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Sample records for dialogue coal working

  1. AEO2015 Coal Working Group Meeting Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, August 27, 20123 OilPURPOSES. DO

  2. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Rosalind Franklin's work on coal,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Peter J F

    PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Rosalind Franklin's work on coal, carbon research involved studies of coal, carbon, and graphite. She made a number of enduring contributions Franklin's published work on coal, carbon,Rosalind Franklin's role in unravelling the structure

  3. US-India Energy Dialogue: Coal Working Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyThe U.S.Laclede GasEfficiency|Feed| DepartmentOFAdvancedGrid Implementation31, 2005,

  4. Work Plan - U.S.-India Coal Working Group | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE.Energy Wind PowerRegina RameikaWork Plan - U.S.-India Coal

  5. How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11,SecurityHome solar systems canLastDepartment|AreCoal

  6. AEO2014 Coal Working Group Meeting I Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, August 27, 20123 Oil and GasJuly

  7. Annual Energy Outlook 2014 1st Coal Working Group

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc.:October 9,‹1 st

  8. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 1st Coal Working Group

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc.:OctoberElectricity1

  9. Discriminative methods for statistical spoken dialogue systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Matthew S.

    2015-06-30

    figures and tables. Some of the work presented here was pub- lished in the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue (Henderson et al., 2014b, 2013, 2014a) and the IEEE workshop on Spoken Language Technology (Henderson et al., 2014c, 2012, 2014d... Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.3 Dialogue State Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.4 Dialogue Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.4.1 Statistical Dialogue...

  10. Understanding dialogue: sentiment and topic analysis of dialogue transcripts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muralidhar, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    The field of natural language processing has had success in analyzing sentiment and topics on written text, but similar analysis on dialogue is more difficult due to the fragmented and informal nature of speech. This work ...

  11. Dendrochronological dating of coal mine workings at the Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Nova Scotia, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walters, Bradley B.

    Dendrochronological dating of coal mine workings at the Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Nova Scotia, Canada, New Brunswick E4L 1A7, Canada 2. Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1, Canada * Corresponding author Date received 4 May 2010 ¶ Date

  12. Using Prosodic Information to Constrain Language Models for Spoken Dialogue 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Paul A; Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Isard, Stephen; King, Simon; Kowtko, Jacqueline C

    We present work intended to improve speech recognition performance for computer dialogue by taking into account the way that dialogue context and intonational tune interact to limit the possibilities for what an utterance ...

  13. Impact of mine closure and access facilities on gas emissions from old mine workings to surface: examples of French iron and coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    : examples of French iron and coal Lorraine basins C. Lagny, R. Salmon, Z. Pokryszka and S. Lafortune (INERIS of mine shafts located in the iron Lorraine basin, in the Lorraine and in North-East coal basins are quite in mine workings but gas entrance and exit are allowed. Coal shafts are secured and can be equipped

  14. The Keystone Dialogue

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Keystone Dialogue explored citizen involvement in EM cleanup to address such issues as cleanup levels, future use, and safety at the sites.

  15. Toward a Model for Incremental Grounding in Spoken Dialogue Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    natural conversation between humans and computers. By analyzing the user's utterance while it is still at examples of incremental grounding behavior in spoken conversa- tions between human interlocutors implementation within a working spoken dialogue system. 2 Incremental Grounding Behavior in Human Dialogue

  16. U.S.-India Coal Working Group Terms of Reference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsStateofEnergy Fuel Cell Council:EnergyU.S.-India Coal

  17. G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue A global legislator partnership for legal International http://www.illegal-logging.info/item_single.php?item=presentation&item_id=133&approach_id=8 #12;G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue Presentation purpose · role of GLOBE International · aim and objectives of the G8

  18. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  20. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have both positive (+) and negative (-) impact as summarized below: (-) Coal-carbon is a melter reductant. If excess coal-carbon is present, the resulting melter feed may be too reducing, potentially shortening the melter life. During this study, the Reduction/Oxidation Potential (REDOX) of the melter could be controlled by varying the ratio of nitric and formic acid. (-) The addition of coal-carbon increases the amount of nitric acid added and decreases the amount of formic acid added to control melter REDOX. This means that the CPC with the FBSR product is much more oxidizing than current CPC processing. In this study, adequate formic acid was present in all experiments to reduce mercury and manganese, two of the main goals of CPC processing. (-) Coal-carbon will be oxidized to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in the melter. The addition of coal-carbon to the FBSR product will lead to approximately 55% higher offgas production from formate, nitrate and carbon due to the decomposition of the carbon at the maximum levels in this testing. Higher offgas production could lead to higher cold cap coverage or melter foaming which could decrease melt rate. No testing was performed to evaluate the impact of the higher melter offgas flow. (+) The hydrogen production is greatly reduced in testing with coal as less formic acid is added in CPC processing. In the high acid run without coal, the peak hydrogen generation was 15 times higher than in the high acid run with added coal-carbon. (+) Coal-carbon is a less problematic reducing agent than formic acid, since the content of both carbon and hydrogen are important in evaluating the flammability of the melter offgas. Processing with coal-carbon decreases the amount of formic acid added in the CPC, leading to a lower flammability risk in processing with coal-carbon compared to the current DWPF flowsheet. (+) The seven SB10 formulations which were tested during the bench-scale CPC demonstration were all determined to be within the off-gas flammability safety basis limits during the 9X/5X off-gas surge for normal bubbled melter

  1. National Dialogue on Career Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Tuesday, September 23, 2014, the U.S. Departments of Labor, Education and Health and Human Services will host a National Dialogue on Career Pathways.  Federal agency leaders from each Department...

  2. Dialogue Act Recognition with Bayesian Networks for Dutch Dialogues Simon Keizer, Rieks op den Akker and Anton Nijholt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    ) for a valuable discussion on dialogue act taxonomies and an extensive bibli- ography. A dialogue system needs

  3. Dialogue-Oriented Review Summary Generation for Spoken Dialogue Recommendation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jingjing

    In this paper we present an opinion summarization technique in spoken dialogue systems. Opinion mining has been well studied for years, but very few have considered its application in spoken dialogue systems. Review ...

  4. GeoDialogue: A Software Agent Enabling Collaborative Dialogues between a User and a Conversational GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klippel, Alexander

    GIS Hongmei Wang Department of Computer Science Northern Kentucky University Highland Heights, KY be met to achieve a usable conversational interface to Geographic Information System (GIS) is howDialogue, as a dialogue manager for a conversational GIS. This dialogue agent enables intelligent collaborative human-GIS

  5. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  6. NAPA Collaboration Project: Worker Dialogue to Improve Worker...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NAPA Collaboration Project: Worker Dialogue to Improve Worker Health, Safety and Security NAPA Collaboration Project: Worker Dialogue to Improve Worker Health, Safety and Security...

  7. China Dialogue | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLCLtd Jump to:Changing WorldCalifornia:Dialogue Jump to: navigation,

  8. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  9. Global Climate Dialogue Prepared by Kershney Naidoo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Climate Dialogue Prepared by Kershney Naidoo In a historic moment of Justice for the Climate) backgrounds. It aimed to establish a set of guiding global principles for a just response to climate change. The intention of the Climate Justice Dialogue was to lend new impetus to an awareness of climate change

  10. Dialogue Macrogame Theory William C. Mann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dialogues. The final theoretical summary was presented in the form of a technical method for representing. The team produced a series of reports (Mann 1979) (Mann, Carlisle et al. 1977) (Mann, Carlisle et al. 1975, from the emergency period after the explosion. DMT is then related to another dialogue analysis method

  11. Predicting Outcomes from Patient-Clinician Dialogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purver, Matthew

    : yeah C: I actually think we should apply right away D: yeah I think that is a good idea C: I think you-Human Dialogue - Online · Social media: Twitter, Facebook, Sina Weibo ­ Light/distant supervision, scalability;Human-Human Dialogue - Online · Social media: Twitter, Facebook, Sina Weibo ­ Light/distant supervision

  12. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  13. Sminaire Y. FOUQUET dialogue & main9en domicile Sminaire Travaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fouquet, Yannick

    Séminaire Y. FOUQUET ­ dialogue & main9en à domicile Séminaire Travaux de;Séminaire Y. FOUQUET ­ dialogue & main9en à domicile Extension experte de corpus réduit ­ dialogue & main9en à domicile Modélisation des attentes en dialogue oral Pourriez-vous me

  14. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A Dialogue on the Book Professor: Welcome to this book! It's called Operating Systems in Four

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi

    called "Professor"; who are you? Student: Hi Professor! I am called "Student", as you might have guessed an operating system works, including 1 #12;2 A DIALOGUE ON THE BOOK how it decides what program to run next on a CPU, how it handles memory overload in a virtual memory system, how virtual machine monitors work, how

  16. Hydrocracking catalysts from coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farcasiu, M.; Petrosius, S.C.; Pladner, E. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Derbyshire, F.; Jagtoyen, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1994-12-31

    In previous work at PETC it was shown that carbon blacks and carbonized polymers could be active and selective catalysts in hydrocracking reactions of interest for fossil fuels processing. Work at CAER for the production of various activated carbons from coals have shown that the properties of the materials could be varied if they are produced under different conditions. The authors will report work to optimize the catalytic properties of some coal based carbon materials prepared at CAER. One of the most promising materials for this purpose is obtained from an Illinois bituminous coal. The procedure hydroxide solution with coal and reacting in two stages; (1) heat treatment of the solution at 75 C under nitrogen for one hour followed by drying and (2) heat treatment at 400--1,100 C followed by leaching to remove KOH. The product was extensively characterized and its catalytic activity was measured. The catalytic activity of some of the materials is comparable with other, more expensive carbon materials. The catalysts have potential use in upgrading petroleum heavy ends and coal liquefaction.

  17. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony AprilCOAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony Wrathalla promising agent in coal-liquid desulfurization, assuming

  18. The Space-Weather Awareness Dialogue: Findings and Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    The Space-Weather Awareness Dialogue: Findings and Outlook An event hosted by the European-WEATHER AWARENESS DIALOGUE: FINDINGS AND OUTLOOK An event hosted by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre

  19. Automatic Annotation of Context and Speech Acts for Dialogue Corpora. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallirroi, Georgila; Lemon, Oliver; Henderson, James; Moore, Johanna D.

    annotated with contextual information and speech acts are urgently required. We explore how existing dialogue corpora (usually consisting of utterance transcriptions) can be automatically processed to yield new corpora where dialogue context and speech acts...

  20. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  1. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  2. Answering it with charts --Dialogue in natural language and charts --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    organizing that in- teraction into felicitous dialogue. Charts and graph- ics, as well as languages language as input and answering them in charts through organizing that interaction into felicitous dialogueAnswering it with charts -- Dialogue in natural language and charts -- Tsuneaki KATO Graduate

  3. Using high level dialogue information for dialogue act recognition using prosodic features. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Helen; Poesio, Massimo; Isard, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    We look at the effect of using high level discourse knowledge in dialogue act type detection. We also look at ways this knowledge can be used for improving language modelling and intonation modelling of utterance types. ...

  4. Spring 2015 Critical Dialogues Across Differences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    Immigration? Are people in the USA beyond racism? Come join us as we dialogue about this and other questions of how race matters. · Gain a better understanding of how we are socialized into a system of racism and white privilege. · Have a better understanding of how individuals internalize and respond to racism

  5. Entrainment in Slovak Collaborative Dialogues Stefan Beus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benus, Stefan

    Entrainment in Slovak Collaborative Dialogues Stefan Beus Constantine the Philosopher University Institute of Informatics, Slovak Ac. of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia darjaa@savba.sk Abstract--Entrainment studies have shown that the degree of spoken entrainment correlates with several social conversational

  6. THE EFFECT OF COAL CHAR ON THE CORROSION OF 304 SS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foerster, Thomas Friedrich Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    of Materials for Coal Gasification Applications". of Highcommercially proven coal gasification processes exist. Theseprocesses. more efficient gasification Much of this work is

  7. Clean coal. U.S.-China cooperation in energy security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, D.

    2008-05-15

    This work discusses how coal fits into the strategies of the USA and China to attain energy security while avoiding adverse environmental impacts. It begins by describing China's policy choices for clean coal, before discussing the implications of a clean coal strategy for China. The U.S. choices in a coal-based strategy of energy security is then covered. Finally, a joint US-China clean coal strategy, including the technology sharing option, is discussed.

