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1

Material balance assay of Devonian gas shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Devonian shale retorting method, similar to the TOSCO Material Balance Assay, was developed. Oil, gas, water, and spent shale collected from the thermal decomposition of Devonian shale provide material balance closure. Elemental and other analyses were used to characterize the products and evaluate their fuel potential. The precision of each analysis was estimated by running a series of material balance assays on a composite shale sample. The elemental composition of this shale oil was shown to remain unchanged on aging. Typical material balance assays from each well where core samples were taken are presented.

Kapsch, D.M.; Frye, J.O.; Nunn, E.B.

1979-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

2

Devonian gas shales bibliography. Topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reports and publications (1983 to May 1991) on Devonian shale research are listed by title. The reports cover topics such as geology, reservoirs, production, drilling technology, and gas yields.

Not Available

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Technically recoverable Devonian shale gas in Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The technically recoverable gas from Devonian shale (Lower and Middle Huron) in Ohio is estimated to range from 6.2 to 22.5 Tcf, depending on the stimulation method and pattern size selected. This estimate of recovery is based on the integration of the most recent data and research on the Devonian Age gas-bearing shales of Ohio. This includes: (1) a compilation of the latest geologic and reservoir data for the gas in-place; (2) analysis of the key productive mechanisms; and, (3) examination of alternative stimulation and production strategies for most efficiently recovering this gas. Beyond a comprehensive assembly of the data and calculation of the technically recoverable gas, the key findings of this report are as follows: a substantial volume of gas is technically recoverable, although advanced (larger scale) stimulation technology will be required to reach economically attractive gas production rates in much of the state; well spacing in certain of the areas can be reduced by half from the traditional 150 to 160 acres per well without severely impairing per-well gas recovery; and, due to the relatively high degree of permeability anisotropy in the Devonian shales, a rectangular, generally 3 by 1 well pattern leads to optimum recovery. Finally, although a consistent geological interpretation and model have been constructed for the Lower and Middle Huron intervals of the Ohio Devonian shale, this interpretation is founded on limited data currently available, along with numerous technical assumptions that need further verification. 11 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

Kuushraa, V.A.; Wicks, D.E.; Sawyer, W.K.; Esposito, P.R.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Devonian shale gas resource assessment, Illinois basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1980 the National Petroleum Council published a resource appraisal for Devonian shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. Their Illinois basin estimate of 86 TCFG in-place has been widely cited but never verified nor revised. The NPC estimate was based on extremely limited canister off-gas data, used a highly simplified volumetric computation, and is not useful for targeting specific areas for gas exploration. In 1994 we collected, digitized, and normalized 187 representative gamma ray-bulk density logs through the New Albany across the entire basin. Formulas were derived from core analyses and methane adsorption isotherms to estimate total organic carbon (r[sup 2]=0.95) and gas content (r[sup 2]=0.79-0.91) from shale bulk density. Total gas in place was then calculated foot-by-foot through each well, assuming normal hydrostatic pressures and assuming the shale is gas saturated at reservoir conditions. The values thus determined are similar to peak gas contents determined by canister off-gassing of fresh cores but are substantially greater than average off-gas values. Greatest error in the methodology is at low reservoir pressures (or at shallow depths), however, the shale is generally thinner in these areas so the impact on the total resource estimate is small. The total New Albany gas in place was determined by integration to be 323 TCFG. Of this, 210 TCF (67%) is in the upper black Grassy Creek Shale, 72 TCF (23%) in the middle black and gray Selmier Shale, and 31 TCF (10%) in the basal black Blocher Shale. Water production concerns suggest that only the Grassy Creek Shale is likely to be commercially exploitable.

Cluff, R.M.; Cluff, S.G.; Murphy, C.M. (Discovery Group, Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Porosity and permeability of Eastern Devonian gas shale  

SciTech Connect

High-precision core analysis has been performed on eight Devonian gas shale samples from the Appalachian basin. Seven of the core samples consist of the Upper Devonian Age Huron member of the Ohio shale, six of which came from wells in the Ohio River valley, and the seventh from a well in east-central Kentucky. The eight core sample consists of Middle Devonian Age Marcellus shale obtained from a well in Morgantown, WV. The core analysis was originally intended to supply accurate input data for Devonian shale numerical reservoir simulation. Unexpectedly, the work has identified a number of geological factors that influence gas production from organic-rich shales. The presence of petroleum as a mobile liquid phase in the pores of all seven Huron shale samples effectively limits the gas porosity of this formation to less than 0.2%, and gas permeability of the rock matrix is commonly less than 0.1 ..mu..d at reservoir stress. The Marcellus shale core, on the other hand, was free of a mobile liquid phase and had a measured gas porosity of approximately 10%, and a surprisingly high permeability of 20 ..mu..d. Gas permeability of the Marcellus was highly stress-dependent, however; doubling the net confining stress reduced the permeability by nearly 70%. The conclusion reached from this study is that the gas productivity potential of Devonian shale in the Appalachian basin is influenced by a wide range of geologic factors. Organic content, thermal maturity, natural fracture spacing, and stratigraphic relationships between gray and black shales all affect gas content and mobility. Understanding these factors can improve the exploration and development of Devonian shale gas.

Soeder, D.J.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Impact of formation properties and well design on cumulative gas production from Devonian Shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Devonian Shale refers to all the shale strata sandwiched between two different formations; the younger Berea sandstone above it and the older limestone termed Onondaga… (more)

Ita, Jacques.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Porosity and permeability of eastern Devonian gas shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-precision core analysis has been performed on eight samples of Devonian gas shale from the Appalachian Basin. Seven of the core samples consist of the Upper Devonian age Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, six of which came from wells in the Ohio River valley, and the seventh from a well in east-central Kentucky. The eighth core sample consists of Middle Devonian age Marcellus Shale obtained from a well in Morgantown, West Virginia. The core analysis was originally intended to supply accurate input data for Devonian shale numerical reservoir simulation. Unexpectedly, the results have also shown that there are a number of previously unknown factors which influence or control gas production from organic-rich shales of the Appalachian Basin. The presence of petroleum as a mobile liquid phase in the pores of all seven Huron Shale samples effectively limits the gas porosity of this formation to less than 0.2%, and permeability of the rock matrix to gas is less than 0.1 microdarcy at reservoir stress. The Marcellus Shale core, on the other hand, was free of a mobile liquid phase and had a measured gas porosity of approximately 10% under stress with a fairly strong ''adsorption'' component. Permeability to gas (K/sub infinity/ was highly stress-dependent, ranging from about 20 microdarcies at a net stress of 3000 psi down to about 5 microdarcies at a net stress of 6000 psi. The conclusion reached from this study is that Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin is a considerably more complex natural gas resource than previously thought. Production potential varies widely with geographic location and stratigraphy, just as it does with other gas and oil resources. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Soeder, D.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Technically recoverable Devonian shale gas in West Virginia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the natural gas potential of the Devonian Age shales of West Virginia. For this, the study: (1) compiles the latest geological and reservoir data to establish the gas in-place; (2) analyzes and models the dominant gas production mechanisms; and (3) examines alternative well stimulation and production strategies for most efficiently recovering the in-place gas. The major findings of the study include the following: (1) The technically recoverable gas from Devonian shale (Huron, Rhinestreet, and Marcellus intervals) in West Virginia is estimated to range from 11 to 44 trillion cubic feet. (2) The Devonian shales in this state entail great geological diversity; the highly fractured, permeable shales in the southwest respond well to traditional development practices while the deep, tight shales in the eastern and northern parts of the state will require new, larger scale well stimulation technology. (3) Beyond the currently developed Huron and Rhinestreet shale intervals, the Marcellus shale offers a third attractive gas zone, particularly in the north central portion of the state. 21 references, 53 figures, 27 tables.

Kuuskraa, V.A.; Wicks, D.E.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Evaluation of Devonian-shale potential in Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to inform interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in eastern Ohio. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized, and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented. A complete list of EGSP sponsored work pertinent to the Devonian shales in Ohio is contained as an appendix to this report. Radioactive shale zones are also mapped.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

11

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

12

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

13

PYRITE FRAMBOID SIZE DISTRIBUTION: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ACCUMULATION OF DEVONIAN - MISSISSIPPIAN SHALES, CENTRAL KENTUCKY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The depositional environment that existed during the accumulation of Devonian - Mississippian black shales of the eastern US has been a topic of debate in… (more)

Hagemann, Lucas Michael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

15

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Evaluation of Devonian shale potential in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

In West Virginia, all significant areas of current Devonian shale gas production are situated where the radioactive shale units are thicker than 200 feet. Most areas of current gas production exhibit a close correlation with the trend of the Rome trough structure, and nearly all lie within the optimum stress-ratio zone. In addition, most of the current gas-producing areas are located within the zone of optimum shale thermal maturity, and optimum shale thermal maturity nearly coincides with the optimum shale stress-ratio value (0.43) in western and southwestern West Virginia. Areas adjacent to existing gas fields, within northeastern Cabell County, northern Lincoln County, and central Wayne County, are excellent prospects for future production. Additional deeper drilling in existing gas fields within the main trend may tap potential new reservoirs in the Rhinestreet and Marcellus Shales. The area east of the Warfield anticline in central Boone, Logan, and eastern Mingo Counties also may be favorable for gas exploitation of the radioactive Huron Shale. Fractures associated with the flank of the anticline and possible reactivation of basement faults in this area should be sufficient to provide the means for production. Further drilling should also be conducted along extensions of the border fault zone of the Rome trough in the western portion of the state. However, the subsurface trend of the trough must be carefully delineated to successfully develop gas production from potential fractured reservoir systems.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Discovery of agglutinated benthic foraminifera in Devonian black shales and their relevance for the redox state of ancient seas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Discovery of agglutinated benthic foraminifera in Devonian black shales and their relevance Received in revised form 4 October 2008 Accepted 31 October 2008 Keywords: Black shale Redox Devonian. The discovery that they occur widely in Late Devonian black shales has a bearing on the boundary conditions

Polly, David

19

Adsorption studies of natural gas storage in Devonian shales  

SciTech Connect

Significant amounts of natural gas exist as an adsorbed, or condensed, phase in Devonian shale formations and other unconventional gas resources. The amount of the adsorbed phase depends on the pressure and temperature. The Langmuir isotherm has been used to describe the pressure dependence. However, temperature dependence has not been explored. This is important to evaluate thermal simulation as a recovery method and to extrapolate laboratory measurements to reservoir conditions. The authors investigate adsorption as a function of both pressure and temperature. They found that the effects of temperature are significant and that the Langmuir model does not describe adsorption adequately. They reconciled the data with bi-Langmuir models.

Lu, X.C.; Li, F.C.; Watson, A.T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The most pervasive systematic joints hosted by Devonian black shale of the Appa-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The most pervasive systematic joints hosted by Devonian black shale of the Appa- lachian equivalent black shale of the distal, shallower region of the delta to the west, 25% of the joint inter into and abutting cross- fold joints. East-northeast joints in the distal shale propagated early but were neither

Engelder, Terry

22

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) /sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area. In addition, production is also 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the same area. These results are encouraging enough to formally combine existing pumping equipment, a closed system blender, and liquid carbon dioxide supplies to develop a new fracturing service in the eastern US A total of 22 additional jobs are planned in the eastern US in low permeability gas formations over the next year.

Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. More specifically, one operator furnished three offset wells which were stimulated with the carbon dioxide/sand frac method. The quantity of proppant and fluids pumped during each well stimulation ranged from 23,000 to 43,000 pounds of proppant and from 120 to 160 tons of liquid carbon dioxide. Another operator furnished two offset wells which were each stimulated with approximately 47,000 pounds of proppant and 120 tons of carbon dioxide. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area.

Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

Intergrated study of the Devonian-age black shales in eastern Ohio. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This integrated study of the Devonian-age shales in eastern Ohio by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The six areas of research included in the study are: (1) detailed stratigraphic mapping, (2) detailed structure mapping, (3) mineralogic and petrographic characterization, (4) geochemical characterization, (5) fracture trace and lineament analysis, and (6) a gas-show monitoring program. The data generated by the study provide a basis for assessing the most promising stratigraphic horizons for occurrences of natural gas within the Devonian shale sequence and the most favorable geographic areas of the state for natural gas exploration and should be useful in the planning and design of production-stimulation techniques. Four major radioactive units in the Devonian shale sequence are believed to be important source rocks and reservoir beds for natural gas. In order of potential for development as an unconventional gas resource, they are (1) lower and upper radioactive facies of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, (2) upper Olentangy Shale (Rhinestreet facies equivalent), (3) Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, and (4) lower Olentangy Shale (Marcellus facies equivalent). These primary exploration targets are recommended on the basis of areal distribution, net thickness of radioactive shale, shows of natural gas, and drilling depth to the radioactive unit. Fracture trends indicate prospective areas for Devonian shale reservoirs. Good geological prospects in the Devonian shales should be located where the fracture trends coincide with thick sequences of organic-rich highly radioactive shale.

Gray, J.D.; Struble, R.A.; Carlton, R.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Honeycutt, F.M.; Kingsbury, R.H.; Knapp, N.F.; Majchszak, F.L.; Stith, D.A.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement  

SciTech Connect

The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Daniel, J. [Lafarge Corp., Alpena, MI (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement  

SciTech Connect

The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Daniel, J. (Lafarge Corp., Alpena, MI (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-Shale gas wells. Annual report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian shale has been recognized as an important source of gas in the Appalachian Basin. The program aids producers in the collection of reservoir data not normally collected and assists in the evaluation of the effectiveness of zone selection and stimulation designs and methods. The study should provide a fuller understanding of the relationships that affect productivity in the Devonian shale. The relationships between gas flows and geological features that control the production characteristics in the Devonian shale are being developed.

Graham, R.L.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

30

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

31

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

32

Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

Schwietering, J. F.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Sedimentology of gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Eastern Gas Shales Project (1976-1981) of the US DOE has generated a large amount of information on Devonian shale, especially in the western and central parts of the Appalachian Basin (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 1980). This report summarizes this information, emphasizing the sedimentology of the shales and how it is related to gas, oil, and uranium. This information is reported in a series of statements each followed by a brief summary of supporting evidence or discussion and, where interpretations differ from our own, we include them. We believe this format is the most efficient way to learn about the gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin and have organized our statements as follows: paleogeography and basin analysis; lithology and internal stratigraphy; paleontology; mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry; and gas, oil, and uranium.

Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements  

SciTech Connect

In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Physical and chemical characterization of Devonian gas shale. Quarterly status report, April 1-June 30, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general location of wells and the corresponding well data used by the Mound Facility in its EGSP study of Devonian gas shales are presented. The data include: vitrinite, bitumen, and pyrolysis-GC analyses; biostratigraphy; depths; C1-C7 analysis; bulk density measurements; total organic carbon contents; lithology; kerogen analysis; permeability; dilatometry; and sorption studies. (DC)

Zielinski, R.E.; Moteff, J.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

A Comparative Study of the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Fort Worth Basin, and Devonian Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Comparative Study of the A Comparative Study of the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Fort Worth Basin, and Devonian Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin DOE/NETL-2011/1478 Cover. Top left: The Barnett Shale exposed on the Llano uplift near San Saba, Texas. Top right: The Marcellus Shale exposed in the Valley and Ridge Province near Keyser, West Virginia. Photographs by Kathy R. Bruner, U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Bottom: Horizontal Marcellus Shale well in Greene County, Pennsylvania producing gas at 10 million cubic feet per day at about 3,000 pounds per square inch. Photograph by Tom Mroz, USDOE, NETL, February 2010. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors greatly thank Daniel J. Soeder (U.S. Department of Energy) who kindly reviewed the manuscript. His criticisms,

39

Analysis of Devonian Black Shales in Kentucky for Potential Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Enhanced Natural Gas Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonaceous (black) Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In these shales, natural gas occurs in the intergranular and fracture porosity and is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO2 is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO2. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine both CO2 and CH4 adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO2 displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO2 adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton in the more organic-rich zones. There is a direct linear correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO2 adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial volumetric estimates based on these data indicate a CO2 sequestration capacity of as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. In the Big Sandy Gas Field area of eastern Kentucky, calculations using the net thickness of shale with 4 percent or greater total organic carbon, indicate that 6.8 billion tonnes of CO2 could be sequestered in the five county area. Discounting the uncertainties in reservoir volume and injection efficiency, these results indicate that the black shales of Kentucky are a potentially large geologic sink for CO2. Moreover, the extensive occurrence of gas shales in Paleozoic and Mesozoic basins across North America make them an attractive regional target for economic CO2 storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall; Cortland F. Eble; James A. Drahovzal; R. Marc Bustin

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Did Devonian shale wells drilled during the 1980`s and early 1990`s in West Virginia measure up to expectations?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the mid-1980`s, a model of future Devonian shale drilling and production was prepared for the Gas Research Institute (GRI). In late 1995, the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) was contracted by GRI to evaluate actual drilling and production in the 1980`s and early 1990`s and compare these data to the predictions made in the existing model. Drilling activity data were compiled for the years 1979-1993 for all wells drilled, and for all Devonian shale wells drilled. Monthly and annual production data were summarized for both categories. The Devonian shale wells were subdivided into two subsets: (1) the western black shales trend and (2) the eastern black and gray shales and siltstones trend, according to the play definitions used in the {open_quotes}Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Reservoirs{close_quotes}. Devonian shale wells were subdivided into vintages by completion year. Finally, each Devonian shale well was assigned to a 30 minute geographic grid or {open_quotes}cell{close_quotes} and production data were compiled and compared between cells. Analysis of the data led to the following conclusions: fewer shale wells were being drilled in the early 1990s, but these wells had better recoveries than the wells drilled in the 1980s. Some grid cells showed higher recoveries for the black and gray shales and siltstones play than in cells with black shale reservoirs alone. These higher recoveries perhaps can be attributed to the common practice of completing and producing shallower zones (i.e. Mississippian sandstones) in addition to the Devonian shales.

Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Matchen, D.L. [West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown, WV (United States); Woods, T.J. [Gas Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Fracture analysis of the upper devonian antrim shale, Michigan basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Antrim Shale is a fractured, unconventional gas reservoir in the northern Michigan basin. Controls on gas production are poorly constrained but must depend on the fracture framework. Analyses of fracture geometry (orientation, spacing, and aperture width) were undertaken to better evaluate reservoir permeability and, hence, pathways for fluid migration. Measurements from nearly 600 fractures were made from outcrop, core, and Formation MicroScanner logs covering three members of the Antrim Shale (Norwood, Paxton, Lachine) and the Ellsworth Shale. Fracture analyses indicate pronounced reservoir anisotropy among the members. Together related with lithologic variations, this leads to unique reservoir characteristics within each member. There are two dominant fracture sets, northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast. Fracture density varies among stratigraphic intervals but always is lowest in the northwest-southeast fracture set and is greatest in the northeast-southwest fracture set. While aperture width decreases markedly with depth, subsurface variation in mean aperture width is significant. Based on fracture density and mean aperture width, the Norwood member has the largest intrinsic permeability and the Ellsworth Shale the lowest intrinsic permeability. The highest intrinsic fracture permeability in all intervals is associated with the northeast-southwest fracture set. The Norwood and Lachine members thus exhibit the best reservoir character. This information is useful in developing exploration strategies and completion practices in the Antrim Shale gas play.

Richards, J.A.; Budai, J.M.; Walter, L.M.; Abriola, L.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Subsurface stratigraphy and petrophysical analysis of the Middle Devonian interval, including the Marcellus Shale, of the central Appalachian basin; northwestern Pennsylvania.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the central Appalachian basin, the multiple organic-rich intervals of the Middle Devonian, including the Marcellus Shale, are an emerging large resource play with high… (more)

Yanni, Anne.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Physicochemical properties of methane storage and transport in Devonian shale. Annual technical report, June 1988-May 1989  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report deals with the determination of how natural gas is stored in Devonian shales and what the theoretical implications of the storage mechanisms are. Isotherm measurements show that approximately 50% of the methane present in shale is either dissolved in other fluids or is adsorbed; the remainder exists as gas in the pore spaces of the shale matrix. The interrelationship of mercury-porosimetry measurements, and helium and methane isotherm determinations are discussed. The possible potential of NMR as a tool for determining the nature of adsorption on the shales is explored. The errors and accuracy of isotherm determination is discussed. Different natural gas components have different isotherms in Devonian shale. One implication of this is that production from fractured reservoirs of shale ought to fluctuate in response to wellbore pressure fluctuations. Relevant results from both an analytical model and a new numerical simulator are presented.

Schettler, P.D.; Parmely, C.R.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Hydrogeochemistry of the Antrim Shale (Devonian) in the Michigan Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Antrim shale has been the focus of active exploration and production in the Michigan Basin since 1987. The producing trend is presently located along the northern rim of the basin, but new ventures are expanding into the southern part of the basin and a predictive model for gas generation and production is greatly needed. The authors have undertaken a geochemical investigation of the waters co-produced with gases in the Antrim shale. There is unusual regional variability in the water chemistry. For example, salinity ranges from near potable water to nearly 10 times the salinity of ocean water within a distance of 80 km. Understanding the origin of solutes, waters and natural gas being produced from the Antrim Shale will aid in developing a model for natural gas generation and migration within the basin. The chemical and isotopic compositions of Antrim waters suggest that there are two sources of water and salinity within the reservoir: (1) saline, high-bromide basinal brine moving updip into the producing areas, and (2) ancient, dilute glacial melt water. Either of these waters can gain additional NaCl from dissolving Br-poor halite located within the updip pinch-out of the Detroit River Salt. When plotted geographically, variations in these components exhibit distinct regional patterns and may ultimately highlight major water and gas migration avenues. In addition to variable water salinity, the authors' preliminary results suggest that complexities in natural gas chemistry are reflected in the composition of coexisting waters.

Martini, A.M.; Walter, L.M.; Richards, J.A.; Budai, J.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Seismic detection of fractured Devonian shale reservoir. Annual report, July 1985-June 1986  

SciTech Connect

Interpretation of seismic data over the Cottageville gas field in West Virginia reveals the presence of numerous changes in reflection character across the top of the Lower Huron shales. Production from the Lower Huron is fracture-controlled, and some of the more-pronounced changes in amplitude and shape occur in the more-productive areas of the field. Model studies indicate that these changes are related to the development of low-impedance intervals that extend into the overlying shales of the Middle Huron. Analysis of geophysical logs indicates that these differences are not produced by lithologic variability in the shale. Hence, the observed changes in reflection character are believed to be associated with intense fracturing. Studies here suggest that the analysis of seismic data can be combined with other data to reduce the risk associated with exploration and development of Devonian shale gas resources. Final open-flow of gas and geologic structure from >4000 shale gas wells in eastern Kentucky outlines two high-flow areas. Interrelationships between geologic structure and gas flow are direct in one, but they are complex and unresolved in the other. Linear, steep flow gradients and the interrelationships of high-flow to structure confirm the importance of tectonic fracture permeability to shale productivity.

Wilson, T.H.; Shumaker, R.C.; Sims, C.S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Inorganic geochemistry of Devonian shales in southern West Virginia: geographic and stratigraphic trends  

SciTech Connect

Samples of cuttings from twenty-one wells and a core from a single well in southern West Virginia were analyzed for major and minor elements: silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, titanium, phosphorus, manganese, sulfur, zinc, and strontium. Stratigraphic and geographic controls on elemental abundances were studied through canonical correlations, factor analyses, and trend surface analyses. The most abundant elements, silicon and aluminum, show gradual trends through the stratigraphic column of most wells, with silicon increasing and aluminum decreasing up-section. Other elements such as calcium, sulfur, and titanium change abruptly in abundance at certain stratigraphic boundaries. Important geographic trends run east-west: for instance, one can see an increase in sulfur and a decrease in titanium to the west; and a decrease in silicon from the east to the central part of the study area, then an increase further west. Although observed vertical trends in detrital minerals and geographic patterns in elemental abundances agree with the accepted view of a prograding delta complex during Late Devonian time, geographically-local, time restricted depositional processes influenced elemental percentages in subsets of the wells and the stratigraphic intervals studied. The black shales of lower Huron age do not represent simply a return of depositional conditions present in the earlier Rhinestreet time; nor do the gray shales of the Ohio Shale represent the same environmental conditions as the Big White Slate.

Hohn, M.E.; Neal, D.W.; Renton, J.J.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Porosity of coal and shale: Insights from gas adsorption and SANS/USANS techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two Pennsylvanian coal samples (Spr326 and Spr879-IN1) and two Upper Devonian-Mississippian shale samples (MM1 and MM3) from the Illinois Basin were studied with regard to their porosity and pore accessibility. Shale samples are early mature stage as indicated by vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of 0.55% for MM1 and 0.62% for MM3. The coal samples studied are of comparable maturity to the shale samples, having vitrinite reflectance of 0.52% (Spr326) and 0.62% (Spr879-IN1). Gas (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) adsorption and small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering techniques (SANS/USANS) were used to understand differences in the porosity characteristics of the samples. The results demonstrate that there is a major difference in mesopore (2-50 nm) size distribution between the coal and shale samples, while there was a close similarity in micropore (coal is pore-size specific and can vary significantly between coal samples; also, higher accessibility corresponds to higher adsorption capacity. Accessibility of pores in shale samples is low.

Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Rupp, John A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Site selection, drilling, and completion of two horizontal wells in the Devonian Shales of West Virginia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the geologic site selection studies, planning, drilling, completing, stimulating, and testing of two horizontal wells drilled in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin in West Virginia. Each horizontal well was designed and managed by BDM as the prime contractor to the Department of Energy. The first well was drilled with industry partner Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation in Putnam County, West Virginia. The second well was drilled with Consolidated Natural Gas Company in Calhoun County, West Virginia. This report summarizes four reports prepared by BDM which detail the site selection rationale and the drilling and completion operations of each well. Each horizontal well is currently producing commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The successful application of horizontal well technology represent continued development of the technology for application to tight and unconventional natural gas resources of the United States. Continued technology development is expected to ultimately result in commercial horizontal well drilling activity by industry in the Appalachian Basin.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Johnson, H.R.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

High-pressure mechanical and sonic properties of a Devonian shale from West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Static mechanical properties and sonic velocities were determined on each of four members of the Devonian shale from Columbia Gas Transmission's well 20403, Huntington, West Virginia. They were: Pressure - volume data to 4.0 GPa; Compressive strength at confining pressures up to 300 MPa, both parallel and perpendicular to bedding. Extensile strength at 100 to 700 MPa confining pressure, both parallel and perpendicular to bedding. Loading and unloading path in uniaxial strain at 20 to 500 MPa confining pressure, both parallel and perpendicular to bedding. Tensile strength at ambient pressure, parallel and perpendicular to bedding. Shear and compressional wave velocities at confining pressures up to 1000 MPa parallel, at 45/sup 0/, and perpendicular to bedding. Results are presented and discussed. 32 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

Heard, H.C.; Lin, W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Geochemical constraints on microbial methanogenesis in an unconventional gas reservoir: Devonian Antrim shale, Michigan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Upper Devonian Antrim Shale is a self-sourced, highly fractured gas reservoir. It subcrops around the margin of the Michigan Basin below Pleistocene glacial drift, which has served as a source of meteoric recharge to the unit. The Antrim Shale is organic-rich (>10% total organic carbon), hydrogen-rich (Type I kerogen) and thermally immature (R[sub o] = 0.4 to 0.6). Reserve estimates range from 4-8 Tcf, based on assumptions of a thermogenic gas play. Chemical and isotopic properties measured in the formation waters show significant regional variations and probably delineate zones of increased fluid flow controlled by the fracture network. [sup 14]C determinations on dissolved inorganic carbon indicate that freshwater recharge occurred during the period between the last glacial advance and the present. The isotopic composition of Antrim methane ([delta][sup 13]C = -49 to -59[per thousand]) has been used to suggest that the gas is of early thermogenic origin. However, the highly positive carbon of co-produced CO[sub 2] gas ([delta][sup 13]C [approximately] +22[per thousand]) and DIC in associated Antrim brines ([delta][sup 13]C = +19 to +31[per thousand]) are consistent with bacterially mediated fractionation. The correlation of deuterium in methane ([delta]D = -200 to -260[per thousand]) with that of the co-produced waters (SD = -20 to -90176) suggests that the major source of this microbial gas is via the CO[sub 2] reduction pathway within the reservoir. Chemical and isotopic results also demonstrate a significant (up to 25%) component of thermogenic gas as the production interval depth increases. The connection between the timing of groundwater recharge, hydrogeochemistry and gas production within the Antrim Shale, Michigan Basin, is likely not unique and may find application to similar resources elsewhere.

Martini, A.M.; Budal, J.M.; Walter, L.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Stratigraphy and organic petrography of Mississippian and Devonian oil shale at the Means Project, East-Central Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Means Oil Shale Project is under consideration for financial assistance by the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation. The project site is located in southern Montgomery County, about 45 miles east of Lexington, Kentucky. In the site area the Devonian Ohio Shale and the Mississippian Sunbury Shale are under study; these oil shales were deposited in the Appalachian Basin. The objective of the Means Project is to mine, using open pit methods, an ore zone which includes the Sunbury and upper Cleveland and which excludes the Bedford interburden. The thick lower grade oil shale below this ore zone renders the higher grade shale at the base of the Huron commercially unattractive. The oil shale at Means has been classified as a marinite, an oil shale containing abundant alginite of marine origin. Lamalginite is the dominant liptinite and comprises small, unicellular alginite with weak to moderate fluorescence at low rank and a distinctive lamellar form. Telalginite, derived from large colonial or thick-walled, unicellular algae, is common in several stratigraphic intervals.

