, laser ablation is an adequate and efficient process to make ultra thin diamond wafers following mechanical polishing. Hydrogenation will terminate the diamond surface with monolayer of hydrogen, and form NEA so that secondary electrons in the conduction band can escape into the vacuum. The method is using hydrogen cracker to strike hydrogen atoms onto the bare diamond surface to form H-C bonds. Two independent experiments were carried out to determine the transport of the electrons within the diamond and their emission at the surface. In transmission mode measurements, the diamond amplifier was coated with metal on both sides, so results simply depend only on the electron transport within the diamond. The SEY for this mode provides one secondary electron per 20eV energy, which gives the gain of more than 200 for 4.7keV (effective energy) primary electrons under 2MV/m. Laser detrapping can help the signal maintain the gain with lops pulse and duty cycle of 1.67 x 10{sup -7}. In emission mode measurements, in which the diamond is prepared as in the actual application, the SEY is {approx}20 for 700eV (effective energy) primary electrons under 1.21MV/m. The electric field applied and the primary electron energy is limited by the experiment setup, but the results show good trend toward large gain under high field. Thermal emittance of the diamond secondary emission is critical for the beam application. A careful design is setup to measure with very fine precision and accuracy of 0.01eV.

Wu,Q.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS Sidorowicz Named "Supervisor of the Year" SESS 2007: The School for Environmental Sciences with Synchrotrons Art and Science A Breakthrough in Interface Science APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots MARCH 11, 2008 Bookmark and Share Research and Design Magazine "The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory has been kept busy of late." That's the first sentence of R&D Magazine's recent overview of research results from the APS. The article highlights "a new ultrafast synchrotron x-ray full-field phase contrast imaging technique and used it to reveal

203

Unearthing the Composition of Our Planet's Core  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Unearthing the Composition of Our Planet's Core Unearthing the Composition of Our Planet's Core The chemical composition of the Earth's core is surprisingly complicated, according to high-temperature, high-pressure experiments conducted by University of Chicago scientists using the William M. Keck High Pressure Laboratory at the GSECARS facility, APS sector 13. This research has produced experimental evidence suggesting that the Earth's inner core largely consists of two exotic forms of iron (rather than one as previously thought) that appear to be alloyed with silicon. Backscattered electron image of the quenched laser-heated diamond anvil cell sample from 31 GPa and 1976K. ( J.-F. Lin et al.) Above: Backscattered electron image of the quenched laser-heated diamond anvil cell sample from 31 GPa and 1976K. ( J.-F. Lin et al.)

204

Laser Controlled Area Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

79 79 01 Effective: Page 1 of 17 05/13/11 Subject: X17B3 Laser Safety Program Documentation 1 AUTHORIZATION | Princeton University BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY LASER CONTROLLED AREA STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) This document defines the safety management program for the laser system listed below. All American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Hazard Class 3B and 4 laser systems must be documented, reviewed, and approved through use of this form. Each system must be reviewed annually. System description: A laser heating system for diamond anvil cell experiments has been installed at X17B3. A class 4 ytterbium fiber laser (IPG model YLR-100-SM-CS) is used to perform high-pressure laser heating of samples contained in diamond anvil cells. Included within this laser is a guide laser

205

Molecular dynamics of LiF melting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We performed molecular-dynamics simulations of the melting and/or freezing of LiF. The simulations were done using the Tosi-Fumi model and our own model of interatomic interactions. The latter was verified by ab initio calculations of the equation of state for LiF. We show that the recent molecular-dynamics calculations by Boehler and co-workers are not adequate and their model for the interactions is not capable of providing melting temperatures in agreement with experiment. Our calculated pressure dependence of the melting temperatures gives valuable information. We found that the B1-B2 transition in LiF at around 1 Mbar removes the discrepancy between the diamond-anvil cell and shockwave melting temperatures. An explanation of the controversy between “low” and “high” melting temperatures obtained from diamond-anvil cell experiments is suggested.

A. B. Belonoshko; R. Ahuja; B. Johansson

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Microsoft Word - DiamondB_Easement_CX.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

16, 2011 16, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEC-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Cecilia Brown Project Manager - KEWM-4 Proposed Action: Provision of funds to Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to purchase the Diamond B conservation easement. Fish and Wildlife Project No.: 2008-800-00 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.25 Transfer, lease, disposition or acquisition of interests in uncontaminated land for habitat preservation or wildlife management, and only associated buildings that support these purposes. Uncontaminated means that there will be no potential for release of substances at a level, or in a form, that would pose a threat to public health or the environment. Location: Township 28N, Range 20W, Sections 28 and 33 in Flathead County, MT

207

Calculations of electronic states in ultrasmall quantum boxes of diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electronic structure of ultrasmall quantum boxes (QBs) of diamond with (110) ( 1 1 ¯ 0 ) and (001) planes saturated by hydrogen is calculated using the extended Hückel-type nonorthogonal tight-binding method. It is shown that in contrast to the QBs with the ideal surfaces which show a clear dependence of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy on the size variation along the [001] direction the energy of the LUMO state in the QBs with a monohydrogenated dimer on the (001) surface depends little on the size variation in agreement with the experiment. It is found that the LUMO state in the latter is surfacelike in character and associated with backbonds of the surface dimers. It is also demonstrated that optical transitions across the energy gap exhibit significant oscillator strength.

Masahiko Nishida

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Diamond Amplified Photocathode at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Diamond Amplified Photocathode at BNL Diamond Amplified Photocathode at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Spinoff Applications Spinoff Archives SBIR/STTR Applications of Nuclear Science and Technology Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) News & Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: sc.np@science.doe.gov More Information » Spinoff Archives Diamond Amplified Photocathode at BNL Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Application/instrumentation: Diamond amplified photocathode Developed at: Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York Developed in: 2004-2007 Result of NP research:

209

Reactive ion etching: Optimized diamond membrane fabrication for transmission electron microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commonly used preparation method for thin diamond membranes by focused ion beam (FIB) techniques results in surface damage. Here, the authors introduce an alternative method based on reactive ion etching (RIE). To compare ...

Li, Luozhou

210

Large prolongation of free-exciton photoluminescence decay in diamond by two-photon excitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on time-resolved photoluminescence of a free-exciton in IIa chemical vapor deposition diamond crystal. Large difference between decay times for one- and two-photon excitation...

Kozák, Martin; Trojánek, František; Malý, Petr

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Rheological response and dynamics of the amphiphilic diamond phase from kinetic lattice–Boltzmann simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...diamond phase from kinetic lattice-Boltzmann simulations R.S. Saksena...are performed using a kinetic lattice-Boltzmann method. Lyotropic liquid crystals...studied previously using our lattice-Boltzmann (LB) approach (Gonzalez-Segredo...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Thermodynamic modelling of Cr-bearing garnets with implications for diamond inclusions and peridotite xenoliths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Zürich, Switzerland e Geological Survey of Western Australia, Mineral House, 100 Plain Street, East Perth zonations result from metasomatic processes. This sheds further light on peridotitic diamond inclusions

213

Growth and electrical characterisation of {delta}-doped boron layers on (111) diamond surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition protocol for the growth of {delta}-doping of boron in diamond is presented, using the (111) diamond plane as a substrate for diamond growth. AC Hall effect measurements have been performed on oxygen terminated {delta}-layers and desirable sheet carrier densities ({approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}) for field-effect transistor application are reported with mobilities in excess of what would expected for equivalent but thicker heavily boron-doped diamond films. Temperature-dependent impedance spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show that the grown layers have metallic-like electrical properties with high cut-off frequencies and low thermal impedance activation energies with estimated boron concentrations of approximately 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}.

Edgington, Robert; Jackman, Richard B. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, and Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Sato, Syunsuke; Ishiyama, Yuichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi [Department of Electronic and Photonic Systems, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Morris, Richard [Advanced SIMS Projects, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Evaluation of traffic operations at diamond interchanges using advanced actuated control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis documents an operational analysis of ographics. advanced actuated traffic control at signalized diamond interchanges. The study attempts to determine the benefits a "flexible'' phasing strategy provides to the interchange. Flexible...

Koonce, Peter John Vincent

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Optical data of meteoritic nano-diamonds from far-ultraviolet to far-infrared wavelengths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used different spectroscopic techniques to obtain a consistent quantitative absorption spectrum of a sample of meteoritic nano-diamonds in the wavelength range from the vacuum ultraviolet (0.12 $\\mu$m) to the far infrared (100 $\\mu$m). The nano-diamonds have been isolated by a chemical treatment from the Allende meteorite (Braatz et al.2000). Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) extends the optical measurements to higher energies and allows the derivation of the optical constants (n & k) by Kramers-Kronig analysis. The results can be used to restrain observations and to improve current models of the environment where the nano-diamonds are expected to have formed. We also show that the amount of nano-diamond which can be present in space is higher than previously estimated by Lewis et al. (1989).

H. Mutschke; A. C. Andersen; C. Jaeger; Th. Henning; A. Braatz

2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

216

Many-electron states of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond and spin density calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian, many-electron calculations of energy levels and corresponding wave functions of negatively charged and neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond were reported. The energies, ...

Ranjbar, Ahmad

217

Quantum nano optics of defect centers in diamond and h-BN with nano-cathodoluminescence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a cathodoluminescence-based single photon emitter detection scheme with deep subwavelength resolution. Application to NV0 centers in diamond and a new type of emitter...

Meuret, Sophie; Tizei, Luiz H; Blazit, Jean-Denis; Bourrellier, Romain; Tencé, Marcel; Zobelli, Alberto; Kociak, Mathieu

218

Pulsed ion beam methods for in situ characterization of diamond film deposition processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) have properties which in principle make them ideally suited to a wide variety of thin-film applications. Their widespread use as thin films, however, has been limited for a number of reasons related largely to the lack of understanding and control of the nucleation and growth processes. Real-time, in situ studies of the surface of the growing diamond film are experimentally difficult because these films are normally grown under a relatively high pressure of hydrogen, and conventional surface analytical methods require an ultrahigh vacuum environment. It is believed, however, that the presence of hydrogen during growth is necessary to stabilize the corrugated diamond surface structure and thereby prevent the formation of the graphitic phase. Pulsed ion beam-based analytical methods with differentially pumped ion sources and particle detectors are able to characterize the uppermost atomic layer of a film during, growth at ambient pressures 5-7 orders of magnitude higher than other surface-specific analytical methods. We describe here a system which has been developed for the purpose of determining the hydrogen concentration and bonding sites on diamond surfaces as a function of sample temperature and ambient hydrogen pressure under hot filament CVD growth conditions. It is demonstrated that as the hydrogen partial pressure increases, the saturation hydrogen coverage of the surface of a CVD diamond film increases, but that the saturation level depends on the atomic hydrogen concentration and substrate temperature.

Krauss, A.R.; Smentkowski, V.S.; Zuiker, C.D.; Gruen, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Im, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Schultz, J.A.; Waters, K. [Ionwerks Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Chang, R.P.H. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF{sub 2}/hydrogen-terminated diamond heterojunction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CaF{sub 2} films are deposited on hydrogen-terminated diamond (H-diamond) by a radio-frequency sputter-deposition technique at room temperature. Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunction are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is confirmed that there are only C-Ca bonds at the CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterointerface. Valence and conductance band offsets of the CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunciton are determined to be 3.7 {+-} 0.2 and 0.3 {+-} 0.2 eV, respectively. It shows a type I straddling band configuration. The large valence band offset suggests advantage of the CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunciton for the development of high power and high frequency field effect transistors.

Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Cheng, S. H.; Imura, M. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Koide, Y. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nanofabrication Platform, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Center of Materials Research for Low Carbon Emission (CMRLC), NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

220

Equation of state of cobalt up to 79 GPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Angle-dispersive synchrotron-radiation x-ray powder-diffraction experiments on cobalt were performed by using a diamond-anvil cell and an imaging plate. The hcp phase remained stable up to the highest pressure of 79 GPa. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are determined as B0=199±6 GPa and B0?=3.6±0.2, respectively. The axial ratio c/a continuously decreases under pressure. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

H. Fujihisa and K. Takemura

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of material that may be treated. The deposition of DLC at atmospheric pressure has been demonstrated by several researchers. Izake, et al [53] and Novikov and Dymont [54] have demonstrated an electrochemical process that is carried out with organic compounds such as methanol and acetylene dissolved in ammonia. This process requires that the substrates be immersed in the liquid [53-54]. The atmospheric pressure deposition of DLC was also demonstrated by Kulik, et al. utilizing a plasma torch. However, this process requires operating temperatures in excess of 800 oC [55]. In this report, we investigate the deposition of diamond-like carbon films using a low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The films were characterized by solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and found to have a ratio of sp2 to sp3 carbon of 43 to 57%. The films were also tested for adhesion, coefficient of friction, and dielectric strength.

Ladwig, Angela

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

222

High-power TSP bits. [Thermally Stable Polycrystalline diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews a three-year R D project to develop advanced thermally stable polycrystalline diamond (TSP) bits that can operate at power levels 5 to 10 times greater than those typically delivered by rotary rigs. These bits are designed to operate on advanced drilling motors that drill 3 to 6 times faster than rotary rigs. TSP bit design parameters that were varied during these tests include cutter size, shape, density, and orientation. Drilling tests conducted in limestone, sandstone, marble, and granite blocks showed that these optimized bits drilled many of these rocks at 500 to 1,000 ft/hr (150 to 300 m/h), compared to 50 to 100 ft/hr (15 to 30 m/h) for roller bits. These tests demonstrated that TSP bits are capable of operating at the high speeds and high torques delivered by advanced drilling motors now being developed. These advanced bits and motors are designed for use in slim-hole and horizontal drilling applications.

Cohen, J.H.; Maurer, W.C. (Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Westcott, P.A. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

The Diamond Beamline I13L for Imaging and Coherence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I13L is the first long beamline at Diamond dedicated to imaging and coherence. Two independent branches will operate in the energy range of 6-30 keV with spatial resolution on the micro- to nano-lengthscale. The Imaging branch is dedicated to imaging and tomography with In-line phase contrast and full-field microscopy on the micron to nano-length scale. Ultimate resolution will be achieved on the Coherence branch at I13L with imaging techniques in the reciprocal space. The experimental stations will be located about 250 m from the source, taking advantage of the coherence properties of the source. The beamline has some outstanding features such as the mini-beta layout of the storage ring's straight section. The optical layout is optimized for beam stability and high optical quality to preserve the coherent radiation. In the experimental stations several methods will be available, starting for the first user with in-line phase contrast imaging on the imaging branch and Coherent X-ray Diffraction (CXRD) on the coherence branch.

Rau, C. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Wagner, U.; Peach, A.; Singh, B.; Wilkin, G.; Jones, C. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Robinson, I. K. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Laboratory for Nanomaterials, University College London, London, London (United Kingdom)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

224

Electron microscopic evidence for a tribologically induced phase transformation as the origin of wear in diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tribological testing of a coarse-grained diamond layer, deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, was performed on a ring-on-ring tribometer with a diamond counterpart. The origin of the wear of diamond and of the low friction coefficient of 0.15 was studied by analyzing the microstructure of worn and unworn regions by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In the worn regions, the formation of an amorphous carbon layer with a thickness below 100?nm is observed. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of the C-K ionization edge reveals the transition from sp{sup 3}-hybridized C-atoms in crystalline diamond to a high fraction of sp{sup 2}-hybridized C-atoms in the tribo-induced amorphous C-layer within a transition region of less than 5?nm thickness. The mechanically induced phase transformation from diamond to the amorphous phase is found to be highly anisotropic which is clearly seen at a grain boundary, where the thickness of the amorphous layer above the two differently oriented grains abruptly changes.

Zhang, Xinyi; Schneider, Reinhard; Müller, Erich; Gerthsen, Dagmar [Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engesserstr. 7, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mee, Manuel; Meier, Sven [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Wöhlerstr. 11, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany); Gumbsch, Peter [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Wöhlerstr. 11, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany); Institute for Applied Materials IAM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

225

Effects of thickness and cycle parameters on fretting wear behavior of CVD diamond coatings on steel substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of low friction, high hardness, high wear resistance, as well as promising corrosion resistance. © 2010 of thermal expansion between diamond and steel may induce high stress within the deposited diamond films c a School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, PR

Bristol, University of

226

RHONEY, BRIAN KEITH. Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Truing of Metal Bond Diamond Grinding Wheels. (Under the direction of Albert Shih)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) to profile a metal bond diamond grinding wheel, and then study the wear to rotate the wheel inside a traditional wire EDM machine. Once the process proved feasible, grinding and grinding performance of the EDM trued wheel. Diamond wheels are known to exhibit low wheel wear

Shih, Albert J.

227

Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE-funded research conducted by the Swain group was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder. (Note: All potentials are reported versus Ag/AgCl (sat'd KCl) and cm{sup 2} refers to the electrode geometric area, unless otherwise stated).

Greg M. Swain, PI

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

228

Efficient readout of a single spin state in diamond via spin-to-charge conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient readout of individual electronic spins associated with atom-like impurities in the solid state is essential for applications in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We demonstrate a new method for efficient spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. The method is based on conversion of the electronic spin state of the NV to a charge state distribution, followed by single-shot readout of the charge state. Conversion is achieved through a spin-dependent photoionization process in diamond at room temperature. Using NVs in nanofabricated diamond beams, we demonstrate that the resulting spin readout noise is within a factor of three of the spin projection noise level. Applications of this technique for nanoscale magnetic sensing are discussed.

B. J. Shields; Q. P. Unterreithmeier; N. P. de Leon; H. Park; M. D. Lukin

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Nano-fabricated solid immersion lenses registered to single emitters in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a technique for fabricating micro- and nano-structures incorporating fluorescent defects in diamond with a positional accuracy in the hundreds of nanometers. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy and focused ion beam (FIB) etching we first locate a suitable defect with respect to registration marks on the diamond surface and then etch a structure using these coordinates. We demonstrate the technique here by etching an 8 micron diameter hemisphere positioned such that a single negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy defect lies at its origin. This type of structure increases the photon collection efficiency by removing refraction and aberration losses at the diamond-air interface. We make a direct comparison of the fluorescence photon count rate before and after fabrication and observe an 8-fold increase due to the presence of the hemisphere.

L. Marseglia; J. P. Hadden; A. C. Stanley-Clarke; J. P. Harrison; B. Patton; Y. -L. D. Ho; B. Naydenov; F. Jelezko; J. Meijer; P. R. Dolan; J. M. Smith; J. G. Rarity; J. L. O'Brien

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

230

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Rainer Wallny

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Harris Kagan; K.K. Gan; Richard Kass

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Photo-stimulated low electron temperature high current diamond film field emission cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electron source includes a back contact surface having a means for attaching a power source to the back contact surface. The electron source also includes a layer comprising platinum in direct contact with the back contact surface, a composite layer of single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in platinum in direct contact with the layer comprising platinum. The electron source also includes a nanocrystalline diamond layer in direct contact with the composite layer. The nanocrystalline diamond layer is doped with boron. A portion of the back contact surface is removed to reveal the underlying platinum. The electron source is contained in an evacuable container.

Shurter; Roger Philips (Los Alamos, NM), Devlin; David James (Santa Fe, NM), Moody; Nathan Andrew (Los Alamos, NM), Taccetti; Jose Martin (Santa Fe, NM), Russell; Steven John (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

233

4e-condensation in a fully frustrated Josephson junction diamond chain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fully frustrated one-dimensional diamond Josephson chains have been shown [B. Doucot and J. Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 227005 (2002)] to possess a remarkable property: The superfluid phase occurs through the condensation of pairs of Cooper pairs. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we analyze quantitatively the insulator to 4e-superfluid transition. We determine the location of the critical point and discuss the behavior of the phase-phase correlators. For comparison, we also present the case of a diamond chain at zero and 1/3 frustration where the standard 2e-condensation is observed.