  8. Interest in coal chemistry intensifies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggin, J.

    1982-08-09

    Research on coal structure has increased greatly in recent years as the future role of coal as a source of gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as chemicals, becomes more apparent. This paper reviews in some detail work being carried out in the US, particularly in the laboratories of Mobil and Exxon, and in the universities. New ideas on the chemical and physical structure of coal are put forward, and a proposal for a new classification system based on the fundamental properties of the vitrinite macerals is introduced.

  9. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  10. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    that own the scores of coal power plants whose coal ismillion tons in 2006. Coal power plants currently accountan electric generating coal power plant that would be built

  11. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  12. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  13. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  14. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  15. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  16. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  17. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  18. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  19. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  20. PLAYING WITH WORDS: FROM INTUITION TO EVALUATION OF GAME DIALOGUE INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sali, Serdar

    2012-01-01

    the Conversational User Interface. Springer. Medler, Ben.IST OF F IGURES Figure 1. Dialogue interface in Dragon Age:12   Figure 2. Dialogue interface in Mass Effect. The

  1. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  2. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture CS Seminars Calendar HomeNETLCareersCoal

  3. Ultrafine calcium aerosol: Generation and use as a sorbent for sulfur in coal combustion. Volume 1, Experimental work: Final report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, M.K.; Nahar, N.U.; Stewart, G.D.; Prudich, M.E. [comps.] [Ohio Coal Research Center, Athens, OH (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Studies conducted at Ohio University and elsewhere have demonstrated that ultrafine aerosols, which have the highest surface area per unit mass, have enhanced potential to efficiently remove sulfur dioxide form combustion gases. Therefore it is proposed to generate a very fine aerosol calcium-rich sorbent (or similar aerosols) for gas conditioning. The aerosol will be generated by vaporization of the sorbent compound and subsequent homogeneous nucleation. In experimental studies liquids as well as solids will be converted into ultrafine aerosols by using suitable aerosol generator. The aerosol generator could be a simple bubbler or a flame spray jet using powders of calcium ``Compounds. Studies will then be carried out, to determine the dynamics of sulfur dioxide capture by the ultrafine aerosol. The primary objective of this research was to generate fine aerosols and to use them for coal combustion SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} gas removal purposes. From the background study on the dry scrubbing system, it can be concluded that the most important experimental parameters are addition ratio, reactor temperature, residence time, total inlet flow rate and inlet SO{sub 2} concentration. Addition ratio is the inlet molar ratio of calcium to sulfur. Before any experimentation, it was necessary to decide and investigate the values of each of the parameters. Each of these parameters were investigated individually and the effects on SO{sub 2} removal were determined.

  4. A moonshine dialogue in mathematical physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Planat

    2015-07-08

    Phys and Math are two colleagues at the University of Sa{\\c c}enbon (Crefan Kingdom), dialoguing about the remarkable efficiency of mathematics for physics. They talk about the notches on the Ishango bone, the various uses of psi in maths and physics, they arrive at dessins d'enfants, moonshine concepts, Rademacher sums and their significance in the quantum world. You should not miss their eccentric proposal of relating Bell's theorem to the Baby Monster group. Their hyperbolic polygons show a considerable singularity/cusp structure that our modern age of computers is able to capture. Henri Poincar{\\'e} would have been happy to see it.

  5. Cyber-security Research Ethics Dialogue & Strategy Erin Kenneally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Cyber-security Research Ethics Dialogue & Strategy Workshop Erin Kenneally CAIDA/UC, San Diego La The inaugural Cyber-security Research Ethics Dialogue & Strat- egy Workshop was held on May 23, 2013 of "ethics-by-design" in the context of cyber security research, and aimed to: · Educate participants about

  6. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H.

    2008-07-01

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  8. Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

  9. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    is produced via coal gasification, then, depending on thenot be amenable to coal gasification and, thus, Eastern coalto represent a coal-to- hydrogen gasification process that

  10. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberTable 15: Coal Supply, Disposition, and Prices”, http://

  11. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    increase in rail coal transportation costs in the future? (Ythus, the cost of coal transportation via unit trains ischance of the cost of coal transportation increasing are

  12. Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U-based technology. (a) Based on equal quantities of coal used to produce hydrogen and electricity 4 #12;Why Hydrogen From Coal? Huge U.S. coal reserves Hydrogen can be produced cleanly from coal Coal can provide

  13. Cleantech: Innovative Lab Partnership Reduces Emissions from Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how the National Energy Technology Laboratory is working to reduce the emission of pollutants from existing coal-fired power plants.

  14. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  15. Coal Segregation Control for Meeting Homogeneity Z. Huang, R. Kumar J. Yingling, J. Sottile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    Coal Segregation Control for Meeting Homogeneity Standards Z. Huang, R. Kumar J. Yingling, J were developed to control coal segre- gation to meet ash targets over large coal batches (e. g., a unit train of coal) while realizing high yields and economic savings. We have extended this work to address

  16. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  17. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    Railroads”, Conference on the Future of Coal, U.S. SenateFuture Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Costone at that! -ii- Future Impacts of Coal Distribution

  18. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  19. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  20. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  1. Automating Spoken Dialogue Systems Mona Singh,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automating Spoken Dialogue Systems Mona Singh,1,2 James Barnett,2 Munindar P. Singh1 1 Department construction [6]. Mona Singh and James Barnett are supported by the National Institute of Standards

  2. Elegiac Rhetorics: From Loss to Dialogue in Lyric Poetry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Sarah Elizabeth

    2012-10-19

    Committee Members, C. Jan Swearingen Marian Eide Linda Radzik Head of Department, Nancy Bradley Warren August 2012 Major Subject: English iii ABSTRACT Elegiac Rhetorics: From Loss to Dialogue in Lyric Poetry. (August 2012) Sarah Elizabeth...

  3. Evaluating Information Presentation Strategies for Spoken Dialogue Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winterboer, Andi

    2009-01-01

    A common task for spoken dialogue systems (SDS) is to help users select a suitable option (e.g., flight, hotel, restaurant) from the set of options available. When the number of options is small, they can simply be ...

  4. Automatic dialogue act recognition using a dynamic Bayesian network 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dielmann, Alfred; Renals, Steve

    2007-01-01

    We propose a joint segmentation and classification approach for the dialogue act recognition task on natural multi-party meetings (ICSI Meeting Corpus). Five broad DA categories are automatically recognised using a generative Dynamic Bayesian...

  5. Automatic topic segmentation and labeling in multiparty dialogue 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsueh, Pei-Yun; Moore, Johanna D.

    2010-11-04

    This study concerns how to segment a scenario-driven multiparty dialogue and how to label these segments automatically. We apply approaches that have been proposed for identifying topic boundaries at a coarser level to ...

  6. The reliability of a dialogue structure coding scheme. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carletta, Jean; Isard, Amy; Isard, Stephen; Kowtko, Jacqueline C; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Anderson, Anne H

    1997-01-01

    This papers describes the reliability of a dialogue structure coding scheme which is based on utterance function, game structure, and higher level transaction function, and which has been applied to a corpus of spontaneous ...

  7. The architect as communicator : a dialogue of Copley Square

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, Paul Gerard

    1987-01-01

    Architecture is a dialogue. It is a communication between those who design and the society which they design in. The two are inseparable. The role of the designer, which I have chosen as an architect, is that of a communicator. ...

  8. The effects of lying on lexical entrainment in dialogue 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosi, Alessia

    2012-11-28

    entrainment). In this study, I developed an experimental paradigm with pairs of naive participants with the aim to investigate how lying affects lexical entrainment and impacts interlocutors' linguistic performances in terms of duration of dialogue and liars...

  9. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  10. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  11. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  12. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  13. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  14. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  15. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  16. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L. (Skokie, IL); Scott, Robert G. (Westmont, IL); Studier, Martin H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  17. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  18. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  19. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  20. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    coal type mining. Production by coal type Since 1980, China maximizedthe production shares of coal types, the shares of different

  1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    power plant pulverized coal power plant v Advanced Coal WindMW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equippedMW coal gasification, combined cycle power plant equipped

  2. Colliers in Corsets? Uncovering Stark County's Nineteenth-Century Coal Mining Women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sampson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Shines: A History of America's Bloody Coal Industry (NewAmerica these miners encountered a different set of barriers that limited women’s capacity to work in the coal

  3. Cofiring of coal and dairy biomass in a 100,000 btu/hr furnace 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

    2009-05-15

    work. Two forms of partially composted DB fuels were investigated: low ash separated solids and high ash soil surface. Two types of coal were investigated: TXL and Wyoming Powder River Basin coal (WYO). Proximate and ultimate analyses were performed...

  4. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  5. But What Do They Mean? Modelling Contrast Between Speakers in Dialogue Signalled by “But” 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Kavita Elisheba

    Understanding what is being communicated in a dialogue involves determining how it is coherent, that is, how the successive turns in the dialogue are related, what the speakers’ intentions, goals, beliefs, and expectations ...

  6. ASR System Modeling for Automatic Evaluation and Optimization of Dialogue Systems. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pietquin, Olivier; Renals, Steve

    Though the field of spoken dialogue systems has developed quickly in the last decade, rapid design of dialogue strategies remains uneasy. Several approaches to the problem of automatic strategy learning have been proposed ...

  7. Learning user modelling strategies for adaptive referring expression generation in spoken dialogue systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janarthanam, Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2011-06-30

    We address the problem of dynamic user modelling for referring expression generation in spoken dialogue systems, i.e how a spoken dialogue system should choose referring expressions to refer to domain entities to users ...

  8. Automatic analysis of medical dialogue in the home hemodialysis domain : structure induction and summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacson, Ronilda Covar, 1968-

    2005-01-01

    Spoken medical dialogue is a valuable source of information, and it forms a foundation for diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic management. However, understanding even a perfect transcript of spoken dialogue is challenging ...

  9. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  10. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

  11. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    Council (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, VolumeCan Coal Deliver? America’s Coal Potential & Limits”, Studycoal generating units currently in operation throughout North America (

  12. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    5 Figure 1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating units (GED, 2006a)of an electric generating coal power plant that would be

  13. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    than those of other coal types, depending on the location oftrue that different coal types (in terms of heating values,= installed capacity of i-type coal plants [GW]; HR i = heat

  14. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  15. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  16. Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

  17. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  18. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international...

  19. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  20. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  1. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process: trace elements research and development report no. 53, interim report no. 34. Volume III. Pilot plant development work part 6: the fate of trace elements in the SRC process for the period, August 1, 1977 - February 28, 1979. [36 elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filby, R.H.; Khalil, S.R.; Grimm, C.A.; Ekabaram, V.; Hunt, M.L.

    1980-12-01

    This work reports the results of neutron activation analysis determination of the fate of trace elements in the SRC II process. Six coals were studied for their behavior in material balance runs carried out at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant. The distribution of trace elements among products and input streams was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron flux of 8 x 10/sup 12/ neutrons cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ followed by Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy. National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials (SRM) were used to evaluate the analytical precision and accuracy of the methods used. For each material balance study the trace element input stream was taken as ground coal and the output streams were vacuum bottoms, SRC II product oil, and process water. In addition to these major components, oils, sludges and waters from liquid-liquid separators, effluent waters, biosludges, and by-product sulfur were also analyzed. Concerning the distribution of trace elements in the SRC II process, it was found that the vacuum bottoms was the major sink for all trace element studied, with the exception of Hg. Much lower trace element concentrations (except for Hg) were found in the SRC II product oil relative to the vacuum bottoms or the feed coal, irrespective of coal type. The results indicate excellent balances for the elements studied, except for Hg. Except for Hg, Se, and C1, the SRC II product and process waters contributed less than 1% of the elemental balances for light oil fractions and process waters indicates that Hg, and to a lesser degree As, Se, and Sb, exhibited volatile behavior in the SRC II process but that the degree of volatility is strongly dependent on conditions or coal type.