Solomon, B.J.; Hutton, A.C.; Henstridge, D.A.; Ivanac, J.F.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. [Unconventioal natural gas resources which are tight sands, Devonian shale, coal seam gas, and gas co-produced with water  

SciTech Connect

Advanced natural gas supply technologies, if successful, could lower the average cost of gas to consumers by 18% and increase the expected gas demand by 2 quads/year by the year 2000. Advanced production techniques for unconventional gas will have by far the greatest impact on future gas prices, providing economic benefits of between $200 billion and $320 billion. Advanced SNG from coal will provide only a $9 billion benefit if unconventional gas meets all of its performance targets. However, higher demand and failure of unconventional gas R and D could raise the benefits of SNG research to $107 billion. SNG research provides a hedge value that increases the likelihood of receiving a positive payoff from gas supply R and D. Changing the performance goals for SNG research to emphasize cost reduction rather than acceleration of the date of commercialization would greatly increase the potential benefits of the program. 9 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Thermal Maturity and Organic Facies of Devonian Shales From Selected Wells  

SciTech Connect

An organic geochemical study was performed on core samples of the Devonian shale from wells in Ohio, Kentucky, and Illinois. The thermal maturity of the organic matter (kerogen) contained in the fine-grained sediments was investigated by vitrinite reflectance and kerogen coloration (Thermal Alteration Index). The results indicate that the organic matter has been thermally matured to the early stages of petroleum and associated gas generation. A suite of geochemical analyses designed to evaluate the organic richness, the hydrocarbon potential for gas, condensate, and/or oil, and the type of organic matter was performed on the samples analyzed for thermal maturity. In general, two types of organic facies were encountered. The rich organic facies (A) is characterized by abundant gas, gasoline, and gas-oil hydrocarbons, a high organic carbon content, and organic matter prone to gererate abundant oil and associated gas. Based on the geochemical data, a second type of organic facies (B) interbedded with the rich organic facies (A) was encountered in Kentucy and Ohio wells. Organic facies B consists of sediments relatively lean in organic carbon and gas-oil hydrocarbons, and abundant gas and gasoline hydrocarbons. In most cases, facies B is composed of woody and coaly types of kerogen. The woody-coaly kerogen is presumed to indicate a nonmarine derived depositional source prone to generate predominately gas (methane).

Zielinski, R. E.; Martin, L. J.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Devonian shale  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to identify and examine potential public health and safety issues and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Devonian age shale. This document will serve as background data and information for planners within the government to assist in development of our new energy technologies in a timely and environmentally sound manner. This report describes the resource and the DOE eastern gas shales project in Section 2. Section 3 describes the new and developing recovery technologies associated with Devonian shale. An assessment of the environment, health and safety impacts associated with a typical fields is presented in Section 4. The typical field for this assessment occupies ten square miles and is developed on a 40-acre spacing (that is, there is a well in each 40-acre grid). This field thus has a total of 160 wells. Finally, Section 5 presents the conclusions and recommendations. A reference list is provided to give a greater plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Bibliography of the paleontology and paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in North America  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence is one of the most prominent and well-known stratigraphic horizons in the Paleozoic of the United States, yet the paleontology and its paleoecologic and paleoenvironmental implications are poorly known. This is in larger part related to the scarcity of fossils preserved in the shale - in terms of both diversity and abundance. Nonetheless, that biota which is preserved is well-known and much described, but there is little synthesis of this data. The first step in such a synthesis is the compilation of an inclusive bibliography such as this one. This bibliography contains 1193 entries covering all the major works dealing with Devonian-Mississippian black-shale paleontology and paleoecology in North America. Articles dealing with areas of peripheral interest, such as paleogeography, paleoclimatology, ocean circulation and chemistry, and modern analogues, are also cited. In the index, the various genera, taxonomic groups, and other general topics are cross-referenced to the cited articles. It is hoped that this compilation will aid in the synthesis of paleontologic and paleoecologic data toward a better understanding of these unique rocks and their role as a source of energy.

Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc.`s, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. [Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc. 's, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. (Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)) [Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Analysis of Devonian shale stratigraphic, production, and completion data in West Virginia. Annual report, 1 July 1986-30 June 1987  

SciTech Connect

The Huron Shale Member is the major Devonian shale producing zone in all counties under study. To the north and east, the organic shales of the Huron are replaced by inorganic shales and siltstones; gas production in these areas probably comes from the entire shale interval. Gas-producing potential of the Rhinestreet has not been fully exploited despite its similar lithologic character to the Huron. Structure maps on the top of the Berea and base of the Huron show two northeast-to-southwest trending synclines in Cabell and Wayne Counties, and a north-south anticline in Cabell County. Berea and Onondaga structure maps reveal benches at both levels in Jackson, Mason, and Putnam Counties, possibly indicating continued effects of normal faulting throughout the shale interval. The Huron and Rhinestreet Members display the largest ratio of shows to penetrations in Devonian shale wells in southwestern West Virginia, confirming the role of the Huron in total shale gas production, and emphasizing the potential of the deeper Rhinestreet Member. Smoothed maps of initial potentials are appropriate in the study of regional trends, but unreliable for precise estimation of gas volumes at individual locations. Maps of initial potentials show sets of linearities parallel and perpendicular to regional structural trends. These linearities implicate fractures as a control on gas volumes.

Hohn, M.E.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Petrology of the Devonian gas-bearing shale along Lake Erie helps explain gas shows  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Comprehensive petrologic study of 136 thin sections of the Ohio Shale along Lake Erie, when combined with detailed stratigraphic study, helps explain the occurrence of its gas shows, most of which occur in the silty, greenish-gray, organic poor Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed. Both have thicker siltstone laminae and more siltstone beds than other members of the Ohio Shale and both units also contain more clayshales. The source of the gas in the Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed of the Ohio Shale is believed to be the bituminous-rich shales of the middle and lower parts of the underlying Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Eleven petrographic types were recognized and extended descriptions are provided of the major ones - claystones, clayshales, mudshales, and bituminous shales plus laminated and unlaminated siltstones and very minor marlstones and sandstones. In addition three major types of lamination were identified and studied. Thirty-two shale samples were analyzed for organic carbon, whole rock hydrogen and whole rock nitrogen with a Perkin-Elmer 240 Elemental Analyzer and provided the data base for source rock evaluation of the Ohio Shale.

Broadhead, R.F.; Potter, P.E.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Geomechanical and weathering properties of weak roof shales in coal mines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Many coal seams have weak shale immediate roofs that cause ground control problems. Therefore, it is important to know the properties of these shales so… (more)

Gurgenli, Hakan.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Site selection, drilling, and completion of two horizontal wells in the Devonian Shales of West Virginia. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the geologic site selection studies, planning, drilling, completing, stimulating, and testing of two horizontal wells drilled in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin in West Virginia. Each horizontal well was designed and managed by BDM as the prime contractor to the Department of Energy. The first well was drilled with industry partner Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation in Putnam County, West Virginia. The second well was drilled with Consolidated Natural Gas Company in Calhoun County, West Virginia. This report summarizes four reports prepared by BDM which detail the site selection rationale and the drilling and completion operations of each well. Each horizontal well is currently producing commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The successful application of horizontal well technology represent continued development of the technology for application to tight and unconventional natural gas resources of the United States. Continued technology development is expected to ultimately result in commercial horizontal well drilling activity by industry in the Appalachian Basin.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Johnson, H.R.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Outcrop lithostratigraphy and petrophysics of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in West Virginia and adjacent states.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A stratigraphic study of 15 partial outcrops of the Marcellus Shale in West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Maryland has identified six lithofacies. These include grey calcareous… (more)

Walker-Milani, Margaret E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Pyrolysis and hydrocarbon source bed potential of the Upper Devonian Woodford Shale, Hovey Channel, southern Permian basin, west Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Upper Devonian Woodford Shale in the Hovey Channel area, southern Permian basin, is 50 m thick and composed largely of brown to black, pyritic, spore-bearing, organic-rich, fissile shale an chert. Total organic carbon, distillable hydrocarbons, genetic potential, organic carbon index, hydrogen index, temperature of maximum hydrocarbon generation, and kerogen transformation index of the Woodford Shale suggest a matured to overmatured, gas-generating source bed. The total organic carbon content of the formation ranged from a low of 0.77% in the cherty samples to a high of 4.59% in a shaley sample, averaging 2.18%. Distillable hydrocarbon content of the samples is fairly high (averaging 1.72 mg HC/gm{degree} rock), varying from 0.90 mg HC/gm{degree} rock to 3.22 mg HC/gm{degree} rock. Genetic potential evaluated in terms of both residual and total generative potential showed above average potential, averaging 3.25 mg HC/gm{degree} rock for the residual and 4.90 mg HC/gm{degree} rock for the total, respectively. Live organic carbon index values ranged from 11-28%, characterizing the formation as a moderate to good source bed. Hydrogen index values ranged from 73 mg HC/gm{degree} C org to 155 mg HC/gm{degree} C org, suggesting overmaturity and gas-generation potential of the source bed. Temperature of maximum hydrocarbon generation values and kerogen transformation ratio values (averaging 0.34) also indicate overmatured nature of the Woodford Shale.

Hussain, M.; Bloom, M.A. (Sul Ross State Univ., Alpine, TX (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Economic Impact of Reservoir Properties, Horizontal Well Length and Orientation on Production from Shale Formations: Application to New  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) of southeastern Indiana, in Proceedings, 1989 Eastern Oil Shale Symposium

Mohaghegh, Shahab

66

Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective is to determine the relationships between the shale characteristics, hydrocarbon gas contents, and well location, for assessing the productive capacity of the Eastern Devonian Gas Shale deposits and guiding research, development, and demonstration projects to enhance the recovery of natural gas from the shale deposits. One well was sampled during this reporting period. Another well from Monongalia County, WV (M-1) was cored in April. 31 samples were obtained for Battelle with additional 55 samples canned for other DOE contractors. Characterization tasks on shale samples from R-146 (Mason County, WV.) and M-1 wells (Monongalia) have been completed. In the preliminary analysis correlations were observed between the hydrocarbon gas contents and can pressure, propane content, well location, oxygen content CO/sub 2/ content, bulk density and carbon contents. Higher pressures are attributed to higher hydrocarbon gas contents. For high gas pressures, propane content is an important indication of hydrocarbon gas content. At low gas pressure, butane contents more accurately predict the hydrocarbon gas contents. High CO/sub 2/ and carbon contents indicate high hydrocarbon gas values, whereas oxygen contents are inversely related to hydrocarbon gas contents. Analysis of the limited wire-line log data shows that correlations between the laboratory and well log data can be utilized to predict potential hydrocarbon gas contents of the wells. 15 tables, 27 figures.

Kalyoncu, R.S.; Snyder, M.J.

1978-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

68

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume II. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: regional structure, surface structure, surface fractures, hydrology  

SciTech Connect

This volume comprises appendices giving regional structure data, surface structure data, surface fracture data, and hydrology data. The fracture data covers oriented Devonian shale cores from West Virginia, Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. The subsurface structure of the Eastern Kentucky gas field is also covered. (DLC)

Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

REGIONAL DEPOSITIONAL TRENDS IN THE DEVONIAN GENESEO/BURKET BLACK SHALE BASED ON GAMMA RAY-DENSITY TRENDS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACTGas shales are becoming increasingly important as new technologies are applied to enhance their production of natural gas. The Barnett, the Fayetteville, and the Haynesville… (more)

Arnold, LaMichelle

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Rashid Khan, M.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

72

Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Well R-109, Washington County, Ohio  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Coring of Well R-109 (Washington County, Ohio) was accomplished in August 1976. A total of 25 samples were collected. Hydrocarbon gas analyses indicate that higher chain hydrocarbon gases (C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/) make up a significant portion of total hydrocarbons in the shales, but methane is still the dominant single gas. Distinct relationships exist between the carbon and hydrocarbon gas contents, showing increase in hydrocarbon gas contents with increasing carbon. Similar relationships between hydrogen and hydrocarbon gas contents exist, though they are not as pronounced. Gas contents appear not to be related to the bulk densities in any quantitative manner, though organic contents (carbon and hydrogen) seem to be related to bulk density values much more clearly. R-109 shales are virtually impermeable to gases and other fluids, as attempted helium gas permeability measurements indicated extremely small (< 10/sup -12/ Darcy) permeability values.

Kalyoncu, R.S.; Boyer, J.P.; Snyder, M.J.

1979-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Impact of Marcellus Shale Total Organic Carbon on Productivity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the Appalachian basin, the Devonian organic-rich shale interval, including the Marcellus Shale, is an important target for natural gas exploration. It has been utilized… (more)

Fakhouri, Eyad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Sub-surface stratigraphy and petrophysical analysis of the Middle Devonian Interval of the Central Appalachian Basin; West Virginia and Southwest Pennsylvania.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the central Appalachian basin, the Middle Devonian organic-rich shale interval, including the Marcellus Shale, is an important target for natural gas exploration. It has… (more)

Boyce, Matthew L. (Matthew Louis), 1985-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Toxicity of shale oil to freshwater algae: comparisons with petroleum and coal-derived oils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The toxicities of various water-soluble fractions of Paraho/SOHIO shale oils and coal liquefaction products to the algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Microcystis aeruginosa are investigated. Photosynthetic inhibition is the criterion of toxicity. A secondary objective of the algal bioassay is determination of the range of toxic concentrations. (ACR)

Giddings, J.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of a number of sensitive and precise methods for the determination of trace elements, heavy element species and organic compounds in materials from an oil shale research retort process and from a solvent-refined coal pilot plant operation are discussed. The methods were chosen both for their sensitivity, and also for their relative freedom from interference effects. Coal liquids contain much higher concentrations of aromatic compounds, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA's). A larger relative fraction of the pna's in shale oil are alkyl substituted. Coal liquids are also considerably higher in phenols (28 percent) than is shale oil (2 percent). N-heterocyclics are present in higher concentration (greater than 8 percent) in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics are common in coal liquids but negligible in shale oil. Inorganic elements and speciation measurements indicate significant amounts of the toxic heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se in effluent oil water and gas streams. In addition, the process water contains significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. Raw oil shale is highly enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. The majority of trace elements are concentrated by the process into the mineral residue. Only Br and Hg are not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements still remaining in significant amounts are U, Ta, Cr, and Zn.

Fruchter, J.S.; Petersen, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Ryan, P.W.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Broad spectrum inorganic and organic analytical techniques provide the best approach for the initial characterization of the complex samples encountered in working with new energy technologies such as oil shale retorting and solvent refining of coal. In complex samples, analyses are facilitated by techniques, such as neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence, that are relatively insensitive to matrix effects. A comparative organic constituent analysis of the crude shale oil and coal liquid samples analyzed in this study showed that the coal liquids contained higher concentrations of aromatic compounds including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The coal liquids were considerably richer in phenols than was the shale oil. N-heterocyclics were present in higher concentration in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics were found to be common in coal liquids but negligible in this shale oil. Measurable amounts of the heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se were found in effluent streams from oil shale retorting. The process water also contained significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. The raw oil shale was enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg, and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. Most were concentrated in the mineral residue. Only Br was not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements remaining in significant amounts were U, Ta, Cr and Zn. We have not yet measured the trace elements and gaseous and particulate samples from the solvent-refined coal plant. 10 tables.

Fruchter, J.S.; Laul, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Ryan, P.W.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Devonian Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe upon privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors greatly thank Daniel J. Soeder (U.S. Department of Energy) who kindly reviewed the manuscript. His criticisms,

Devonian Marcellus Shale; R. Bruner; Richard Smosna

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, July--September 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine the feasibility and estimate the economics of hydroprocessing four synthetic fuels to distillate fuels, including high octane gasoline, using presently available technology. The feedstocks include three coal-derived synthetic crudes and shale oil. The first feedstock is Paraho crude shale oil, produced in the indirect-heated mode. The feed was received less than three weeks before the end of the quarter. The work to date consists of analyses of the shale oil. Results are incomplete. However, there is no reason to believe that this shale oil is atypical of Paraho shale oil prepared by the indirect-heated mode of retorting. Currently available technology is being studied to determine the appropriate methods for removal of fines and water to prepare the whole shale oil feed for hydrofining.