Rizzi, Matteo [NEST CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Cataudella, Vittorio [COHERENTIA CNR-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit Federico II, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Fazio, Rosario [NEST CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), via Beirut 2-4, I-34014, Trieste (Italy)

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Field emission from bias-grown diamond thin films in a microwave plasma  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing diamond or diamond like films in which a negative bias is established on a substrate with an electrically conductive surface in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. The atmosphere that is subjected to microwave energy includes a source of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. The negative bias is maintained on the substrate through both the nucleation and growth phase of the film until the film is continuous. Biases between -100V and -200 are preferred. Carbon sources may be one or more of CH.sub.4, C.sub.2 H.sub.2 other hydrocarbons and fullerenes.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Ding, Ming Q. (Beijing, CN); Auciello, Orlando (Bolinbrook, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Design of flexible ultrahigh-Q microcavities in diamond-based photonic crystal slabs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We design extremely flexible ultrahigh-Q diamond-based double-heterostructure photonic crystal slab cavities by modifying the refractive index of the diamond. The refractive index changes needed for ultrahigh-Q cavities with $Q ~ 10^7$, are well within what can be achieved ($\\Delta n \\sim 0.02$). The cavity modes have relatively small volumes $Vdesign is flexible because the range of parameters, cavity length and the index changes, that enables an ultrahigh-Q is quite broad. Furthermore as the index modification is post-processed, an efficient technique to generate cavities around defect centres is achievable, improving prospects for defect-tolerant quantum architectures.

Snjezana Tomljenovic-Hanic; Andrew D. Greentree; C. Martijn de Sterke; Steven Prawer

2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

236

Isotope engineering of silicon and diamond for quantum computing and sensing applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some of the stable isotopes of silicon and carbon have zero nuclear spin, whereas many of the other elements that constitute semiconductors consist entirely of stable isotopes that have nuclear spins. Silicon and diamond crystals composed of nuclear-spin-free stable isotopes (Si-28, Si-30, or C-12) are considered to be ideal host matrixes to place spin quantum bits (qubits) for quntum computing and sensing applications because their coherent properties are not disrupted thanks to the absence of host nuclear spins. The present article describes the state-of-the-art and future perspective of silicon and diamond isotope engineering for development of quantum information processing devices.

Kohei M. Itoh; Hideyuki Watanabe

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Thermal conductance of metal-diamond interfaces at high pressure Gregory T. Hohensee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are concerned with the exchange of thermal energy across an interface between two materials. This topic-nonmetal interface, a two-temperature model predicts a thermal resistance of Rep = 1/ gL in series with the phononThermal conductance of metal-diamond interfaces at high pressure Gregory T. Hohensee Department

Cahill, David G.

238

Microcrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factor limited by thermoelastic damping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

material. For this reason, materials that have low thermal expansion coefficient and high thermal having the highest thermal conductivity (j ¼ 2200 W m�1 K�1 ) of any material at room temperature, a very measurements show thermal conductivity of 110 W m�1 K�1 for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond

Lin, Liwei

239

The Ising model for the bcc, fcc and diamond lattices; a P. H. Lundow,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Ising model for the bcc, fcc and diamond lattices; a comparison P. H. Lundow,1, K. Markstr scale Monte Carlo simulation study of the Ising model for the simple cubic lattice was recently The Ising model was formulated as a model for a uniaxial magnetic system and has become one of the most

Markström, Klas

240

Charge Transfer Equilibria Between Diamond and an Aqueous Oxygen Electrochemical Redox Couple  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to humid atmospheres are common (16...high–surface area diamond powder to small...acidity is generated by atmospheric CO 2 . In this case, the...45-GHz microwave plasma reactor supporting...coupled 13.56-MHz plasma reactor at...electrons leads to large changes...

Vidhya Chakrapani; John C. Angus; Alfred B. Anderson; Scott D. Wolter; Brian R. Stoner; Gamini U. Sumanasekera

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Growth zoning and strain patterns inside diamond crystals as revealed by Raman maps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...graphite inclusions and their surrounding diamond, including synchroton micro-analysis, is currently in process. The formation...Journal of Superhard Materials, 24, 44-52. Liu, Z., Wang, L., Zhao, Y., Cui, Q., and Zou, G. (1990) High-pressure...

Lutz Nasdala; Wolfgang Hofmeister; Jeffrey W. Harris; Jürgen Glinnemann

242

Porous Boron-Doped Diamond/Carbon Nanotube Electrodes H. Zanin,*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with BDD (large potential window, chemical inertness, low background levels), but also they have application in electronics and sensors, such B-doped diamond (BDD) films are increasingly being used and a very low background current, in addition to chemical and physical stability.7 Planar BDD electrodes

Bristol, University of

243

CVD Diamond Detectors for Current Mode Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.4 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.0 mA/W at 1000 V/mm. These values are approximately 2 to 5x times higher than those reported for natural Type IIa diamond at similar E-field and thickness (1mm). These characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to target chamber center (TCC), and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and x-rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. The acquired neutron spectra could then be used to extract DD fuel areal density from the downscattered secondary to secondary ratio.

G. J. Schmid; V. Yu. Glebov; A. V. Friensehner; D. R. Hargrove; S. P. Hatchett; N. Izumi; R. A. Lerche; T. W. Phillips; T. C. Sangster; C. Silbernagel; C. Stoecki

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Coherent interference effects in a nano-assembled diamond NV center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Rd, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Presently with Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Rd, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA paul.barclay@hp.com Abstract: Diamond nanocrystals containing NV, P. Olivero, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, and P. Hemmer, "Coherent Population Trapping

Painter, Oskar

245

Poly(phenylcarbyne): A Polymer Precursor to Diamond-Like Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...diamond-like carbon by the atmospheric pressure decomposition...therefore favored even at atmospheric pres-sure. High molecular...14. In an inert atmosphere glovebox equipped with...intensity (475 W, 20 kHz, and 0.5-inch tip...for 1:1H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3): 8 = 7...

Glenn T. Visscher; David C. Nesting; John V. Badding; Patricia A. Bianconi

1993-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

246

High-Sensitivity Temperature Sensing Using an Implanted Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Array in Diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We presented a high-sensitivity temperature detection using an implanted single Nitrogen-Vacancy center array in diamond. The high-order Thermal Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (TCPMG) method was performed on the implanted single nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond in a static magnetic field. We demonstrated that under small detunings for the two driving microwave frequencies, the oscillation frequency of the induced fluorescence of the NV center equals approximately to the average of the detunings of the two driving fields. On basis of the conclusion, the zero-field splitting D for the NV center and the corresponding temperature could be determined. The experiment showed that the coherence time for the high-order TCPMG was effectively extended, particularly up to 108 {\\mu}s for TCPMG-8, about 14 times of the value 7.7 {\\mu}s for thermal Ramsey method. This coherence time corresponded to a thermal sensitivity of 10.1 mK/Hz1/2. We also detected the temperature distribution on the surface of a diamond chip in three different circumstances by using the implanted NV center array with the TCPMG-3 method. The experiment implies the feasibility for using implanted NV centers in high-quality diamonds to detect temperatures in biology, chemistry, material science and microelectronic system with high-sensitivity and nanoscale resolution.

Junfeng Wang; Fupan Feng; Jian Zhang; Jihong Chen; Zhongcheng Zheng; Liping Guo; Wenlong Zhang; Xuerui Song; Guoping Guo; Lele Fan; Chongwen Zou; Liren Lou; Wei Zhu; Guanzhong Wang

2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

247

Studies of n-type doping and surface modification of CVD diamond for use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studies of n-type doping and surface modification of CVD diamond for use in thermionic applications the investigation of potential shallow n-type donors that are candidates to be used as thermionic emitters for converting solar energy to electrical energy. Due to the various problems associated with current n

Bristol, University of

248

Advances in PSII Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings for Use as a Corrosion Barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advances in PSII Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings for Use as a Corrosion Barrier R. S to improve corrosion resistance, however, the necessary organometallics needed to implant these materials to produce an adherent, hard, wear and, corrosion-resistant coating plays a vital role. These applications

249

Slide diamond burnishing of tool steels with adhesive coatings and diffusion layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Slide diamond burnishing of tool steels with adhesive coatings and diffusion layers W. Brostow*1 with a scratch tester. A combination of both approaches, slide burnishing with hard chrome coating and/or slide in manufacturing tools and structural elements in automotive and aerospace industries. Keywords: Tool steels, Slide

North Texas, University of

250

Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning Tim Salsbury and Rick Diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning Tim Salsbury and Rick Diamond Lawrence Berkeley of the commissioning of HVAC systems. The approach is based on software that generates a sequence of test signals for new and retrofit projects. Introduction The performance of many HVAC systems is limited more by poor

Diamond, Richard

251

Graphene-on-Diamond Devices with Increased Current-Carrying Capacity: Carbon sp2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene-on-Diamond Devices with Increased Current-Carrying Capacity: Carbon sp2 -on-sp3 Technology Laboratory, Illinois 60439, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Graphene demonstrated potential for practical applications owing to its excellent electronic and thermal properties. Typical graphene field

252

Diamonds as timing detectors for MIP: The HADES proton-beam monitor and start detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper gives an overview of a recent development of measuring time of flight of minimum-ionizing particles (MIP) with mono-crystalline diamond detectors. The application in the HADES spectrometer as well as test results obtained with proton beams are discussed.

J. Pietraszko; L. Fabbietti; W. Koenig

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

253

Diamonds as timing detectors for MIP: The HADES proton-beam monitor and start detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper gives an overview of a recent development of measuring time of flight of minimum-ionizing particles (MIP) with mono-crystalline diamond detectors. The application in the HADES spectrometer as well as test results obtained with proton beams are discussed.

,

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, , Groningen 9747AG, The Netherlands 2 Institute for Advanced...Department of Cell Biology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, , Groningen 9713AV...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm?2) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7 h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment.

Boutheina Gargouri; Olfa Dridi Gargouri; Bochra Gargouri; Souhel Kallel Trabelsi; Ridha Abdelhedi; Mohamed Bouaziz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Carbon nanotunnels form from single-walled carbon nanotubes interacting with a diamond (100)-(2 X 1) surface.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A quantum chemical study of the interaction of (5,5), (7,7), (9,9) and (8,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes with a clean (100)-(2 x 1) diamond surface is reported. Stable structures with covalent bonds at the interface were found for carbon nanotubes oriented parallel or perpendicular to the dimer rows on the reconstructed (100) surface. The binding energy of the most stable (5,5) nanotube-diamond structure is 1.7 eV/{angstrom}, and is attributed to strong covalent bonds formed between the carbon nanotube and the diamond surface. The structure of the nanotube is distorted by adsorption on the surface such that it adopts a tunnel-like geometry. Two other nanotunnel geometries were found for the (5,5) nanotube, with binding energies of 1.39 and 1.09 eV/{angstrom}. In the most stable (5,5) nanotube-diamond structure the interaction between the nanotube and the diamond surface produces a 0.6 eV band gap near the Fermi level, but the metallic character of the nanotube is maintained in the two other, less strongly bound nanotunnel structures. No charge transfer occurs between the diamond surface and the nanotunnels in any of the three orientations. Binding energies decrease with increases in tube diameter, to the extent that one of the three nanotunnel structures is not formed by (9,9) carbon nanotubes.

Horner, D. A.; Sternberg, M.; Zapol, P.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (North Central Coll.)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages and Exceptional Potential | U.S. DOE Office  

Office of Science (SC) Website

News » Featured Articles » 2012 » Dented News » Featured Articles » 2012 » Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages and Exceptional Potential News Featured Articles 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Presentations & Testimony News Archives Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 08.27.12 Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages and Exceptional Potential Office of Science supported researchers develop new material with amazing hardness and exciting possibilities. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Simulated structures showing the starting material of carbon-60 Image courtesy of Carnegie Institute of Washington Simulated structures showing the starting material of carbon-60

258

Fluorinated diamond thin films for tribological applications. Final report, April-October 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond (100) substrates have been fluorinated with both atomic and molecular fluorine under ultrahigh vacuum conditions using molecular beams. X-ray photoelectron spectra of the resulting samples indicate that atomic fluorine, F, reacts with an initial accommodation coefficient of 0.25 (+ or - 0.1) at 298 K; a saturation coverage of about three quarters of a monolayer is obtained. The carbon fluoride adlayer is thermally stable to 700 K, but slowly desorbs at temperatures above this. In contrast, molecular fluorine, F2, reacts quite slowly; a saturation coverage of less than one fifth of a monolayer after several hundred monolayers exposure to F2 at temperatures from 300 K to 700 K is achieved. In addition, diamond substrates saturated with fluorine atoms showed no loss of fluorine after exposure to beams of H2 and O2 at temperatures between 300 K and 700 K.

Freedman, A.; Stinespring, C.

1990-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

259

Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4?nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500?nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650?nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365?nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210?mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent.

?ermák, Jan, E-mail: cermakj@fzu.cz; Rezek, Bohuslav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnická 10, 16200 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Koide, Yasuo [Sensor Materials Center, National Institute for Material Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Takeuchi, Daisuke [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

260

Ultrafast electronic read-out of diamond NV centers coupled to graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonradiative transfer processes are often regarded as loss channels for an optical emitter1, since they are inherently difficult to be experimentally accessed. Recently, it has been shown that emitters, such as fluorophores and nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond, can exhibit a strong nonradiative energy transfer to graphene. So far, the energy of the transferred electronic excitations has been considered to be lost within the electron bath of the graphene. Here, we demonstrate that the trans-ferred excitations can be read-out by detecting corresponding currents with picosecond time resolution. We electrically detect the spin of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond electronically and con-trol the nonradiative transfer to graphene by electron spin resonance. Our results open the avenue for incorporating nitrogen vacancy centers as spin qubits into ultrafast electronic circuits and for harvesting non-radiative transfer processes electronically.

Brenneis, Andreas; Seifert, Max; Karl, Helmut; Brandt, Martin S; Huebl, Hans; Garrido, Jose A; Koppens, Frank H L; Holleitner, Alexander W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Diamond X-ray photodiode for white and monochromatic SR beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-purity, single-crystal CVD diamond plates are screened for quality and instrumented into a sensor assembly for quantitative characterization of flux and position sensitivity. Initial investigations have yielded encouraging results and have led to further development. Several limiting complications are observed and discussed, as well as mitigations thereof. For example, diamond quality requirements for X-ray diodes include low nitrogen impurity and crystallographic defectivity. Thin electrode windows and electronic readout performance are ultimately also critical to device performance. Promising features observed so far from prototype devices include calculable responsivity, flux linearity, position sensitivity and timing performance. Recent results from testing in high-flux and high-speed applications are described.

Keister, J.W.; Heroux, A.; Smedley, J.; Muller, E. M.; Bohon, J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Diamond pixel detector for beam profile monitoring in COMET experiment at J-PARC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the design and initial prototype results of a pixellized proton beam profile monitor for the COMET experiment at J-PARC. The goal of COMET is to look for charged lepton flavor violation by direct muon to electron conversion at a sensitivity of $0^{-19}$. An 8 GeV proton beam pulsed at 100 ns with $10^{10}$ protons/s will be used to create muons through pion production and decay. In the final experiment, the proton flux will be raised to $10^{14}$ protons/sec to increase the sensitivity. These requirements of harsh radiation tolerance and fast readout make diamond a good choice for constructing a beam profile monitor in COMET. We present first results of the characterization of single crystal diamond (scCVD) sourced from a new company, 2a systems Singapore. Our measurements indicate excellent charge collection efficiency and high carrier mobility down to cryogenic temperatures.

Cerv, M; Pernegger, H; Vageesvaran, P; Griesmayer, E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Lattices: From Oblique Vortices and Octupoles to Discrete Diamonds and Vortex Cubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We construct a variety of novel localized topological structures in the 3D discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The states can be created in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in strong optical lattices and crystals built of microresonators. These new structures, most of which have no counterparts in lower dimensions, range from multipole patterns and diagonal vortices to vortex “cubes” (stack of two quasiplanar vortices) and “diamonds” (formed by two orthogonal vortices).

R. Carretero-González; P. G. Kevrekidis; B. A. Malomed; D. J. Frantzeskakis

2005-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

264

Characterization and tribological application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were successfully prepared on glass substrates and surfaces of selenium drums via radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The...

Ning Cao; Zhen-yi Fei; Yong-xin Qi; Wen-wen Chen…

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component)- The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component) - The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

266

Signal transduction and conversion with color centers in diamond and piezo-elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability to measure weak signals such as pressure, force, electric field, and temperature with nanoscale devices and high spatial resolution offers a wide range of applications in fundamental and applied sciences. Here we present a proposal for a hybrid device composed of thin film layers of diamond with color centers implanted and piezo-active elements for the transduction and measurement of a wide variety of physical signals. The magnetic response of a piezomagnetic layer to an external stress or a stress induced by the change of electric field and temperature is shown to affect significantly the spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Under ambient conditions, realistic environmental noise and material imperfections, our detailed numerical studies show that this hybrid device can achieve significant improvements in sensitivity over the pure diamond based approach in combination with nanometer scale spatial resolution. Beyond its applications in quantum sensing the proposed hybrid architecture offers novel possibilities for engineering strong coherent couplings between nanomechanical oscillator and solid state spin qubits.

Jianming Cai; Fedor Jelezko; Martin B. Plenio

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

267

Diamond sensors and polycapillary lenses for X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond sensors are evaluated as incident beam monitors for X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. These single crystal devices pose a challenge for an energy-scanning experiment using hard X-rays due to the effect of diffraction from the crystalline sensor at energies which meet the Bragg condition. This problem is eliminated by combination with polycapillary lenses. The convergence angle of the beam exiting the lens is large compared to rocking curve widths of the diamond. A ray exiting one capillary from the lens meets the Bragg condition for any reflection at a different energy from the rays exiting adjacent capillaries. This serves to broaden each diffraction peak over a wide energy range, allowing linear measurement of incident intensity over the range of the energy scan. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data are measured with a combination of a polycapillary lens and a diamond incident beam monitor. These data are of comparable quality to data measured without a lens and with an ionization chamber monitoring the incident beam intensity.

Ravel, B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Attenkofer, K. [Photon Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)] [Photon Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Bohon, J. [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)] [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Muller, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11974-3800 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11974-3800 (United States); Smedley, J. [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)] [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Development of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings for multipurpose mechanical pump seals.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reliability and performance of silicon carbide (SiC) shaft seals on multipurpose mechanical pumps are improved by applying a protective coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). UNCD exhibits extreme hardness (97 GPa), low friction (0.1 in air) and outstanding chemical resistance. Consequently, the application of UNCD coatings to multipurpose mechanical pump seals can reduce frictional energy losses and eliminate the downtime and hazardous emissions from seal failure and leakage. In this study, UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition utilizing an argon/methane gas mixture. Prior to coating, the SiC seals were subjected to mechanical polishing using different grades of micron-sized diamond powder to produce different starting surfaces with well-controlled surface roughnesses. Following this roughening process, the seals were seeded by mechanical abrasion with diamond nanopowder, and subsequently coated with UNCD. The coated seals were subjected to dynamic wear testing performed at 3600 RPM and 100 psi for up to 10 days during which the seals were periodically removed and inspected. The UNCD-coated seals were examined using Raman microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and adhesion testing before and after the wear testing. These analyses revealed that delamination of the UNCD films was prevented when the initial SiC seal surface had an initial roughness >0.1 {micro}m. In addition, the UNCD surfaces showed no measurable wear as compared to approximately 0.2 {micro}m of wear for the untreated SiC surfaces.