  2. The Cherokee and Crawford County Coal Field With Analyses of the Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, C.B.; Brown, H.R.

    1915-01-01

    for pit track hauling. In the southern part of the area some of the mines have introduced electric power to a limited extent drawing their power from Inter-Urban slecfcric wires. No Inter-Urban lines cross the northern part of the area and none... wall work and which means undercutting the coal i s not carried on. This practice of solid shooting is bad and it results in much fine coal, besides great danger to the shot firers . Both black powder and dymanite are used in shooting the coal...

  3. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

  4. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline FuelMetallic ores and concentrates Coal Crude Petroleum Gasoline and aviation turbine fuel

  5. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

  6. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

  7. Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

  8. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    10%. These two properties can be used to classify coals forsulfur in the coal to be burned. Other properties, such as

  9. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  10. Coal supply and cost under technological and environmental uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coal supply and cost under technological and environmental uncertainty Submitted in partial chapters. My conversations with Kurt Walzer at Clean Air Task Force and Rory McIlmoil at Coal Valley Wind Technology Laboratory. I did not complete this work alone. I had a lot of help along the way. I would like

  11. A P-5 Nuclear Dialogue: Concept, Building Blocks, and Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;A P-5 Nuclear Dialogue: Concept, Building Blocks, and Implementation Paul I. Bernstein, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosives) by providing capabilities to reduce, eliminate affirmed "America's intention to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons" and stated

  12. High Frequency Word Entrainment in Spoken Dialogue Ani Nenkova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirschberg, Julia

    High Frequency Word Entrainment in Spoken Dialogue Ani Nenkova Dept. of Computer and Information--Switchboard and the Columbia Games corpus. We examine en- trainment in use of high-frequency words (the most common words of entrainment between conversation partners: the use of high-frequency words, the most frequent words

  13. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  14. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  15. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  16. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  17. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  18. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  19. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  1. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Quarterly report, August 1, 1987--October 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements; Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed.

  2. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  3. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    coal are least expensive when produced from the Powder River Basin region, where cheaper surface mining

  4. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  5. Consensus Coal Production Forecast for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 2009-2030 Prepared for the West Virginia Summary 1 Recent Developments 2 Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 10 Risks References 27 #12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2009 iii List of Tables 1. W.Va. Coal Production

  6. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  8. MTCI advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, M.N.; Chandran, R.R. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    MTCI is pursuing the development and commercialization of several advanced combustion and gasification systems based on pulse combustion technology. The systems include indirectly heated thermochemical reactor, atmospheric pressure pulse combustor, pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, direct coal-fired gas turbine pulse combustor island, and advanced concept second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustor island. Although the systems in toto are capable of processing lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coals in an efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable manner, each system is considered ideal for certain coal types. Brief descriptions of the systems, applications, selected test results and technology status are presented.

  9. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-01-01

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  10. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  11. Editor's Preface to the Dialogue Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnett, William A.

    1999-03-01

    interview of James Tobin, focused on his life and works, may be interested to know that such an interview, conducted by Robert Shiller, is forthcoming in the Cambridge University Press journal, Econometric Theory. William A. Barnett ... interview of James Tobin, focused on his life and works, may be interested to know that such an interview, conducted by Robert Shiller, is forthcoming in the Cambridge University Press journal, Econometric Theory. William A. Barnett ...

  12. Recent advances in coal geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chyi, L.L. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH (US)); Chou, C.-L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 E. Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL (US))

    1990-01-01

    Chapters in this collection reflect the recent emphasis both on basic research in coal geochemistry and on applied aspects related to coal utilization. Geochemical research on peat and coal generates compositional data that are required for the following reasons. First, many studies in coal geology require chemical data to aid in interpretation for better understanding of the origin and evolution of peat and coal. Second, coal quality assessment is based largely on composition data, and these data generate useful insights into the geologic factors that control the quality of coal. Third, compositional data are needed for effective utilization of coal resources and to reflect the recent emphasis on both basic research in coal geochemistry and environmental aspects related to coal utilization.

  13. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

  14. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles: Volume 2, Pyrolysis and ignition modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere.

  15. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  16. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  17. Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

  18. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  19. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

  20. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  1. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  2. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  3. WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

  4. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    mines in China lowers the coal recovery rate and increasesthat China’s average coal recovery rate is 30% nationallyimproved aggregate coal recovery rates and local- scale

  5. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

  6. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

  7. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.1, Issue 4 (July 2015) Archived Editions: Coal...

  8. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

  9. Energy 101 Dialogue Series Downloads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilofEnergyEnSysEnergy &101 Dialogue

  10. Converting coal to liquid fuels. [US DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Liquid fuels play a vital role in the US economy. Oil represents about 40 percent of the energy consumed each year in this country. In many cases, it fills needs for which other energy forms cannot substitute efficiently or economically - in transportation, for example. Despite a current world-wide surplus of oil, conventional petroleum is a depletable resource. It inevitably will become harder and more expensive to extract. Already in the US, most of the cheap, easily reached oil has been found and extracted. Even under optimistic projections of new discoveries, domestic oil production, particularly in the lower 48 states, will most likely continue to drop. A future alternative to conventional petroleum could be liquid fuels made from coal. The technique is called coal liquefaction. From 1 to 3 barrels of oil can be made from each ton of coal. The basic technology is known; the major obstacles in the US have been the high costs of the synthetic oil and the risks of building large, multi-billion dollar first-of-a-kind plants. Yet, as natural petroleum becomes less plentiful and more expensive, oil made from abundant coal could someday become an increasingly important energy option. To prepare for that day, the US government is working with private industries and universities to establish a sound base of technical knowledge in coal liquefaction.

  11. Supporting Mutual Understanding in a Visual Dialogue Between Analyst and Computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, Alan R.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Thurman, David A.; Thomson, Judi R.

    2004-09-20

    The Knowledge Associates for Novel Intelligence (KANI) project is developing a system of automated “associates” to actively support and participate in the information analysis task. The primary goal of KANI is to use automatically extracted information in a reasoning system that draws on the strengths of both a human analyst and automated reasoning. The interface between the two agents is a key element in achieving this goal. The KANI interface seeks to support a visual dialogue with mixed-initiative manipulation of information and reasoning components. To be successful, the interface must achieve mutual understanding between the analyst and KANI of the other’s actions. Toward this mutual understanding, KANI allows the analyst to work at multiple levels of abstraction over the reasoning process, links the information presented across these levels to make use of interaction context, and provides querying facilities to allow exploration and explanation.

  12. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

  13. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  14. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  15. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

  16. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

  17. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    pollution. With coal and liquid transport fuel deficits in26 3.6. Coal-to-liquids and coal-to-70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60

  18. Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal? a. Coal Washing- Crushing coal then mixing it with a liquid to allow the impurities to settle. b burning coal altogether. With integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, steam and hot

  19. Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

    2008-10-15

    Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

  20. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

  1. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Natural Gas Coal 233 billion tonnes coal equivalent 97% total fossil fuel reserve base Reserves by location, quality,

  2. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  3. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode Cluster CompatibilityCoal Markets

  4. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  5. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  6. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C. (Upper Montclair, NJ); Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  7. Dry cleaning of Turkish coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

  8. The world price of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

  9. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  10. 2008 Coal Age buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  11. (Basic properties of coals and other solids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number sign}8, Illinois {number sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  12. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  13. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  14. Coal Research FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode Cluster CompatibilityCoal Markets ReleaseCoal

  15. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  16. Coal in court: Whitehaven, climate change and civil disobedience http://theconversation.com/coal-in-court-whitehaven-climate-change-and-civil-disobedience-15991[19/07/2013 2:37:22 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botea, Adi

    + Energy Health + Medicine Politics + Society Science + Technology Election FactCheck Coal in courtCoal in court: Whitehaven, climate change and civil disobedience http://theconversation.com/coal Future Fellow working on a project entitled "Intellectual Property and Climate Change: Inventing Clean

  17. Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA)); Khan, L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)); Yang, D. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering the coal fines which are currently disposed of with plant effluent streams in order to produce a fine clean coal product. This product can then be blended with the coarse clean coal from the preparation plant. Recovery of carbonaceous material from the effluent streams will be effected by means of Michigan Technological University's static tube flotation process in conjunction with pyrite depressants. This process has been successfully demonstrated on a number of coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the Btu value. The process parameters will be modified to accept preparation plant effluents in order to produce a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal product that at a minimum is compatible with the quality requirements of the plant clean coal. This report covers the first quarter of the project. The main activities during this period were the drafting of a project work plan and the collection of four coal preparation plant effluent samples for testing. Effluent slurry samples were collected from four operating preparation plants in Illinois and shipped to Michigan Technological University for experimental work.

  18. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    1 CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Request for Proposals Date of Issue: February 16, 2015 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of 2009. The mission of the CCCU is to enable environmentally benign and sustainable use of coal, both

  19. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

  20. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  1. Solvent extraction of bituminous coals using light cycle oil: characterization of diaromatic products in liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josefa M. Griffith; Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). EMS Energy Institute

    2009-09-15

    Many studies of the pyrolytic degradation of coal-derived and petroleum-derived aviation fuels have demonstrated that the coal-derived fuels show better thermal stability, both with respect to deposition of carbonaceous solids and cracking to gases. Much previous work at our institute has focused on the use of refined chemical oil (RCO), a distillate from the refining of coal tar, blended with light cycle oil (LCO) from catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. Hydroprocessing of this blend forms high concentrations of tetralin and decalin derivatives that confer particularly good thermal stability on the fuel. However, possible supply constraints for RCO make it important to consider alternative ways to produce an 'RCO-like' product from coal in an inexpensive process. This study shows the results of coal extraction using LCO as a solvent. At 350{sup o}C at a solvent-to-coal ratio of 10:1, the conversions were 30-50 wt % and extract yields 28-40 wt % when testing five different coals. When using lower LCO/coal ratios, conversions and extract yields were much smaller; lower LCO/coal ratios also caused mechanical issues. LCO is thought to behave similarly to a nonpolar, non-hydrogen donor solvent, which would facilitate heat-induced structural relaxation of the coal followed by solubilization. The main components contributed from the coal to the extract when using Pittsburgh coal are di- and triaromatic compounds. 41 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

    2010-03-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  3. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  4. Dialogue based Question Answering System in Telugu A dialogue based Question Answering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in some natural language. RDQA has a long history, beginning with sys- tems working over databases (e domain portability), with different underlying Database Management System (DBMS) (DBMS portability

  5. Stochastic Language Generation in a Dialogue System: Toward a Domain Independent Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stochastic Language Generation in a Dialogue System: Toward a Domain Independent Generator Pensacola, FL 32502 {nchambers,jallen}@ihmc.us Abstract Until recently, surface generation in dialogue systems has served the purpose of simply pro- viding a backend to other areas of research. The generation

  6. Rapid Prototyping of Robust Language Understanding Modules for Spoken Dialogue Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapid Prototyping of Robust Language Understanding Modules for Spoken Dialogue Systems Yuichiro,tsujino}@jp.honda-ri.com Abstract Language understanding (LU) modules for spoken dialogue systems in the early phases or transcribe and annotate a suf- ficient corpus for training. In our method, the weightings of the Weighted

  7. Immersive Second Language Acquisition in Narrow Domains: A Prototype ISLAND Dialogue System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Immersive Second Language Acquisition in Narrow Domains: A Prototype ISLAND Dialogue System Ian Mc and imple- mented an ISLAND dialogue system in Mandarin Chinese. Our ISLAND is immersive, in that no content technology in general and spoken di- alogue systems in particular have the potential to bridge this gap

  8. Words at the Right Time: Real-Time Dialogues with the WITAS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doherty, Patrick

    Words at the Right Time: Real-Time Dialogues with the WITAS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Extended UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), in our case a helicopter. Its dialogue-system subprojects address Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Project 14,15] is an ambitious, long- term basic research project whose main

  9. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  10. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  11. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  12. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  13. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  14. WORK PROGRAMME 2010 COOPERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milano-Bicocca, Università

    ......................................................................... 18 ACTIVITY ENERGY.6: CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES............................................... 20 CROSS

  15. WORK PROGRAMME 2009 COOPERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milano-Bicocca, Università

    ......................................................................... 19 ACTIVITY ENERGY.6: CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES............................................... 21 CROSS

  16. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  17. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  18. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  19. Resinous binders for coal and chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    Binder development and application to the briquetting or pelleting of coal fines has been extensive. The search for low-cost, effective binders for making strong and durable briquettes or pellets continues unabated. Strong, durable compacts are required, not only for handling, transport, and storage of the product but also to withstand the rigors of application such as flue gas treatment sorbents and catalytic supports. Many kinds of binders, organic and inorganic, have been used to gain the desired strength. Synthetic polymers have been investigated because they promote good strength and water insolubility, but these features are generally outweighed by the polymer cost. Promising earlier developments of biomass-derived binders have received slow market acceptance, mainly because of the cost resulting from the high concentrations required. However, recent advances in processing lignocellulosic materials have generated potentially low-cost polymeric binding agents for making coal briquettes. Phenol novolaks were previously used with lignites to make activated carbons. Recently, binders were prepared from mixtures of phenol, lignin, and formaldehyde and used for wood flour molding and friction materials. The goal of our work was to investigate the characteristics of resinous binders from lignocellulosic as well as coal-derived materials when used with dried or beneficiated coals and chars.