Sullivan, R.F.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Monthly report, April 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Activities are reported in a program to determine the feasibility and to estimate the economics of hydroprocessing synthetic crude feedstocks to distillate fuels using presented available technology. The first feedstock is shale oil. The oil used in this evaluation is Paraho crude shale oil, produced in the indirectly heated mode. Pilot plant studies evaluating hydroprocessing of the whole shale oil have been in progress for about six months. Shale oil makes an excellent catalytic cracking feedstock provided its nitrogen content is reduced to at least 0.1 percent by appropriate hydrofining. Gasolines and cycle oils derived from the cracking of hydrofined shale oils are similar to those obtained from the cracking of hydrofined petroleum gas oils. The second feedstock is solvent refined coal (SRC). In SRC processing, an analysis of hydrofining feedstock was conducted and hydrofining tests were planned. (JRD)

Sullivan, R.F.; Rudy, C.E.; Chen, H.C.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Monthly report, May 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Activities are reported of a program to determine the feasibility and to estimate the economics of hydroprocessing synthetic crude feedstocks to distillate fuels using presently available technology. The first feedstock is shale oil. The oil used in this evaluation is Paraho crude shale oil, produced in the indirectly heated mode. Pilot plant studies evaluating hydroprocessing of the whole shale oil have been in progress for about seven months. The second feedstock is solvent refined coal (SRC). In SRC processing, hydrofining feedstock analyses were conducted and results of pilot plant hydrofining test runs are reported. (JRD)

Sullivan, R.F.; Rudy, C.E.; Chen, H.C.

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Effects of energy development on air quality in the Rocky Mountain West. [Environmental effects of coal and oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

Future need for fossil fuels may lead to an exploitation of Western coal and oil shale at the expense of the traditional clean air and clear skies of the West. This report evaluates the prospects for future changes in western air quality, the constraints imposed on western energy development by air quality regulations, and the impacts of that development.

Hinman, G.W.; Leonard, E.M.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, July--September 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine the feasibility and estimate the economics of hydropreocessing four synthetic fuels to distillate fuels, including high octane gasoline, using presently available technology. The feedstocks include shale oil and three coal-derived synthetic crudes. The first feedstock is Paraho crude shale oil, produced in the indirectly heated mode. Pilot plant studies of hydrofining of whole shale oil with ICR 106 catalyst have been completed. The product resembles the fraction of a waxy petroleum crude boiling below 1000/sup 0/F. There is no 1100/sup 0/F+ residuum. A 3500-hour pilot plant run showed that the catalyst fouling rate is low and demonstrated that a commercial length run is feasible. However, a guard bed is necessary ahead of the catalyst bed to remove arsenic and iron which can cause plugging. Hydrofined shale oil is an excellent feed for a catalytic cracker. Pilot plant studies show that the 650/sup 0/F+ fraction of hydrofined shale oil is very similar to hydrofined Middle Eastern vacuum gas oils in its performance in a catalytic cracker. Process design studies based on pilot plant results indicate that it is desirable to hydrofine the whole shale oil to a nitrogen content of about 500 ppM and then to fractionate the product before conventional downstream processing to produce transportation fuels. An alternate scheme for shale oil processing is the coking of the shale oil followed by hydrofinishing of the coker distillate. Preliminary results appear promising. The second feedstock is solvent refined coal. Studies of the hydrofining of a 50/50 blend of SRC and creosote were continued. A run of 1100 hours was achieved with ICR 106 catalyst without the plugging problem that had plagued an earlier test. The catalyst deactivated at a relatively rapid rate.

Sullivan, R.F.; Rudy, C.E.; Green, D.C.; Chen, H.C.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Comparative assessment of the trace-element composition of coals, crude oils, and oil shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparative analysis of the amounts of 42 trace elements in coals, crude oils, and oil and black shales was performed. The degree of concentration of trace elements by caustobioliths and their ashes relative to their abundance in argillaceous rocks and the Earth's crust was calculated. Typomorphic trace elements were distinguished, of which many turned out to be common for the different kinds of caustobioliths in question. The trace elements were classified according to their concentration factors in different caustobioliths. The ash of crude oils is enriched in trace elements (Cs, V, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Hg, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, U) to the greatest extent (concentration factor above 3.5) and that of oil shales is enriched to the least extent (Re, Cs, Hg, Se). The ratios between typomorphic trace elements in general strongly differ from those in the Earth's crust and argillaceous rocks and are not identical in different caustobioliths. Quantitative parameters that make it possible to calculate a change in these ratios on passing from one caustobiolith type to another were proposed and the relative trace-element affinity of different caustobioliths was estimated.

M.Y. Shpirt; S.A. Punanova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Direct determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal liquids and shale oil by laser excited Shpol'skii spectrometry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This article reports that tunable, dye laser excitation of Shpol'skii effect spectra provides a potentially useful means of determining PAH compounds directly in coal liquids and shale oil without prior isolation of the PAH fraction by chromatographic or other techniques. The data reported were obtained by selecting excitation wavelengths within the response curve of a single dye, 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4 oxadiazole (PBD). The characteristic low temperature excitation spectra of PAH compounds in appropriate Shpol'skii matrices are known to be sharp (FWHM approx. 10cm/sup -1/). The luminescence of four individual PAHs is included. The analytical results obtained for a typical solvent refined coal and shale oil sample are summarized. 2 figures, 1 table. (DP)

Yen, Y.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.; Iles, M.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, January--March 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine the feasibility and estimate the economics of hydroprocessing four synthetic fuels to distillate fuels, including high octane gasoline, using presently available technology. The feedstocks include three coal-derived synthetic crudes and shale oil. The first feedstock is Paraho crude shale oil, produced in the indirectly heated mode. Whole shale oil was hydrofined in a 2000-hour pilot plant test using ICR 106 catalyst. The results show that shale oil containing 2.2 percent nitrogen can be hydrofined to residuum-free product containing 1 to 2 ppM nitrogen in a single stage. Process design studies indicate that it is preferable to hydrofine the whole shale oil to about 500 ppM nitrogen and then to fractionate the product before conventional downstream processing to produce transportation fuels. The product resembles the fraction of a waxy petroleum crude boiling below 1000/sup 0/F. This report includes yields and product properties determined from the small-scale pilot plant test. A larger-scale pilot plant demonstration run is now in progress.

Sullivan, R.F.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Feasibility study on modeling and prediction of production behavior in naturally fractured shale reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of predicting production characteristics in a Devonian Shale reservoir. This paper discusses the use of… (more)

Huls, Boyd T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Ohio: Devonian evaluated for most favorable potential production  

SciTech Connect

Commercial quantities of gas are likely to occur within closely spaced natural fracture systems close to, or within, organic-rich source beds. Four principal source beds have been identified within the shales of east Ohio. Ranked in order of importance based on geographic distribution and thickness, they are the Huron, Rhinestreet, Cleveland, and Marcellus shales. Within each of these zones, there is believed to be a north-south trending area of most favorable shale lying between immature shales to the west and shales too organically lean to the east. Closely spaced localized fracturing of the Devonian shale sequence is likely to occur along 2 regional trends in east Ohio: the Cambridge arch and the Lake Erie shoreline. Operators drilling within these areas, or near any structurally disturbed area, should evaluate and test shale zones that exhibit indications of being naturally fractured.

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Formulation and evaluation of highway transportation fuels from shale and coal oils: project identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Second annual report, March 20, 1980-March 19, 1981. [Broadcut fuel mixtures of petroleum, shale, and coal products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project work is reported for the formulation and testing of diesel and broadcut fuels containing components from petroleum, shale oil, and coal liquids. Formulation of most of the fuels was based on refinery modeling studies in the first year of the project. Product blends were prepared with a variety of compositions for use in this project and to distribute to other, similar research programs. Engine testing was conducted in a single-cylinder CLR engine over a range of loads and speeds. Relative performance and emissions were determined in comparison with typical petroleum diesel fuel. With the eight diesel fuels tested, it was found that well refined shale oil products show only minor differences in engine performance and emissions which are related to differences in boiling range. A less refined coal distillate can be used at low concentrations with normal engine performance and increased emissions of particulates and hydrocarbons. Higher concentrations of coal distillate degrade both performance and emissions. Broadcut fuels were tested in the same engine with variable results. All fuels showed increased fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions. The increase was greater with higher naphtha content or lower cetane number of the blends. Particulates and nitrogen oxides were high for blends with high 90% distillation temperatures. Operation may have been improved by modifying fuel injection. Cetane and distillation specifications may be advisable for future blends. Additional multi-cylinder and durability testing is planned using diesel fuels and broadcut fuels. Nine gasolines are scheduled for testing in the next phase of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Coal rank trends in western Kentucky coal field and relationship to hydrocarbon occurrence  

SciTech Connect

Extensive oil and gas development has occurred in the high volatile C bituminous region north of the Rough Creek fault zone, but few pools are known within the Webster syncline south of the fault zone. The rank of the Middle Pennsylvanian coals can be used to estimate the level of maturation of the Devonian New Albany Shale, a likely source rock for much of the oil and gas in the coal field. Based on relatively few data points, previous studies on the maturation of the New Albany Shale, which lies about 1 km below the Springfield coal, indicate an equivalent medium volatile bituminous (1.0-1.2% R{sub max}) rank in the Fluorspar district. New Albany rank decreases to an equivalent high volatile B/C (0.6% R{sub max}) north of the Rough Creek fault zone. Whereas the shale in the latter region is situated within the oil generation window, the higher rank region is past the peak of the level of maturation of the New Albany Shale. The significance of the New Albany reflectancy is dependent on the suppression of vitrinite reflectance in organic-rich shales. The possibility of reflectance suppression would imply that the shales could be more mature than studies have indicated.

Hower, J.C.; Rimmer, S.M.; Williams, D.A.; Beard, J.G. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Glossary Glossary Acquifer - A single underground geological formation, or group of formations, containing water. Antrim Shale - A shale deposit located in the northern Michigan basin that is a Devonian age rock formation lying at a relatively shallow depth of 1,000 feet. Gas has been produced from this formation for several decades primarily via vertical, rather than horizontal, wells. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates the technically recoverable Antrim shale resource at 20 trillion cubic feet (tcf). Appalachian Basin - The geological formations that roughly follow the Appalachian Mountain range and contain

97

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

The Shale Gas Matt Ridley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Shale Gas Shock Matt Ridley Foreword by Freeman Dyson The Global Warming Policy Foundation GWPF Professor Richard Tol Professor Deepak Lal Dr David Whitehouse Professor Harold Lewis #12;The Shale Gas ....................................................................14 Coal-bed methane and tight gas in sandstone................................15 Shale gas

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

100

Coal gas openhole completion well effectiveness in the Piceance Basin, Colorado: Preliminary results, South Shale Ridge [number sign]11-15 well  

SciTech Connect

Since 1983, the Deep Coal Seam Project (DCSP) and the Western Cretaceous Coal Seam Project (WCCSP) of the Gas Research institute has funded research efforts in the Piceance and San Juan basins of Colorado and New Mexico to further the knowledge of all facets of commercial coalbed natural gas reservoir development. Because of WCCSP research into openhole completion well effectiveness in the Fruitland play, and the need to complete a successful Cameo coal openhole well, the South Shale Ridge [number sign]11-15 well was deemed to be an excellent chance for technology transfer and evaluation. Because of implementation of carefully designed air mist drilling and controlled openhole completion techniques, along with a sufficient magnitude of cleat permeability, it appears that the [number sign]11-15 well is commercial. The cavity was installed without major problems. The initial gas production test rate of roughly 280 MCFGPD is one of the best in South Shale Ridge. The [number sign]11-15 well case study is quite important in that it may serve to emphasize the point that the conservative attitude towards commercialization of previously untapped petroleum resources is often not correct. It is now an open question as to whether the conventional wisdom that most of the Cameo coal gas play is too tight to enable commercial production is indeed true, or if by analogy with Fruitland openhole wells, Cameo coal wells that have been hydraulic fracture stimulated are commonly very poorly connected to the cleat permeability of the reservoir. There is no significant reason to believe that the South Shale Ridge area is geologically unique, and thus there is a distinct possibility that more widespread Cameo coal production than has been previously recorded can be achieved.

Close, J.C. (Resource Enterprises, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Dowden, D. (Conquest Oil Co., Greeley, CO (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RIChemistry of Tar Sands and Oil Shale, ACS, New Orleans.Constituent Analysis of Oil Shale and Solvent-Refined Coal

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450 to 700/sup 0/C over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C/sub 1/ to C/sub 8/ hydrocarbons and a reduction in H/sub 2/S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing coal without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

Khan, M.R.

1986-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

104

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

is shale gas? is shale gas? Basically, it is natural gas - primarily methane - found in shale formations, some of which were formed 300-million-to-400-million years ago during the Devonian period of Earth's history. The shales were deposited as fine silt and clay particles at the bottom of relatively enclosed bodies of water. At roughly the same time, primitive plants were forming forests on land and the first amphibians were making an appearance. Some of the methane that formed from the organic matter buried with the sediments escaped into sandy rock layers adjacent to the shales, forming conventional accumulations of natural gas which are relatively easy to extract. But some of it remained locked in the tight, low permeability shale layers, becoming shale gas.

105

Processing needs and methodology for wastewaters from the conversion of coal, oil shale, and biomass to synfuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The workshop identifies needs to be met by processing technology for wastewaters, and evaluates the suitability, approximate costs, and problems associated with current technology. Participation was confined to DOE Environmental Control Technology contractors to pull together and integrate past wastewater-related activities, to assess the status of synfuel wastewater treatability and process options, and to abet technology transfer. Particular attention was paid to probable or possible environmental restrictions which cannot be economically met by present technology. Primary emphasis was focussed upon process-condensate waters from coal-conversion and shale-retorting processes. Due to limited data base and time, the workshop did not deal with transients, upsets, trade-offs and system optimization, or with solids disposal. The report is divided into sections that, respectively, survey the water usage and effluent situation (II); identify the probable and possible water-treatment goals anticipated at the time when large-scale plants will be constructed (III); assess the capabilities, costs and shortcomings of present technology (IV); explore particularly severe environmental-control problems (V); give overall conclusions from the Workshop and recommendations for future research and study (VI); and, finally, present Status Reports of current work from participants in the Workshop (VII).

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt. % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450.degree. to 700.degree. C. over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C.sub.1 -C.sub.8 hydrocarbons and a reduction in H.sub.2 S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing cola without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Projected natural gas prices depend on shale gas resource ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Quarterly Coal Report › Monthly Energy Review › Residential Energy ... Solar › Energy in Brief. What's ... to test the influence of shale gas ...

109

Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

Smith, V.E.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

US-China_Fact_Sheet_Shale_Gas.pdf | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

US-ChinaFactSheetShaleGas.pdf US-ChinaFactSheetShaleGas.pdf US-ChinaFactSheetShaleGas.pdf More Documents & Publications US-ChinaFactSheetCoal.pdf FACT SHEET:...