Kovalchenko, A. M.; Elam, J. W.; Erdemir, A.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Libera, J. A.; Pellin, M. J.; Gruen, D. M.; Hryn, J. N. (Materials Science Division); (Georgia Inst. of Tech.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Beamlines Directory | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Beamlines Directory Beamlines Directory Filter by: L bracket Discipline: All Atomic Physics Chemistry Environmental Science GeoScience Life Sciences Materials Science Physics Polymer Science Technique: All Anomalous and resonant scattering (hard x-ray) Anomalous and resonant scattering (soft x-ray) Biohazards at the BSL2/3 level Coherent x-ray scattering Diffraction anomalous fine structure Diffuse x-ray scattering Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction Fiber diffraction Fluorescence spectroscopy General diffraction Grazing incidence diffraction Grazing incidence small-angle scattering High-energy x-ray diffraction High-pressure diamond anvil cell High-pressure multi-anvil press Inelastic x-ray scattering Inelastic x-ray scattering (1 eV resolution) Intensity fluctuation spectroscopy Large unit cell crystallography Laue

270

High pressure measurements of the He-Ne binary phase diagram at 296 K: Evidence for the stability of a stoichiometric Ne(He)2 solid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The binary phase diagram of He-Ne mixtures has been measured at 296 K in a diamond anvil cell. It is of the eutectic type with no fluid-fluid separation of phases. A homogeneous solid mixture is shown to be stable for a mole fraction of He equal to 2/3. Single-crystal synchrotron x-ray measurements indicate that this solid is ordered with 12 atoms in the unit cell. Gibbs free energy calculations support the attribution to the MgZn2 type structure. It is the first Laves phase observed in a van der Waals molecular compound,

Paul Loubeyre; Michel Jean-Louis; René LeToullec; Lydie Charon-Gérard

1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

271

Ab initio investigation of lithium on the diamond C(100) surface K. M. O'Donnell,1,2,* T. L. Martin,2,3 N. A. Fox,3 and D. Cherns3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for diamond thermionic converters currently of interest for solar power generation and heat recycling. INTRODUCTION Diamond is a promising photocathode, field emitter, and thermionic emitter due to its chemical of approximately 400 °C, too low for thermionic applications.3 As such, research into diamond thermionics has

Bristol, University of

272

Mechanical Spin Control of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond E. R. MacQuarrie, T. A. Gosavi, N. R. Jungwirth, S. A. Bhave, and G. D. Fuchs*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Spin Control of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond E. R. MacQuarrie, T. A. Gosavi, N. R 2013; published 27 November 2013) We demonstrate direct coupling between phonons and diamond nitrogen-vacancy fundamental interest as a potential mediator of spin-spin interactions [1,2]. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center

Afshari, Ehsan

273

Direct-write milling of diamond by a focused oxygen ion beam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent advances in focused ion beam technology have enabled high-resolution, direct-write nanofabrication using light ions. Studies with light ions to date have, however, focused on milling of materials where sub-surface ion beam damage does not inhibit device performance. Here we report on direct-write milling of single crystal diamond using a focused beam of oxygen ions. Material quality is assessed by Raman and luminescence analysis, and reveals that the damage layer generated by oxygen ions can be removed by nonintrusive post-processing methods such as localised electron beam induced chemical etching.

Martin, Aiden A; Botman, Aurelien; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

High stability electron field emitters made of nanocrystalline diamond coated carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report enhanced life-time stability for the electron field emitters prepared by coating nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Upon overcoming the problem of poor stability in CNTs, the NCD-CNTs exhibit excellent life-time stability of 250 min tested at different applied voltages of 600 and 900?V. In contrast, the life-time stability of CNTs is only 33 min even at relatively low voltage of 360?V and starts arcing at 400?V. Hence, the NCD-CNTs with improved life-time stability have great potential for the applications as cathodes in flat panel displays and microplasma display devices.

Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H., E-mail: nhtai@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Srinivasu, K.; Leou, K. C. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, I. N., E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

275

Evaluation of TexSIM for modeling traffic behavior at diamond interchanges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VITA 81 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Typical Diamond Interchange Configurations and Movements 2 Three-Phase Control Strategies 3 TTI Four-Phase Sequence 4 Approach Numbering Scheme for TexSIM Coding 5 Pretimed 1 Interchange Layout and Phasing... Stopped Delay 26 Model Versus Pretimed 2 (7am - 9am) Field Data Stopped Delay 51 53 53 54 54 55 27 Model Versus Field Data Interior Left Turn Stopped Delay 56 28 EfFect of Loop Detector Size on Cycle Length 60 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Study Sites...

Meadors, Allison Christine Cherry

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

276

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

277

Localized chemical switching of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a beam-directed chemical technique for controlling the charge states of near-surface luminescence centers in semiconductors. Specifically, we fluorinate the surface of H-terminated diamond by electron beam irradiation in the presence of NF3 vapor. The fluorination treatment acts as a local chemical switch that alters the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers from the neutral to the negative state. The electron beam fluorination process is highly localized and can be used to control the emission spectrum of individual nanodiamonds and surface regions scanned by the electron beam

Shanley, Toby W; Aharonovich, Igor; Toth, Milos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

Feng, Zhu (Albany, CA); Brewer, Marilee (Goleta, CA); Brown, Ian (Berkeley, CA); Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a technique to nanofabricate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond based on broad-beam nitrogen implantation through apertures in electron beam lithography resist. This method enables high-throughput nanofabrication of single NV centers on sub-100-nm length scales. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements facilitate depth profiling of the implanted nitrogen to provide three-dimensional characterization of the NV center spatial distribution. Measurements of NV center coherence with on-chip coplanar waveguides suggest a pathway for incorporating this scalable nanofabrication technique in future quantum applications.

Toyli, David M.; Weis, Christoph D.; Fuchs, D.; Schenkel, Thomas; Awschalom, David D.

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

Radiation-assisted Frenkel-Poole transport in single-crystal diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The measurement of the density of occupied states as a function of the applied electric field, performed on single-crystal chemical vapour deposition diamond by x-ray modulated photocurrent technique, is reported. Two regimes of non-linear charge transport were observed: a classical Frenkel-Poole (FP) process at high electric fields (>6800 V/cm), and a radiation-assisted transport mechanism at intermediate electric fields (2000 to 6800 V/cm), consisting of a double-step process in which the direct re-emission into the extended band occurs following multiple photo-induced FP-like hopping transitions.

Girolami, M.; Bellucci, A.; Calvani, P.; Flammini, R.; Trucchi, D. M. [CNR-IMIP, Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy)] [CNR-IMIP, Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy)

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. to activate deposition of the film on said substrate.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Stanley, James T. (Beaverton, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

All-optical high-resolution magnetic resonance using a nitrogen-vacancy spin in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose an all-optical scheme to prolong the quantum coherence of a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Optical control of the NV spin suppresses energy fluctuations of the $^{3}\\text{A}_{2}$ ground states and forms an energy gap protected subspace. By optical control, the spectral linewidth of magnetic resonance is much narrower and the measurement of the frequencies of magnetic field sources has higher resolution. The optical control also improves the sensitivity of the magnetic field detection and can provide measurement of the directions of signal sources.

Zhen-Yu Wang; Jian-Ming Cai; Alex Retzker; Martin B. Plenio

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

283

An ultra-thin diamond membrane as a transmission particle detector and vacuum window for external microbeams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several applications of external microbeam techniques demand a very accurate and controlled dose delivery. To satisfy these requirements when post-sample ion detection is not feasible, we constructed a transmission single-ion detector based on an ultra-thin diamond membrane. The negligible intrinsic noise provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and enables a hit-detection efficiency of close to 100%, even for energetic protons, while the small thickness of the membrane limits beam spreading. Moreover, because of the superb mechanical stiffness of diamond, this membrane can simultaneously serve as a vacuum window and allow the extraction of an ion microbeam into the atmosphere.

Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakši?, M. [Division of Experimental Physics, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)] [Division of Experimental Physics, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pomorski, M. [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)] [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Kada, W. [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Iwamoto, N.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

284

Remarks on Dr. L. Silberstein's Results in his Paper "On the Dispersion of the Diamond."  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dr. Silberstein begins with the assumption that dispersion in general is due to the interaction of the electromagnetic field with the electrical charges on the nuclei of atoms. In the particular case of diamond he deduces from this assumption that the charge on the nucleus of the carbon atom is 2.22 times the electronic charge. He admits that this result is not in harmony with the pan-electronists belief in the indivisibility of the electron. This conclusion justifies us in bringing into question his fundamental premises. It is the author's belief that spectrum effects are in general principally due to the revolving electrons rather than the nuclei of atoms. Reasons for this are given in a book by the author now in press. In the case of diamond, if the Silbertsein ratio, 2.22, which is corrected to read 2.246, is multiplied by the characteristic number of the tetrahedron, namely 8/3ds, the result becomes 5.99, which is very close to the whole number, 6, the atomic number of carbon. The 8/3ds would be required if the effect is due to the revolving electrons. It is pointed out that the dimensions of equations derived from electromagnetic theory by most modern writers are not correct without expressing the specific inductive capacity of the medium. In particular this point is illustrated by Dr. Silberstein's equation (9), and the subject is fully treated in the author's book referred to.

Albert C. Crehore; Ph.D.

1919-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Temperature dependence of mechanical stiffness and dissipation in ultrananocrystalline diamond films grown by the HFCVD techinque.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have characterized mechanical properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films grown using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique at 680 C, significantly lower than the conventional growth temperature of -800 C. The films have -4.3% sp{sup 2} content in the near-surface region as revealed by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The films, -1 {micro}m thick, exhibit a net residual compressive stress of 370 {+-} 1 MPa averaged over the entire 150 mm wafer. UNCD microcantilever resonator structures and overhanging ledges were fabricated using lithography, dry etching, and wet release techniques. Overhanging ledges of the films released from the substrate exhibited periodic undulations due to stress relaxation. This was used to determine a biaxial modulus of 838 {+-} 2 GPa. Resonant excitation and ring-down measurements in the kHz frequency range of the microcantilevers were conducted under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions in a customized UHV atomic force microscope system to determine Young's modulus as well as mechanical dissipation of cantilever structures at room temperature. Young's modulus is found to be 790 {+-} 30 GPa. Based on these measurements, Poisson's ratio is estimated to be 0.057 {+-} 0.038. The quality factors (Q) of these resonators ranged from 5000 to 16000. These Q values are lower than theoretically expected from the intrinsic properties of diamond. The results indicate that surface and bulk defects are the main contributors to the observed dissipation in UNCD resonators.

Adiga, V. P.; Sumant, A. V.; Suresh, S.; Gudeman, C.; Auciello, O.; Carlisle, J. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Pennsylvania; Innovative Micro Tech.; Advanced Diamond Tech.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Deposition of diamond-like carbon film using dense plasma focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports the deposition of amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on Si ?1 0 0?, using a low energy (1.45 kJ) dense plasma focus. The high purity graphite is inserted at the tip of the tapered anode, which serves as a carbon source. Silicon substrates are placed in front of the anode tip at different axial and angular positions. The films are deposited using multiple focus shots. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) are used to carry out the structural information of these deposited films. The elemental composition is studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) whereas scanning electron microscope (SEM) is employed for the study of the surface morphology. Raman spectroscopy shows the deposition of both diamond type tetragonal sp3 and graphite type trigonal sp2 films. The results point towards the formation of good quality amorphous carbon (DLC) films with higher sp3 content as compared to sp2 content. XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the films showing no additional peak except a peak at 2? = 69° which corresponds to substrate original peak Si(4 0 0). SEM results demonstrate that the smoothness of the surface decreases with increasing value of angles with respect to anode axis. The substrates placed closer to anode axis have higher carbon content as compared to those placed away from anode axis whereas carbon content decreases with increasing axial distances from anode tip.

Shaista Zeb; Mehboob Sadiq; A. Qayyum; Ghulam Murtaza; M. Zakaullah

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Carbon ion beam focusing using laser irradiated heated diamond hemispherical shells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments preformed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident Laser Facility were conducted to observe the acceleration and focusing of carbon ions via the TNSA mechanism using hemispherical diamond targets. Trident is a 200TW class laser system with 80J of 1 {micro}m, short-pulse light delivered in 0.5ps, with a peak intensity of 5 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Targets where Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamonds formed into hemispheres with a radius of curvature of 400{micro}m and a thickness of 5{micro}m. The accelerated ions from the hemisphere were diagnosed by imaging the shadow of a witness copper mesh grid located 2mm behind the target onto a film pack located 5cm behind the target. Ray tracing was used to determine the location of the ion focal spot. The TNSA mechanism favorably accelerates hydrogen found in and on the targets. To make the carbon beam detectable, targets were first heated to several hundred degrees Celsius using a CW, 532nm, 8W laser. Imaging of the carbon beam was accomplished via an auto-radiograph of a nuclear activated lithium fluoride window in the first layer of the film pack. The focus of the carbon ion beam was determined to be located 630 {+-} 110 {micro}m from the vertex of the hemisphere.

Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Penetration rate prediction for diamond bit drilling by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and multiple regressions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In many mining, civil, and petroleum engineering applications diamond bit drilling is widely used due to high penetration rate, core recovery and its ability to drill with less deviation. Recently, many research have been conducted to estimate the penetration rate of diamond drilling which can be considered as one of the most important parameters in project planning and cost estimation of the operation. A database covering the rock properties and the machine operational parameters collected from seven different drilling sites in Turkey is constructed. Construction of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and the multiple regression models for predicting the penetration rate of diamond drilling is described. In the models, rock properties such as the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock quality designation, and the equipment operational parameters like bit load and bit rotation are considered. Although the prediction performance of multiple regression models is high, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference model exhibits better performance based on the comparison of performance indicators. By using the models, penetration rate of diamond bit drilling can be predicted effectively.

H. Basarir; L. Tutluoglu; C. Karpuz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The influence of surface preparation on the electrochemistry of boron doped diamond: A study of the reduction of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advantageous electrochemical characteristics that in- clude: a wide potential window in aqueous electrolyte [2 of couples oxidation and re- duction have been observed within the available poten- tial window diamond electrodes in acidic media occurs via direct electron transfer and results in a polymeric film

Bristol, University of

290

Program plan for the development of advanced synthetic-diamond drill bits for hard-rock drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eight companys have teamed with Sandia Labs to work on five projects as part of a cooperative effort to advance the state of the ar in synthetic-diamond drill bit design and manufacture. DBS (a Baroid Company), Dennis Tool Company, Hughes Christensen Company, Maurer Engineering, Megadiamond, Security Diamond Products, Slimdril International, and Smith International. Objective of each project is to develop advanced bit technology that results in new commercial products with longer bit life and higher penetration rates in hard formations. Each project explores a different approach to synthetic-diamond cutter and bit design and, consequently, uses different approaches to developing the technology. Each of these approaches builds or the respective companies` capabilities and current product interests. Sandia`s role is to assure integration of the individual projects into a coherent program and tc provide unique testing and analytical capabilities where needed. One additional company, Amoco Production Research, will provide synthetic-diamond drill bit research expertise and field testing services for each project in the program.

Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Diamond and Related Materials, 2 (1993) 661 666 661 Degenerate four-wave mixing diagnostics of atmospheric pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application of this new spectroscopic technique to an atmospheric pressure plasma synthesis reactor. DFWM synthesis at atmospheric pressure have been performed using an r.f. inductively coupled plasma torch [1 of atmospheric pressure diamond deposition T. G. Owano and C. H. Kruger Iti~'4h7~,mperatureGasdynamies Laboratory

Zare, Richard N.

292

Salsbury and Diamond: Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning -1 -Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Diamond: Automated Testing of HVAC Systems for Commissioning - 1 - Automated Testing of HVAC Systems This paper describes an approach to the automation of the commissioning of HVAC systems. The approach of many HVAC systems is limited more by poor installation, commissioning, and maintenance than by poor

293

Development and evaluation of operational strategies for providing an integrated diamond interchange ramp-metering control system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Therefore, there is a lack of both analysis tools and operational strategies for considering them as an integrated system. One drawback of operating the ramp-metering system and the diamond interchange system in isolation is that traffic from the ramp...

Tian, Zongzhong

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

Stockpile Stewardship Quarterly, Volume 2, Number 1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

1 * May 2012 1 * May 2012 Message from the Assistant Deputy Administrator for Stockpile Stewardship, Chris Deeney Defense Programs Stockpile Stewardship in Action Volume 2, Number 1 Inside this Issue 2 LANL and ANL Complete Groundbreaking Shock Experiments at the Advanced Photon Source 3 Characterization of Activity-Size-Distribution of Nuclear Fallout 5 Modeling Mix in High-Energy-Density Plasma 6 Quality Input for Microscopic Fission Theory 8 Fiber Reinforced Composites Under Pressure: A Case Study in Non-hydrostatic Behavior in the Diamond Anvil Cell 8 Emission of Shocked Inhomogeneous Materials 9 2012 NNSA Stewardship Science Academic

295

Structural phase transition in induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high-pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exposing pressurized crystals to GeV heavy ions reveals unexpected structural changes. Irradiated at ambient conditions, natural zirconia ( ZrO 2 ) transforms from the monoclinic structure to its tetragonal (high-temperature) phase. For this process the required fluence must exceed 5 × 10 12 ions / cm 2 for Pb and U and becomes even significantly higher for lighter ions. If samples are pressurized during irradiation using diamond anvil cells, the required fluence drops at least by one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the monoclinic to tetragonal phase transition becomes larger with increasing pressure.

B. Schuster; M. Lang; R. Klein; C. Trautmann; R. Neumann; A. Benyagoub

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study of Potassium Azide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystal structure and compressibility of potassium azide was investigated by in-situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature up to 37.7 GPa. In the body-centered tetragonal (bct) phase, an anisotropic compressibility was observed with greater compressibility in the direction perpendicular to the plane containing N{sub 3}{sup -} ions than directions within that plane. The bulk modulus of the bct phase was determined to be 18.6(7) GPa. A pressure-induced phase transition may occur at 15.5 GPa.

C Ji; F Zhang; D Hong; H Zhu; J Wu; M Chyu; V Levitas; Y Ma

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Pressure dependence of phonons and excitons in InSe films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pressure dependence of the Raman spectra of phase-pure InSe thin films prepared by the low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique has been studied using a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell. Enhancement in the intensities of the Raman modes has been observed as a result of pressure-induced “tuning” of the energy of the M1-type hyperbolic exciton in InSe at ?2.54 eV through discrete incident laser photon energies. The pressure coefficients of the phonon modes and of the hyperbolic exciton in InSe have been determined.

In-Hwan Choi and Peter Y. Yu

2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

298

High-pressure structural studies of dysprosium using angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present structural results under pressure for elemental dysprosium (Dy) up to 87 GPa using in situ angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron x rays and a diamond-anvil cell. Dy exhibits the structural transition sequence, hP2{yields}hR9{yields}hP4{yields}distorted cF4, from Rietveld full-profile refinements. Clear evidence is documented for the high-pressure distorted cF4 phase observed above 45 GPa to be an orthorhombic oS8 (Cmmm) structure for Dy in the lanthanide phase diagram.

Shen Yongrong; Kumar, Ravhi S.; Cornelius, Andrew L.; Nicol, Malcolm F. [Department of Physics and High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4002 (United States)

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

X-ray absorption spectroscopy on solid krypton up to 20 GPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-pressure properties of krypton were investigated by energy-dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The equation of state agrees very well with x-ray diffraction data. The pressure dependence of the Debye-Waller factor was determined and compared with calculations using pair potentials. The analysis of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure part of the spectrum shows the possibility of measuring the pressure in bubbles of krypton implanted in metallic matrices.

A. Polian; J. P. Itie; E. Dartyge; A. Fontaine; G. Tourillon

1989-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Evaluation of the dosimetric properties of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector in high energy clinical proton beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric properties of a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diode for accurate relative dose measurements in large and small field high-energy clinical proton beams.Methods: The dosimetric properties of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector were assessed by comparison with a reference Markus parallel plate ionization chamber, an Exradin A16 microionization chamber, and Exradin T1a ion chamber. The diamond detector was operated at zero bias voltage at all times. Comparative dose distribution measurements were performed by means of Fractional depth dose curves and lateral beam profiles in clinical proton beams of energies 155 and 250 MeV for a 14 cm square cerrobend aperture and 126 MeV for 3, 2, and 1 cm diameter circular brass collimators. ICRU Report No. 78 recommended beam parameters were used to compare fractional depth dose curves and beam profiles obtained using the diamond detector and the reference ionization chamber. Warm-up/stability of the detector response and linearity with dose were evaluated in a 250 MeV proton beam and dose rate dependence was evaluated in a 126 MeV proton beam. Stem effect and the azimuthal angle dependence of the diode response were also evaluated.Results: A maximum deviation in diamond detector signal from the average reading of less than 0.5% was found during the warm-up irradiation procedure. The detector response showed a good linear behavior as a function of dose with observed deviations below 0.5% over a dose range from 50 to 500 cGy. The detector response was dose rate independent, with deviations below 0.5% in the investigated dose rates ranging from 85 to 300 cGy/min. Stem effect and azimuthal angle dependence of the diode signal were within 0.5%. Fractional depth dose curves and lateral beam profiles obtained with the diamond detector were in good agreement with those measured using reference dosimeters.Conclusions: The observed dosimetric properties of the synthetic single crystal diamond detector indicate that its behavior is proton energy independent and dose rate independent in the investigated energy and dose rate range and it is suitable for accurate relative dosimetric measurements in large as well as in small field high energy clinical proton beams.