  20. Clean coal preparation using the Liquids From Coal (LFC) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klugh, D.M.; Marquardt, M.M.; Hoften, S.A. van [SGI International, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    With an abundance of coal located in the Pacific Rim region, many economies offer excellent opportunities for the application of clean coal technologies. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) Mild Gasification Process is a clean coal technology that can greatly enhance both the economical and environmental use of coal in this area. Indonesia, with its large population and emerging industrial infrastructure, has exhibited one of the fastest growth rates of electrical power consumption in Asia. This paper demonstrates the economic and environmental advantages of the LFC Process as it applies to coals in the Pacific Rim. These advantages are assessed from the results of a technical feasibility study of coal from the Tanjung Enim Region of Indonesia. While Tanjung Enim provides an example of added value and increased lifetime of an existing resource with some environmental benefits, other examples illustrate the excellent opportunity for upgrading coals for export into the Pacific Rim Steaming Coal Trade. These upgraded coals are expected to be very competitive in cost and are expected to be environmentally attractive.

  1. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles: Volume 2, Pyrolysis and ignition modeling. Final report, August 15, 1988--October 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere.

  2. (Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA)); Khan, L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)); Yang, D. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering coal fines which are currently disposed of with plant effluent streams, in order to produce a fine clean coal product. This product can then be blended with the coarse clean coal from the preparation plant. Recovery of coal from the effluent stream samples will be effected by means of Michigan Technological University's static tube flotation process. This process has been successfully demonstrated on a number of raw coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the combustible matter. The process parameters will be modified so that this technology can be applied to preparation plant effluents in order to recover a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal that is, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal currently produced from the preparation plant. The main activities during this period were setting up the static tube test unit to conduct the experimental work as outlined in the project work plan. The first of four effluent slurry samples collected from four operating Illinois preparation plants was tested at Michigan Technological University. The first batch of tests resulted in a clean coal containing 7.5% ash at 94.5% combustible matter recovery. Another test aimed at lowering the ash further analyzed at 3.0% ash and 0.92% total sulfur. In addition, analyses of particle size distribution and sink-float testing of the +200 mesh material were undertaken as a part of the effluent characterization work. 5 tabs.

  3. Coal liquefaction: investigation of reactor performance, role of catalysts and PCT properties. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1984-December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brainard, A.J.; Shah, Y.T.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Badgujar, M.; Joseph, S.; Kerkar, A.; Ozturk, S.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate areas of science and technology that have been defined as being of prime interest to coal processing technology development. These areas include properties of coal liquids and slurries, reactor design, and performance in relation to reaction mechanisms. The work comprises the following tasks: (1) reaction kinetics and reactor performance in direct coal liquefaction; (2) role of catalysts in indirect liquefaction and direct coal liquefaction; and (3) physical, chemical, and thermodynamic properties of coal liquefaction products. This report summarizes work done during the period October 1, 1984 through December 31, 1984. A detailed description of work in each of the three tasks is presented.

  4. Summary of coal export project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Through the international coal project and related activities, SSEB has called attention to the problems and potential of the US coal industry. The program has provided an excellent format for frank discussions on the problems facing US coal exports. Every effort must be made to promote coal and its role in the southern economy. Coal is enjoying its best years in the domestic market. While the export market is holding its own, there is increased competition in the world market from Australia, Columbia, China and, to a lesser extent, Russia. This is coming at a time when the US has enacted legislation and plans are underway to deepen ports. In addition there is concern that increased US coal and electricity imports are having a negative impact on coal production. These limiting factors suggest the US will remain the swing supplier of coal on the world market in the near future. This presents a challenge to the US coal and related industry to maintain the present market and seek new markets as well as devote research to new ways to use coal more cleanly and efficiently.

  5. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  6. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-12-31

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

  8. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  9. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  10. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  11. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  12. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  13. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  14. Environmental development plan: coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development plan (EDP) examines environmental concerns that are being evaluated for the technologies in DOE's Coal Liquefaction Program. It identifies the actions that are planned or underway to resolve these concerns while the technologies are being developed. Research is scheduled on the evaluation and mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This EDP updates the FY 1977 Coal Liquefaction Program EDP. Chapter II describes the DOE Coal Liquefaction Program and focuses on the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), H-Coal, and Exxon donor solvent (EDS) processes because of their relatively advanced R and D stages. The major unresolved environmental concerns associated with the coal liquefaction subactivities and projects are summarized. The concerns were identified in the 1977 EDP's and research was scheduled to lead to the resolution of the concerns. Much of this research is currently underway. The status of ongoing and planned research is shown in Table 4-1.

  15. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  16. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  17. Using electronic dialogue to augment traditional classroom instruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how an electronic dialogue with a panel of human factors experts was used effectively as an augmentation to traditional classroom instruction. Nine students spent a one and one- half hour class session using a variety of commercial electronic mail software packages available on their own desk-tops (not in a university computer lab) to engage in discussion with remotely distributed instructors on topics generated by the students themselves. Ninety eight messages were exchanged, with about 60% having technical content. Interaction content and style were analyzed, and a survey was distributed to participants to evaluate the session. Process observations by this author augmented these data. Strengths and weaknesses of using technology not specifically designed for this function are discussed.

  18. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  19. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  20. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01

    THE FUEL IS FED FROM THE HOPPER INTO THE TOP OF THE GASIFIER RETORT THROUGH AN AUTOMATIC COAL FEEDER SYSTEM. COAL FROM THE (100 TON) TOP BUNKERS FLOWS THROUGH A STEEL INLET COMPARTMENT INTO A CAST IRON ROTARY DRUM FEEDER. THE 21" I.D. DRUM HAS A 60...? OPENING THROUGH WHICH IT RECEIVES APPROXIMATELY 6 CU. FT. (300 LBS) OF COAL FROM THE BUNKER. LIP SEALS ARE LOCATED AT THE EDGE OF THE OPENINGS TO CUTOFF THE COAL COLUMN AS THE DRUM ROTATES. A KNIFE GATE VALVE IS LOCATED BENEATH THE DRUM TO SEAL...

  1. Advanced solids NMR studies of coal structure and chemistry. Progress report, March 1 - September 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zilm, K.W.

    1996-12-31

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utili- zation of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NNM methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methine groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. We will also develop NMR methods for probing coal macropore structure using hyperpolarized {sup 29}Xe as a probe, and study the molecular dynamics of what appear to be mobile, CH{sub 2} rich, long chain hydrocarbons. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples.

  2. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycleconsists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification, combined cycleless expensive in a coal gasification, combined cycle power

  3. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    We use the AEO 2007 forecast of coal prices. This analysisforecast is available only until 2030; we project coal priceslevelized price of coal is based on EIA AEO 2007 forecast

  4. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  5. WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    of a three-body type, involving coal particles (sizes of hin dry coal feeders wi11 be predominantly type involvingabrasion of a two-body type. Coal crushing and mi 11ing

  6. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  7. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    unit water requirement of coal-fired electricity generationin electricity demand. Coal-fired power generation accounted12, the absolute amount of coal-fired capacity grew at an

  8. Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2004-12-15

    Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

  9. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking,MichiganThousand47,959.15 KeroseneCoal Glossary

  10. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking,MichiganThousand47,959.15 KeroseneCoal

  11. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc. Real73 Table

  12. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc. Real73

  13. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc. Real73and Foreign

  14. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual

  15. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual0

  16. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual00

  17. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual000

  18. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual0000

  19. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear

  20. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information

  1. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information1 U.S.

  2. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information1

  3. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information12

  4. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy

  5. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy

  6. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy0

  7. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy00

  8. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy000

  9. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy0001

  10. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy00011

  11. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S.

  12. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S.1 U.S.

  13. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S.1 U.S.2 U.S.

  14. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December 2008

  15. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December 2008

  16. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December

  17. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q 2009

  18. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q 20093Q

  19. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q

  20. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q4Q 2009

  1. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic Feet)698 1.873 -Coal

  2. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of Energyof the CleanClient education istheCoalFocuses

  3. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table272/SPipelineNatural Gas Energy MarketsCoal

  4. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space Heatingreports Coal

  5. Developing attribute acquisition strategies in spoken dialogue systems via user simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filisko, Edward A. (Edward Anthony), 1977-

    2006-01-01

    A spoken dialogue system (SDS) is an application that supports conversational interaction with a human to perform some task. SDSs are emerging as an intuitive and efficient means for accessing information. A critical barrier ...

  6. Use of film dialogues as a model of natural conversation for developing conversational proficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Hyong-Ju

    textbooks that are currently published in Korea. The analysis of the textbook dialogues shows that they fail to present learners with the way people actually speak. Four possible reasons are discussed, then the study suggests the use of feature films...

  7. Semi-automated dialogue act classification for situated social agents in games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orkin, Jeffrey David

    As a step toward simulating dynamic dialogue between agents and humans in virtual environments, we describe learning a model of social behavior composed of interleaved utterances and physical actions. In our model, utterances ...

  8. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

  9. Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes the state's support and incentives for the development of new energy production and generating facilities implementing advanced clean coal technology, such as coal...

  10. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    s ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. Ifgrowth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustiondependence. 4.4.1. Carbon dioxide emissions Coal is China’s

  11. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic21 Figure 6. Comparison of ACWH and CCGT-Wind

  12. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    materials (6%), delivered heating (district heating) (6%),coal growth. As district heating expands with urbanizationzone, coal use for district heating will depend on the

  13. DOE's Advanced Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (DOE's) advanced coal research, development, and demonstration program to develop low-carbon emission coal technologies. Introduction Fossil fuel resources represent a tremendous...

  14. SciTech Connect: "clean coal"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clean coal" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "clean coal" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  15. Buy Coal! A Case for Supply-Side Environmental Policy Author(s): Brd Harstad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stølen, Ketil

    Buy Coal! A Case for Supply-Side Environmental Policy Author(s): Bård Harstad Reviewed work by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. 0022-3808/2012/12001-0003$10.00 Buy Coal! A Case for Supply, world prices change and nonpartici- pants typically emit more; they may also extract the dirtiest type

  16. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. Topical report, July 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP, or Wabash Project) is a joint venture of Destec Energy, Inc. of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc. of Plainfield, Indiana, who will jointly repower an existing 1950 vintage coal-fired steam generating plant with coal gasification combined cycle technology. The Project is located in West Terre Haute, Indiana at PSI`s existing Wabash River Generating Station. The Project will process locally-mined Indiana high-sulfur coal to produce 262 megawatts of electricity. PSI and Destec are participating in the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments. As a Clean Coal Round IV selection, the project will demonstrate integration of an existing PSI steam turbine generator and auxiliaries, a new combustion turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator tandem, and a coal gasification facility to achieve improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and reduced installation costs. Upon completion in 1995, the Project will not only represent the largest coal gasification combined cycle power plant in the United States, but will also emit lower emissions than other high sulfur coal-fired power plants and will result in a heat rate improvement of approximately 20% over the existing plant configuration. As of the end of December 1993, construction work is approximately 20% complete for the gasification portion of the Project and 25% complete for the power generation portion.