111

US-China_Fact_Sheet_Shale_Gas.pdf | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ShaleGas.pdf US-ChinaFactSheetShaleGas.pdf US-ChinaFactSheetShaleGas.pdf More Documents & Publications US-ChinaFactSheetCoal.pdf US-ChinaFactSheetElectricVehicles.p...

112

By Terry Engelder and Gary G. Lash UNIVERSITY PARK, PA.The shale gas rush is on. Excitement over natural gas production from a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By Terry Engelder and Gary G. Lash UNIVERSITY PARK, PA.­The shale gas rush is on. Excitement over natural gas production from a number of Devonian-Mississippian black shales such as the Barnett by the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored investigation of gas potential

Engelder, Terry

113

Studies of New Albany shale in western Kentucky. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The New Albany (Upper Devonian) Shale in western Kentucky can be zoned by using correlative characteristics distinguishable on wire-line logs. Wells drilled through the shale which were logged by various methods provided a basis for zonation of the subsurface members and units of the Grassy Creek, Sweetland Creek, and Blocher. Structure and isopach maps and cross sections were prepared. The Hannibal Shale and Rockford Limestone were found in limited areas; isopach maps were not made for these members. Samples of cuttings from selected wells were studied in order to identify the contact of the shale with underlying and overlying rock units. A well-site examination of cuttings through the shale section was conducted, and the presence of natural gas was observed in the field. The New Albany Shale has the potential for additional commercially marketable natural gas production. Exploratory drilling is needed to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the New Albany Shale.

Schwalb, H.R.; Norris, R.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, October--December 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pilot plant studies have now been completed for the processing of Paraho shale oil. Three processing routes are being evaluated: (1) whole shale oil hydrotreating followed by fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) as the major downstream processing step, (2) whole shale oil hydrotreating followed by hydrocracking as the major processing step, (3) coking of the shale oil followed by hydrotreating of the coker distillate as the major downstream processing step. Pilot plant studies show that all three routes are technically feasible. Analyses of the results and process design studies are being completed. The relative merits and economics of each route will be discussed in the final report. SRC is difficult to process compared to most petroleum feeds and to shale oil. Because of its high melting point, it is necessary to dissolve it in an appropriate solvent before it can be hydrotreated in existing fixed bed pilot plant equipment. The first solvent for SRC in these tests was creosote oil; a 50/50 blend was tested. In the first test, ICR 106 catalyst showed little fouling in 330 hours. About half of the 850/sup 0/F + SRC was converted to 850/sup 0/F - distillate; and the nitrogen content was reduced from 1.5% in the SRC/creosote oil blend to 0.2--0.3% in the product. However, after 330 hours on stream, plugging occurred in the catalyst bed. In a second run, 100 hours of operation were achieved without plugging. However, the catalyst deactivation rate was relatively high. Another solvent being tested is the 350--850/sup 0/F product from the SRC/creosote oil hydroprocessing runs. Plugging problems were again encountered using this solvent.

Sullivan, R.F.; Green, D.C.; Chen, H.C.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Documentation and review of Eastern gas shales technology. Annual report, April 1, 1985-February 28, 1986  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report provides coverage on a project (1) to provide technology-transfer support for the Eastern Gas Shales Project Area, promoting the awareness and application of the program products through periodic publication of Eastern Devonian Gas Shales Technology Review and (2) to quantify impacts of technology improvements on shale gas cost-supply relationships, in order to aid in guiding the thrust of GRI's research program.

Skrinak, V.M.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production coal-derived hydrocarbons. Coal is more easily recovered and more widely available than oil shale and

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated April 28, 2004) Spot coal prices in the East rose steadily since Labor Day 2003, with rapid escalations ...

119

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 26) The average spot prices for reported coal purchases rose once again ...

120

The application of improved NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies neural network in Marcellus Shale lithofacies prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic-rich Marcellus Shale was deposited in a foreland basin during Middle Devonian. In terms of mineral composition and organic matter richness, we define seven mudrock lithofacies: three organic-rich lithofacies and four organic-poor lithofacies. ... Keywords: Lithofacies prediction, Marcellus Shale, NEAT, Node location, Organism population size evolution, RCC

Guochang Wang, Guojian Cheng, Timothy R. Carr

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated August 12) According to Platts Coal Outlook’s Weekly Price Survey (August 11), the ...

122

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 2) The average spot prices for coal traded last week were relatively ...

123

Eastern gas shale database development program. Annual report 1 May 1983-30 April 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) Eastern Gas Data System is an interactive information resource developed to provide ready access to substantive data on wells producing from the Devonian shales. The system is a computerized database which contains descriptive and historical geological and engineering data on a large number of Devonian shale gas wells in the Appalachian Basin. The principal purpose of the system is to meet the requirements for technical data of gas producers, researchers and GRI. The data is provided by cooperating industry sources, many of whom were also instrumental in the original definition and design of the system. The information which has been collected and compiled on individual wells includes data on identification, location, elevation, drilling, geology, cementing, perforation, stimulation, cleanup, and production histories. The Eastern Gas Data System currently contains extensive information on over 620 Devonian shale gas wells completed in the Appalachian Basin.

DeVos, D.R.; Hasselback, F.W.; Hoffmann, R.L.; Lerner, B.J.; May, J.E.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated July 7, 2004) In the trading week ended July 2, the average spot coal prices tracked by EIA were mixed.

125

SHALE OIL--THE ELUSIVE ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An early settler in the valley of Parachute Creek in western Colorado built a log cabin, and made the fireplace and chimney out of the easily cut, locally abundant black rock. The pioneer invited a few neighbors to a house warming. As the celebration began, he lit a fire. The fireplace, chimney, and ultimately the whole cabin caught fire, and burned to the ground. The rock was oil shale. It was a sensational house warming! Oil shales are reported to have been set afire by lightning strikes. The Ute Indians of northwestern Colorado told stories of "mountains that burned. " Cowboys and ranchers of the region burned the dark rock in their fires, like coal. The flammable nature of the richer oil shales is basis for the title of a fascinating book by H. K. Savage (1967), The Rock That Burns. During oil shale enthusiasms in the early part of this century, stock promoters brought pieces of oil shale to Chicago street corners and set them afire. Clouds of smoke attracted crowds, and the promoters sold stock in oil shale companies. Nature of oil shale. Shale oil comes from oil shale, but oil shale is a misnomer. It is neither a true shale nor does it generally have any oil in it. It is better identified as organic marlstone, marl being a mixture of clay and calcium carbonate. The organic material is kerogen, derived from myriad organisms, chiefly plants. Savage (1967) notes the term "oil shale " is a promotional term: "The magic word 'oil ' would raise large sums of promotion money while organic marlstone wouldn't raise a dime." The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines oil shale as "organic-rich shale that yields substantial quantities of oil by conventional methods of destructive distillation of the contained organic matter, which employ low confining pressures in a closed retort system. " (Duncan and HC#98/4-1-1

M. King; Hubbert Center; Walter Youngquist

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

First, in an overview, we outline and discuss the potential applications of solar energy to the production of fuels. We show that, starting from a fossil feedstock, there are four areas in which solar energy can have a major impact in the production of fuels: in solar retorting of oil shale, in solar coal gasification, in solar steam flooding of oil fields, and in solar steam-reforming of methane. We performed a detailed technical and economic analysis of solar retorting of oil shale. The analysis shows that this solar process not only should be technically feasible but also should improve the fuel yield from the oil-shale feedstock by 10 to 40%, depending on the grade of the shale, compared to the most efficient competing (nonsolar) process. The improved oil yield should more than pay for the incremental cost associated with adding the solar collection system (field of focusing heliostats). The results from an experiment in which solar energy was used to retort oil shale show that yields of better than 110% Fischer Assay are achievable. An advanced design for a solar oil-shale retort is also presented.

Gregg, D.W.; Taylor, R.W.; Grens, J.Z.; Aiman, W.R.; Marsh, L.E.

1980-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Deep, water-free gas potential is upside to New Albany shale play  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The New Albany shale of the Illinois basin contains major accumulations of Devonian shale gas, comparable both to the Antrim shale of the Michigan basin and the Ohio shale of the Appalachian basin. The size of the resource originally assessed at 61 tcf has recently been increased to between 323 tcf and 528 tcf. According to the 1995 US Geological Survey appraisal, New Albany shale gas represents 52% of the undiscovered oil and gas reserves of the Illinois basin, with another 45% attributed to coalbed methane. New Albany shale gas has been developed episodically for over 140 years, resulting in production from some 40 fields in western Kentucky, 20 fields in southern Indiana, and at least 1 field in southern Illinois. The paper describes two different plays identified by a GRI study and prospective areas.

Hamilton-Smith, T. [Hamilton-Smith LLC, Lexington, KY (United States)

1998-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

128

Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

Smith, V.E.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

FACTORS AFFECTING HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED WELL PERFORMANCE IN THE MARCELLUS SHALE GAS RESERVOIRS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Unconventional reservoirs such as shale, hydrates, tight sand, ultra tight sand and coal bed methane reservoirs serves as alternative sources to meet the increasing demand… (more)

Osholake, Tunde

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Synthetic fuels from US oil shales: a technical and economic verification of the HYTORT process. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to fully demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the HYTORT process concept as it applies to both Eocene and Devonian shales. Achievement of this objective will significantly widen the nation's synthetic fuels resource base by adding a new resource - Devonian shale - to the list of possible feedstocks for a synthetic fuels industry. It will also establish a high-efficiency alternative to conventional retorting of Western oil shales. Research at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has led to the development of the HYTORT process concept, which can be applied to the resources of Devonian shales of the Eastern United States as well as to Western shales, to produce oil or combustible gas at costs competitive with or less than those for retorting of Colorado shales. The HYTORT process concept has been successfully scaled up through small-scale laboratory equipment, a bench-scale unit capable of processing 100 pounds of shale per hour, and a Process Development Unit (PDU) with a shale capacity of 1 ton/hr. In addition, preliminary process design and economic analysis work shows that the HYTORT process exhibits attractive efficiency and economics.

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Evaluation of the eastern gas shales in Pennsylvania  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To evaluate the potential of the Devonian shale as a source of natural gas, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP). The EGSP is designed not only to identify the resource, but also to test improved methods of inducing permeability to facilitate gas drainage, collection, and production. The ultimate goal of this project is to increase the production of gas from the eastern shales through advanced exploration and exploitation techniques. The purpose of this report is to inform the general public and interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in Pennsylvania. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies  

SciTech Connect

The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

New basins invigorate U.S. gas shales play  

SciTech Connect

While actually the first and oldest of unconventional gas plays, gas shales have lagged the other main unconventional gas resources--tight gas and coalbed methane--in production and proved reserves. Recently, however, with active drilling of the Antrim shales in Michigan and promising results from the Barnett shales of North Texas, this gas play is growing in importance. While once thought of as only an Appalachian basin Devonian-age Ohio shales play and the exclusive domain of regional independents, development of gas shales has expanded to new basins and has began to attract larger E and P firms. Companies such as Amoco, Chevron, and Shell in the Michigan basin and Mitchell Energy and Development and Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in the Fort Worth basin are aggressively pursuing this gas resource. This report, the third of a four part series assessing unconventional gas development in the US, examines the state of the gas shales industry following the 1992 expiration of the Sec. 29 Nonconventional Fuels Tax Credit. The main questions being addressed are first, to what extent are these gas sources viable without the tax credit, and second, what advances in understanding of these reservoirs and what progress in extraction technologies have changed the outlook for this large but complex gas resource?

Reeves, S.R.; Kuuskraa, V.A. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Hill, D.G. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

134

Subject is oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The article reviews the current financial, legislative and regulatory problems of oil shale development. 2 refs.

Due, M.J.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

gas and billion barrels (Bbbl) of shale oil for each major shale formation. Risked Recoverable Gas and Oil, reported in trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of shale gas and

136

Published on Aspen Daily News Online (http://www.aspendailynews.com) Report finds oil shale could impact Colorado's water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Development (116.4) (30.6) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserve (2.1) (2.1) Clean Coal Technology (18.0) (18

Neff, Jason

137

Study of gas evolution during oil shale pyrolysis by TQMS (triple quadrupole mass spectrometer)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Real-time gas evolution during pyrolysis of two Green River Formation (Colorado) oil shales, one eastern US Devonian shale, and two Chinese shales was monitored using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS). We calculated kinetic parameters for hydrocarbon generation. For water, carbon oxides, and sulfur gases, we compared evolution profiles and identified the organicinorganic precursors of each species. We also monitored nitrogen- and sulfur-containing naphtha components. Hydrocarbon gas profiles, except for CH/sub 4/, are similar for all shales, and their rates of evolution reach a maximum at around the temperatures of maximum oil evolutions. The evolution profiles for H/sub 2/, CH/sub 2/, CO, and CO/sub 2/, at high temperatures are affected by the amount of char remaining in shale, carbonate minerals, and the water-gas shift reaction. The water profile, in general, consists of waters from surface dehydration, kerogen pyrolysis, and mineral dehydration. Mineral dehydration was the dominant water source for all shales, but the temperature ranges for the major water peak varied because of widely different mineral composition. Chinese shales evolved much more water than U.S. shales. Major differences between shales were seen in the sulfur gases. 17 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Oh, M.S.; Coburn, T.T.; Crawford, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

In situ noncombustive microwave processing of oil shale. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A unified analytical examination of the products of microwave oil shale has been completed. A sample of subituminous Colorado coal was also included. Analysis systems have been planned, constructed and placed into operation so as to provide a definitive profile of the composition of gases, oil, and water released by the microwave heated oil shale and coal samples. In a previous NSF study, it was reported that microwave retorted oil shale produced large quantities of high BTU content gas. In the data presented in this report, using a modular microcoulometric analysis system, a definitive profile of the composition of the gases, oil, and water, released by the microwave retorted oil shale and coal show that the previous results are confirmed.

Wall, E.T.

1979-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

140

Synthetic fuels from US oil shales: a technical and economic verification of the HYTORT Process. Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the HYTORT process for both Eocene and Devonian shales. The program is divided into five major task areas: laboratory program, bench-scale program, process development unit tests, process environmental assessment, and process design and economics. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature, type of shale and oil content of shale iscontent of the shale, and shale oil content of the rock cantemperatures. Lean and Rich Shale Oil shales vary in their

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Geological controls on natural gas production in the Antrim Shale of the Michigan basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Antrim Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) is a prolific natural gas reservoir with distinctive source rock and reservoir characteristics. The Antrim is composed of two distinctive lithofacies: a black shale lithofacies having total organic carbon (TOC) values as high as 12% and a gray-green shale lithofacies having TOC values generally below 0.5 %. The black shale facies is the primary source bed and reservoir for natural gas. Based on Rock-Eval data the kerogen in the Antrim Shale is only marginally mature with respect to generation of liquid hydrocarbons. This in the range of 435{degree}C, vitrinite reflectance values are 0.41, and thermal alteration index (TAI) is 2. These data indicate a maximum burial temperature of approximately 60{degree}C in Otsego County, Michigan, the main play area. Although the thermal maturation level in this area is very low, the gas produced from the Antrim is internally sourced and thermogenic; this interpretation is based on the presence of trace amounts of high-gravity oil and a thermogenic isotopic signature of produced gas samples. The black shale facies in the Antrim contains significant authigenic silica and is more susceptible to fracturing compared to the carbonate-cemented gray-green shales facies. Extremely low gas permeability values (0.1 md) indicates that fractures serve as conduits for delivery of gas to the borehole. Most of the gas must be stored in the shale matrix porosity because total gas volume produced far exceeds fracture reservoir volume.