Mandapaka, A. K.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Patyal, B. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G. [INFN–Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)] [INFN–Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

First-Principles Determination of Ultrahigh Thermal Conductivity of Boron Arsenide: A Competitor for Diamond?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have calculated the thermal conductivities (?) of cubic III-V boron compounds using a predictive first principles approach. Boron arsenide is found to have a remarkable room temperature ? over 2000??W?m-1?K-1; this is comparable to those in diamond and graphite, which are the highest bulk values known. We trace this behavior in boron arsenide to an interplay of certain basic vibrational properties that lie outside of the conventional guidelines in searching for high ? materials, and to relatively weak phonon-isotope scattering. We also find that cubic boron nitride and boron antimonide will have high ? with isotopic purification. This work provides new insight into the nature of thermal transport at a quantitative level and predicts a new ultrahigh ? material of potential interest for passive cooling applications.

L. Lindsay; D. A. Broido; T. L. Reinecke

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

302

Sidebands in Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Signals of Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study features in the optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) signals associated with negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to other paramagnetic impurities in diamond. Our results are important for understanding ODMR line shapes and for optimization of devices based on NV centers. We determine the origins of several side features to the unperturbed NV magnetic resonance by studying their magnetic field and microwave power dependences. Side resonances separated by around 130 MHz are due to hyperfine coupling between NV centers and nearest-neighbor C-13 nuclear spins. Side resonances separated by approximately {40, 260, 300} MHz are found to originate from simultaneous spin flipping of NV centers and single substitutional nitrogen atoms. All results are in agreement with the presented theoretical calculations.

Maria Simanovskaia; Kasper Jensen; Andrey Jarmola; Kurt Aulenbacher; Neil Manson; Dmitry Budker

2012-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

Zero field line in the magnetic spectra of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dependence of the luminescence of diamonds with negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV-) vs. applied magnetic field (magnetic spectrum) was studied. A narrow line in zero magnetic field was discovered. The properties of this line are considerably different from those of other narrow magnetic spectrum lines. Its magnitude is weakly dependent of the orientation of the single-crystal sample to the external magnetic field. This line is also observed in a powdered sample. The shape of the line changes greatly when excitation light polarization is varied. The magnitude of the line has a non-linear relation to excitation light intensity. For low intensities this dependence is close to a square law. To explain the mechanism giving rise to this line in the magnetic spectrum, we suggest a model based on the dipole-dipole interaction between different NV- centers.

S. V. Anishchik; V. G. Vins; A. P. Yelisseyev; N. N. Lukzen; N. L. Lavrik; V. A. Bagryansky

2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

304

Proceedings of the conference on electrochemistry of carbon allotropes: Graphite, fullerenes and diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This conference provided an opportunity for electrochemists, physicists, materials scientists and engineers to meet and exchange information on different carbon allotropes. The presentations and discussion among the participants provided a forum to develop recommendations on research and development which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes. The following topics which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes were addressed: Graphitized and disordered carbons, as Li-ion intercalation anodes for high-energy-density, high-power-density Li-based secondary batteries; Carbons as substrate materials for catalysis and electrocatalysis; Boron-doped diamond film electrodes; and Electrochemical characterization and electrosynthesis of fullerenes and fullerene-type materials. Abstracts of the presentations are presented.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Scherson, D. [ed.] [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Diamond Jet Hybrid HVOF Thermal Spray:? Rule-Based Modeling of Coating Microstructure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the computational modeling and simulation of the microstructure of coatings produced by an industrial high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process (Diamond Jet hybrid gun, Sulzer Metco, Westbury, NY). ... 1 Featured with a high gas/particle velocity and a relatively low gas/particle temperature when compared with plasma spraying, HVOF thermal spray is a powerful tool for the fabrication of coatings of metals, cermets, and composites. ... To improve coating repeatability and process performance, much experimental work has been done in the past decade to study the effects of key process parameters, such as the gas flow rate, fuel/oxygen ratio, and spray distance, on the physical and mechanical properties of HVOF thermally sprayed coatings. ...

Dan Shi; Mingheng Li; Panagiotis D. Christofides

2004-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

306

Wear mechanisms for polycrystalline-diamond compacts as utilized for drilling in geothermal environments. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work, which was performed in the period from 12/6/79 to 9/30/81 included: (1) rock cutting experiments with single point polycrystalline sintered diamond compact (PDC) cutters to quantitatively determine cutter wear rates and identify wear modes, (2) PDC rock cutting experiments to measure temperatures developed and examine the effects of tool wear, cutting parameters and coolant flow rates on temperature generation, (3) assisting in performing full scale laboratory drilling experiments with PDC bits, using preheated air to simulate geothermal drilling conditions, and in analyzing and reporting the experimental results, and (4) acting in a consulting role with the purpose of establishing design specifications for geothermal hard matrix PDC bits to be procured by Sandia Laboratories for test purposes.

Hibbs, L.E. Jr.; Sogoian, G.C.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Resolving single molecule structures with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy protocols based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond as efficient quantum sensors of protein structure. Continuous microwave driving fields are used to achieve Hartmann-Hahn resonances between NV spin sensor and proximate nuclei for selective control of nuclear spins and measurement of their polarization. Our protocols take advantage of the strong coupling between the NV sensor and the nuclei, thus facilitating coherence control of nuclear spins and relax the requirement of nuclear spin polarization. We dramatically reduce the experimental effort by employing a singular value thresholding matrix completion algorithm from signal processing to regain the resolution of protein structure based on sub-sampled data from NV based single molecule nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As an illustration, we demonstrate the power of this approach by identifying the nitrogen-Hydrogen interaction peak in an Alanine spectrum based on merely 5% of the sample data.

Matthias Kost; Jianming Cai; Martin B. Plenio

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

All-optical initialization, readout, and coherent preparation of single silicon-vacancy spins in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The silicon-vacancy ($\\mathrm{SiV}^-$) color center in diamond has attracted attention due to its unique optical properties. It exhibits spectral stability and indistinguishability that facilitate efficient generation of photons capable of demonstrating quantum interference. Here we show high fidelity optical initialization and readout of electronic spin in a single $\\mathrm{SiV}^-$ center with a spin relaxation time of $T_1=2.4\\pm0.2$ ms. Coherent population trapping (CPT) is used to demonstrate coherent preparation of dark superposition states with a spin coherence time of $T_2^\\star=35\\pm3$ ns. This is fundamentally limited by orbital relaxation, and an understanding of this process opens the way to extend coherences by engineering interactions with phonons. These results establish the $\\mathrm{SiV}^-$ center as a solid-state spin-photon interface.

Rogers, Lachlan J; Metsch, Mathias H; Sipahigil, Alp; Binder, Jan M; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Isoya, Junichi; Lukin, Mikhail D; Hemmer, Philip; Jelezko, Fedor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

In situ X-ray observations of the decomposition of brucite and the graphite–diamond conversion in aqueous fluid at high pressure and temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...?An experimental technique to make real-time observations at high pressure and temperature of the diamond-forming process in candidate material of mantle fluids as a catalyst has been established for the first...

T. Okada; W. Utsumi; H. Kaneko; M. Yamakata…

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Deposition of diamond like carbon (DLC) and C-N films using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique and evaluation of their properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamond like carbon films and C-N films were prepared using ion beam assisted deposition technique (IBAD). Tribological properties were studied by subjecting DLC coated films to the accelerated wear tests. The...

J Prabhjyot Pal; S C Patil; S B Ogale; S M Kanetkar…

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Band offsets of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition technique on hydrogenated diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-k oxide insulators (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) have been deposited on a single crystalline hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) epilayer by an atomic layer deposition technique at temperature as low as 120 Degree-Sign C. Interfacial electronic band structures are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on core-level binding energies and valence band maximum values, valence band offsets are found to be 2.9 {+-} 0.2 and 2.6 {+-} 0.2 eV for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions, respectively. Band gaps of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} have been determined to be 7.2 {+-} 0.2 and 5.4 {+-} 0.2 eV by measuring O 1s energy loss spectra, respectively. Both the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions are concluded to be type-II staggered band configurations with conduction band offsets of 1.2 {+-} 0.2 and 2.7 {+-} 0.2 eV, respectively.

Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Koide, Y. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nanofabrication Platform, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Center of Materials Research for Low Carbon Emission, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

312

Optimisation of NSLS-II Blade X-ray Beam Position Monitors: from Photoemission type to Diamond Detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimisation of blade type x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) was performed for NSLS-II undulator IVU20. Blade material, con and #64257;guration and operation principle was analysed in order to improve XBPM performance. Optimisation is based on calculation of the XBPM signal spatial distribution. Along with standard photoemission type XBPM a Diamond Detector Blades (DDB) were analysed as blades for XBPMs. DDB XBPMs can help to overcome drawbacks of the photoemission blade XBPMs.

ILINSKI P.

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

313

Effects of diamond-FET-based RNA aptamer sensing for detection of real sample of HIV-1 Tat protein  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamond is a promising material for merging solid-state and biological systems owing to its chemical stability, low background current, wide potential window and biocompatibility. The effects of surface charge density on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Trans-activator transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein binding have been investigated on a diamond field-effect transistor (FET) using ribonucleic acid (RNA) aptamers as a sensing element on a solid surface. A change in the gate potential of 91.6 mV was observed, whereby a shift in the negative direction was observed at a source-drain current of ?8 ?A in the presence of HIV-1 Tat protein bound to the RNA aptamers. Moreover, the reversible change in gate potential caused by the binding and regeneration cycles was very stable throughout cyclical detections. The stable immobilization is achieved via RNA aptamers covalently bonded to the carboxyl-terminated terephtalic acids on amine sites, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the HIV-1 Tat protein sensor. The reliable use of a real sample of HIV-1 Tat protein by an aptamer-FET was demonstrated for the first time, which showed the potential of diamond biointerfaces in clinical biosensor applications.

A. Rahim Ruslinda; Kyosuke Tanabe; Shoji Ibori; Xianfen Wang; Hiroshi Kawarada

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Metallic Glass Yields Secrets under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure of the "Swine Flu" Virus Structure of the "Swine Flu" Virus The Package Matters Disarming Deadly South American Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Pull-Chain "Polymer" Solves Puzzle of Complex Molecular Packing Discovering New Talents for Diamond Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Metallic Glass Yields Secrets under Pressure MARCH 29, 2010 Bookmark and Share Diamond anvil cell used for high-pressure experiments Metallic glasses are emerging as potentially useful materials at the frontier of materials science research. They combine the advantages-and avoid many of the problems of-normal metals and glasses, two classes of materials with a very wide range of applications. For example, metallic

315

Phase Transitions in Solids Stimulated by Simultaneous Exposure to High Pressure and Relativistic Heavy Ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many solids, heavy ions of high kinetic energy (MeV-GeV) produce long cylindrical damage trails with diameters of order 10 nm. Up to now, no information was available how solids cope with the simultaneous exposure to these energetic projectiles and to high pressure. We report the first experiments where relativistic uranium and gold ions from the SIS heavy-ion synchrotron at GSI were injected through several mm of diamond into solid samples pressurized up to 14 GPa in a diamond anvil cell. In synthetic graphite and natural zircon, the combination of pressure and ion beams triggered drastic structural changes not caused by the applied pressure or the ions alone. The modifications comprise long-range amorphization of graphite rather than individual track formation, and in the case of zircon the decomposition into nanocrystals and nucleation of the high-pressure phase reidite.

Ulrich A. Glasmacher; Maik Lang; Hans Keppler; Falko Langenhorst; Reinhard Neumann; Dieter Schardt; Christina Trautmann; Günther A. Wagner

2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

316

Thermal conductivity of diamond-loaded glues for the ATLAS particle physics detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ATLAS experiment is one of two large general-purpose particle detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. ATLAS has been collecting data from the collisions of protons since December 2009, in order to investigate the conditions that existed during the early Universe and the origins of mass, and other topics in fundamental particle physics. The innermost layers of the ATLAS detector will be exposed to the most radiation over the first few years of operation at the LHC. In particular, the layer closest to the beam pipe, the B-layer, will degrade over time due to the added radiation. To compensate for its degradation, it will be replaced with an Insertable B-Layer (IBL) around 2016. The design of and R&D for the IBL is ongoing, as the hope is to use the most current technologies in the building of this new sub-detector layer. One topic of interest is the use of more thermally conductive glues in the construction of the IBL, in order to facilitate in the dissipation of heat from the detector. In this paper the measurement and use of highly thermally conductive glues, in particular those that are diamond-loaded, will be discussed. The modified transient plane source technique for thermal conductivity is applied in characterizing the glues across a wide temperature range.

E. A. Ouellette; A. Harris

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

317

Creation of quantum entanglement with two separate diamond nitrogen vacancy centers coupled to a photonic molecule  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore the entanglement generation and the corresponding dynamics between two separate nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond nanocrystal coupled to a photonic molecule consisting of a pair of coupled photonic crystal (PC) cavities. By calculating the entanglement concurrence with readily available experimental parameters, it is found that the entanglement degree strongly depends on the cavity-cavity hopping strength and the NV-center-cavity detuning. High concurrence peak and long-lived entanglement plateau can be achieved by properly adjusting practical system parameters. Meanwhile, we also discuss the influence of the coupling strength between the NV centers and the cavity modes on the behavior of the concurrence. Such a PC-NV system can be employed for quantum entanglement generation and represents a building block for an integrated nanophotonic network in a solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics platform. In addition, the present theory can also be applied to other similar systems, such as two single quantum emitters positioned close to a microtoroidal resonator with the whispering-gallery-mode fields propagating inside the resonator.

Liu, Siping [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Yu, Rong, E-mail: rong-yu2013@163.com [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: huajia-li@163.com [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Ying [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

318

First principles calculations on Na and K-adsorbed diamond(100) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-consistent, periodic, density functional theory calculations, using PW91 functional, have been performed to investigate Na and K adsorption on the C(100)(2?1) surface. Our calculations showed that Na and K adatoms preferred to occupy valley-bridge sites at the coverage (?) of 0.5ML. For the coverage of 1ML, the combination of pedestal site and valley-bridge site turned out to be energetically favored. These findings are found to be consistent with those obtained for alkali-metal adsorption on silicon and germanium surfaces. Two desorption peaks named ? and ? for K adsorption have been observed and assigned to pedestal or bridge site and valley-bridge sites experimentally, while our results showed that the ? and ? states should be ascribed to pedestal site and valley-bridge sites and the combination of bridge and valley-bridge site is not the local minima. Work function analysis showed that when Na and K are adsorbed on diamond surface, the work function will decrease linearly with increasing coverage, up to a minimum, and finally increase again because of the depolarization of the adsorbate, agreeing well with experiments.

Nie, JL; Xiao, H Y.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Theoretical study of hydrogen-covered diamond (100) surfaces: A chemical-potential analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The bare and hydrogen-covered diamond (100) surfaces were investigated through pseudopotential density-functional calculations within the local-density approximation. Different hydrogen coverages, ranging from one to two, were considered. These corresponded to different structures (1×1, 2×1, and 3×1) and different hydrogen-carbon arrangements (monohydride, dihydride, and configurations in between). Assuming the system was in equilibrium with a hydrogen reservoir, the formation energy of each phase was expressed as a function of hydrogen chemical potential. As the chemical potential increased, the stable phase successively changed from bare 2×1 to (2×1):H, to (3×1):1.33H, and finally to the canted (1×1):2H. Setting the chemical potential at the energy per hydrogen in H2 and in a free atom gave the (3×1):1.33H and the canted (1×1):2H phase as the most stable one, respectively. However, after comparing with the formation energy of CH4, only the (2×1):H and (3×1):1.33H phases were stable against spontaneous formation of CH4. The former existed over a chemical potential range ten times wider than the latter, which may explain why the latter, despite having a low energy, has not been observed so far. Finally, the vibrational energies of the C-H stretch mode were calculated for the (2×1):H phase.

Suklyun Hong and M. Y. Chou

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Theory of Linear Optical Absorption in Diamond Shaped Graphene Quantum Dots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, optical and electronic properties of diamond shaped graphene quantum dots (DQDs) have been studied by employing large-scale electron-correlated calculations. The computations have been performed using the $\\pi$-electron Pariser-Parr-Pople model Hamiltonian, which incorporates long-range Coulomb interactions. The influence of electron-correlation effects on the ground and excited states has been included by means of the configuration-interaction approach, used at various levels. Our calculations have revealed that the absorption spectra are red-shifted with the increasing sizes of quantum dots. It has been observed that the first peak of the linear optical absorption, which represents the optical gap, is not the most intense peak. This result is in excellent agreement with the experimental data, but in stark contrast to the predictions of the tight-binding model, according to which the first peak is the most intense peak, pointing to the importance of electron-correlation effects. Furthermore, a...

Basak, Tista; Shukla, Alok

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The potential application of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films for heavy ion irradiation detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential of utilizing the ultra-nanocrystalline (UNCD) films for detecting the Au-ion irradiation was investigated. When the fluence for Au-ion irradiation is lower than the critical value (f{sub c}= 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) the turn-on field for electron field emission (EFE) process of the UNCD films decreased systematically with the increase in fluence that is correlated with the increase in sp{sup 2}-bonded phase ({pi}{sup *}-band in EELS) due to the Au-ion irradiation. The EFE properties changed irregularly, when the fluence for Au-ion irradiation exceeds this critical value. The transmission electron microscopic microstructural examinations, in conjunction with EELS spectroscopic studies, reveal that the structural change preferentially occurred in the diamond-to-Si interface for the samples experienced over critical fluence of Au-ion irradiation, viz. the crystalline SiC phase was induced in the interfacial region and the thickness of the interface decreased. These observations implied that the UNCD films could be used as irradiation detectors when the fluence for Au-ion irradiation does not exceed such a critical value.

Chen, Huang-Chin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New-Taipei, Taiwan 251 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Chen, Shih-Show [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New-Taipei, Taiwan 251 (China); Department of Information Technology and Mobile Communication, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Tamsui, New-Taipei, Taiwan 251 (China); Wang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, I-Nan; Chang, Ching-Lin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New-Taipei, Taiwan 251 (China); Lee, Chi-Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Guo, Jinghua [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Determination of the Tafel slope for oxygen evolution on boron-doped diamond electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been reported that the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes appears at high overpotential and results in unusually high Tafel slope. In this work, we have studied the OER in 1 M \\{HClO4\\} on BDD macroelectrode and microelectrodes-array (MEA). The correction of the anodic polarization curve for ohmic drop has been performed on BDD macroelectrode taking into account the total uncompensated resistance of the studied system. On BDD MEA, no correction of the polarization curve was necessary due to the small contribution of ohmic drop to the measured potential. At low overpotential (Tafel slopes (340 and 680 mV dec?1 on BDD MEA and BDD, respectively) have been observed. Such high slopes may result from the presence of surface redox couples/functional groups which act as a barrier for OER on BDD. In this potential region, the Tafel slope depends strongly on the state of the electrode surface. In the high overpotential region (>1.2 V), the Tafel slope has been found equal to 120 mV dec?1, which is the theoretical value considering a first or a second electron transfer step as the rate determining step.

Agnieszka Kapa?ka; György Fóti; Christos Comninellis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Cantilever Wide Dynamic Range Acceleration/Vibration /Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/V2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

324

Ultrananocrystalline diamond cantilever wide dynamic range acceleration/vibration/pressure sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/N2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Bolingbrook, IL)

2002-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

325

Linear muffin-tin-orbital and k?p calculations of effective masses and band structure of semiconducting diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electronic structure of semiconducting diamond is calculated by the scalar-relativistic linear muffin-tin-orbital method within the local-density approximation. Information about matrix elements, effective masses, and Luttinger parameters is extracted by comparison with k?p calculations. An extended 16×16 k?p calculation is performed using the parameters above as input so as to obtain the detailed band structure of the higher valence and lower conduction band states around the ? point in the (110) direction.