  17. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be expanded at OSU, with support from state and federal agencies, utilities, trade groups, and the university, to focus on the following four specific areas of promise: (a) Expanding use in proven areas (such as use of fly ash in concrete); (b) Removing or reducing regulatory and perceptual barriers to use (by working in collaboration with regulatory agencies); (c) Developing new or under-used large-volume market applications (such as structural fills); and (d) Placing greater emphasis on FGD byproducts utilization.

  18. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharucha, N. [Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  19. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  20. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  1. Coal Age buyers guide 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-15

    The buyers guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  2. Coal Age buyers guide 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-15

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  3. Coal Age buyers guide 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  4. Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 2, March 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, W. G.; Reasoner, J. W.; Hower, J. C.; Yates, L. P.; Clark, C. P.; Jones, T. M.; Sturgeon, L. P.; Whitt, J. M.

    1982-03-01

    The approach of this study is to secure three dozen (or more) coals of varying rank, composition and plasticity, and to analyze these coals carefully by standard chemical and petrographic techniques. The bitumen fractions will be determined, both by THF (asphaltenes but not preasphaltenes) and DMF (everything). Pyrolysis gas chromatography on both whole coals and extracted residues will compare capacities to generate metaplast. Extracts from coals with plasticities differing by at least four orders of magnitude will be examined for identifiable differences; extraction residues will be subjected to differential FTIR analysis. All of the data will be combined and subjected to systematic statistical analysis with the objective of identifying predictors of coal plasticity. This report describes the work in the first six months of the study. During this period equipment and instrumentation has been obtained, 24 coal samples have been obtained, the nonclassical methods have been developed and checked out, and an appreciable amount of experimentl data has been obtained.

  5. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2009-08-11

    Efficiencies greater than 50 percent (higher heating value) have been projected for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems fueled with gasified coal, even with carbon sequestration. Multiple minor and trace components are present in coal that could affect fuel cell performance, however, which vary widely depending on coal origin and type. Minor and trace components have been classified into three groups: elements with low volatility that are likely to remain in the ash, elements that will partition between solid and gas phases, and highly volatile elements that are unlikely to condense. Those in the second group are of most concern. In the following, an overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic coal gas. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  6. Effect of organized assemblies. Part 4. Formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural surfactant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debadutta Das; Sagarika Panigrahi; Pramila K. Misra; Amalendu Nayak [Sambalpur University, Orissa (India). Centre of Studies in Surface Science and Technology

    2008-05-15

    Coal-water slurry has received considerable research nowadays due to its ability in substituting energy sources. The present work reports the formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural occurring surface active compound, saponin, extracted from the fruits of plant Sapindous laurifolia. The isolation of saponin from the plant and its surface activity has been discussed. The rheological characteristics of coal-water slurry have been investigated as a function of coal loading, ash content of coal, pH, temperature, and amount of saponin. The viscosity of the slurry and zeta potential are substantially decreased with concomitant shift of the isoelectric point of coal on adsorption of saponin to it. In the presence of 0.8% of saponin, coal-water slurry containing 64% weight fraction of coal could be achieved. The slurry is stable for a period of as long as 1 month in contrast to 4-5 h in the case of bare coal-water slurry. The results confirm the use of saponin as a suitable additive for coal-water slurry similar to the commercially available additive such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Basing on the effect of pH on the zeta potential and viscosity of slurry, a suitable mechanism for saponin-coal interaction and orientation of saponin at the coal-water interface has been proposed. 47 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  8. BM Alliance Coal Operations Pty Ltd ABN 67 096 412 752 Riparian Plaza, Level 23, 71 Eagle Street, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 GPO Box 1389 Brisbane Queensland 4001 Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    BM Alliance Coal Operations Pty Ltd ABN 67 096 412 752 Riparian Plaza, Level 23, 71 Eagle Street 3329 2290 BM Alliance Coal Operations Pty Ltd is a jointly-owned entity of BHP Billiton Limited of Asset President Pampa Norte in Chile. Lucas has worked across three of BHP Billiton's Businesses: Coal

  9. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  10. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to perform pressure transient testing to determine permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. To perform permeability testing of the Wilcox coal, we worked with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in selecting the well and intervals to test and in designing the pressure transient test. Anadarko agreed to allow us to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well (Well APCT2). This well is located in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that we earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2} emissions. A service company, Pinnacle Technologies Inc. (Pinnacle) was contracted to conduct the tests in the field. Intervals tested were 2 coal beds with thicknesses of 3 and 7 feet, respectively, at approximately 4,100 ft depth in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas. Analyses of pressure transient test data indicate that average values for coalbed methane reservoir permeability in the tested coals are between 1.9 and 4.2 mD. These values are in the lower end of the range of permeability used in the preliminary simulation modeling. These new coal fracture permeability data from the APCT2 well, along with the acquired gas compositional analyses and sorption capacities of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}, complete the reservoir description phase of the project. During this quarter we also continued work on reservoir and economic modeling to evaluate performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery.

  11. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  12. Coal Technology '80. Volume 5. Synthetic fuels from coal. Volume 6. Industrial/utility applications for coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The 3rd international coal utilization exhibition and conference Coal Technology '80 was held at the Astrohall, Houston, Texas, November 18-20, 1980. Volume 5 deals with coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Volume 6 deals with fluidized-bed combustion of coal, cogeneration and combined-cycle power plants, coal-fuel oil mixtures (COM), chemical feedstocks via coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Thirty-six papers have been entered individually into EDB and seven also into ERA; three had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  14. PFBC presents its clean coal credentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makansi, J. [Pearl Street Inc. (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) combined cycle deserves as much consideration as integrated gasification combined cycle as a foundation technology for advanced, clean coal-fired power generation. Although corporate issues and low natural gas prices stalled PFBC development for a time, technology at full scale has proved quite worthy in several respects in Europe and Japan over the past 10 years. The article describes how the PFBC system power cycle works, describes its competitive features and reports progress on development. 4 figs.

  15. Coal-water slurry atomization characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    The overall objective of this work was to fully characterize the CWS fuel sprays of a medium-speed diesel engine injection system. Specifically, the spray plume penetration as a function of time was determined for a positive-displacement fuel injection system. The penetration was determined as a function of orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the engine, and fuel line pressure. Preliminary droplet information also was obtained. The results of this study will assist CWS engine development by providing much needed insight about the fuel spray. In addition, the results will aid the development and use of CWS engine cycle simulations which require information on the fuel spray characteristics.

  16. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  17. 2011 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Sequestration in Unmineable Coal with Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: The Marshall County Project James E conducted in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, to evaluate enhanced coal bed methane recovery2011 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA September 12 ­ 15, 2011 CO2

  18. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  19. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macalady, Jenn

    Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane Dariusz Strapo´c,1, Maria Mastalerz,2 Katherine, biodegradation Abstract Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal- bearing basins low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older

  20. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  1. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    China Primary Energy Consumption, 1980-2007 Primary Energy Consumption (mtce) hydro & nuclear coal natural gas

  2. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  3. Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic, chromium, lead, and zinc. Define a treatment procedure using coal ash that will result in the maximum

  4. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  5. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Their in combination with fly-ash aromatics such as benzo-(are also poorly known. Fly ash containing benzo-(a)-pyrenesand coal that form little fly ash and trap sulfur in the

  6. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  7. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Coal: the cornerstone of America's energy future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.A. [National Coal Council (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    In April 2005, US Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman asked the National Coal Council to develop a 'report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nation's future energy needs'. The Council has responded with eight specific recommendations for developing and implementing advanced coal processing and combustion technologies to satisfy our unquenchable thirst for energy. These are: Use coal-to-liquids technologies to produce 2.6 million barrels/day; Use coal-to-natural gas technologies to produce 4 trillion ft{sup 3}/yr; Build 100 GW of clean coal plants by 2025; Produce ethanol from coal; Develop coal-to-hydrogen technologies; Use CO{sub 2} to enhance recovery of oil and coal-bed methane; Increase the capacity of US coal mines and railroads; and Invest in technology development and implementation. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab.

  9. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    74. Any coal application (coal gasification, coal combustionFixed-Bed Low-Btu Coal Gasification Systems for RetrofittingPower Plants Employing Coal Gasification," Bergman, P. D. ,

  10. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  11. Ground penetrating radar technique to locate coal mining related features: case studies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Save, Neelambari R

    2006-04-12

    The goal of this research project is to identify the efficacy of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique in locating underground coal mine related subsidence features at Malakoff and Bastrop, Texas. The work at Malakoff ...

  12. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  13. Capillary pressure and wettability behavior of CO{sub 2} sequestration in coal at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plug, W.J.; Mazumder, S.; Bruining, J. [Horizon Energy Partners BV, Hague (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    Enhanced coalbed-methane (ECBM) recovery combines recovery of methane (CH{sub 4}) from coal seams with storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The efficiency of ECBM recovery depends on the CO{sub 2} transfer rate between the macrocleats, via the microcleats to the coal matrix. Diffusive transport of CO{sub 2} in the small cleats is enhanced when the coal is CO{sub 2}-wet. Indeed, for water-wet conditions, the small fracture system is filled with water and the rate of CO{sub 2} sorption and CH{sub 4} desorption is affected by slow diffusion of CO{sub 2}. This work investigates the wetting behavior of coal using capillary pressures between CO{sub 2} and water, measured continuously as a function of water saturation at in-situ conditions. To facilitate the interpretation of the coal measurements, we also obtain capillary pressure curves for unconsolidated-sand samples. For medium- and high-rank coal, the primary drainage capillary pressure curves show a water-wet behavior. Secondary forced-imbibition experiments show that the medium-rank coal becomes CO{sub 2}-wet as the CO{sub 2} pressure increases. High-rank coal is CO{sub 2}-wet during primary imbibition. The imbibition behavior is in agreement with contact-angle measurements. Hence, we conclude that imbibition tests provide the practically relevant data to evaluate the wetting properties of coal.

  14. Heat Recovery from Coal Gasifiers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    In coal conversion processes, generally, liquefaction is done at high pressure and relatively low tempera tures, while gasification involves high temperature conditions. In order to protect the gasifier shell from overheating, a complex refractory...

  15. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  16. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  17. An Overview of Coal based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Overview of Coal based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology September 2005. LFEE 2005-002 WP #12;#12;Table of Contents 1 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC.......................................................................... 17 2.1 Gasification

  18. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuworth, Martin B. (Chevy Chase, MD)

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  19. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  20. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  1. Coal-fired power materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Advances in materials technologies over the last decade that is allowing coal-fired power plants to be built with higher efficiencies than the current generation are described. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  3. Upgrading coal plant damper drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hood, N.R.; Simmons, K. [Alamaba Power (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The replacement of damper drives on two coal-fired units at the James H. Miller Jr. electric generating plant by Intelligent Contrac electric rotary actuators is discussed. 2 figs.

  4. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  5. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  6. Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.

    1990-02-06

    The effective design and operation of processes for conversion of coal to fluid fuels requires accurate knowledge of the phase behavior of the fluid mixtures encountered in the conversion process. Multiple phases are present in essentially all stages of feed preparation, conversion reactions and product separation; thus, knowledge of the behavior of these multiple phases is important in each step. The overall objective of the author's work is to develop accurate predictive methods for representation of vapor-liquid equilibria in systems encountered in coal conversion processes. 59 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  8. Coal liquefaction and gasification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangold, E.C.; Muradaz, M.A.; Ouellette, R.P.; Farah, O.G.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of selected coal liquefaction and gasification processes developed with support from the United States are reviewed. The Exxon Donor Solvent, H-Coal, SRC-I, SRC-II, Mobile Gasoline Synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, and Zinc Halide Hydrocracking liquefaction processes and the Slagging Lurgi, Texaco, Combustion Engineering, COGAS, and Shell-Koppers gasification processes are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 chapters.