Dellapenna, T.M. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Coal & Power Systems Strategic Plan & Multi-Year Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

produce transportation fuels, chemicals, and feedstocks from coal, natural gas, oil shale, biomass, and other carbonaceous resources. Technologies to produce hydrogen will...

144

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Confined core pillar design for Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The design of oil shale pillars, using the confined core concept, depends on the engineering properties of intact rock specimens, as modified by observed pillar failures. Over-stressed oil shale pillars and test specimens typically begin to fail through intact rock. However, ultimate disintegration probably occurs as shale-on-shale sliding along initial failure surfaces. The general absence of adversely oriented, natural fractures makes oil shale a favorable pillar material. Probably the weakest structures in the oil shale (not considering the leached zone) are the interfaces between the rich and lean beds; however, these weaknesses would not present an avenue for potential failure. Therefore, pillar design, based on failures through adversely oriented joints, is not generally applicable for oil shale. Empirical pillar design, based only on data obtained from a large number of observed pillar failures, is not possible for oil shale at this time. Also, pillar design, based on data obtained from coal mining experience, is not considered to be accurate due to the geologically dissimilar properties of oil shale. The confined core pillar design is presented as adapted from Wilson (1972). Also included are example pillar design problems.

Abel, J.F. Jr. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden); Hoskins, W.N.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Oil shale commercialization study  

SciTech Connect

Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

Warner, M.M.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Short-term microbial testing of shale oil materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Paraho/Sohio Shale Oil was found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay when assayed with the frameshift strain TA98 and incorporating metabolic activation with rat liver homogenates (Aroclor induced S-9). The mutagenic activity was contributed by the organic constituents of the basic and the neutral fractions. Hydrotreatment of the shale oil abolished the mutagenic activity. Results obtained in the yeast assay supported these observations. Refined oil samples from Paraho/Sohio refinery were not mutagenic. The samples rank for their mutagenic activity as coal oils > shale oil > natural petroleum crudes.

Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following active tasks: Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 8. project management and reporting; and Task 9. information required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, is working with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program quarter from June 1, 1992 through August 31, 1992.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Synthesis of organic geochemical data from the Eastern Gas Shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over 2400 core and cuttings samples of Upper Devonian shales from wells in the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan Basins have been characterized by organic geochemical methods to provide a basis for accelerating the exploitation of this unconventional, gas-rich resource. This work was part of a program initiated to provide industry with criteria for locating the best areas for future drilling and for the development of stimulation methods that will make recovery of the resource economically attractive. The geochemical assessment shows that the shale, in much of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan Basins is source rock that is capable of generating enormous quantities of gas. In some areas the shales are also capable of generating large quantities of oil as well. The limiting factors preventing these sources from realizing most of their potential are their very low permeabilities and the paucity of potential reservoir rocks. This geochemical data synthesis gives direction to future selection of sites for stimulation research projects in the Appalachian Basin by pinpointing those areas where the greatest volumes of gas are contained in the shale matrix. Another accomplishment of the geochemical data synthesis is a new estimate of the total resource of the Appalachian Basin. The new estimate of 2500 TCF is 25 percent greater than the highest previous estimates. This gives greater incentive to government and industry to continue the search for improved stimulation methods, as well as for improved methods for locating the sites where those improved stimulation methods can be most effectively applied.

Zielinski, R. E.; McIver, R. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Germany 51 254 700 ... June 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources 18

151

Shale Gas Hydraulic Fracturing in the Dutch Posidonia Shale:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recently the oil and gas industry is looking at the Posidonia shale in the Dutch subsurface for production of the unconventional shale gas. This is… (more)

Janzen, M.R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Results of oil-shale investigations in northeastern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of this oil-shale investigation has been on specific localities of oil-shale resource potential. Three main areas of oil-shale occurrence have been studied in detail: the Elko area, Pinon Range area, and Coal Mine Canyon. Geologic mapping, stratigraphic studies, and sampling to delimit the lateral extent of the oil shale deposits were in progress prior to the cooperative agreement with Nevada DOE. These surface geologic studies have been summarized in this report. The results of surface geologic studies conducted near Elko suggested that the Elko area represented the best and most accessible oil-shale deposits; therefore, the Elko area was selected as the site of a shallow exploratory drilling program. Essential to this study was the obtaining of fresh, unweathered oil-shale samples from the Elko area. The samples were obtained from the core-drilling program and tested for oil yield by Fischer assays. The oil yields determined from these samples, together with the geology have provided an improved basis for resource estimates for the oil-shale deposit at Elko. In addition to the more detailed field studies, a literature survey was conducted to develop a bibliography related to oil shale in Nevada and to use as a basis for identifying other oil-shale occurrences. The literature search was also extended to include information on petroleum source rocks that contain organic-rich shales with possible potential as additional oil-shale resources. The annotated bibliography is included in the appendix. 88 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Moore, S.W.; Madrid, H.B.; Server, G.T. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Engineering performance of Bringelly shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??SYNOPSIS This thesis is concerned with the general and fundamental engineering characterisation of a geological formation within Wianamatta group, known as Bringelly shale. Bringelly shale… (more)

William, Ezzat

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Oil shale data book  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Shale Data Book has been prepared as a part of its work under DOE Management Support and Systems Engineering for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves Predevelopment Plan. The contract calls for the preparation of a Master Development Plan for the Reserves which comprise some 145,000 acres of oil shale lands in Colorado and Utah. The task of defining the development potential of the Reserves required that the resources of the Reserves be well defined, and the shale oil recovery technologies that are potentially compatible with this resource be cataloged. Additionally, processes associated with shale oil recovery like mining, materials handling, beneficiation, upgrading and spent shale disposal have also been cataloged. This book, therefore, provides a ready reference for evaluation of appropriate recovery technologies and associated processes, and should prove to be valuable for many oil shale activities. Technologies that are still in the process of development, like retorting, have been treated in greater detail than those that are commercially mature. Examples of the latter are ore crushing, certain gas clean-up systems, and pipeline transportation. Emphasis has been on documenting available design information such as, maximum module size, operation conditions, yields, utility requirements, outlet gas compositions, shale oil characteristics, etc. Cost information has also been included where available.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Process of treating oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process of destructively distilling oil shale is described consisting in subjecting the oil shale containing aluminum to the action of heat and pressure to destructively distill it and separate the light oil constituents. Chlorine gas is simultaneously passed through the hot oil shale countercurrent to the direction of movement of the oil shale.

Egloff, G.

1927-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

156

Refining of shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The refining of shale oil is reviewed to assess the current state-of-the-art, especially as to the avaiability of technology suitable for operation on a commercial scale. Oil shale retorting processes as they affect the quality of the crude shale oil for refining, exploratory research on the character and refining of shale oil, and other published refining background leading to the present status are discussed. The initial refining of shale oil requires the removal of a large concentration of nitrogen, an added step not required for typical petroleum crude oils, and recently published estimates show that the total cost of refining will be high. Specific technoloy is reported by industry to be technically proven and available for commercial-scale refining. Although the refining will be more costly than that of petroleum, the viability of a shale oil industry will also be affected greatly by the technology and costs of producing the crude shale oil, environmental costs, and future price and tax treatment, and these are outside the scope of this study of refining.

Lanning, W.C.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Shale Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Water Resource Challenges Water Resource Challenges From Energy Production Major Types of Power Generation in SRB - Total 15,300 Megawatts - 37.5% 4.0% 12.0% 15.5% 31.0% Nuclear Coal Natural Gas Hydroelectric Other Marcellus Shale Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin The Basin: * 27,510-square-mile watershed * Comprises 43 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed * 4.2 million population * 60 percent forested * 32,000+ miles of waterways The Susquehanna River: * 444 miles, largest tributary to the Chesapeake Bay * Supplies 18 million gallons a minute to the Bay Susquehanna River Basin Geographic Location of Marcellus Shale within Susq. River Basin 72% of Basin (20,000 Sq. Miles) Underlain by Marcellus Shale Approximate Amount of Natural Gas in Marcellus Shale * U.S. currently produces approx. 30 trillion

158

Oil shale of the Uinta Basin, northeastern Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Tertiary rocks, which occupy the interior of the Uinta basin, have been subdivided into four formations: Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Uinta. The division is based on stratigraphic and paleontologic evidence. Hydrocarbon materials have been found in all four formations, although bedded deposits (asphaltic sandstone and oil shale) are known only in the Wasatch and Green River. Veins of gilsonite, elaterite, ozocerite, and other related hydrocarbons cut all the Tertiary formation of the Uinta basin. Good oil shale (Uinta basin of Utah) is black or brownish black except on weathered surfaces, where it is blue-white or white. It is fine grained, slightly calcareous, and usually free from grit. It is tough and in thin-bedded deposits remarkably flexible. Although oil shale consists of thin laminae, this is not apparent in some specimens until after the rock has been heated and the oil driven off. Freshly broken oil shale gives off a peculiar odor similar to that of crude petroleum. Oil shale contains a large amount of carbonaceous matter (largely remains of lower plants, including algae), which is the source of the distillation products. Thin splinters of oil shale will burn with a very sooty flame and give off an asphaltic odor. Lean specimens of oil shale have a higher specific gravity than rich specimens and are generally heavier than coal.

Winchester, D.E.

1918-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during oil shale retorting: retort water and gas condensate.commercial oil shale plant, retort water and gas condensateunique to an oil shale retort water, gas condensate, and

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Challenges associated with shale gas production | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Challenges associated with shale gas production Challenges associated with shale gas production What challenges are associated with shale gas production? More Documents &...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Shale Gas Glossary | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Glossary Shale Gas Glossary Shale Gas Glossary Energy.gov Careers & Internships...

162

Shale gas - what happened? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale gas - what happened? Shale gas - what happened? It seems like shale gas came out of...

163

Chattanooga Shale conference  

SciTech Connect

Seven papers are included, relating to the exploitation of the uranium contained in shales. One of these papers discusses the IGT Hytort process, and was previously abstracted. Separate abstracts were prepared for the remaining six papers. (DLC)

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Shale oil: process choices  

SciTech Connect

The four broad categories of shale-oil processing are discussed. All of these processes share the basic function of retorting oil-shale rock at high temperature so that the kerogen material in the rocks is thermally decomposed to shale oil and gaseous products. The technologies and the organizations working on their development are: solids-to-solids heating, The Oil Shale Co. (TOSCO) and Lurgi-Rhur; gas-to-solids heating with internal gas combustion, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Development Engineering Inc. and Union Oil of California; gas-to-solid heating with external heat generation, Development Engineering, Union Oil, Petrobas, and Institute of Gas Technology; and in-situ retorting, Occidental Petroleum Corp. The TOSCO II process is considered proven and on the verge of commercialization. (BLM)

1974-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

165

Slate, Shale & Mudstone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

100 gallons per ton. In western Colorado and eastern Utah there are mountains of oil shale. A process for extracting the oil is being developed and those colossal deposits...

166

Microporomechanical modeling of shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale, a common type of sedimentary rock of significance to petroleum and reservoir engineering, has recently emerged as a crucial component in the design of sustainable carbon and nuclear waste storage solutions and as a ...

Ortega, J. Alberto (Jose Alberta Ortega Andrade)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Stimulation rationale for shale gas wells: a state-of-the-art report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the large quantities of gas contained in the Devonian Shales, only a small percentage can be produced commercially by current production methods. This limited production derives both from the unique reservoir properties of the Devonian Shales and the lack of stimulation technologies specifically designed for a shale reservoir. Since October 1978 Science Applications, Inc. has been conducting a review and evaluation of various shale well stimulation techniques with the objective of defining a rationale for selecting certain treatments given certain reservoir conditions. Although this review and evaluation is ongoing and much more data will be required before a definitive rationale can be presented, the studies to date do allow for many preliminary observations and recommendations. For the hydraulic type treatments the use of low-residual-fluid treatments is highly recommended. The excellent shale well production which is frequently observed with only moderate wellbore enlargement treatments indicates that attempts to extend fractures to greater distances with massive hydraulic treatments are not warranted. Immediate research efforts should be concentrated upon limiting production damage by fracturing fluids retained in the formation, and upon improving proppant transport and placement so as to maximize fracture conductivity. Recent laboratory, numerical modeling and field studies all indicate that the gas fracturing effects of explosive/propellant type treatments are the predominate production enhancement mechanism and that these effects can be controlled and optimized with properly designed charges. Future research efforts should be focused upon the understanding, prediction and control of wellbore fracturing with tailored-pulse-loading charges. 36 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

Young, C.; Barbour, T.; Blanton, T.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

products, percent: Oil Gas Spent Shale TOTAL Average tracecontent of the gases for the lean shale exceeded that for

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

January 20, 2011 Marcellus Shale 101  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Will oil shale be viable as well? Oil shale will not be economically viable anytime in the near future

Hardy, Christopher R.

170

Converting Chattanooga oil shale to synthetic liquid fuel. Phase I. Final report. [Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Chattanooga Shale is widely distributed in Tennessee and has been known as a potential source of shale oil and strategic minerals, particularly uranium, for many years. It was studied in the late 1940's as a source of uranium. The shale varies in color from light gray to black. The shale is of the Devonian Age and occurs under the Maury formation and above the Leipers limestone. It exists as the Gassaway and Dowelltown members. Generally, the combined thickness of these two members in the seven-county study ranged in thickness from about 26 feet to greater than 34 feet. The overall intent of this study was to identify the extent of the Chattanooga shale in Tennessee, characterize its properties, review its potential as an oil producer in terms of present-day technologies, and to assess interest in the private sector for development and commercialization. This report contains the results of this six-month study. 28 figures, 58 tables.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales. Progress report, October--December 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, initiated in October 1987 is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with seven other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, the University of Nevada, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the fifth program quarter from October 1 through December 31, 1988.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M. [and others

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, July--September 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with six other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the fourth program quarter from July 1 through September 30, 1988.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M.; Akin, C.; Roberts, M.J.; Findlay, J.G.; Mensinger, M.C.; Chang, I.H.; Xiong, T.Y.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales. Progress report, July--September 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, initiated in October 1987 is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with seven other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, the University of Nevada, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the eighth program quarter from July 1 through September 30, 1989.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M. [and others

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Market assessment for shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

Not Available

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1978) Richardson, F.W. Oil from Coal, Chemical TechnologyStatus of Coal and Oil Shale Conversion, University of Utah,of increasing the yield of oil like products. In contrast,

Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Nondestructive analysis of oil shales with PGNAA technique  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8% to 3.4% hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: non-moderated neutrons; non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source; neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source; and neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAI for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water.