M. Willatzen; M. Cardona; N. E. Christensen

1994-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Energy levels and decoherence properties of single electron and nuclear spins in a defect center in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The coherent behavior of the single electron and single nuclear spins of a defect center in diamond and a 13C nucleus in its vicinity, respectively, are investigated. The energy levels associated with the hyperfine coupling of the electron spin of the defect center to the 13C nuclear spin are analyzed. Methods of magnetic resonance together with optical readout of single defect centers have been applied in order to observe the coherent dynamics of the electron and nuclear spins. Long coherence times, in the order of microseconds for electron spins and tens of microseconds for nuclear spins, recommend the studied system as a good experimental approach for implementing a 2-qubit gate.

I. Popa; T. Gaebel; M. Domhan; C. Wittmann; F. Jelezko; J. Wrachtrup

2004-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

327

The properties of photonic band gaps for three-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in a diamond structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) for two types of three-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of isotropic dielectric and unmagnetized plasma with diamond lattices are theoretically investigated for electromagnetic waves based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The equations for type-1 structure are theoretically deduced, which depend on the diamond lattices realization (dielectric spheres immersed in plasma background). The influences of dielectric constant of dielectric, plasma collision frequency, filling factor, and plasma frequency on PBGs are investigated, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations and the possible methods to realize the three-dimensional PPCs in experiments are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that not only the locations but also the gap/midgap ratios of the PBGs for two types of PPCs can be tuned by plasma frequency, filling factor, and the relative dielectric constant, respectively. However, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the frequency ranges and gap/midgap ratios of the PBGs for two types of PPCs.

Zhang Haifeng [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Liu Shaobin [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves of Southeast University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210096 (China); Kong Xiangkun, Chenchen; Bian Borui [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data indicated that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases; (5) Technology transfer, as part of Phase 1, was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black); (6) TerraTek prepared a design concept for the high speed drilling test stand, which was planned around the proposed high speed mud motor concept. Alternative drives for the test stand were explored; a high speed hydraulic motor concept was finally used; (7) The high speed system was modified to accommodate larger drill bits than originally planned; (8) Prototype mud turbine motors and the high speed test stand were used to drive the drill bits at high speed; (9) Three different rock types were used during the testing: Sierra White granite, Crab Orchard sandstone, and Colton sandstone. The drill bits used included diamond impregnated bits, a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit, a thermally stable PDC (TSP) bit, and a hybrid TSP and natural diamond bit; and (10) The drill bits were run at rotary speeds up to 5500 rpm and weight on bit (WOB) to 8000 lbf. During Phase 2, the ROP as measured in depth of cut per bit revolution generally increased with increased WOB. The performance was mixed with increased rotary speed, with the depth cut with the impregnated drill bit generally increasing and the TSP and hybrid TSP drill bits generally decreasing. The ROP in ft/hr generally increased with all bits with increased WOB and rotary speed. The mechanical specific energy generally improved (decreased) with increased WOB and was mixed with increased rotary speed.

TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Radiative sensitivities of tropical anvils to small ice crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sci. , 40, 1835-1850, 1983. Hack, J. J. , B. A. Boville, B.emissivity method described by Hack et al. [1993]. In the2 from [Ebert and Curry, 1992; Hack et al. , 1993] 5 = 1 -

Zender, Charles S.; Kiehl, J. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Native and induced triplet nitrogen-vacancy centers in nano- and micro-diamonds: Half-field electron paramagnetic resonance fingerprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiple frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of small (4–25?nm) nanodiamonds obtained by various dynamic synthesis techniques reveals systematic presence in the half-field (HF) region a distinctive doublet fingerprint consisting of resolved g{sub HF1}?=?4.26 and g{sub HF2}?=?4.00 signals. This feature is attributed to “forbidden” ?M{sub S}?=?2 transitions in EPR spectra of two native paramagnetic centers of triplet (S?=?1) origin designated as TR1 and TR2, characterized by zero field splitting values D{sub 1}?=?0.0950?±?0.002?cm{sup ?1} and D{sub 2}?=?0.030?±?0.005?cm{sup ?1}. Nanodiamonds of ?50?nm particle size, obtained by crushing of Ib type nitrogen rich synthetic diamonds, show only HF TR2 signal whereas the same sample undergone high energy (20 MeV) electron irradiation and thermal annealing demonstrates rise of HF TR1 signal. The same HF TR1 signals appear in the process of fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds from micron-size synthetic diamond precursors. Results obtained allow unambiguous attribution of the half-field TR1 EPR signals with g{sub HF1}?=?4.26, observed in nano- and micron-diamond powders, to triplet negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers. These signals are proposed as reliable and convenient fingerprints in both qualitative and quantitative study of fluorescent nano- and micron-diamonds.

Shames, A. I., E-mail: sham@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Osipov, V. Yu.; Vul’, A. Ya. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bardeleben, H.-J. von [Institut des Nano Sciences de Paris-INSP, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/UMR 7588 au CNRS, 7500 Paris (France); Boudou, J.-P.; Treussart, F. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud and ENS Cachan, 91405 Orsay (France)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

331

Filament seasoning and its effect on the chemistry prevailing in hot filament activated gas mixtures used in diamond chemical vapour deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK b Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK c Nuclear Physics Institute, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Russia Available online 18 June 2007 diamond [1­3]. Attrac- tions of HF ­ compared with microwave or DC arc jet ­ activation include low cost

Bristol, University of

332

Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1997 SpecialIssuePaper Electrical Properties of MetaI-Diamond-Like-Nanocomposite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. VENKATRAMAN* *Schoolof Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Engineering Research Center voltage and high temperature applications. Basic SiC processing technology has been rapidly evolving and silicon net- works terminated by oxygen. Carbon to carbon bonds are predomi- nately sp3or diamond

Woodall, Jerry M.

333

Photonic band gap in an imperfect atomic diamond lattice: Penetration depth and effects of finite size and vacancies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the effects of finite size and of vacancies on the photonic band gap recently predicted for an atomic diamond lattice. Close to a Jg=0?Je=1 atomic transition, and for atomic lattices containing up to N?3×104 atoms, we show how the density of states can be affected by both the shape of the system and the possible presence of a fraction of unoccupied lattice sites. We numerically predict and theoretically explain the presence of shape-induced border states and of vacancy-induced localized states appearing in the gap. We also investigate the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field which we compare to the case of an infinite system.

Mauro Antezza and Yvan Castin

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Nanostructural study of the thermal transformation of diamond-like amorphous carbon into an ultrahard carbon nanocomposite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We studied the structural transformation of diamond-like amorphous carbon (a-C) films into ultrahard carbon nanocomposites via postannealing to 600 C using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and small-angle scattering. Film density decreases monotonically above 200 C. Film surfaces roughen upon annealing to 300 C; however, a-C recovers its smoothness with higher temperature annealing. Finally, there exists some quasiperiodic nanostructural feature with a lattice spacing that increases with annealing, correlating well with purely a-C nanocomposite structures imaged from samples annealed at 600 C. We propose that these annealing-induced nanostructural changes are a derivative of localized stress fields in as-grown a-C films.

Martinez-Miranda, L. J.; Siegal, M. P.; Provencio, P. P.

2001-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

335

Rectification properties of n-type nanocrystalline diamond heterojunctions to p-type silicon carbide at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly rectifying heterojunctions of n-type nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films to p-type 4H-SiC substrates are fabricated to develop p-n junction diodes operable at high temperatures. In reverse bias condition, a potential barrier for holes at the interface prevents the injection of reverse leakage current from the NCD into the SiC and achieves the high rectification ratios of the order of 10{sup 7} at room temperature and 10{sup 4} even at 570?K. The mechanism of the forward current injection is described with the upward shift of the defect energy levels in the NCD to the conduction band of the SiC by forward biasing. The forward current shows different behavior from typical SiC Schottky diodes at high temperatures.

Goto, Masaki; Amano, Ryo; Shimoda, Naotaka [Graduate School of Automotive Science, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kato, Yoshimine, E-mail: yoshimine.kato@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Teii, Kungen [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

336

A diamond-based scanning probe spin sensor operating at low temperature in ultra-high vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) low temperature scanning probe microscope employing the nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond as an ultrasensitive magnetic field sensor. Using this center as an atomic-size scanning probe has enabled imaging of nanoscale magnetic fields and single spins under ambient conditions. In this article we describe an experimental setup to operate this sensor in a cryogenic UHV environment. This will extend the applicability to a variety of molecular systems due to the enhanced target spin lifetimes at low temperature and the controlled sample preparation under UHV conditions. The instrument combines a tuning-fork based atomic force microscope (AFM) with a high numeric aperture confocal microscope and the facilities for application of radio-frequency (RF) fields for spin manipulation. We verify a sample temperature of <50 K even for strong laser and RF excitation and demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging with a magnetic AFM tip.

Schaefer-Nolte, E.; Wrachtrup, J. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany) [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); 3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Reinhard, F. [3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ternes, M., E-mail: m.ternes@fkf.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, K. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany) [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matière Condenseé, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond–like carbon, and nanodiamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...possible presence of hydrogen and nitrogen. The...magnetic storage disks, car parts, biomedical...alloys, (a) without hydrogen, (b) with hydrogen...C, sp3 C and N. fuel cells. Nanostructured...classified as stage 2 car- bons with increasing...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Two-dimensional simulation of an oxy-acetylene torch diamond reactor with a detailed gas-phase and surface mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-dimensional model is presented for the hydrodynamics and chemistry of an oxy-acetylene torch reactor for chemical vapor deposition of diamond and it is validated against spectroscopy and growth rate data from the literature. The model combines the laminar equations for flow heat and mass transfer with combustion and deposition chemistries and includes multicomponent diffusion and thermodiffusion. A two-step solution approach is used. In the first step a lumped chemistry model is used to calculate the flame shape temperatures and hydrodynamics. In the second step a detailed 27 species / 119 elementary reactions gas phase chemistry model and a 41 species / 67 elementary reactions surface chemistry model are used to calculate radicals and intermediates concentrations in the gas phase and at the surface as well as growth rates. Important experimental trends are predicted correctly but there are some discrepancies. The main problem lies in the use of the Miller–Melius hydrocarbon combustion mechanism for rich oxy-acetylene flames. [J. A. Miller and C. F. Melius Combustion and Flame91 21 (1992)]. Despite this problem some aspects of the diamond growth process are clarified. It is demonstrated that gas-phase diffusion limitations play a minor role in the diamond growth process which is determined by surface kinetics. Except for atomic hydrogen gas phase diffusion is also of minor importance for the transport of species in and behind the flame front. Finally it is shown that penetration of nitrogen from the ambient air into the flame cannot explain the observed changes at the center of the diamond films as reported in the literature.

M. Okkerse; C. R. Kleijn; H. E. A. van den Akker; M. H. J. M. de Croon; G. B. Marin

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING'' for the period starting June 23, 2003 through September 30, 2004. (1) TerraTek has reviewed applicable literature and documentation and has convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek has designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties in obtaining ultra-high speed motors for this feasibility work were encountered though they were sourced mid 2004. (3) TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. Some improvements over early NASA experiments have been identified.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING'' for the period starting June 23, 2003 through September 30, 2004. TerraTek has reviewed applicable literature and documentation and has convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. TerraTek has designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties in obtaining ultra-high speed motors for this feasibility work were encountered though they were sourced mid 2004. TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. Some improvements over early NASA experiments have been identified.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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341

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been completed. (3) TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. (4) Significant testing has been performed on nine different rocks. (5) Bit balling has been observed on some rock and seems to be more pronounces at higher rotational speeds. (6) Preliminary analysis of data has been completed and indicates that decreased specific energy is required as the rotational speed increases (Task 4). This data analysis has been used to direct the efforts of the final testing for Phase I (Task 5). (7) Technology transfer (Task 6) has begun with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis).

Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Novel Catalyst Support Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalyst supports exhibit great influence on the cost, performance, and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. This review paper is to summarize several important kinds of novel support materials for PEM fuel cells (including direct methanol fuel cell, DMFC): nanostructured carbon materials (carbon nanotubes/carbon nanofibers, mesoporous carbon), conductive doped diamonds and nanodiamonds, conductive oxides (tin oxide/indium tin oxide, titanium oxide, tungsten oxide) and carbides (tungsten carbides). The advantages and disadvantages, the acting mechanism to promote electrocatalysis, and the strategies to improve present catalyst support materials and to search for new ones are discussed. This is expected to throw light on future development of catalyst support for PEM fuel cells.

Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Evaluation of freestanding boron-doped diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition as substrates for vertical power electronic devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, 4 x 4 mm{sup 2} freestanding boron-doped diamond single crystals with thickness up to 260 {mu}m have been fabricated by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition. The boron concentrations measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy were 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} which is in a good agreement with the values calculated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, thus indicating that almost all incorporated boron is electrically active. The dependence of lattice parameters and crystal mosaicity on boron concentrations have also been extracted from high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments on (004) planes. The widths of x-ray rocking curves have globally shown the high quality of the material despite a substantial broadening of the peak, indicating a decrease of structural quality with increasing boron doping levels. Finally, the suitability of these crystals for the development of vertical power electronic devices has been confirmed by four-point probe measurements from which electrical resistivities as low as 0.26 {Omega} cm have been obtained.

Issaoui, R.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.; Silva, F.; Gicquel, A. [LSPM-CNRS (formerly LIMHP), Universite Paris 13, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bisaro, R.; Servet, B.; Garry, G. [Thales Research and Technology France, Campus de Polytechnique, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Barjon, J. [GEMaC-CNRS, Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin Batiment Fermat, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

344

Nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond based field emitter array for a flat-panel x-ray source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A field emission based flat-panel transmission x-ray source is being developed as an alternative for medical and industrial imaging. A field emitter array (FEA) prototype based on nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond film has been fabricated to be used as the electron source of this flat panel x-ray source. The FEA prototype was developed using conventional microfabrication techniques. The field emission characteristics of the FEA prototype were evaluated. Results indicated that emission current densities of the order of 6?mA/cm{sup 2} could be obtained at electric fields as low as 10?V/?m to 20?V/?m. During the prototype microfabrication process, issues such as delamination of the extraction gate and poor etching of the SiO{sub 2} insulating layer located between the emitters and the extraction layer were encountered. Consequently, alternative FEA designs were investigated. Experimental and simulation data from the first FEA prototype were compared and the results were used to evaluate the performance of alternative single and double gate designs that would yield better field emission characteristics compared to the first FEA prototype. The best simulation results are obtained for the double gate FEA design, when the diameter of the collimator gate is around 2.6 times the diameter of the extraction gate.

Posada, Chrystian M.; Grant, Edwin J.; Lee, Hyoung K.; Castaño, Carlos H., E-mail: castanoc@mst.edu [Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 220 Fulton Hall, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States); Divan, Ralu; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

345

Using X-Rays to Test CVD Diamond Detectors for Areal Density Measurement at the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), 192 laser beams will compress a target containing a mixture of deuterium and tritium (DT) that will release fusion neutrons, photons, and other radiation. Diagnostics are being designed to measure this emitted radiation to infer crucial parameters of an ignition shot. Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond is one of the ignition diagnostics that will be used as a neutron time-of-flight detector for measuring primary (14.1 MeV) neutron yield, ion temperature, and plasma areal density. This last quantity is the subject of this study and is inferred from the number of downscattered neutrons arriving late in time, divided by the number of primary neutrons. We determine in this study the accuracy with which this detector can measure areal density, when the limiting factor is detector and electronics saturation. We used laser-produced x-rays to reproduce NIF signals in terms of charge carriers density, time between pulses, and amplitude contrast and found that the effect of the large pulse on the small pulse is at most 8.4%, which is less than the NIF accuracy requirement of {+-} 10%.

Dauffy, L S; Koch, J A; Tommasini, R; Izumi, N

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

346

A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint A team of researchers made a major breakthrough in measuring the structure of nanomaterials under extremely high pressures. Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a promising tool to probe the internal strains of nanometer-sized crystals. But for high-pressure studies the x-ray beam must pass through a component of the diamond anvil cell, which can significantly affect the coherence properties of the beam. The researchers have developed a technique to deal with this that could lead to

347

Mao of HP-CAT Awarded Aminoff Prize in Crystallography  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mao of HP-CAT Awarded Aminoff Prize in Crystallography Mao of HP-CAT Awarded Aminoff Prize in Crystallography The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded David H. Mao of the Geophysical Laboratory the Gregori Aminoff Prize in Crystallography 2005 "for pioneering research of materials at ultrahigh pressures and temperatures." Dr. Mao is the Director of the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, which manages the beamlines at Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 16. Named after Gregori Aminoff, the pioneering Swedish crystallographer, the prize is given annually to recognized scientists, or to a group of no more than three persons of international distinction, who have made a major contribution to crystallography. David H. Mao showing a panoramic high-pressure diamond-anvil cell to Murray Gibson

348

Oxygen to the core  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1-01 1-01 For immediate release: 01/10/2013 | NR-13-01-01 Oxygen to the core Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly An artist's conception of Earth's inner and outer core. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- An international collaboration including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has discovered that the Earth's core formed under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Through a series of laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at high pressure (350,000 to 700,000 atmospheres of pressure) and temperatures (5,120 to 7,460 degrees Fahrenheit), the team demonstrated that the depletion of siderophile (also known as "iron loving") elements can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than earlier

349

When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure | Advanced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Next Step to Drought-Resistant Plants? A Boring Material "Stretched" Could Lead to an Electronics Revolution At the Crossroads of Chromosomes Unveiling the Structure of Adenovirus Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure NOVEMBER 2, 2010 Bookmark and Share Top: Pair distribution function (PDF) of 16 nm-sized Y2O3 at high pressures. Bottom: Lin Wang (left) and Wenge Yang (right) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington shown with the diamond anvil cell and x-ray instrumentation used to probe the PDF of the sample at high applied

350

Experiment Hazard Class 6.7 - Explosive and Energetic Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

.7 - Explosive and Energetic Materials .7 - Explosive and Energetic Materials Applicability All experiments involving the use of small quantities ( < 10 mg total) of explosive material for beamline analysis. Visiting scientists at the APS periodically perform beamline experiments involving small quantities of explosive material (ie, TATB, HMX, RDX, PETN, HNFX). The samples that are analyzed within the x-ray beam are typically encased within a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) that is designed to exert pressures of ~ 100 GPa as its routine function. Following a few hours of analysis within the x-ray flux, the samples degrade and must be replenished. For this purpose, up to ten 1 mg samples of the explosive material are shipped with the DAC to allow for a complete data set. Explosive material must be transported to and from ANL through Bldg. 46,

351

FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS) Proposal Team: L. Carr 1 , D. Dolan 2 , R. Hemley 3 , S. Jacobson 4 , S. Karato 5 , Z. Liu 3 , W. Panero 6 , M. Pravica 7 , and T. Zhou 8 1 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2 Sandia National Laboratories, 3 Carnegie Institution of Washington, 4 Northwestern University, 5 Yale University, 6 Ohio State University, 7 University of Nevada, 8 New Jersey Institute of Technology TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS SPECIFIC PROJECTS / ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * TECHNIQUE(S): Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Raman and visible spectroscopy; Diamond anvil cell techniques for static high pressure; Gas-gun launchers for dynamic compression; Cryogenic techniques combined with DACs;

352

2008 Rosalind Franklin Young Investigator Award  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The 2008 3-Way Meeting The 2008 3-Way Meeting In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS Sidorowicz Named "Supervisor of the Year" SESS 2007: The School for Environmental Sciences with Synchrotrons APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed 2008 Rosalind Franklin Young Investigator Award APRIL 24, 2008 Bookmark and Share Oleg Shpyrko The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Users Organization has named Oleg G. Shpyrko of the University of California, San Diego, as the recipient of the 2008 Rosalind Franklin Young Investigator Award. The award recognizes an important technical or scientific accomplishment by a young investigator that depended on, or is beneficial to, the APS. Shpyrko will receive the

353

The 2008 3-Way Meeting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS Sidorowicz Named "Supervisor of the Year" SESS 2007: The School for Environmental Sciences with Synchrotrons Art and Science APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed The 2008 3-Way Meeting MARCH 25, 2008 Bookmark and Share The assembled 3WM attendees in the Argonne Bldg. 401 atrium. The 2008 Three-Way Meeting (3WM) between the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the Super Photon Ring-8 GeV (SPring-8), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) was held at Argonne on March 18-19, 2008, with more than 20 representatives from each facility. Topics discussed at the meeting

354

Laser Controlled Area Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 4 6 4 Effective: Page 1 of 18 09/16/2011 Subject: Laser Safety Program Documentation: U2A The only official copy of this file is the one on-line in the PS ESH website. Before using a printed copy, verify that it is the most current version by checking the document issue date on the PS ESH website. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY LASER CONTROLLED AREA STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) U2A Laser Systems This document defines the safety management program for the laser system(s) listed below. All American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Hazard Class 3B and 4 laser systems must be documented, reviewed, and approved through use of this form. Each system must be reviewed annually. System description: There are 4 lasers installed at beamline U2A for diamond anvil cell experiments:

355

A Marriage of Hardware and Hard Work  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shaken but Not Stirred Shaken but Not Stirred 2008 Rosalind Franklin Young Investigator Award The 2008 3-Way Meeting In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed A Marriage of Hardware and Hard Work MAY 5, 2008 Bookmark and Share The first assembled production girder for the LCLS sits atop the coordinate measuring machine. From "SLAC Today," http://today.slac.stanford.edu/ The first undulator support girder assembly for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) made its way from the Collider Hall, where technicians are piecing them together, to the

356

LANSCE | Lujan Center | Chemical & Sample Prep  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemical & Sample Preparation Chemical & Sample Preparation For general questions, please contact the Lujan Center Chemical and Sample Preparation Laboratory responsible: Monika Hartl | hartl@lanl.gov | 505.665.2375 Sample and Equipment Shipping Instructions For questions regarding shipping procedures, contact Lujan Center Experiment Coordinator: Leilani Conradson | leilani@lanl.gov | 505.665.9505 Chemistry Laboratories High-Pressure Laboratory X-ray Laboratory Spectroscopy Laboratory Clean Room Glove box - He atmosphere High-purity water Diamond anvils Rotating anode generators (reflectometry, residual stress, powder diffraction) Zeiss microscope (with fluorescence abilities) Tube and box furnaces Ultrasonic bath ZAP-cell (for in situ diffraction at high P) Infrared spectrometer Brewster angle microscope

357

Accumulated photon echo in ruby under hydrostatic pressure: Ground-state splitting and spontaneous decay of 2A¯(2E)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The technique of accumulated photon echo is used in combination with a high-pressure diamond anvil cell to measure the splitting of the 4A2 ground state and the one-phonon spontaneous decay rate of the 2A¯(2E) level at 1.5 K in ruby up to 4.3 GPa of hydrostatic pressure. The 4A2 ground-state splitting is found to be 0.383±0.001 cm-1 at ambient pressure, and increases with a slope of +(6±1)×10-3 cm-1/GPa. The spontaneous decay rate of 2A¯(2E) increases only weakly with pressure. The pressure dependences of both quantities are accounted for in terms of the trigonal-field and spin-orbit-coupling parameters.