  9. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  10. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-04-01

    This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

  11. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  12. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01

    ix Introduction. A. Coal Liquefaction Overview B.L ZnCl 2-catalyzed Coal Liquefaction . . . . . . . . . • ,Results. . . • . ZnC1 2/MeOH Coal liquefaction Process

  13. Southern Coal finds value in the met market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-11-15

    The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  14. COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    1. Pittsburgh seam coal properties, Grosshandler (1976)a 35 mesh sieve (417 Properties of this coal are reported inthe reported properties of the pulverized coal. The pressed

  15. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

  16. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  17. Abstract and research accomplishments of University Coal Research Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their respective projects in time for distribution at a conference on June 13--14, 1995 at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to that request. For convenience, the 70 grants reported in this book are stored into eight technical areas, Coal Science, Coal Surface Science, Reaction Chemistry, Advanced Process Concepts, Engineering Fundamentals and Thermodynamics, Environmental Science, high Temperature Phenomena, and Special topics. Indexes are provided for locating projects by subject, principal investigators, and contracting organizations. Each extended abstract describes project objectives, work accomplished, significance to the Fossil Energy Program, and plans for the next year.

  18. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

    2001-06-30

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at UU focused on the behavior of trace metals in the combustion zone by studying vaporization from single coal particles. The coals were burned at 1700 K under a series of fuel-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. The data collected in this study will be applied to a model that accounts for the full equilibrium between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model also considers many other reactions taking place in the combustion zone, and involves the diffusion of gases into the particle and combustion products away from the particle. A comprehensive study has been conducted at UA to investigate the post-combustion partitioning of trace elements during large-scale combustion of pulverized coal combustion. For many coals, there are three distinct particle regions developed by three separate mechanisms: (1) a submicron fume, (2) a micron-sized fragmentation region, and (3) a bulk (>3 {micro}m) fly ash region. The controlling partitioning mechanisms for trace elements may be different in each of the three particle regions. A substantial majority of semi-volatile trace elements (e.g., As, Se, Sb, Cd, Zn, Pb) volatilize during combustion. The most common partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile elements is reaction with active fly ash surface sites. Experiments conducted under this program at UC focused on measuring mercury oxidation under cooling rates representative of the convective section of a coal-fired boiler to determine the extent of homogeneous mercury oxidation under these conditions. In fixed bed studies at EERC, five different test series were planned to evaluate the effects of temperature, mercury concentration, mercury species, stoichiometric ratio of combustion air, and ash source. Ash samples generated at UA and collected from full-scale power plants were evaluated. Extensive work was carried out at UK during this program to develop new methods for identification of mercury species in fly ash and sorbents. We demonstrated the usefulness of XAFS spectroscopy for the speciation of mercury captured on low-temperature sorbents from combustion flue gases and dev

  19. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  20. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  1. The International Coal Statistics Data Base operations guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data base (ICSD) is a micro- computer based system which contains informations related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven, and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Operations Manual explains how to install the programs, how to obtain reports on coal trade, what systems requirements apply, and how to update the major data files. It also explains file naming conventions, what each file does, and the programming procedures used to make the system work. The Operations Manual explains how to make the system respond to customized queries. It is organized around the ICSD menu structure and describes what each selection will do. Sample reports and graphs generated from individual menu selection are provided to acquaint the user with the various types of output. 17 figs.

  2. TeamWorks.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. Coal StocksSuppliersmillion core hours toJune 2013September

  3. Aspects of co-occurring syllables and head nods in spontaneous dialogue Simon Alexanderson, David House, Jonas Beskow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beskow, Jonas

    Aspects of co-occurring syllables and head nods in spontaneous dialogue Simon Alexanderson, David of head nods taken from motion capture data of spontaneous dialogue in Swedish. The head nods were. While the peak rotation of the nod is on average aligned with the stressed syllable, the results show

  4. Chinese Generation in a Spoken Dialogue Translation System Hua Wu, Taiyi Huang, Chengqing Zong and Bo Xu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chinese Generation in a Spoken Dialogue Translation System Hua Wu, Taiyi Huang, Chengqing Zong, Beijing 100080, China E-mail: {wh, huang, cqzong, xubo}@nlpr.ia.ac.cn Abstract: A Chinese generation module in a speech to speech dialogue translation system is presented here. The input of the generation

  5. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  6. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  7. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  8. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  9. Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2009-07-01

    The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

  10. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  11. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SUBMICRON PARTICULATES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennucci, J.

    2014-01-01

    TABLE l PITTSBURG SEAM COAL PROPERTIES Proximate Analysiscoal boiler. The coal, whose properties are given in Table

  12. COAL LIQUEFACTION ALLOY TEST PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FY 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, A.

    2014-01-01

    by weight of ground coal of the type used in the Wilsonvilleless coal particle degradation than centrifugal type pumps

  13. Statistical modeling of spontaneous combustion in industrial-scale coal stockpiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozdeniz, H [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. A statistical model applicable for a spontaneous combustion event was developed during this study after applying multi-regression analyses to the data recorded in the stockpile during the spontaneous combustion event. The correlation coefficients obtained by the developed statistical model were measured approximately at a 0.95 level. Thus, the prediction of temperature variations influential in the spontaneous combustion event of the industrial-scale coal stockpiles will be possible.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western US, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. During this quarter pure concentrates of resinite from Herrin No. 6 Seam were produced by the density gradient centrifugation technique. This material is also now being characterized by petrographic and chemical methods. Another accomplishment this quarter was the completion of a series of microbubble column flotation tests under eight different conditions. The tests were successful in producing concentrates that are now being evaluated. The significance of the work done during this quarter is the confirmation that the resinite in an Illinois coal can be successfully separated in quantities useful for testing and analysis.

  15. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    ??????? ??????????????"); IEA, WEO 2007; IEA Greenhouse Gastonnes exceeded the IEA’s WEO 2000 forecast for 2020 coalCoal Consumption, 1980-2025 WEO 2008 IEO 2008 IEO 2000 NDRC

  16. Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit provides for a property tax credit for new clean coal facilities constructed at a cost exceeding $150 million and used for the purposes of generating electricity....

  17. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  18. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants. In the late 1980s and...

  19. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  20. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  1. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  2. February 21 -22, 2014 Coast Coal Harbour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    February 21 - 22, 2014 Coast Coal Harbour 1180 W Hastings St Vancouver, BC Healthy Mothers contact by phone: +1 604-822- 7708 or by e-mail: melissa.ipce@ubc.ca. Location The Coast Coal Harbour

  3. ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PA ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  4. EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    1 EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH for Laboratory StudyFouling Mechanism / Need for Laboratory Study Mechanical Properties of Coal DustMechanical Properties of Coal Dust Grain Size AnalysisGrain Size Analysis AtterbergAtterberg LimitsLimits Specific

  5. Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costas

    Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank Background Overview T The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply researchers with highly uniform, well-protected coal samples unexposed to oxygen. Researchers investigating coal structure, properties, and behavior can benefit greatly from these samples

  6. Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

  7. DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PD DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  8. SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  9. GSDI Legal and Economic Working Group: A Template for Reporting National Legal and Economic Issues Affecting Spatial Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onsrud, Harlan J.

    GSDI Legal and Economic Working Group: A Template for Reporting National Legal and Economic Issues Affecting Spatial Data Infrastructure Developments The primary objective of the GSDI Legal and Economic Working Group is to open communication channels and encourage dialogue regarding the legal and economic

  10. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  11. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA); Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  12. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z. [Resourcecomplect, Donetsk (Ukraine); Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D. [UKHIN, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  13. National Coal celebrates its fifth anniversary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-06-15

    The growth and activities of the National Coal Corp since its formation in 2003 are described. 5 photos.

  14. Canada's coal industry: full swing ahead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, K. [Natural Resources Canada (Canada). Minerals and Metals Sector

    2007-03-15

    The article presents facts and figures about Canada's coal industry in 2006 including production, exports, imports, mines in operation, the Genesee 3 coal-fired generation unit, the Dodds-Roundhill Gasification Project, and new coal mine development plans. The outlook for 2007 is positive, with coal production expected to increase from 67 Mt in 2006 to 70 Mt in 2007 and exports expected to increase from 28 Mt in 2006 to 30 Mt in 2007.

  15. Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, R.B.; Yavuzkurt, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor effluents. Results from the code have been compared to experimental data obtained from MTCI`s (Manufacturing Technology and Conversion International) test pulse combustor, which generates sound pressure levels of {approximately}180 dB. The overall goal behind the pulse combustor program at MTCI is to develop combustors for stationary gas turbines that use relatively inexpensive coal-based fuels. This study attempts to model the capture of sulfur dioxide when injected into a pulse combustor firing micronized coal. While this work does not presume to model the complex gas flow-field generated by the pulsating flow, the effects of the acoustic field are expressed by increased heat and mass transfer to the particles (coal/sorbent) in question. A comprehensive calcination-sintering-sulfation model for single particles was used to model the capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone sorbent. Processes controlling sulfation are external heat and mass transfer, pore diffusion, diffusion through the product layer of CaSO{sub 4}, sintering, and calcination. The model was incorporated into the PCGC-2 program. Comparisons of exit concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed a fairly good agreement (within {approximately}10 percent) with the experimental results from MTCI.

  16. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

  17. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this technology could be used to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of IGCC plants. The study goes beyond the systems-level analyses and initial lab work that formed the bases of previous studies and includes the following tasks: performing laboratory tests to quantify slurry properties; developing an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2} slurry preparation and feed system; conducting a full IGCC plant techno-economic analysis for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and North Dakota lignite in both water and liquid CO{sub 2} slurries; and identifying a technology development plan to continue the due diligence to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of this technology. The initial task included rheology tests and slurry data analyses that would increase the knowledge and understanding of maximum solids loading capability for both PRB and lignite. Higher coal concentrations have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} over water slurries, and a coal concentration of 75% by weight in liquid CO{sub 2} has been estimated to be achievable in a commercial application. In addition, lower slurry viscosities have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} at the same solids loading, where the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry viscosity has been measured to be about a factor of 10 lower than the comparable water slurry and estimated to be less than 100 centipoise in a commercial application. In the following task, an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and mixing system has been developed for both a batch and continuous system. The capital cost of the design has also been estimated so that it could be used in the economic analysis. An industry search and survey has been conducted to determine if essential components required to construct the feed system are available from commercial sources or if targeted R&D efforts are required. The search and survey concluded that commercial sources are available for selected components that comprise both the batch and continuous type systems. During normal operation, the fuel exits the bottom of the coal silo and is fed to a rod mill fo

  19. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  20. Chlorine in coal and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Liu, L. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ho, K.K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Corrosion of superheaters in the United Kingdom has been attributed to the high level of chlorine (Cl) in British coals. On the other hand, similar high-Cl Illinois coals have not caused boiler corrosion. This suggests that the extent of boiler corrosion due to Cl may not be directly related to the amount of Cl in the coal but to how the Cl occurs in the coal or to other factors. In this study, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the thermal evolution characteristics and the forms of Cl in four Illinois and four British coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidizing conditions, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. Maximum evolution of HCl gas from Illinois coals occurs near 425 C, whereas, the temperature of maximum HCl release from British coals occurs between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that Cl in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The HCl evolution profiles of the Illinois and British coals suggests that the way in which Cl ions are associated in Illinois coals is of different from the way they are associated in British coals.