Maly, J.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Shale oil is braced for a big role  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in the development of the oil shale industry is examined. A review of experimental work by Occidental Shale Oil, Inc. shows that the company is preparing retorts no. 7 and no. 8 to be fired simultaneously - then the next step is a full-scale 55,000-bpd plant the company plans to start up in the mid-1980s. Estimates of the costs of shale oil production vary, but it will probably cost $10 to $15 per barrel less than synthetic fuel made from coal. The large number of plants that will be required to produce a significant amount of oil may inhibit the development of the industry. There are an estimated 28 trillion barrels of oil locked up in US shale deposits in at least 13 states. Most of this is too lean for economic recovery, but in a 17,000-square-mile area at the intersection of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming lie the world's largest known deposits of shale containing more than 25 gallons of oil per ton. The modified in-situ processing of oil shale developed by Occidental, its financial aspects, and the commerical viability of the process are discussed. Competing technologies are noted. Environmental impact - perhaps the greatest unknown - is discussed briefly, as is the marky problem of water rights and the necessary political trade-offs. (MCW)

Nulty, P.

1979-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

178

Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Process for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

180

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Shale gas in the southern central area of New York State. Volume III. Experience of drilling five shale-gas wells in New York State  

SciTech Connect

Five shale-gas wells have been located and drilled in the South-Central areas of New York State as part of this program. The program was undertaken by Arlington Exploration Company (AEC) during 1981 and 1982. The wells were drilled on educational properties in an attempt to demonstrate the economic prospect of natural gas for institutional and small commercial consumers to develop their own source of energy. All five wells were completed in the Marcellus section of the Devonian shale. Each of the five wells was connected to an appropriate heat load for the purpose of production testing. The project supports the theory that a well drilled anywhere in South-Central New York and completed in the Marcellus Shale using modern fracturing techniques (i.e. nitrogen foam) is likely to produce some gas. Important factors not yet predictable are the decline rate of Marcellus production and the volume of recoverable reserves. Depths to the Marcellus Shale generally increase from north (i.e. Houghton College) to south (i.e. Portville Central School).

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Marcellus Shale Educational Webinar Series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Marcellus Shale Litigation and Legislation December 17, 2009 7 . Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Law1 Marcellus Shale Educational Webinar Series October 2009 - March 2010 Penn State Cooperative Extension #12;2 Marcellus Shale Webinar Series Planning Committee · Members ­ Mark Douglass, Jefferson

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

183

Shale Play Industry Transportation Challenges,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­ High volume commodi-es flows in and out of shale plays · Sand In....Oil in excess of 50 MMT/Yr. · Life of current Shale Oil & Gas explora-on trend ­ 2012) #12;Shale Play Oil Industry A Look at the Baaken · 2-3 Unit Trains

Minnesota, University of

184

Oil shale: Technology status report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

MARCELLUS SHALE APRIL 2011 EDITION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CWIA-MS MARCELLUS SHALE APRIL 2011 EDITION Each of the following sections is a quick snapshot of labor market information for Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale (MS) industries and related economic related to the Marcellus Shale industry. While several data sources are utilized in this document

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

186

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

situ oil shale combustion experiment con- A gas chro- Thisspent shales were waters were studied, retort water and gasof retort waters and gas condensate. Spent shale reduces the

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surface spent shale, and grout production from treateda grout from spent shale--grout production fromraw shale, grout production from as-

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. of Decomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II. LivermoreEffects Lawrence of Steam on Oil Shale Retorting: Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermore Laboratoryb) using columns of spent shale. REFERENCES Burnham, Alankinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effect

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermoreof Colorado Oil Shale: II. Livermore Laboratory Report No.Effects Lawrence of Steam on Oil Shale Retorting: Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of 375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?{sub Sr}{sup SW} = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?{sub Sr}{sup SW} is the deviation of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10{sup 4}); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Kirby, Carl S.; Hammack, Richard W.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Edenborn, Harry M.

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ?375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?Sr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?Sr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

Elizabeth C. Chapman,† Rosemary C. Capo,† Brian W. Stewart,*,† Carl S. Kirby,‡ Richard W. Hammack,§ Karl T. Schroeder,§ and Harry M. Edenborn

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

193

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Annual report, June 1991--May 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Misra, M. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States); Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

Hamilton-Smith, T. [Applied Earth Science, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas...

196

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions...

197

Assessment of solid-waste characteristics and control technology for oil-shale retorting. Final report for September 1983-February 1985  

SciTech Connect

The report presents information on oil-shale deposits in the eastern and western parts of the United States, their geological subdivisions, locations, tonnage, and physical and chemical characteristics. Characteristics of solid and liquid wastes produced from various oil-shale-processing technologies and control methods are presented. Also included are results from an experimental study to construct liners and covers for disposal of spent shale. A compilation of available data on the auto-ignition potential of raw and spent shales indicates a similarity between raw-shale fines and bituminous coals.

Agarwal, A.K.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

200

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are described for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber. In the second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, D.W.

1981-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

202

Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian stratigraphy of Northwestern Montana: a petroleum system approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian stratigraphy in the Antler foreland basin of northwestern Montana is the current focus of exploration for several petroleum companies.… (more)

Schietinger, Paul S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Influence of chemical characterization of oil shale solids on understanding water quality impacts  

SciTech Connect

Synfuels technologies will yield products and effluents that are a function of the raw material being processed and the process variables. Chemical and mineralogic characterization of solids generated in synfuels production provide valuable insight into health and environmental impacts associated with synfuels processing (coal liquefaction or gasification and shale oil extraction). This report deals with considerations relating to leachate generation from solid wastes, but the suggested research approach is applicable to understanding the nature and extent of all effluents from synfuels operations. Solid characterization studies of one raw shale core and two spent shale cores from Occidental Oil Shale, Inc.'s Logan Wash site are described. These data are used to determine the effect of processing on the shale solids and also to evaluate a variety of water quality issues associated with in situ processing. The importance of solid characterization studies in developing an understanding of effluent composition and behavior and subsequently defining environmental impacts is described.

Peterson, E.J.; Wagner, P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: shale oil recovery application  

SciTech Connect

The US has large shale oil energy resources, and many companies have undertaken considerable effort to develop economical means to extract this oil within environmental constraints. The recoverable shale oil reserves in the US amount to 160 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/ (1000 x 10/sup 9/ bbl) and are second in quantity only to coal. This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to a shale oil recovery process. Since the highest potential shale oil reserves lie in th Piceance Basin of Western Colorado, the study centers on exploiting shale oil in this region.

Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the grout. SPENT SHALE Oil shale, which is a low-gradeMineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. of Decomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II. Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012 1 Copyright 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012 1 Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Reservoir Modelling of Oil and Gas Producing Shale Reservoirs; Case Studies, Int. J. Oil, Gas, and Coal

Mohaghegh, Shahab

207

Flash pyrolysis of oil shale with various gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The flash pyrolysis of Colorado Oil Shale with methane at a temperature of 800/sup 0/C and pressure of 500 psi appears to give the highest yield of hydrocarbon gas and liquid followed by hydrogen and lowest with helium. In the methane pyrolysis over 54.5% of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to ethylene and benzene. The flash pyrolysis with hydrogen (flash hydropyrolysis) of the oil shale at increasing temperatures showed a rapidly increasing amount of methane formed and a decrease in ethane formation, while the BTX (benzene mainly) yield remained at approximately 10%. At 950/sup 0/C and 500 psi almost all (97.0%) of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Experiments with a mixture of a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal and oil shale under flash hydropyrolysis and methane pyrolysis conditions indicated higher yields of methane and ethylene and slightly lower yields of benzene than predicted by partial additive calculations. These exploratory experiments appear to be of sufficient interest to warrant a fuller investigation of the interaction of the natural resources, oil shale, coal and natural gas under flash pyrolysis conditions.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Method of operating an oil shale kiln  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

Reeves, Adam A. (Rifle, CO)

1978-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

209

The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

Gary, J.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States June 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 June 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources 1 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or

211

Market assessment for shale oil  

SciTech Connect

This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Gas sales starting from Indiana`s fractured New Albany shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil and Gas issued 138 drilling permits from Dec. 1, 1994, through July 31, 1996, in 17 counties in a growing play for gas in Devonian New Albany shale in southern Indiana. The permits are active in the form of locations, drilling wells, wells in the completion process, and wells producing gas in the dewatering stage. Geologically in southwestern Indiana the New Albany shale exploration play is found in three provinces. These are the Wabash platform, the Terre Haute reef bank, and the Vincennes basin. Exploration permits issued on each of these geologic provinces are as follows: Wabash platform 103, Terra Haute reef bank 33, and Vincennes basin two. The authors feel that the quantity and effectiveness of communication of fracturing in the shale will control gas production and water production. A rule of thumb in a desorption reservoir is that the more water a shale well makes in the beginning the more gas it will make when dewatered.

Minihan, E.D.; Buzzard, R.D. [Minihan/Buzzard Consulting Geologists, Fort Worth, TX (United States)

1996-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

213

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Final report, June 1992--January 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in September 1987 by the US Department of Energy was to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program was divided into the following active tasks: Task 3 -- Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4 -- Beneficiation Research; Task 6 -- Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; and Task 9 -- Information Required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, tho Institute of Gas Technology (ICT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed by IGT from June 1, 1992 through January 31, 1993.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Erekson, E.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W.; Hatcher, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, June--August, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following active tasks: Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 8. project management and reporting; and Task 9. information required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, is working with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program quarter from June 1, 1992 through August 31, 1992.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

104 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2011 Copyright 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approach in modelling and simulation of shale gas reservoirs: application to New Albany Shale', Int. J. Oil104 Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. A new practical approach in modelling and simulation of shale gas reservoirs: application

Mohaghegh, Shahab

216

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Development Challenges -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Air Key Points: * Air quality risks from shale oil and gas development are generally the result of: (1) dust and engine exhaust from increased truck traffic; (2) emissions from diesel-powered pumps used to power equipment; (3) intentional flaring or venting of gas for operational reasons; and, (4) unintentional emissions of pollutants from faulty equipment or impoundments. 1 * Natural gas is efficient and clean compared to other fossil fuels, emitting less nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide than coal and oil, no mercury and very few particulates. However, the drilling

217

Petrographic observations suggestive of microbial mats from Rampur Shale and Bijaigarh Shale,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petrographic observations suggestive of microbial mats from Rampur Shale and Bijaigarh Shale observations of two Vindhyan black shales (Rampur Shale of the Semri Group and Bijaigarh Shale of the Kaimur an attempt has been made to highlight possible microbial mat features from two black shale horizons (Rampur

Schieber, Juergen

218

Materials science aspects of coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural organic materials are arrangements of linear aliphatic units and ring-like aromatic units arranged in a polymeric pattern. We show that fossilized organic materials such as coals and oil shale retain this polymeric character. We also show the polymeric nature of jet and amber

Charles Wert; Manfred Weller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

220

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

proved natural gas reserves (3) 2013 EIA/ARI unproved wet shale gas technically recoverable resources (TRR) 2012 USGS conventional unproved wet natural gas TRR,

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221

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Development...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Act) and numerous state and local environmental and public health laws apply to shale gas and other unconventional oil and gas development. Consequently, the fracturing...

222

Shale oil recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

AVESTAR® - Shale Gas Processing (SGP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shale Gas Processing (SGP) Shale Gas Processing (SGP) SPG The shale gas revolution is transforming America's energy landscape and economy. The shale gas boom, including the Marcellus play in Appalachia, is driving job creation and investment in the energy sector and is also helping to revive other struggling sectors of the economy like manufacturing. Continued growth in domestic shale gas processing requires that energy companies maximize the efficiency and profitability from their operations through excellent control and drive maximum business value from all their plant assets, all while reducing negative environmental impact and improving safety. Changing demographics and rapidly evolving plant automation and control technologies also necessitate training and empowering the next-generation of shale gas process engineering and

224

Syncrude from eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to make resource assessment, mining and process economic evaluations of oil shale in Lewis and Fleming Counties, Kentucky. Two surface retorting processes, Paraho and HYTORT, were selected and the process and economic analyses were made for a 30,000 tons/day oil shale retorting facility. This work presents the results of this eastern oil shale feasibility study. 3 refs.

Vyas, K.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydraulic cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p.J. W. , "Colorado's primary oil shale resource for verticalJ. B. , "Simulated effects of oil-shale development on the

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

What is shale gas? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home What is shale gas? What is shale gas? What is shale gas? Energy.gov Careers & Internships Science &...

227

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydraulic cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p.J. W. , "Colorado's primary oil shale resource for verticalSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p. 54S,Colorado's primary oil shale resource for vertical modifiedSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Case Study: Shale Bings in Central  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and oil shale was widespread. The extraction of oil from shales began in the 1850s and developed within the region that the oil-shale bings constitute one of the eight main habi- tats in West Lothian

235

Australian Shale Gas Assessment Project Reza Rezaee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Australian Shale Gas Assessment Project Reza Rezaee Unconventional Gas Research Group, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Curtin University, Australia Shale gas is becoming an important source feet (Tcf) of technically recoverable shale gas resources. Western Australia (WA) alone

236

Microstructure Study on Barnett Shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents the discussion of the microstructure of the Barnett Shale as studied using the combined technology of the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) and… (more)

Chen, Di

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Oil shale technical data handbook  

SciTech Connect

This is a reference book to provide information for the evaluation of appropriate technology for shale oil development. The oil resource is defined, and the properties of shale and the oil and gas derived from it are listed. Recovery technologies compatible with the particular resource are also described. Discussion of various aspects of shale oil development, such as mining, materials handling, beneficiation, upgrading, waste-water treatment, and spent shale disposal, are also presented. Available design information dealing with maximum module size, operating conditions, yields, utility requirements, etc. is documented. (BLM)

Nowacki, P. (ed.)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Production analysis of Marcellus Shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the production potential of Marcellus shale using actual field data. By using real field production data for… (more)

Belyadi, Hossein.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Why is shale gas important? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Why is shale gas important? Why is shale gas important? Why is shale gas important? More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers How is shale gas...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Florida Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Florida Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 ... Shale Gas Production;

242

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale Process Wastewater," in Analysis of Waters Associated with Alternate Fuel Production,shale during In in-situ processes, retort water its production

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil Shale Process Wastewater," in Analysis of Waters Associated with Alternate Fuel Production,oil and shale during In in-situ processes, retort water its production

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Natural Gas from Shale | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Natural Gas from Shale Natural Gas from Shale Office of Fossil Energy research helped refine cost-effective horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, protective...

245

West Virginia Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) West Virginia Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

246

Eastern States Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Eastern States Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Eastern States Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

247

Montana Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Montana Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

248

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture...

249

North Dakota Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) North Dakota Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

250

Wyoming Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Wyoming Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

251

Kentucky Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Kentucky Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

252

Pennsylvania Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Pennsylvania Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

253

Michigan Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Michigan Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

254

Arkansas Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Arkansas Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

255

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Earthquakes | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Earthquakes Shale Gas Development Challenges: Earthquakes...

256

Colorado Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Colorado Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

257

Oklahoma Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Oklahoma Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

258

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Surface Impacts | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Surface Impacts Shale Gas Development Challenges: Surface...

259

Oil shale: The environmental challenges III  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

Petersen, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Shale Reservoir Characterization | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil & Gas » Shale Gas » Shale Reservoir Oil & Gas » Shale Gas » Shale Reservoir Characterization Shale Reservoir Characterization Geologist examining the base of the Marcellus Shale at an outcrop near Bedford, PA. Geologist examining the base of the Marcellus Shale at an outcrop near Bedford, PA. Gas-producing shales are predominantly composed of consolidated clay-sized particles with a high organic content. High subsurface pressures and temperatures convert the organic matter to oil and gas, which may migrate to conventional petroleum traps and also remains within the shale. However, the clay content severely limits gas and fluid flow within the shales. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the mineral and organic content, occurrence of natural fractures, thermal maturity, shale volumes, porosity

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261

Fifth symposium on oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at symposium May 2-3, 1968 at Denver, discusses legal and economic problems facing federal policy toward oil shale deposits exploitation, processing of oil shale above surface and in situ and underground mining methods and equipment to be used.