M. H. F. Overwijk; J. I. Dijkhuis; H. W. de Wijn; R. Vreeker; R. Sprik; A. Lagendijk

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Pressure induced metallization of the perovskite Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 7}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical, magnetic and structural properties of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Fe{sup 4+}, d{sup 4}) were probed by resistance, Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements to P {approximately} 40 GPa using diamond-anvil cells. A sluggish pressure-induced insulator-metal transition is observed with a clear incipient metallic state at P {ge} 20 GPa. The Fe(IV) 3d magnetic moments remain unaltered across the transition as deduced from MS, and XRD studies show no structural symmetry change to 40 GPa. The results are consistent with carrier delocalization due to p-p gap closure e.g., ligand-to-ligand charge transfer that does not involve the d-states and structural symmetry changes.

Rozenberg, G.K.; Machavariani, G.Y.; Pasternak, M.P.; Milner, A.P. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics and Astronomy; Hearne, G.R. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg-Gauteng (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Taylor, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Adler, P. [Max Planck inst. fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

High Pressure Phase Transformations in Heavy Rare Earth Metals and Connections to Actinide Crystal Structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure studies have been performed on heavy rare earth metals Terbium (Tb) to 155 GPa and Holmium (Ho) to 134 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The following crystal structure sequence was observed in both metals hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc (hR-24) {yields} monoclinic (C2/m) with increasing pressure. The last transformation to a low symmetry monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume collapse of 5 % for Tb at 51 GPa and a volume collapse of 3 % for Ho at 103 GPa. This volume collapse under high pressure is reminiscent of f-shell delocalization in light rare earth metal Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), and heavy actinide metals Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm). The orthorhombic Pnma phase that has been reported in Am and Cm after f-shell delocalization is not observed in heavy rare earth metals under high pressures. (authors)

Vohra, Yogesh K.; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Stemshorn, Andrew K. [Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), 310 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, 35294-1170 (United States); Hope, Kevin M. [Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Harman Hall, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL, 35115 (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Pressure-Induced Symmetry-Lowering Transition in Dense Nitrogen to Layered Polymeric Nitrogen (LP-N) with Colossal Raman Intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the discovery of a novel nitrogen phase synthesized using laser-heated diamond anvil cells at pressures between 120–180 GPa well above the stability field of cubic gauche (cg)?N. This new phase is characterized by its singly bonded, layered polymeric (LP) structure similar to the predicted Pba2 and two colossal Raman bands (at ?1000 and 1300??cm?1 at 150 GPa), arising from two groups of highly polarized nitrogen atoms in the bulk and surface of the layer, respectively. The present result also provides a new constraint for the nitrogen phase diagram, highlighting an unusual symmetry-lowering 3D cg?N to 2D LP-N transition and thereby the enhanced electrostatic contribution to the stabilization of this densely packed LP-N (?=4.85??g/cm3 at 120 GPa).

Dane Tomasino; Minseob Kim; Jesse Smith; Choong-Shik Yoo

2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Synchrotron Infrared Measurements of Dense Hydrogen to 360 GPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamond-anvil-cell techniques have been developed to confine and measure hydrogen samples under static conditions to pressures above 300 GPa from 12 to 300 K using synchrotron infrared and optical absorption techniques. A decreasing absorption threshold in the visible spectrum is observed, but the material remains transparent at photon energies down to 0.1 eV at pressures to 360 GPa over a broad temperature range. The persistence of the strong infrared absorption of the vibron characteristic of phase III indicates the stability of the paired state of hydrogen. There is no evidence for the predicted metallic state over these conditions, in contrast to recent reports, but electronic properties consistent with semimetallic behavior are observed.

Chang-Sheng Zha, Zhenxian Liu, and Russell J. Hemley

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

362

MEASUREMENT OF THE SHOCK-HEATED MELT CURVE OF LEAD USING PYROMETRY AND REFLECTOMETRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data on the high-pressure melting temperatures of metals is of great interest in several fields of physics including geophysics. Measuring melt curves is difficult but can be performed in static experiments (with laser-heated diamond-anvil cells for instance) or dynamically (i.e., using shock experiments). However, at the present time, both experimental and theoretical results for the melt curve of lead are at too much variance to be considered definitive. As a result, we decided to perform a series of shock experiments designed to provide a measurement of the melt curve of lead up to about 50 GPa in pressure. At the same time, we developed and fielded a new reflectivity diagnostic, using it to make measurements on tin. The results show that the melt curve of lead is somewhat higher than the one previously obtained with static compression and heating techniques.

D. Partouche-Sebban and J. L. Pelissier, Commissariat a` l'Energie Atomique,; F. G. Abeyta, Los Alamos National Laboratory; W. W. Anderson, Los Alamos National Laboratory; M. E. Byers, Los Alamos National Laboratory; D. Dennis-Koller, Los Alamos National Laboratory; J. S. Esparza, Los Alamos National Laboratory; S. D. Borror, Bechtel Nevada; C. A. Kruschwitz, Bechtel Nevada

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Observation of off-Hugoniot shocked states with ultrafast time resolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We apply ultrafast single shot interferometry to determine the pressure and density of argon shocked from up to 7.8 GPa static initial pressure in a diamond anvil cell. This method enables the observation of thermodynamic states distinct from those observed in either single shock or isothermal compression experiments, and the observation of ultrafast dynamics in shocked materials. We also present a straightforward method for interpreting ultrafast shock wave data which determines the index of refraction at the shock front, and the particle and shock velocities for shock waves in transparent materials. Based on these methods, we observe shocked thermodynamic states between the room temperature isotherm of argon and the shock adiabat of cryogenic argon at final shock pressures up to 28 GPa.

Armstrong, M; Crowhurst, J; Bastea, S; Zaug, J

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

364

Equation of state of tantalum to 174 GPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The volume compression of tantalum was measured to 174 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell using angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation-of-state constrains the compression data rather well with the zero-pressure isothermal bulk modulus B0T=194.7(4.8) GPa and the first pressure derivative B?=3.4(0.1). These values are consistent with the previous ultrasonic results, B0S=196 GPa and B?=3.8, but are different from the previous x-ray compression results, B0T=231 GPa and B?=2.5. The current compression data also demonstrate that the bcc phase of Ta continues to be stable to 174 GPa, which qualifies tantalum for a pressure standard in static high-pressure experiments.

Hyunchae Cynn and Choong-Shik Yoo

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

New cubic phase of lithium nitride to 200 GPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new cubic ({gamma}) Li{sub 3}N phase discovered above 40({+-}5) GPa. Structure and electronic bands are examined at high pressure with synchrotron x-ray diffraction and inelastic x-ray scattering in a diamond anvil cell, and also with first-principles calculations. We observe a dramatic band-gap widening and volume collapse at the phase transition. {gamma}-Li{sub 3}N remains extremely stable and ionic to 200 GPa, with predicted metallization near 8 TPa. The high structural stability, wide band-gap and simple electronic structure of {gamma}-Li{sub 3}N are analogous to that of such lower valence closed-shell solids as NaCl, MgO and Ne, meriting its use as a low-Z internal pressure standard.

Lazicki, A; Maddox, B; Evans, W; Yoo, C S; McMahan, A K; Pickett, W E; Scalettar, R T; Hu, M Y; Chow, P

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

366

Electronic states of NO{sub 2}-exposed H-terminated diamond/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterointerface studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy band-lineup and the electronic structure of NO{sub 2}-exposed H-terminated diamond/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterointerface have been investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements. It is found that the energy band-lineup is stagger-type, so-called type-II, with its valence band discontinuity of as high as 3.9?eV and its conduction band discontinuity of 2.7?eV. The valence band maximum of the H-terminated diamond surface is positioned at Fermi level as a result of high-density hole accumulation on the diamond side. The XANES measurement has shown that the oxygen-derived interface state locates at about 1–3?eV above the Fermi level.

Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Imamura, Masaki [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Hirama, Kazuyuki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi 243-0198 (Japan); Kasu, Makoto [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

367

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm-usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress at the end of Phase 1 on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 March 2006 and concluding 30 June 2006. (Note: Results from 1 September 2005 through 28 February 2006 were included in the previous report (see Judzis, Black, and Robertson)). Summarizing the accomplished during Phase 1: {lg_bullet} TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kickoff meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis). {lg_bullet} TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Some difficulties continued in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed. {lg_bullet} TerraTek concluded Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests.'' {sm_bullet} Significant testing was performed on nine different rocks. {sm_bullet} Five rocks were used for the final testing. The final tests were based on statistical design of experiments. {sm_bullet} Two full-faced bits, a small diameter and a large diameter, were run in Berea sandstone. {lg_bullet} Analysis of data was completed and indicates that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases (Task 4). Data analysis from early trials was used to direct the efforts of the final testing for Phase I (Task 5). {lg_bullet} Technology transfer (Task 6) was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black).

Arnis Judzis; Homer Robertson; Alan Black

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

368

Spin liquid in a single crystal of the frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnet CoAl2O4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the evidence for spin liquid in the frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnet CoAl2O4 by means of single-crystal neutron scattering in zero and applied magnetic fields. The magnetically ordered phase appearing below TN=8 K remains nonconventional down to 1.5 K. The magnetic Bragg peaks at the q=0 positions are broad and their line shapes have strong Lorentzian contributions. Additionally, the peaks are connected by weak diffuse streaks oriented along the ?111? directions. The observed short-range magnetic correlations are explained within the spiral spin-liquid model. The specific shape of the energy landscape of the system, with an extremely flat energy minimum around q=0 and many low-lying excited spiral states with q=?111?, results in thermal population of this manifold at finite temperatures. The agreement between the experimental results and the spiral spin-liquid model is only qualitative, indicating that microstructure effects might be important to achieve quantitative agreement. Application of a magnetic field significantly perturbs the spiral spin-liquid correlations. The magnetic peaks remain broad but acquire more Gaussian line shapes and increase in intensity. The 1.5 K static magnetic moment increases from 1.58 ?B/Co at zero field to 2.08 ?B/Co at 10 T. The magnetic excitations appear rather conventional at zero field. Analysis using classical spin-wave theory yields values of the nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor exchange parameters J1=0.92(1) meV and J2=0.101(2) meV and an additional anisotropy term D=?0.0089(2) meV for CoAl2O4. In the presence of a magnetic field, the spin excitations broaden considerably and become nearly featureless at the zone center.

O. Zaharko; N. B. Christensen; A. Cervellino; V. Tsurkan; A. Maljuk; U. Stuhr; C. Niedermayer; F. Yokaichiya; D. N. Argyriou; M. Boehm; A. Loidl

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

369

Rabi Waves and Peculiarities of Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes, Produced by High Energy Ion Beam Modification of Diamond Single Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QED-model for multichain coupled qubit system, proposed in \\cite{Part1}, was confirmed by Raman scattering studies of carbon zigzag-shaped nanotubes, produced by high energy ion beam modification of natural diamond single crystals. New quantum optics phenomenon - Rabi waves - has been experimentally identified for the first time. Raman spectra in perfect quasi-1D carbon nanotubes are quite different in comparison with well known Raman spectra in 2D carbon nanotubes of larger diameter. They characterized by vibronic mode of Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice and its revival part in frequency representation, which is the consequence of Rabi wave packet formation.

Dmitry Yearchuck; Alla Dovlatova

2011-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

370

Microstructured Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micro fuel cells ; Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells ; Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ...

Luc G. Frechette

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Diamonds in detonation soot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... The chemical nature of detonation soot has been a subject of interest for some time3'5, and the formation ... high density, pressure, and temperature and then expand and cool isentropically (Table 1). Detonation of CHNO explosive compositions underbalanced relative to CO (O/C< 1, after complete ...

N. Roy Greiner; D. S. Phillips; J. D. Johnson; Fred Volk

1988-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

372

Diamond Pixel Luminosity Telescopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this document, Halyo summaries her key contributions to CMS at the LHC and provide an explanation of their importance and her role in each project. At the end Halyo describes her recent research interest that includes GPU/MIC Acceleration of the High Level Trigger (HLT) to Extend the Physics Research at the LHC. A descriptionof her work the recent promising results that she accomplished and the deliverable are also elaborated. These contribution were only possible thanks to DOE support of junior faculty research and their clear goal to promote research and innovations. #3;Princeton University i

Halyo, Valerie

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

373

Diamond and biology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Figure 1 shows voltammograms for water electrolysis of various electrodes. The...followed by rinsing in deionized water. Samples are then hybridized...Figure 1 Voltammograms for water electrolysis of various electrodes. The...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Diamond Based TE Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

375

Diamond-Making  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polygy-nous mating systems) make them ideal...studies of how mating systems influence patterns...different mating systems and se-lection...them into "At full power, Henri Moissan's...Elective Mutism. A Handbook for Educators...Ecosystem and Its Restoration. Steven M. Davis...

A. Jayaraman

1994-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

376

Nano-hillock formation in diamond-like carbon induced by swift heavy projectiles in the electronic stopping regime: Experiments and atomistic simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of surface hillocks in diamond-like carbon is studied experimentally and by means of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} atoms combined with a thermal spike model. The irradiation experiments with swift heavy ions cover a large electronic stopping range between {approx}12 and 72 keV/nm. Both experiments and simulations show that beyond a stopping power threshold, the hillock height increases linearly with the electronic stopping, and agree extremely well assuming an efficiency of approximately 20% in the transfer of electronic energy to the lattice. The simulations also show a transition of sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2} bonding along the tracks with the hillocks containing almost no sp{sup 3} contribution.

Schwen, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Bringa, E. [CONICET and Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina); Krauser, J. [Hochschule Harz, Friedrichstrasse 57-59, 38855 Werningerode (Germany); Weidinger, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Planckstr. 1, 64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofsaess, H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

377

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

378

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

379

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust...

380

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Optical Design in Phase-Space for the I13L X-Ray Imaging and Coherence Beamline at Diamond using XPHASY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I13L is a 250 m long beamline for imaging and coherent diffraction currently under construction at the Diamond Light Source. For modeling the beamline optics the phase-space based ray-tracing code XPHASY was developed, as general ray-tracing codes for x-rays do not easily allow studying the propagation of coherence along the beamline. In contrast to computational intensive wave-front propagation codes, which fully describe the propagation of a photon-beam along a beamline but obscure the impact of individual optical components onto the beamline performance, this code allows to quickly calculate the photon-beam propagation along the beamline and estimate the impact of individual components.In this paper we will discuss the optical design of the I13L coherence branch from the perspective of phase-space by using XPHASY. We will demonstrate how the phase-space representation of a photon-beam allows estimating the coherence length at any given position along the beamline. The impact of optical components on the coherence length and the effect of vibrations on the beamline performance will be discussed. The paper will demonstrate how the phase-space representation of photon-beams allows a more detailed insight into the optical performance of a coherence beamline than ray-tracing in real space.

Wagner, Ulrich H. [Science, Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot, Oxon OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rau, Christoph [Science, Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot, Oxon OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Northwestern University, Chicago (United States)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

382

Radiological characterization survey of the former Diamond Magnesium Company Company site, 720 Fairport-Nursery Road, Painesville, Ohio (DMP001, DMP002)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed an investigative radiological survey at the former Diamond Magnesium Company (DMC) site at 720 Fairport-Nursery Road, Painesville, Ohio, in September 1990. The purpose of the survey was to determine if the site is contaminated with radioactive residues as a result of federal government operation in the development of nuclear energy for defense-related projects. The survey of the site, separate parcels of which are currently owned by the Uniroyal Chemical Company (DMP001) and the Lonza Chemical Company (DMP002), included a gamma scan over the ground surface, determination of gamma exposure rates at the surface and at 1 m above the surface at grid points, collection and radionuclide analysis of soil samples, and directly measured radiation levels inside three buildings used during original DMC processing. Results of the survey revealed widespread radiological contamination outdoors on the Uniroyal property and several isolated spots of elevated radiation levels on the Lonza property. The contaminants consisted of radium, uranium, and thorium in surface and subsurface soil in concentrations exceeding DOE guidelines for the release of property for unrestricted use.

Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Photovoltaic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kurtz, Sarah (Somerville, MA)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

385

Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

Gur, Ilan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Presentation covers stationary fuel cells...

387

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Fuel Cell Seminar on November...

388

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Fuel Cell Seminar on November 1, 2011. Fuel Cell...

389

Section 19  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Figure 1. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite visible satellite image 0530 UTC 27 November 1995 showing the development of the convective cell over Aspley Strait and the westward development of the cirrus anvil. Figure 2. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite visible satellite image 0630 UTC 27 November 1995 showing the westward movement of the convective cell and the further development of the cirrus anvil. Anvil Cirrus Outflow During the Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment M. P. Jensen, T. P. Ackerman and E. E. Clothiaux Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania S. M. Sekelsky and R. E. McIntosh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts W. L. Ecklund and K. S. Gage

390

Rabi Wave Packets and Peculiarities of Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes, Produced by High Energy Ion Beam Modification of Diamond Single Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QED-model for multichain coupled qubit system, proposed in \\cite{Part1}, was confirmed by Raman scattering studies of quasi-1D carbon zigzag-shaped nanotubes (CZSNTs), produced by high energy ion beam modification of natural diamond single crystals. Multichain coupled qubit system represents itself Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice, formed in CZSNTs plus quantized external electromagnetic (EM) field. New quantum optics phenomenon - Rabi waves, predicted in \\cite{Slepyan_Yerchak} has experimentally been identified for the first time. It is shown, that Raman spectra in quasi-1D CZSNTs are quite different in comparison with well known Raman spectra in 2D those ones. They characterized by semiclassical consideration by the only one vibronic mode of Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice instead of longitudinal and transverse optical phonon $G^+$ and $G^-$modes and the out-of-plane radial breathing mode, which are observed in Raman spectra of 2D single wall nanotubes. It is consequence of 2D - 1D transition in all physical properties of nanotubes. It is shown, that strong electron-photon coupling takes place in CZSNTs by interaction with EM-field and quantum nature of EM-field has to be taken into account. It has been done for the first time in stationary spectroscopy at all. All optical spectra, in particular, Raman spectra are registered by usual stationary measurement technique in nonequilibrium conditions, which are the consequence of Rabi wave packets' formation. It leads in its turn to appearance of additional lines, corresponding to revival part of inversion dependence of joint EM-field + matter system in frequency representation.