  1. Energy Systems Engineering 1 Clean Coal Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    Energy Systems Engineering 1 Clean Coal Technologies Presentation at BARC 4th December 2007 #12/kWh) 0.14 0.03 0.6 #12;Energy Systems Engineering 9 Status of Advanced Coal Technologies Types of advanced coal technologies Supercritical Pulverised Combustion Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC

  2. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, K.J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

    1988-05-31

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Kenneth J. (Floreffe, PA); Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

    1989-01-01

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

  4. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  5. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  6. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  7. Oil and coal: reserves and production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canada Japan F.R I United Germany Kingdom France Italy Fig. 2. Oil's share of the increase in energy useOil and coal: reserves and production Anton Ziolkowski* The 1984-85 strike by British coal miners has focused attention on the difficulties of the coal industry at a time when demand for energy

  8. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  9. Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For West Virginia: 2011 Update Prepared for the West December 2011 © Copyright 2011 WVU Research Corporation #12;#12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2011 i Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Recent Developments 3 Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast

  10. Tag-sets for the Generation of Nominals in Collaborative Dialogue Pamela W. Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Pamela W.

    the yellow rug and the green chair. G: [48] I'll buy the green 100 dollar chair. [49] Design Complete? S: [50., #12;(In prior dialogue have already agreed upon: 3 green chairs for 50, 1 green chair for 100 and a green table in the dining room, and a blue sofa in the living room. The numbers in brackets indicate

  11. Which System Differences Matter? Using 1/ 2 Regularization to Compare Dialogue Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mostow, Jack

    . Gonz´alez-Brenes and Jack Mostow Project LISTEN Language Technologies Institute School of Computer which system differences matter by describing dialogues as feature vectors constructed from the logs selection meth- ods construct and select subsets of features in order to build a good predictor. We focus

  12. A compact Representation of prosodically relevant Knowledge in a Speech Dialogue System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    have to be able to run in real time and to produce high-quality speech output. To produce naturally the output "visible" to the user. Natural- language generation for a speech dialogue system must therefore both be output by a variety of generators as well as used as input for a wriety of synthesis modules

  13. Entrainment and Turn-Taking in Human-Human Dialogue Rivka Levitan 1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benus, Stefan

    Entrainment and Turn-Taking in Human-Human Dialogue Rivka Levitan 1,2 , Stefan Benus 3 , Agust@cs.columbia.edu Abstract Interlocutors in spoken conversations have been shown to entrain, or become similar to each other, in multi- ple dimensions. We investigate the relationship between entrainment and turn-taking. We show

  14. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and weatherproofed'' pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  15. Artificial neural network modeling of the spontaneous combustion occurring in the industrial-scale coal stockpiles with 10-18 mm coal grain sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Yilmaz, N. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. In order to achieve this goal, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 17 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analog-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filtration and upgrading processes, and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of an artificial neural network model. Comparison of the experimental and artificial neural network results, accuracy rates of training and testing were found to be 99.5% and 99.17%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this artificial neural network model is powerfully estimated.

  16. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  17. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  18. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  19. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  20. COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    18 Effect of React Run No. Coal Type on Cat. /Coal Ratios of300°C P = 2000 ps Run No. Coal Type Wyodak Imp reg- Sol. , %Wyodak Coal, and Illinois #6 Coal Type of Coal Carbon Wyodak

  1. Cycle simulation of coal-fueled engines utilizing low heat rejection concepts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, John M.

    1988-01-01

    variation of cylinder wall temperatures. The heat transfer model was coupled to an engine cycle simulation capable of predicting engine performance for either diesel or coal-water slurry fuels. This coupling enabled investigation of insulation strategies... conclusions of this work were: 1) Under full load conditions, the effec of reducing heat rejection on engine performance was small for both diesel and coal-water slurry. For reductions in heat transfer which are possible in practice, a relative (to...

  2. Effect of microwave radiation on coal flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozbayoglu, G.; Depci, T.; Ataman, N. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-01

    Most low-rank coals are high in moisture and acid functional groups, therefore showing poor floatability. Drying, which removes the water molecules trapped in the pores and adsorbed at the surface of coal, decreases the hydrophilic character and improves the floatability. Microwave heating, whose simplest application is drying, was applied at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time in the experiments to decrease the moisture content of coal in order to enhance the hydrophobicity. The flotation tests of microwave-treated coal by using heptanol and octanol lead to a higher flotation yield and ash removal than original coal.

  3. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, Charles S. (Knoxville, TN); Lackey, Mack E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sy, Ronald L. (Clinton, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  4. Process for selective grinding of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  5. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  6. A perspective on the status of coal research from shipments of samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorres, K.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kruse, C.W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Nater, K.A. [deGrote Vos, Zeeweg 37, 1753 BB St. Martenzee, NL (Netherlands); Glick, D.C.; Davis, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Coal and Organic Petrology Labs.

    1993-12-31

    Research on all aspects of coal research, at least for more small scale work, involves the use of samples at the beginning of experimental work. Most research workers for smaller scale work do not collect their own coal samples, but rather order them from a group of sample suppliers. The number of suppliers meeting the major needs in the US, as well as for the world, is not very large. An examination of the shipments of samples from each of these suppliers will give an interesting insight into the general trends in volume of work in the field. The suppliers involved in this study include the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program, the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program, the SBN and the several groups of samples from the Pennsylvania State University Coal Sample Bank. Each of these supplies a different number of samples in varying quantities. The quantities and variety of samples is important to the individual worker in selecting a supplier. The type of work to be done frequently affects the quantities and choice of sample, which in turn affects the choice of supplier. In general these data indicate that researchers realize the advantages of acquiring samples from centralized sample banks. These advantages include a lower cost than would be incurred from individual sampling and preparation; availability of analyzed samples; preservation of samples and the possibility of comparing results with others who have worked on the same samples.

  7. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  8. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-21

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled Coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: the Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant; the wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation; and a wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. During this reporting period, virtually all of the technical activities and progress was made in the areas of circuit installation and startup operations. Work in these activity areas are described.

  9. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.

  10. A study of coal production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B.; Afonja, A.A.; Okejiri, E.C. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Lle-Lfe (Nigeria))

    1991-01-01

    The Nigerian coal industry was studied. The focus was on the problems which have caused low production output of coal. More specifically, the study examined the present techniques of coal production, the causes of low production of coal, the coal production policy as it affected this study, and proposed policy measures to address the findings. It was discovered that some of the limiting factors to coal production in Nigeria could be attributed to the lack of the following: (i) clear and specific production-demand targets set for coal in Nigeria; (ii) adequate technological capability to mechanize coal mining operations in Nigeria; (iii) venture capital to invest in coal production; (iv) poor infrastructural facilities for coal production such as mining, storage, transportation, etc. It was also discovered that the dissatisfaction of the miners with their conditions of service influenced production capacity negatively. These findings point to the reality that coal is unlikely to play a major role in the country's energy equation in the near future unless serious efforts are made to address the above issues.

  11. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  12. Materials challenges in advanced coal conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powem, C.A.; Morreale, B.D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Albany, OR (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Coal is a critical component in the international energy portfolio, used extensively for electricity generation. Coal is also readily converted to liquid fuels and/or hydrogen for the transportation industry. However, energy extracted from coal comes at a large environmental price: coal combustion can produce large quantities of ash and CO{sub 2}, as well as other pollutants. Advanced technologies can increase the efficiencies and decrease the emissions associated with burning coal and provide an opportunity for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. However, these advanced technologies increase the severity of plant operating conditions and thus require improved materials that can stand up to the harsh operating environments. The materials challenges offered by advanced coal conversion technologies must be solved in order to make burning coal an economically and environmentally sound choice for producing energy.

  13. CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Bruce Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chapter 1. A. B. C. D. E. Coal Processingand Coal Char iThe Energy Crisis Coal Processing . Corrosion .

  14. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENT WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsey, D.

    2011-01-01

    ~. ~. ~. ~. Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . Coal and Solventon Subbiturninous Coal Below Pyrolysis Temperatures, LBL-Treatment of Extract Solution Coal Residue Treatment. Yield

  15. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthestrapidly. While coal gasification may reach commercializa-5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,

  16. Characterization of chars from coal-tire copyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, M.S.; Murillo, R.; Alvarez, R.; Clemente, C.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this work is the characterization of the solid conversion product from coal-tire copyrolysis because, nowadays, any new process should be faced without resolving the problem of the subproducts generated. A low-rank coal and a nonspecific mixture of scrap automotive tires, 50/50 w/w, have been coprocessed at 400 C for 30 min at different H{sub 2} pressures and atmospheres. Once the most valuable conversion products, the liquids, were recovered by tetrahydrofuran extraction, a complementary battery of analytical techniques was applied to characterize the solids or chars, looking for their possible use. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, immediate and ultimate analyses, ASA, and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry were performed on them. By X-ray diffractometry the presence of sphalerite, pyrrhotite, and anhydrite was detected. Thermogravimetric studies demonstrated that the combustion induction temperature is 400 C. Char combustion tests at 900 C with discussion of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions are included. Mineral matter behaves as if only coal is processed with the Zn exception, from ZnO in the tire, which is converted into ZnS. It is shown that the char organic component has a higher aromaticity than the one from coal.

  17. Effect of market structure on international coal trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolstad, C.D.; Abbey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determinants of international steam-coal trade. Most work in projecting coal trade has been either qualitative (a consensus of experts) or, if quantitative, has been based on competitive spatial-equilibrium models. Unfortunately, the competitive model of trade does not appear to account for observed and anticipated trade flows. This is consistent with findings in the commodity trade literature that, although markets may behave in a rational economic fashion, market concentration among producers, traders, and consumers leads to trade patterns significantly different than those associated with competitive markets. The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance and effect on patterns of steam-coal trade of several deviations from the simple competitive model. In addition to perfect competition, we examine monopoly (South Africa) and duopoly (South Africa, Australia) with a competitive fringe (US, Canada, Poland, China and Columbia). Using a simple equilibrium model of coal trade, we examine these market structures and evaluate the extent to which they can explain existing and anticipated trade patterns.

  18. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the Cloud Modeling WorkingNationalCNSSCOAL &

  19. WCI Case for Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *4 o** 0, WF* W A ,WATCHWCH

  20. Proceedings, twenty-five annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The conference theme was 'coal - energy, environment and sustainable development'. The topics covered energy and environmental issues, and technologies related to coal and its byproducts. These included: gasification, hydrogen from coal, combustion technologies, coal production and preparation, synthesis of liquid fuels, gas turbines and fuel cells for synthesis gas and hydrogen applications, coal chemistry and geosciences, global climate change, underground coal gasification, environmental control technologies, and coal utilization byproducts.

  1. Process development for production of coal/sorbent agglomerates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hackley, K.C.; Moran, D.L.; Becvar, S. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)); Berger, R.L. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Griggs, K. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce significant quantities of fine coal with limited marketability. The objective of this work is to pelletize these fines with a sulfur capturing sorbent such as calcium hydroxide to produce a fuel which will meet future sulfur dioxide emission levels. To decrease binder costs, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide in the presence of moisture to produce calcium carbonate, is being investigated as a method for improving pellet quality. The calcium carbonate formed acts as a cementitious matrix which improves pellet strength. In previous work utilizing IBC-106 from the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program, carbonation was determined to be effective at significantly improving pellet compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and weatherability. In combustion tests conducted at 850{degree}C, sulfur capture of 80% was achieved for pellets having 17.5% calcium hydroxide (a Ca/S ration of 2/1). In this years work, a flotation concentrate collected from an operating Illinois preparation plant is being used for testing. Results indicate carbonation significantly increases the compressive strength of pellets formed with 10% calcium hydroxide. 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    July 22, 1974. Project Western Coal: Conversion of Coal Intoand Gasification of Western Coals", in proceedings of ERDA/Investigators' Conference - Coal Research, Colorado School

  3. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Coal: Conversion of Coal Into Liquids - Final Report,for Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels, 'Stanford ResearchConversion of Coal to Liquids--Research Opportunities", in

  4. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorighi, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    conversion of western coals into liquid products. A largeconsist of the coal derived organic liquid, unreacted coal,action of coal with an organic liquid solvent represents a

  5. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Pipeline Transport Coal Transportation Costs References . .acid, cost of raw coal, and transportation costs have aadditional cost. COAL TRANSPORTATION COSTS The cost of coal

  6. Coal use in the People`s Republic of China, Volume 2: The economic effects of constraining coal utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, A.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.; Benavides, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics; Tompkins, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. The dominance of coal in China`s energy balance has come at a high price to the environment. With the recent attention given to global warming issues, China`s energy consumption and production practices have become the subject of much concern. Of particular concern is China`s ability to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by constraining coal use and the impact such policies will likely have on the Chinese economy. The study is divided into two reports. Volume 1 focuses on the full coal fuel cycle, emissions, and environmental effects. This report (Volume 2) analyzes various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies and determines their effect on economic growth. Contrary to what some analysts have claimed, the current work suggests that it would not be costly for the Chinese to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In fact, some strategies were accompanied by increases in China`s energy and economic efficiency, which actually stimulated economic growth.

  7. Development of catalyst free carbon nanotubes from coal and waste plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosodia, A.; Lal, C.; Singh, B.P.; Mathur, R.B.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies

    2009-07-01

    DC-Arc technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal, chemically cleaned coal, original coal and waste plastics instead of using high purity graphite in the presence of metal catalysts. The results obtained are compared in terms of yield, purity and type of carbon nanotubes produced from different types of raw material used. In the present study different types of raw materials have been prepared i.e. chemically cleaned coal and super clean coal, and the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by DC Arc discharge method. Taking in account the present need of utilizing coal as a cheaper raw material for bulk production of carbon nanotubes and utilization of waste plastics (which itself is a potential environmental threat) for production of such an advance material the present work was undertaken. Since the process does not involve presence of any kind of metal catalyst, it avoids the cost intensive process of removal of these metal particles. The residual coal obtained after refining has major fuel potential and can be utilized for various purposes.

  8. A Comparison of Three Music Therapy Introduction Dialogues on Acceptance of Music Therapy Services by Cancer Patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barck, Leanne Kathleen

    2014-12-31

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 3 different music therapy introduction dialogues with cancer patients. Relationships between patient-reported anxiety levels, sex, and age and the acceptance rate of music...

  9. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  10. HINDERED DIFFUSION OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore T. Tsotsis; Muhammad Sahimi; Ian A. Webster

    1996-01-01

    It was the purpose of the project described here to carry out careful and detailed investigations of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model porous systems under a broad range of temperature conditions. The experimental studies were to be coupled with detailed, in-depth statistical and molecular dynamics models intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the overall transport mechanisms and a more accurate concept of the asphaltene structure. The following discussion describes some of our accomplishments.

  11. PNNL Coal Gasifier Transportation Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.

    2011-04-13

    This report provides Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL) craftspeople with the necessary information and suggested configurations to transport PNNL’s coal gasifier from its current location at the InEnTec facility in Richland, Washington, to PNNL’s Laboratory Support Warehouse (LSW) for short-term storage. A method of securing the gasifier equipment is provided that complies with the tie-down requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Cargo Securement Rules.

  12. Coal Mining on Pitching Seams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, George MacMillan

    1915-01-01

    compressed air post punchers are used. Where the coal is undercut permissible explosives are used. On all solid shooting black powder is used. It might be said right here that black powder has caused more fires, explosions and deaths than any other one... thing in Oklahoma mines, with the exception probably of falls of rock. However, under ruling of the United States Bureau of Mines black powder will probably eventually be excluded from all mines on Indian lands. On the lower entries, owing...

  13. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Kang, Chia-Chen C. (Princeton, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  14. Improvement of storage, handling and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-16

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: The Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant. The wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation. A wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. During this third quarter of the contract period, activities were underway under Tasks 2 and 3. Sufficient characterization of the feedstock coal options at the Chetopa Plant was conducted and mulling characteristics determined to enable a decision to be made regarding the feedstock selection. It was decided that the froth concentrate will be the feedstock wet fine coal used for the project. On that basis, activities in the areas of design and procurement were initiated.

  15. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  16. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolker, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J.; Helble, J.J.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Ames, M.R.; Finkelman, R.; Mamani-Paco, M.; Sterling, R.; Mroczkowsky, S.J.; Panagiotou, T.; Seames, W.

    1999-05-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environ-mental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 January 1999 to 31 March 1999. During this period, a full Program Review Meeting was held at the University of Arizona. At this meeting, the progress of each group was reviewed, plans for the following 9 month period were discussed, and action items (principally associated with the transfer of samples and reports among the various investigators) were identified.

  17. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  18. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, David R. (Lexington, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  19. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  20. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quigley, David R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  1. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  2. Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal M. Vandamme1 , L. Brochard2 , B. Lecampion3.07.014 #12;Abstract Enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) consists in injecting carbon dioxide in coal gets adsorbed at the surface of the coal pores, which causes the coal to swell. This swelling

  3. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle pores and energy exchange between the particle and its environment. This char-particle gasification model is capable of predicting the average mass loss rates, sizes, apparent densities, specific surface areas, and temperatures of the char particles produced when co-firing coal and biomass to the type environments established in entrained flow gasifiers operating at high temperatures and elevated pressures. A key result of this work is the finding that the reactivities of the mixed chars were not always in between the reactivities of the pure component chars at comparable gasification conditions. Mixed char reactivity to CO{sub 2} was lower than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to CO{sub 2}. In contrast, mixed char reactivity to H{sub 2}O was higher than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to H{sub 2}O. This was found to be in part, a consequence of the reduced mass specific surface areas of the coal char particles formed during devolatilization when the coal and biomass particles are co-fired. The biomass particles devolatilize prior to the coal particles, impacting the temperature and the composition of the environment in which the coal particles devolatilize. This situation results in coal char particles within the mixed char that differ in specific surface area and reactivity from the coal char particles produced in the absence of the devolatilizing biomass particles. Due to presence of this “affected” coal char, it was not possible to develop a mixed char reactivity model that uses linear mixing rules to determine the reactivity of a mixed char from only the reactivities of the pure mixture components. However, it was possible to predict both mixed char specific surface area and reactivity for a wide range of fuel mixture rat os provided the specific surface area and reactivity of the affected coal char particles are known. Using the kinetic parameters determined for the Wyodak coal and corn stover chars, the model was found to adequately predict the observed conversion times a

  4. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  5. Coal-log pipeline system development. Fifth quarterly report, August 25, 1991--November 25, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  6. Passive cigarette smoke, coal heating, and respiratory symptoms of nonsmoking women in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, C.A. III Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT ); Xu, X. )

    1993-09-01

    In this study the authors evaluated data from a sample of 973 never-smoking women, ages 20-40, who worked in three similar textile mills in Anhui Province, China. They compared prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms across homes with and without coal heating and homes with different numbers of smokers. Multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age, job title, and mill of employment were also estimated. Respiratory symptoms were associated with combined exposure to passive cigarette smoke and coal heating. Effects of passive cigarette smoke and coal heating on respiratory symptoms appeared to be nearly additive, suggesting a dose-response relationship between respiratory symptoms and home indoor air pollution from these two sources. The prevalence of chest illness, cough, phlegm, and shortness of breath (but not wheeze) was significantly elevated for women living in homes with both smokers and coal heating.

  7. The effect of selective solvent absorption on coal conversion. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    Using a pair of different recycle oils from Wilsonville and {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, gel permeation (GPC) chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and elemental analysis, no significant differences were observed between the composition of the recycle oil and that portion of the oil not absorbed by the coal. For these complex mixtures, coals are not selective absorbants. Since most of the heteroatoms responsible for most of the specific interactions have been removed by hydrogenolyses, this is perhaps not surprising. To address the issue of the role of hydrogen bond donors in the reused as hydrogen donor coal, tetralin and 2-t-butyltetralin were used as hydrogen donor solvents. This work is reported in detail in Section 2. The basic idea is that the presence of the t-butyl group on the aromatic ring will hinder or block diffusion of the hydrogen donor into the coal resulting in lower conversions and less hydrogen transferred with 2-t-butyltetralin than with tetralin. Observed was identical amounts of hydrogen transfer and nearly identical conversions to pyridine solubles for both hydrogen donors. Diffusion of hydrogen donors into the coal does not seem to play a significant role in coal conversion. Finally, in Section 3 is discussed the unfavorable impact on conversion of the structural rearrangements which occur when Illinois No. 6 coal is swollen with a solvent. We believe this rearrangement results in a more strongly associated solid leading to the diminution of coal reactions. Hydrogen donor diffusion does not seem to be a major factor in coal conversion while the structural rearrangement does. Both areas warrant further exploration.

  8. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  9. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-21

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  10. Clean coal technology programs: program update 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2006 is to provide an updated status of the DOE commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCTs). These demonstrations are performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2006 provides 1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation's energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation's most abundant energy resource - coal; 2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and 3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, with fact sheets for demonstration projects that are active, recently completed, withdrawn or ended, including status as of June 30 2006. 4 apps.

  11. An information and dialogue conference on the human genome project (HGP) for the minority communities in the state of Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-06-01

    Zeta Phi Beta Sorority National Educational Foundation, in cooperation with Xavier University of New Orleans, and the New Orleans District Office of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, held the Information and Dialogue Conference on the Human Genome Project for the Minority Communities in the State of Louisiana on April 16-17, 1999. The Conference was held on the campus of Xavier University in New Orleans. Community leaders, government officials, minority professional and social organizations leaders, religious leaders, persons from the educational and academic community, and students were invited. Conference objectives included bringing HGP information and a focus in the minority community on the project, in clear and understandable terms, to spread the work in the minority community about the project; to explore the likely positive implications with respect to health care and related matters; to explore possible negative results and strategies to meet them; to discuss the social, legal, and ethical implications; and to facilitate minority input into the HGP as it develops.

  12. Energy 101 Dialogue #1: Energy in the Classroom | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilofEnergyEnSysEnergy &101 Dialogue #1:

  13. Railroads and shippers clash over coal dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-11-15

    In an effort to reduce coal spillage from railcars, mines in the Powder River Basin (PRB) now load coal with a loaf profile but, reportedly, beginning in 2008, Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) will announce guidelines requiring all PRB coal loads to be sprayed with a chemical surfactant. If this does not fix the problem, greater measures will be taken. At the time of going to press, the details of how this would be implemented and regulated were unresolved. 1 photo.

  14. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Burl E. (New Kensington, PA); Henry, Raymond M. (Gibsonia, PA); Trivett, Gordon S. (South Surrey, CA); Albaugh, Edgar W. (Birmingham, AL)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  15. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  16. Statistical review of coal in Canada, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents an annual review of the coal industry, including production, exports and imports, and consumption. An overview is given, followed by more detailed statistical data for the current year and preceding decade (supply and demand, value and volume of supply by province, coal production by class or province, exports by destination, coal consumed in power generation by province, electrical energy production by fuel type, domestic demand for primary energy by type).

  17. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA); McDermott, Wayne T. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  18. Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Creek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    1 Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Control and Reclamation ActSurface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977of 1977 Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000)Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000) BackgroundBackground Fish populations in Coal Creek

  19. CO2 Sequestration in Unminable Coal with ECBMR -2010 Reprint -Proceedings 2010 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Istanbul, Turkey 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    CO2 Sequestration in Unminable Coal with ECBMR - 2010 Reprint - Proceedings 2010 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Istanbul, Turkey 1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN UNMINABLE COAL WITH ENHANCED COAL BED conducted in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, to evaluate enhanced coal bed methane recovery

  20. Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii

    2009-07-01

    The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

  1. National Coal Council Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    carbon technologies Infrastructure - to build and secure (generation, transmission, refineries) But let me return specifically to the issue of coal, where I think it is important...

  2. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    Source: Velocity Suite, Global Energy Data Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis 6.3.2 Comparison with Non-hybrid Competing

  3. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  4. Integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved two-stage process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal.

  5. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  6. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    and Reserves Circular. Beijing: MLR, cited in IEA. 2009.Cleaner Coal in China. Paris: IEA. Ghee Peh, Wei Ouyang. (London: WEC Press. IEA. (2007) World Energy Outlook 2007.

  7. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    delivered heating (district heating) (6%), and chemicalscoal growth. As district heating expands with urbanizationzone, coal use for district heating will depend on the

  8. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  9. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  10. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    cycle gas turbine power plant carbon capture and storagewind hybrid combined cycle power plant natural gas combinedPower Plants study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas

  11. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  12. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 8, 2010 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Systems Analyses and Planning Erik Shuster 2 Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants This report is intended to...

  13. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    IGCC PC advanced coal-wind hybrid combined cycle power plantnatural gas combined cycle gas turbine power plant carboncrude gasification combined cycle power plant with carbon

  14. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the...

  16. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 The research was...

  17. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 You are accessing a...

  18. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  19. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 In this Quarter, the...

  20. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the two...