Dmitry Yearchuck; Alla Dovlatova

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

391

Comparison of diamond-like carbon films synthesized by 2.45 \\{GHz\\} microwave and 13.56 \\{MHz\\} multi-jet radiofrequency plasma sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamond-like carbon films (DLC) were grown by two different plasma deposition systems: the RF–MW system employing a radio frequency (RF) powered substrate holder with an additional 2.45 \\{GHz\\} slot antenna (SLAN) microwave (MW) plasma source and the RF–RF system employing a RF powered substrate holder with an additional RF (13.56 MHz) jet matrix plasma source (JeMPS). Helium and methane were used as carrier gas and carbon source, respectively. When operating the RF–MW system, ion densities approached 4×1010 cm?3. Because of the large working distance used in our experiments the MW plasma did not contribute significantly to the charged particle density. In the RF–RF system substantially higher ion concentrations of up to 1.6×1011 cm?3 were measured. Optical and structural properties of the coatings deposited were compared using ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). When depositing with the RF–MW system a gradual and controllable change from polymer-like to DLC-based films with increasing substrate RF-power was obtained. This is reflected by a refractive index variation from 1.6 to 2.1. Furthermore, the film growth rates decreased with increasing RF-bias. Typical growth rates were 30 nm min?1 at ?400 to ?500 V bias. A similar change of the films deposited in the RF–RF system was not observed. Instead, DLC films were produced in all cases. The growth rate peaked at 70–80 nm min?1 when using ?350 to ?450 V bias. The refractive index (at ?=632 nm) and Vickers hardness were approximately 2.3 and 30 GPa, respectively.

G. Fedosenko; D. Korzec; A. Schwabedissen; J. Engemann; E. Braca; J.M. Kenny

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Imaging of Spherical and Flat Counterfaces of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Tribological Contacts: A Correlation of Surface Chemistry and Friction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recently installed synchrotron radiation near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) full field imaging electron spectrometer was used to spatially resolve the chemical changes of both counterfaces from an ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) tribological contact. A silicon flat and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} sphere were both coated with UNCD, and employed to form two wear tracks on the flat in a linear reciprocating tribometer. The first wear track was produced using a new, unconditioned sphere whose surface was thus conditioned during this first experiment. This led to faster run-in and lower friction when producing a second wear track using the conditioned sphere. The large depth of field of the magnetically guided NEXAFS imaging detector enabled rapid, large area spectromicroscopic imaging of both the spherical and flat surfaces. Laterally resolved NEXAFS data from the tribological contact area revealed that both substrates had an as-grown surface layer that contained a higher fraction of sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon and oxygen which was mechanically removed. Unlike the flat, the film on the sphere showed evidence of having graphitic character, both before and after sliding. These results show that the graphitic character of the sphere is not solely responsible for low friction and short run-in. Rather, conditioning the sphere, likely by removing asperities and passivating dangling bonds, leads to lower friction with less chemical modification of the substrate in subsequent tests. The new NEXAFS imaging spectroscopy detector enabled a more complete understanding of the tribological phenomena by imaging, for the first time, the surface chemistry of the spherical counterface which had been in continual contact during wear track formation.

A Konicek; C Jaye; M Hamilton; W Sawyer; D Fischer; R Carpick

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

Electrorefining cell evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

1989-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

394

E-Print Network 3.0 - anvil points research facility Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 94 Lightning-generated NOX and its impact on tropospheric ozone production: A...

395

Electrochemistry Cell Model  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or exceeds all performance goals - Interpreting complex cell electrochemical phenomena - Identification of cell degradation mechanisms Partners (Collaborators) Daniel Abraham,...

396

Excitonic Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Excitonic Solar Cells ... Existing types of solar cells may be divided into two distinct classes:? conventional solar cells, such as silicon p?n junctions, and excitonic solar cells, XSCs. ... Most organic-based solar cells, including dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs, fall into the category of XSCs. ...

Brian A. Gregg

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Telecommunications International Cell Phone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Telecommunications International Cell Phone 1. Fax completed form to 979.847.1111. 2. If you do will be charged. Date Cell Phone Needed Cell Phone Pick-Up Date Cell Phone User Travel Destination(s) United States Number Destination Country Number Cell Phone Type Digital Satellite Cell Phone Return Date Notes

398

A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Slowing Down Near the Glass Transition New Light on Improving Engine Efficiencies The Crystal Structure of a Meta-stable Intermediate Particle in Virus Assembly Increasing Magnetic Response of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors under High Pressure Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure APRIL 20, 2009 Bookmark and Share Sodium clamped in a metallic rhenium gasket between diamond anvils. The photographs were taken through a diamond anvil under combined transmitted and reflected illumination. Sodium, a white metal at pressures below 1.1 Mbar (1 Mbar = 1 million atm), turns black at 1.3 Mbar and becomes

399

Photoelectrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Boudreau, Robert A. (Norton, MA)

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

400

The nonlinear anomalous lattice elasticity associated with the high-pressure phase transition in spodumene: A high precission static compression study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The high-pressure behavior of the lattice elasticity of spodumene, LiAlSi2O6, was studied by static compression in a diamond-anvil cell up to 9.3 GPa. Investigations by means of single-crystal XRD and Raman spectroscopy within the hydrostatic limits of the pressure medium focus on the pressure ranges around similar to 3.2 and similar to 7.7 GPa, which have been reported previously to comprise two independent structural phase transitions. While our measurements confirm the well-established first-order C2/c-P2(1)/c transformation at 3.19 GPa (with 1.2% volume discontinuity and a hysteresis between 0.02 and 0.06 GPa), both unit-cell dimensions and the spectral changes observed in high-pressure Raman spectra give no evidence for structural changes related to a second phase transition. Monoclinic lattice parameters and unit-cell volumes at in total 59 different pressure points have been used to re-calculate the lattice-related properties of spontaneous strain, volume strain, and the bulk moduli as a function of pr...

Ullrich, A; Miletich, R; 10.1007/s00269-009-0300-8

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The first cell sorter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The first cell sorter The first cell sorter 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit The first cell sorter About fifty years ago, a Los Alamos scientist invented a method-still important in cellular biology labs today-to separate out particular types of cells. November 25, 2013 The first cell sorter Flow cytometry (cell measurement) uses cell sorting to divert cells of a chosen type out of a mixed stream of cells, like the blood cells shown here, for collection and study. Los Alamos invented, and has regularly improved upon, the technology to isolate different kinds of cells. In the early-mid 1960s, Los Alamos physicist Mack Fulwyler invented a device to isolate different types of cells. His invention, still a vital aspect of flow cytometry (cell measurement) in biological laboratories

402

Fuel cell arrangement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

403

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition Presentation by...

404

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition Overview of DOE's...

405

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 This program record from the...

406

Fuel Cell Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Links Fuel Cell Links The links below are provided as additional resources for fuel-cell-related information. Most of the linked sites are not part of, nor affiliated with, fueleconomy.gov. We do not endorse or vouch for the accuracy of the information found on such sites. Fuel Cell Vehicles and Manufacturers Chevrolet General Motors press release about the Chevrolet Fuel Cell Equinox Ford Ford overview of their hydrogen fuel cell vehicles Honda FCX Clarity official site Hyundai Hyundai press release announcing the upcoming Tucson Fuel Cell Mercedes-Benz Ener-G-Force Fuel-cell-powered concept SUV Nissan Nissan TeRRA concept SUV Toyota Overview of Toyota fuel cell technology Hydrogen- and Fuel-Cell-Related Information and Tools Fuel Cell Vehicles Brief overview of fuel cell vehicles provided by DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC)

407

Photoelectrochemical solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photoelectrochemical solar cells ... Plastic Solar Cells: A Multidisciplinary Field To Construct Chemical Concepts from Current Research ... Plastic Solar Cells: A Multidisciplinary Field To Construct Chemical Concepts from Current Research ...

John T. McDevitt

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the membrane for a PEM fuel cell would cost $5/ft (1990$) inmass-produced PEM fuel cell could cost $10/kW or less. Totalparameter for PEM fuel cells: thinner membranes cost less

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional5 All-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction Inoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

Gur, Ilan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish themThe organic donor-acceptor solar cell relies on a type II

Gur, Ilan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

$ b materials cost, % a Fuel cell stack cost only. Includesof the cost of fuel-cell stacks, 1990$° Cost item GE Swan cAnnual maintenance cost of fuel cell stack and auxiliaries (

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September byet al. , 1988,1989 HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL VEHICLES: TECHNICALIn the FCEV, the hydrogen fuel cell could supply the "net"

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Thermal Management of Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. Mills, "Cooling of photovoltaic cells under concentratedelectric performance of a photovoltaic cells by cooling andSolar Cell A photovoltaic cell is a semiconductor that

Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ? MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ? TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition.

Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)] [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

415

Fuel Cells at NASCAR  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cells at NASCAR Ned Stetson U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Catherine Kummer - NASCAR Green Norm Bessette - Acumentrics Question and Answer * Please...

416

Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with AFCC, a private joint venture company in Canada, formed by combining the automotive fuel cell business of Ballard Power Systems with the fuel cell stack development...

417

SFTEL: Flow Cell | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Flow Cell EMSL's Subsurface Flow and Transport Experimental Laboratory offers several meter-scale flow cells and columns for research in saturated and unsaturated porous media....

418

Microfluidic fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Microfluidic fuel cell architectures are presented in this thesis. This work represents the mechanical and microfluidic portion of a microfluidic biofuel cell project. While the… (more)

Kjeang, Erik

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cell Technical Cell Technical Publications to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Hydrogen Fuel Cells Safety, Codes & Standards Market Analysis Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings

420

Alleged Formation of an Intermediate Diamond Structure on Heating Diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... spacings of 1-54 A. and 1-31 A. were found. Reference to the ASTM X-ray data card system identified these extra reflexions as being due, almost certainly, ...

F. A. RAAL

1960-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversible Fuel Cells Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings Workshop & Meeting Proceedings

422

Diamond-free Degree Sequences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Miller,A. Prosser,P. DCS Technical Report Series pp 1 to 9 Dept of Computing Science, University of Glasgow

Miller, A.

423

Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells G. J. K. Acres G. A. Hards The...physical composition of the catalysts used in fuel cells are determined by the type of cell...operating conditions. The six types of fuel cell presently in use or under development...

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

FCT Fuel Cells: Basics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with water and heat as byproducts. (How much water?) Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide energy for systems as large as a utility

425

HISTORY | Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Together with the electric motor, dynamo, gas turbine, internal combustion engine, and the fused salt electrolysis of aluminum, the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century brought about the fuel cell – the silent or cold combustion of fossil fuels by the electrochemical oxidation with atmospheric oxygen to water and carbon dioxide. Wilhelm Ostwald, in 1894, emphasized the high efficiency and the nonpolluting properties of the direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity – in contrast to the then combination of steam engine and dynamo, which reached only about 10% efficiency. Direct coal fuel cells designed for the propulsion of ships, however, have not become a reality so far. Instead of fuel cells and batteries, internal combustion engines determined the nineteenth- and twentieth- century technological landscape. Against the background of the oil crisis and the long-term scarcity of natural gas, crude oil, and coal, new hopes have focused on fuel cell technology, which saw first early splendid applications during the space programs of the 1960s, in submarines since the 1980s, and in experimental zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) since the 1990s. This article outlines (1) early insights about energy conversion: Grove's cell, direct conversion of coal and indirect fuel cells; (2) historical roots of alkaline fuel cells: the discovery of gas diffusion electrodes; low-pressure alkaline fuel cell conquer spacecrafts and submarines; (3) polymer electrolyte fuel cells: solid polymer technology, electric vehicles, direct methanol fuel-cell, stationary power systems and portable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems; (4) phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC): acid fuel cells, PAFC plants in Japan, gasoline fuel cells; and (5) high-temperature fuel cells: molten carbonate fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell.

P. Kurzweil

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4/3/2012 4/3/2012 eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Overview Flow Cell Workshop Washington, DC Dr. Sunita Satyapal & Dr. Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program 3/7/2011 Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Purpose To understand the applied research and development needs and the grand challenges for the use of flow cells as energy-storage devices. Objectives 1. Understand the needs for applied research from stakeholders. 2. Gather input for future development of roadmaps and technical targets for flow cells for various applications. 3. Identify grand challenges and prioritize R&D needs. Flow cells combine the unique advantages of batteries and fuel cells and can offer benefits for multiple energy storage applications.

427

FUEL CELLS RALLY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

FUEL CELLS RALLY ... No, this car has composite tanks capable of storing 8 kg of hydrogen. ... It's General Motors' Sequel, a fuel-cell concept car unveiled earlier this month at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. ...

ALEXANDER H. TULLO

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

Semitransparent organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The organic solar cell technology has attracted great interests due to ... low cost solution process capability. Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells offer a potentially much cheaper alternative way to harness...

Furong Zhu

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

What determines cell size?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as: Marshall WF, et al. : What determines cell size? BMC7007/10/101 FORUM Open Access What determines cell size?biologists have been wondering what determines the size of

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

fuel cells | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fuel cells fuel cells Leads No leads are available at this time. The Molecular Bond: October 2014 The Molecular Bond newsletter banner October 2014 FROM THE DIRECTOR Read more...

431

NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in all thin-film solar cell technologies is that absorbancecells. These emerging solar cell technologies have undergonethe various solar cell technologies and their progress as

Phuyal, Dibya

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic cells. Inorganic Chemistry,by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Cells. Inorganic ChemistryThe characteristics of a photovoltaic cell. Generally,

Phuyal, Dibya

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cell Seminar & Energy Exposition Columbus, Ohio Dr. Sunita Satyapal Director Fuel Cell Technologies Office Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

434

Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the nation's energy portfolio and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nation,...

435

Webinar: Fuel Cell Buses  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Fuel Cell Buses, originally presented on September 12, 2013.

436

Electrochemistry Cell Model  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

437

Dynamics of Kr in dense clathrate hydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamics of Kr atoms as guests in dense clathrate hydrate structures are investigated using site specific Kr83 nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The dense structure H hydrate and filled-ice structures are studied at high pressures in a diamond anvil high-pressure cell. The dynamics of Kr in the structure H clathrate hydrate quench recovered at 77 K is also investigated. The Kr phonon density of states obtained from the experimental NRIXS data are compared with molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature and pressure dependence of the phonon spectra provide details of the Kr dynamics in the clathrate hydrate cages. Comparison with the dynamics of Kr atoms in the low-pressure structure II obtained previously was made. The Lamb-Mossbauer factor obtained from NRIXS experiments and molecular dynamics calculations are in excellent agreement and are shown to yield unique information on the strength and temperature dependence of guest-host interactions.

D. D. Klug; J. S. Tse; J. Y. Zhao; W. Sturhahn; E. E. Alp; C. A. Tulk

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

438

X-ray Diffraction of Cubic Gd2)3/Er under High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we report the in situ high pressure X-ray diffraction studies on Er{sup 3+} doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a diamond anvil cell up to 39.8 GPa at room temperature. Several phase transitions have been identified in our studies. The structural transformation from a starting cubic phase to a hexagonal phase occurred during the sample compression process, at 8.57 GPa. And the hexagonal phase was stable from 12.5 GPa up to the highest pressure in this study but was not quenchable and transformed to a monoclinic phase after pressure release. An anomalous high pressure behavior in the hexagonal type Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase was observed, which might be caused by an electron transition influenced by Er{sup 3+} ions doping. By fitting the compression data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the bulk moduli of the cubic and two hexagonal (at p < 19.9 GPa and p > 27.0 GPa) Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases were determined to be 164 {+-} 3, 185 {+-} 7, and 150 {+-} 10 GPa with B'{sub 0} = 4, respectively.

X Zou; C Gong; B Liu; Q Li; Z Li; B Liu; R Liu; J Liu; Z Chen; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Anharmonic behavior and structural phase transition in Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The investigation of structural phase transition and anharmonic behavior of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been carried out by high-pressure and temperature dependent Raman scattering studies respectively. In situ Raman studies under high pressure were carried out in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature which indicate a structural transition from cubic to hexagonal phase at and above 20.6 GPa. In the decompression cycle, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} retained its high pressure phase. We have observed a Stark line in the Raman spectra at 337.5 cm{sup ?1} which arises from the electronic transition between {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} and {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} multiplates of Yb{sup 3+} (4f{sup 13}) levels. These were followed by temperature dependent Raman studies in the range of 80–440 K, which show an unusual mode hardening with increasing temperature. The hardening of the most dominant mode (T{sub g} + A{sub g}) was analyzed in light of the theory of anharmonic phonon-phonon interaction and thermal expansion of the lattice. Using the mode Grüneisen parameter obtained from high pressure Raman measurements; we have calculated total anharmonicity of the T{sub g} + A{sub g} mode from the temperature dependent Raman data.

Pandey, Sugandha Dogra; Samanta, K.; Singh, Jasveer; Sharma, Nita Dilawar, E-mail: ndilawar@mail.nplindia.org; Bandyopadhyay, A. K. [Vacuum and Pressure Standards, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)] [Vacuum and Pressure Standards, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Structural feature controlling superconductivity in compressed BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconductivity can be induced with the application of pressure but it disappears eventually upon heavy compression in the iron-based parent compound BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. Structural evolution with pressure is used to understand this behavior. By performing synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurements with diamond anvil cells up to 26.1?GPa, we find an anomalous behavior of the lattice parameter with a S shape along the a axis but a monotonic decrease in the c-axis lattice parameter with increasing pressure. The close relationship between the axial ratio c/a and the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} is established for this parent compound. The c/a ratio is suggested to be a measure of the spin fluctuation strength. The reduction of T{sub c} with the further increase of pressure is a result of the pressure-driven weakness of the spin-fluctuation strength in this material.

Yang, Wenge, E-mail: wyang@ciw.edu [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); High Pressure Synergetic Consortium, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Jia, Feng-Jiang [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Center for Energy Matter in Extreme Environments, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Tang, Ling-Yun [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Qian; Xu, Zhu-An [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Xiao-Jia, E-mail: xjchen@ciw.edu [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Center for Energy Matter in Extreme Environments, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Pressure Effects on Magneto-Optical Properties in Cadmium Telluride/(Cadmium, Manganese) Telluride Single Quantum Well with High Manganese Concentration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pressure effect on the magnetic field induced type I-type II transition is studied in a CdTe/Cd1-xMnxTe (x=0.24) single quantum well (SQW). Photoluminescence (PL) measurements under hydrostatic pressures up to 1.07 GPa and long pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T with a pulse duration of 2 sec are reported. The pressures were generated in a plastic diamond anvil cell (DAC). A bend toward lower energies (additional red shift) is observed above 28.5 T in magnetic field dependence of the exciton energy for a 13 Aring thick quantum well. We attribute this red shift to a phenomenon preceding the type I-type II transition after a comparison with a simple quantum mechanical calculation. The onset field of the additional red shift increases by 3.4 T by applying a pressure of 1.07 GPa. Spin-spin coupling between the exciton and the Mn ion in the interface region is also investigated and found to be enhanced by pressure.

Yokoi, H.; Tozer,S.; Kim, Y.; Rickel, D.; Kakudate, Y.; Usuba, S.; Fujiwara, S.; Takeyama, S.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kossut, J.

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

442

Experimental determination of bulk modulus of 14 A tobermorite using high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a diamond anvil cell, 14 A tobermorite, a structural analogue of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), was examined by high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 4.8 GPa under hydrostatic conditions. The bulk modulus of 14 A tobermorite was calculated, K{sub o} = 47 GPa. Comparison of the current results with previous high pressure studies on C-S-H(I) indicates that: (1) the compression behavior of the lattice parameters a and b of 14 A tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are very similar, implying that both materials may have very similar Ca-O layers, and also implying that an introduction of structural defects into the Ca-O layers may not substantially change in-plane incompressibility of the ab plane of 14 A tobermorite; and (2) the bulk modulus values of 14 A tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are dominated by the incompressibility of the lattice parameter c, which is directly related to the interlayer spacing composed of dreierketten silicate chains, interlayer Ca, and water molecules.

Oh, Jae Eun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, CA USA (United States); School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan Metropolitan City, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Clark, Simon M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Maquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, 20015, CA (United States); Wenk, Hans-Rudolf [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Maquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, CA USA (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Metastable phases in the aluminum-germanium alloy system: Synthesis by mechanical alloying and pressure induced transformations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al and Ge form a simple equilibrium eutectic with limited mutual solubility and no intermetallic intermediate phases. We used a regular solution approach to model effects of pressure on Al-Ge. Effects of pressure are to extend solubility of Ge in Al, to displace the eutectic composition towards the Ge rich side, and to slightly decrease the eutectic temperature. We designed thermobaric treatments to induce crystal-to-glass transformations in fine grain mixtures of Al and Ge. We used Merrill-Bassett diamond anvil cells to perform experiments at high pressures. We built an x-ray apparatus to determine the structure of alloys at pressure and from cryogenic temperatures to 400C. Two-phase Al-Ge samples with fine microstructures were prepared by splat-quenching and mechanical alloying. We observed a crystal-to-glass transformation at about 80 kbar. The amorphous phase formed was metastable at ambient temperature after pressure release. This was confirmed by TEM. The amorphous phase obtained by pressurization was found to have a liquid-like structure and was metallic. In the TEM samples we also observed the presence of a second amorphous phase formed upon release of the pressure. This second phase had a tetrahedrally-bonded continuous random network structure, similar to that of semi-conducting amorphous germanium.

Yvon, P.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; (CIW); (RITS)

2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

445

Structural phase transitions in EuFe[subscript 2]As[subscript 2] superconductor at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has been studied up to a pressure of 35 GPa and down to a temperature of 8 K using temperature dependent x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at a synchrotron source. At 4.3 GPa, we have detected a structural phase transition from a high temperature tetragonal phase with I4/mmm space group to a low temperature orthorhombic phase with Fmmm space group around 120 K. With the application of pressure at a low temperature of 10 K, the orthorhombic phase is suppressed and a phase change to a collapsed tetragonal phase with I4/mmm space group is observed at 11 GPa. This collapsed tetragonal phase is similar to the one observed at ambient temperature and pressure above 8.5 GPa. We have shown that the collapsed tetragonal phase of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has the same pressure-volume (P-V) equation of state at ambient temperature and at 10 K, implying that the high pressure phase of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has a negligible thermal expansion coefficient.

Uhoya, Walter O.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; McGuire, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S. (UAB); (ORNL)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

Suppression of magnetism and development of superconductivity within the collapsed tetragonal phase of Ca[subscript 0.67]Sr[subscript 0.33]Fe[subscript 2]As[subscript 2] under pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structural and electronic characterizations of (Ca{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} have been performed as a function of pressure up to 12 GPa using conventional and designer diamond anvil cells. The compound (Ca{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} behaves intermediately between its end members, displaying a suppression of magnetism and the onset of superconductivity. Like other members of the AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family, (Ca{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} undergoes a pressure-induced isostructural volume collapse, which we associate with the development of As-As bonding across the mirror plane of the structure. This collapsed tetragonal phase abruptly cuts off the magnetic state and supports superconductivity with a maximum T{sub c} = 22.2 K. The maximum T{sub c} of the superconducting phase is not strongly correlated with any structural parameter, but its proximity to the abrupt suppression of magnetism as well as the volume-collapse transition suggests that magnetic interactions and structural inhomogeneity may play a role in its development.

Jeffries, J.R.; Butch, N.P.; Kirshenbaum, K.; Saha, S.R.; Samudrala, G.; Weir, S.T.; Vohra, Y.K.; Paglione, J. (LLNL); (UAB); (Maryland)

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

447

Equation of state for tantalum from relativistic linear combinations of Gaussian-type orbitals calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The zero-temperature equation of state (EOS) for tantalum (Ta) is calculated to 2.5 Mbar with the relativistic linear combinations of Gaussian type orbital–fitting-function (LCGTO-FF) method, for two density functional models: the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The EOS is determined both with and without spin-orbit coupling included. The effect of spin-orbit coupling is found to be nearly negligible over the compression range considered, in sharp disagreement with a previous calculation using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method. A serious discrepancy between 300 K diamond anvil cell data and reduced shock data for Ta is shown to result from an underestimate of the Grüneisen parameter during the reduction of the shock data. The GGA model reproduces the zero-pressure properties of Ta quite well, while the high-pressure EOS data is in better accord with the LDA calculations. Neither model provides an adequate representation for the EOS over the full range of the data.

J. C. Boettger

2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

448

Ultrahigh-pressure structural phase transitions in Cr, Mo, and W  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the basis of first-principles total-energy calculations, we predict the ultrahigh-pressure destabilization of the bcc structure in the group-VIB elements Cr, Mo, and W through a bcc?hcp phase transition at pressures of about 7.0, 4.2, and 12.5 Mbar, respectively. In Mo and W, a subsequent hcp?fcc transition is also predicted at about 6.2 and 14.4 Mbar, respectively. The overall driving mechanism for these transitions is a continuous sp?d transfer of electrons upon compression, although other factors play an important quantitative role, especially the hard-core-like interaction between the large cores of these elements, which disfavors the bcc structure and serves to lower the bcc?hcp transition pressures. While the actual predicted transition pressures are sensitive to the details of the calculations, the qualitative trends are not, and the bcc?hcp transition in Mo should be within reach of static diamond-anvil-cell experiments. In this regard, we have also calculated accurate 300-K isotherms for bcc Cr, Mo, and W valid up to the 5–6-Mbar pressure range.

John A. Moriarty

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Compressibilities and phonon spectra of high-hardness transition metal-nitride materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report compressibilities measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and phonon spectra from Raman scattering at high pressure in the diamond anvil cell (DAC) for cubic transition metal nitrides TiN{sub 1-x}, {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and VN{sub x}. The high-hardness metal nitride compounds have large values of the bulk modulus. B1-structured nitrides normally have no allowed first-order Raman spectra. However, they exhibit broad bands that reflect the vibrational density of states g({omega}) associated with breakdown of q=0 selection rules because of the presence of N{sup 3-} vacancies on anion sites. Peaks in g({omega}) at low frequency are identified with the longitudinal and transverse acoustic (TA) branches. The maximum in the TA band is correlated with the superconducting transition temperature in these materials (T{sub c}). In situ Raman scattering measurements in the DAC thus permit predictions of the T{sub c} variation with pressure for cubic nitrides and isostructural carbide materials.

Shebanova, O.; Soignard, E.; Mcmillan, P.F. (ASU); (UCL)

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

450

Photo-Electric Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... be measured, and its variation studied with variation of the incident light. Again, the photo-electric current may be amplified by valve circuits used outside the cell, or may ... to the infra-red, in which the active substance is oxidised thallium sulphide), barium photo-electric cells, sodium, and selenium cells.

ALLAN FERGUSON

1930-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

451

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Market Transformation Market Transformation Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies on AddThis.com... Early Adoption of Fuel Cells Early Market Applications for Fuel Cells

452

California: TetraCell Silicon Solar Cell Improves Efficiency...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

California: TetraCell Silicon Solar Cell Improves Efficiency, Wins R&D 100 Award California: TetraCell Silicon Solar Cell Improves Efficiency, Wins R&D 100 Award August 16, 2013 -...

453

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell...

454

FUEL CELLS – MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS | Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) emerged during the twentieth century as one of the key fuel cell types. It uses an electrolyte of alkali metal carbonates, operates typically at 650 °C, and is best suited to hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas, coal gas, or biogas. The high operating temperature enables such fuels to be fed directly to the MCFC stacks, leading to conversion efficiencies greater than 50%. Molten carbonate fuel cell systems are ideally suited to applications that need continuous base load power. The first commercial systems, at the 300 kW scale, are therefore being used in applications such as hospitals and hotels.

A.L. Dicks

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Fuel Cell Buses | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Buses Fuel Cell Buses Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Fuel Cell Buses" held on September 12, 2013. Fuel Cell Buses...

456

Fuel Cells Fact Sheet | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cells Fact Sheet Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen fuel cell technology. Fuel Cells More Documents & Publications...

457

Cell Fusion and Tissue Regeneration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cell fusion is a natural process implicated in normal ... bone marrow stem cells fuse with several cell types, under normal condition or after an injury ... in regenerative medicine and genetic repair. Cell fusion

Manuel Álvarez-Dolado; Magdalena Martínez-Losa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Fuel Cells Team  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Judith Valerio at one of our 31 single-cell test stands Fuel Cell Team The FC team focus is R&D on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for commercial and military applications. Our program has had ongoing funding in the area of polymer electrolyte fuel cells since 1977 and has been responsible for enabling breakthroughs in the areas of thin film electrodes and air bleed for CO tolerance. For more information on the history of fuel cell research at Los Alamos, please click here. Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the Hydrogen Economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power the nation and the world. The FC team is exploring the potential of fuel cells as energy-efficient, clean, and fuel-flexible alternatives that will

459

Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting, originally presented on November 13, 2012.

460

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Joint Fuel Cell Bus Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings Workshop & Meeting Proceedings Webinars

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "diamond anvil cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Flow Cells for Energy Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings

462

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Market Transformation Market Transformation Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies on AddThis.com...

463

Fuel Cells publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells » Fuel Cells Publications Fuel Cells publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Chemistry Communications Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

464

Fuel Cells Overview  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION / ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy Pat Davis 2 Fuel Cells Technical Goals & Objectives Goal : Develop and demonstrate fuel cell power system technologies for transportation, stationary, and portable applications. 3 Fuel Cells Technical Goals & Objectives Objectives * Develop a 60% efficient, durable, direct hydrogen fuel cell power system for transportation at a cost of $45/kW (including hydrogen storage) by 2010. * Develop a 45% efficient reformer-based fuel cell power system for transportation operating on clean hydrocarbon or alcohol based fuel that meets emissions standards, a start-up time of 30 seconds, and a projected manufactured cost of $45/kW by

465

Distributed Energy Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Fuel Cells Energy Fuel Cells DOE Hydrogen DOE Hydrogen and and Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Coordination Meeting Fuel Cell Coordination Meeting June 2-3, 2003 Electricity Users Kathi Epping Kathi Epping Objectives & Barriers Distributed Energy OBJECTIVES * Develop a distributed generation PEM fuel cell system operating on natural gas or propane that achieves 40% electrical efficiency and 40,000 hours durability at $400-750/kW by 2010. BARRIERS * Durability * Heat Utilization * Power Electronics * Start-Up Time Targets and Status Integrated Stationary PEMFC Power Systems Operating on Natural Gas or Propane Containing 6 ppm Sulfur 40,000 30,000 15,000 Hours Durability 750 1,250 2,500 $/kWe Cost 40 32 30 % Electrical Efficiency Large (50-250 kW) Systems 40,000 30,000 >6,000 Hours Durability 1,000 1,500 3,000

466

How Fuel Cells Work  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How Fuel Cells Work How Fuel Cells Work Diagram: How a PEM fuel cell works. 1. Hydrogen fuel is channeled through field flow plates to the anode on one side of the fuel cell, while oxygen from the air is channeled to the cathode on the other side of the cell. 2. At the anode, a platinum catalyst causes the hydrogen to split into positive hydrogen ions (protons) and negatively charged electrons. 3. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) allows only the positively charged ions to pass through it to the cathode. The negatively charged electrons must travel along an external circuit to the cathode, creating an electrical current. 4. At the cathode, the electrons and positively charged hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water, which flows out of the cell.

467

Fuel cell generating plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses a fuel cell generating plant. It comprises a compressed fuel supply; a fuel cell system including fuel conditioning apparatus and fuel cells; a main fuel conduit for conveying fuel from the fuel supply to the fuel cell system; a turbo compressor having a turbine receiving exhaust products from the fuel cell system and a compressor for compressing air; a main air conduit for conveying air from the compressor to the fuel cell system; an auxiliary burner having a primary burner and a pilot; an auxiliary air conduit for conveying air from the compressed fuel supply to the auxiliary burner; an auxiliary exhaust conduit for conveying exhaust products from the auxiliary burner to the turbine; a check valve located between the fuel supply and the pilot; and a gas accumulator in the auxiliary fuel conduit located between the check valve and the pilot.

Sanderson, R.A.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

468

Concentrator silicon cell research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project continued the developments of high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cells with the goal of achieving a cell efficiency in the 26 to 27 percent range at a concentration level of 150 suns of greater. The target efficiency was achieved with the new PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally diffused) cell structure, but only at low concentration levels around 20 suns. The PERL structure combines oxide passivation of both top and rear surfaces of the cells with small area contact to heavily doped regions on the top and rear surfaces. Efficiency in the 22 to 23 percent range was also demonstrated for large-area concentrator cells fabricated with the buried contact solar cell processing sequence, either when combined with prismatic covers or with other innovative approaches to reduce top contact shadowing. 19 refs.

Green, M.A.; Wenham, S.R.; Zhang, F.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Solar Photovoltaic Lab.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

FUEL CELLS – SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS | Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, some basic arrangements of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems are described, starting with atmospheric systems using a catalytic burner or a thermal burner and anode gas recycling. For illustrating the potential electrical efficiency of SOFC systems, their combination with a gas turbine and also with a steam turbine (ST) are described. To be able to evaluate the potential of the different systems, first the essential efficiencies relevant to fuel cell systems are defined and then the basics of calculating energy balance are illustrated. Equations are given to describe, for example, the effect of fuel recycling on system fuel utilization and of internal reforming on the necessary air flow for cooling the stack. It is obvious that electrical efficiency depends strongly on cell voltage and fuel utilization. In the case of cells that operate with a high fuel utilization at cell voltages of 800 mV, a net electrical efficiency above 55% can be achieved. The combination in a pressurized system with a gas turbine enables efficiencies of up to 70% and combining this system with an additional ST allows efficiencies of up to 75%. However, an investigation into the size of these \\{STs\\} shows that such combined systems make sense only above a gas input of 10 MW.

L. Blum; E. Riensche

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Cascade Organic Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cascade Organic Solar Cells ... Multiple factors control the efficiency of organic solar cells, making it difficult to use single donor or acceptor materials to balance the, often opposing, material properties required to optimize device performance. ... We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C60/bathocuproine/Al. ...

Cody W. Schlenker; Vincent S. Barlier; Stephanie W. Chin; Matthew T. Whited; R. Eric McAnally; Stephen R. Forrest; Mark E. Thompson

2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

471

Heterojunction solar cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

Olson, J.M.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

472

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

473

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

474

Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

475

Fuel Cell Financing Options  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Financing Fuel Cell Installations, August 30, 2011.

476

A chlorophyll solar cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple chlorophyll solar cell has been designed built and tested. A voltage output versus time curve has also been obtained. (AIP)

J. Christopher Ludlow

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Fuel Cell Case Study  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Fuel Cells for Supermarkets, April 4, 2011.

478

Modelling microscale fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The focus of this work is to investigate transport phenomena in recently developed microscale fuel cell designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two microscale fuel… (more)

Bazylak, Aimy Ming Jii

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Mammalian Cell Culture | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mammalian Cell Culture At EMSL, researchers use the single-molecule fluorescencepatch clamp microscope to combine high-sensitivity fluorescence imaging simultaneously with...

480

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cells Key Benefits Very High Efficiency Reduced CO 2 Emissions Reduced Oil Use Reduced Air Pollution Fuel Flexibility * 40 - 60% (electrical) * > 70% (electrical, hybrid fuel...

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481

Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

482

Quantum Junction Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantum Junction Solar Cells ... § Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G4, Canada ...

Jiang Tang; Huan Liu; David Zhitomirsky; Sjoerd Hoogland; Xihua Wang; Melissa Furukawa; Larissa Levina; Edward H. Sargent

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

483

Fuel Cell Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.

Gerald Brun

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

484

REVIEW Open Access Cell therapy using tolerogenic dendritic cells in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with cell therapy using regulatory cells. In our laboratory, as part of a European project, we plan to testREVIEW Open Access Cell therapy using tolerogenic dendritic cells in transplantation Aurélie Moreau the safety of tolerogenic dendritic cell (TolDC) therapy in kidney transplant patients. In this mini-review

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

485

cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What is sickle cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status. Engage in a slow and gradual experiencing unusual physical distress. People at high risk for having sickle cell trait are those whose countries. sickle cell trait is not a disease. Sickle cell trait is the inheritance of one gene for sickle

Devoto, Stephen H.

486

Fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell generators which allow controlled leakage among plural chambers in a sealed housing. Depleted oxidant and fuel are directly reacted in one chamber to combust remaining fuel and preheat incoming reactants. The cells are preferably electrically arranged in a series-parallel configuration.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

NETL: Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Coal and Power Systems Fuel Cells SECA Logo Welcome to NETL's Fuel Cells Webpage. In partnership with private industry, educational institutions and national laboratories, we are leading the research, development, and demonstration of high efficiency, fuel flexible solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and coal-based SOFC power generation systems for stationary market large central power plants under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). The SECA cost reduction goal is to have SOFC systems capable of being manufactured at $400 per kilowatt by 2010. Concurrently, the scale-up, aggregation, and integration of the technology will progress in parallel leading to prototype validation of megawatt (MW)-class fuel flexible products by 2012 and 2015. The SECA coal-based systems goal is the development of large

488

Fuel Cell Development Status  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Development Status Michael Short Systems Engineering Manager United Technologies Corporation Research Center Hamilton Sundstrand UTC Power UTC Fire & Security Fortune 50 corporation $52.9B in annual sales in 2009 ~60% of Sales are in building technologies Transportation Stationary Fuel Cells Space & Defense * Fuel cell technology leader since 1958 * ~ 550 employees * 768+ Active U.S. patents, more than 300 additional U.S. patents pending * Global leader in efficient, reliable, and sustainable fuel cell solutions UTC Power About Us PureCell ® Model 400 Solution Process Overview Power Conditioner Converts DC power to high-quality AC power 3 Fuel Cell Stack Generates DC power from hydrogen and air 2 Fuel Processor Converts natural gas fuel to hydrogen

489

Fuel Cell 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell 101 Fuel Cell 101 Don Hoffman Don Hoffman Ship Systems & Engineering Research Division March 2011 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Fuel Cell Operation * A Fuel Cell is an electrochemical power source * It supplies electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen electrochemically without combustion. * It is configured like a battery with anode and cathode. * Unlike a battery, it does not run down or require recharging and will produce electricity and will produce electricity, heat and water as long as fuel is supplied. 2H + + 2e - O 2 + 2H + + 2e - 2H 2 O H 2 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2 FUEL FUEL CONTROLS Fuel Cell System HEAT & WATER CLEAN CLEAN EXHAUST EXHAUST

490

NREL: Learning - Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Fuel cells and their ability to cleanly produce electricity from hydrogen and oxygen are what make hydrogen attractive as a "fuel" for transportation use particularly, but also as a general energy carrier for homes and other uses, and for storing and transporting otherwise intermittent renewable energy. Fuel cells function somewhat like a battery-with external fuel being supplied rather than stored electricity-to generate power by chemical reaction rather than combustion. Hydrogen fuel cells, for instance, feed hydrogen gas into an electrode that contains a catalyst, such as platinum, which helps to break up the hydrogen molecules into positively charged hydrogen ions and negatively charged electrons. The electrons flow from the electrode to a terminal that

491

Cell manipulation in microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available.

Hoyoung Yun; Kisoo Kim; Won Gu Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 2007 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES Shirley Radack cell phones are widely used for both personal and professional applications, the technology of cell forensics usually do not cover cell phones, especially those with advanced capabilities. The digital

493

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

494

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Newsletter:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 to someone by E-mail 2 to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Newsletter: May 2012 on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Newsletter: May 2012 on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Newsletter: May 2012 on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Newsletter: May 2012 on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Newsletter: May 2012 on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Newsletter: May 2012 on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Archives Subscribe Program Presentations