1968-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

262

Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

Evans, R.A.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed analysis of technical and economic factors solar retorting of oil shale shows that such a process should be technically feasible and, depending on the grade of the shale, should improve the fuel yield from the oil shale by 10 to 40%, compared to one of the best competing surface ay for the incremental processes. The improved oil yield should more than pay for the incremental cost associated with adding the solar collection system. An experiment is described in which solar energy is used to retort oil shale, and the experimental results show that yields of better than 110% Fischer Assay are achievable. An advanced design for a solar oil-shale retort is also discussed.

Gregg, D.W.; Grens, J.Z.; Taylor, R.W.; Aiman, W.R.

1980-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

264

National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

Robert Finkelman

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

265

Production of Shale Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan provides a blueprint for the development of a 28,000 acre holding on Clear Creek in Garfield County, Colorado on property acquired by Standard Oil of California in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The paper describes these planning activities and the principal features of a proposed $5 billion project to develop facilities for production of 100,000 barrels per day of synthetic crude from oil shale. Subjects included are resource evaluation, environmental baseline studies, plans for acquisition of permits, plans for development of required retorting and mining technology and a preliminary description of the commercial project which will ultimately emerge from these activities. General financial impact of the project and the case for additional tax incentives to encourage it will be described.

Loper, R. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development Unconventional Fuels Conference University of Utah May 17, 2011 #12;#12;Domestic Oil Shale Resources Primary oil shale resources in the U.S. are in the Green River Formation in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 72 % of this oil shale resource is on Federal

Utah, University of

271

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Where is shale gas found Where is shale gas found in the United States? Shale gas is located in many parts of the United States. These deposits occur in shale "plays" - a set of discovered, undiscovered or possible natural gas accumulations that exhibit similar geological characteristics. Shale plays are located within large-scale basins or accumulations of sedimentary rocks, often hundreds of miles across, that also may contain other oil and gas resources. 1 Shale gas production is currently occurring in 16 states. 1 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Report to Congressional Requesters, "Oil and Gas: Information on Shale Resources, Development, and

272

Oil shale combustion/retorting  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

Not Available

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Oil shale retorting method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

York, E.D.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

275

World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. Background The use of horizontal drilling in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing has greatly expanded the ability of producers to profitably produce natural gas from low permeability geologic formations, particularly shale formations. Application of fracturing techniques to stimulate oil and gas production began to grow rapidly in the 1950s, although experimentation dates back to the 19 th century. Starting in the mid-1970s, a partnership of private operators, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) endeavored to develop technologies for the commercial production of natural gas from the relatively shallow Devonian (Huron) shale in the Eastern United States. This partnership helped foster technologies that eventually became crucial to producing natural gas from shale rock, including horizontal wells, multi-stage fracturing, and slick-water fracturing. 1 Practical application of horizontal drilling to oil production began in the early 1980s, by which time the advent of improved downhole drilling motors and the invention of other necessary supporting equipment, materials, and technologies, particularly downhole telemetry equipment, had brought some applications within the realm of

unknown authors

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Shale oil cracking. 1. Kinetics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to determine kinetics for thermal cracking of shale oil vapor over shale. Cracking temperatures of 504 to 610/sup 0/C and residence times of 2 to 11 seconds were used. A first-order Arrhenius rate expression and stoichiometry were obtained. Also observed were changes in the oil quality. Cracking decreased the H/C ratio, increased the nitrogen content, and decreased the pour point of the oil. Gas-phase oil cracking is contrasted to liquid-phase oil coking as a loss mechanism in oil-shale retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Taylor, J.R.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Process and apparatus for oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the continuoua steady state retorting of ground oil shale in the absence of air. Retorting is accomplished by countercurrently contacting heated spent oil shale with fresh ground oil shale in a vessel from which air is excluded. The spent oil shale is heated by combustion of its carbonaceous residue to form a hot heat transfer medium which, when contacted with fresh oil shale in the retorting process, provides the energy for the recovery of hydrocarbons. (auth)

Frick, G.W.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Production patterns in Eagle Ford Shale (Decline Curve Analysis) Muoz Torres, J.1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that there were vast natural gas resources in unconventional reservoirs like coal seams, tight sand and shales in the United States and elsewhere. That's the positive surprise. On the negative side, the severity of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico could well turn the global public against oil and natural gas exploration

Texas at Austin, University of

279

90-day Interim Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interim Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board 90-day Interim Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board The Shale Gas...

280

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are unique to in-situ oil shale production, Literature fromother industries to oil shale production because these datapotential for spent shale grout production and to design a

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water Shale Gas...

282

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air Shale Gas...

283

Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Naval Reserves Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on...

284

Oil Shale Research in the United States | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Shale Research in the United States Oil Shale Research in the United States Profiles of Oil Shale Research and Development Activities In Universities, National Laboratories,...

285

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence LivermoreReaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1.Reaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 2.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermorekinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effectkinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 2. co 2

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

3+ or Netscape Navigator 3+ Make sure that JavaScript is enabled in your browser Shale Gas (Billion Cubic Feet) Data Series: Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Adjustments...

288

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the Division of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology and theGas Environments on Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale,"

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Oil shale deposits of Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Oil-shale deposits occur in several areas of Thailand. Perhaps the most important deposit occurs at Mae Sod in Tak Province, West Thailand. Other well-known deposits are Li in Lamphum Province, Ko Kha District, Lampang Province, and Krabi in the southern peninsular region. The geological age of all these deposits is late Tertiary, as demonstrated by the presence of the fossils from the oil shale of the Mae Sod series, e.g., fish of the Ostariophysian family Cyprinidae.

Chakrabarti, A.K.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the carbon, oil, and gas from the shale are combusted; andceases •t II Burner gas and shale heat shale ll>" ~Air AirFigure 2. Oil recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Shale Gas R&D | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shale Gas R&D Shale Gas R&D Shale Gas R&D Natural gas from shales has the potential to significantly increase America's security of energy supply, reduce greenhouse gas emissions,...

292

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas compressorThis process produces shale oil, a low BTU gas, and char,Oil Shale Process" in Oil Shale and Tar Sands, J. W. Smith

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Combuston method of oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

Jones, Jr., John B. (300 Enterprise Building, Grand Junction, CO 81501); Reeves, Adam A. (P.O. Box 781, Anvil Points, Rifle, CO 81650)

1977-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

294

Shale oil and shale gas resources are globally abundant ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... solar, wind , geothermal ... Quarterly Coal Report › Monthly Energy Review › Residential Energy ... to evaluate and test the production potential ...

295

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

296

Physical and chemical characterization of Devonian gas shale. Quarterly status report, October 1, 1980-December 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Data were obtained from wells located in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Illinois, Tennessee, and New York. Geochemical analysis was performed including whole rock composition analyses for the following elements: sulfur, uranium, vanadium, nickel, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Also completed were the pyrolysis-gas chromatography and kerogen composition analysis. Hydrocarbon analyses were performed of headspace gases from each well. (DMC)

Zielinski, R.E.; Moteff, J.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make-up water for successive fracs. RFW, however, contains dissolved salts, suspended sediment and oils that may interfere with fracking fluids and/or clog fractures. This would lead to impaired well productivity. The major technical constraints to recycling RFW involves: identification of its composition, determination of industry standards for make-up water, and development of techniques to treat RFW to acceptable levels. If large scale RFW recycling becomes feasible, the industry will realize lower transportation and disposal costs, environmental conflicts, and risks of interruption in well development schedules.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Bakken Shale Oil Production Trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the conventional reservoirs decrease in discovering, producing and reserving, unconventional reservoirs are more remarkable in terms of discovering, development and having more reserve. More fields have been discovered where Barnett Shale and Bakken Shale are the most recently unconventional reservoir examples. Shale reservoirs are typically considered self-sourcing and have very low permeability ranging from 10-100 nanodarcies. Over the past few decades, numerous research projects and developments have been studied, but it seems there is still some contention and misunderstanding surrounding shale reservoirs. One of the largest shale in the United State is the Bakken Shale play. This study will describe the primary geologic characteristics, field development history, reservoir properties,and especially production trends, over the Bakken Shale play. Data are available for over hundred wells from different companies. Most production data come from the Production Data Application (HDPI) database and in the format of monthly production for oil, water and gas. Additional 95 well data including daily production rate, completion, Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT), pressure data are given from companies who sponsor for this research study. This study finds that there are three Types of well production trends in the Bakken formation. Each decline curve characteristic has an important meaning to the production trend of the Bakken Shale play. In the Type I production trend, the reservoir pressure drops below bubble point pressure and gas releasingout of the solution. With the Type II production trend, oil flows linearly from the matrix into the fracture system, either natural fracture or hydraulic fracture. Reservoir pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure during the producing time and oil flows as a single phase throughout the production period of the well. A Type III production trend typically has scattering production data from wells with a different Type of trend. It is difficult to study this Type of behavior because of scattering data, which leads to erroneous interpretation for the analysis. These production Types, especially Types I and II will give a new type curve matches for shale oil wells above or below the bubble point.

Tran, Tan

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

LLNL oil shale project review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

Cena, R.J. (ed.)

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

What is the Issue? The Marcellus Shale is a geologic shale bed that extends across much  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What is the Issue? The Marcellus Shale is a geologic shale bed that extends across much of the Marcellus Shale. Energy companies plan to nearly double the number of drilling rigs by the end of the year, this development illustrates the attractiveness of market proximity and the quality of Marcellus Shale gas

Wang, Z. Jane

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Pennsylvania Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1 1 65...

302

New Mexico Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) New Mexico Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

303

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of...

304

Multiphase flow analysis of oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several multiphase phenomena occur during oil shale retorting. An analysis is presented of two of these processes including condensation of oil shale vapor and oscillations of pressure in oil shale blocks through cracked bedding planes. Energy conservation equations for oil shale retorting, which include the effects associated with condensation of oil, are derived on the basis of two phase flow theory. It is suggested that an effective heat capacity associated with the latent heat of condensation should be included in the modeling of simulated modified in-situ oil shale retorting. A pressure propagation equation for fast transients in oil shale cracks has been derived and examined in view of existing experimental data. For slow processes, a limiting solution for maximum pressure in oil shale rocks has been obtained. Generation of high pressures in rocks by thermal or other means may lead to rock fracture which may be taken advantage of in modified in-situ oil shale processing.

Gidaspow, D.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

1978-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

Fracture Model, Ground Displacements and Tracer Observations: Fruitland Coals, San Juan Basin, New Mexico,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) ________________________________________________ San Juan 0.9 ? 20 (coal bed) Piceance 2.4 1 ­ 4 620 (tight sands) Barnett 2 2 ­ 3 380 (shale) GreenEnergy Methane Indirect CO2 Direct CO2 #12;Total GHG footprints for natural gas, diesel fuel, and coal (g C MJ-1/ndx_marcil.pdf Shales hold a lot of natural gas (methane), but very dispersed, not economical using traditional

Wilson, Thomas H.

306

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor elements in oil shale and oil~shale products, LERCmercury to the oil shale, shale oil, and retort water. Thesemercury to spent shale, shale oil, retort water and offgas

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Oil shale technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Australian developments in oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

This study gives some background on Australian oil shale deposits, briefly records some history of oil shale processing in the country and looks at the current status of the various proposals being considered to produce syncrudes from Australian oil shales. 5 refs.

Baker, G.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Oil shale technology and evironmental aspects  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are a combination of mining, retorting, and upgrading facilities. This work outlines the processing steps and some design considerations required in an oil shale facility. A brief overview of above ground and in situ retorts is presented; 6 retorts are described. The development aspects which the oil shale industry is addressing to protect the environment are presented.

Scinta, J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4 Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom James W. Hagadorn T he middle cambrian burgess shale is one of the world's best-known and best-studied fossil deposits. The story of the discovery in the Burgess Shale Formation of the Canadian Rockies, Charles Walcott discovered a remarkable "phyl- lopod

Hagadorn, Whitey

311

Field Development Strategies for Bakken Shale Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

July 2010 Field Development Strategies for Bakken Shale Formation SPE 139032 S.Zargari, S Bakken Formation is comprised of 3 Members: · Upper Shale Member­ Source & Seal · Middle "Siltstone" Member­ Reservoir & Migration Conduit · Lower Shale Member- Source & Seal #12;July 2010 Reservoir

Mohaghegh, Shahab

312

Sedimentology, petrology, and gas potential of the Brallier Formation: upper Devonian turbidite facies of the Central and Southern Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Devonian Brallier Formation of the central and southern Appalachian basin is a regressive sequence of siltstone turbidites interbedded with mudstones, claystones, and shales. It reaches 1000 meters in thickness and overlies basinal mudrocks and underlies deltaic sandstones and mudrocks. Facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate differences between the depositional system of the Brallier Formation and those of modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences. The Brallier system is of finer grain size and lower flow intensity. In addition, the stratigraphic transition from turbidites to deltaic sediments is gradual and differs in its facies succession from the deposits of the proximal parts of modern submarine fans. Such features as massive and pebbly sandstones, conglomerates, debris flows, and massive slump structures are absent from this transition. Paleocurrents are uniformly to the west at right angles to basin isopach, which is atypical of ancient turbidite systems. This suggests that turbidity currents had multiple point sources. The petrography and paleocurrents of the Brallier Formation indicate an eastern source of sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks with modern relief and rainfall. The depositional system of the Brallier Formation is interpreted as a series of small ephemeral turbidite lobes of low flow intensity which coalesced in time to produce a laterally extensive wedge. The lobes were fed by deltas rather than submarine canyons or upper fan channel systems. This study shows that the present-day turbidite facies model, based mainly on modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences, does not adequately describe prodeltaic turbidite systems such as the Brallier Formation. Thickly bedded siltstone bundles are common features of the Brallier Formation and are probably its best gas reservoir facies, especially when fracture porosity is well developed.

Lundegard, P.D.; Samuels, N.D.; Pryor, W.A.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Oil-shale material properties  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical properties of oil shale have been under examination at Sandia since 1975 in a program which has involved laboratory and field experimentation along with complementary analytical activities. The dependence of the fragmentation phenomenon on strain rate is important in explosive applications because strain rates realized in typical blasting events extend over a wide range. The model has been used to calculate a variety of explosive geometries in oil shale, with results compared to small- and large-scale experiments, including a small block test with 80 g of explosive and a field test with 5 kg explosive.

Kipp, M.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Gas Shale PlaysÂ… The Global Transition  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

XX. China EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment XX. China EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment May 17, 2013 XX-1 XX. CHINA SUMMARY China has abundant shale gas and shale oil potential in seven prospective basins: Sichuan, Tarim, Junggar, Songliao, the Yangtze Platform, Jianghan and Subei, Figure XX-1. Figure XX-1. China's Seven Most Prospective Shale Gas and Shale Oil Basins are the Jianghan, Junggar, Sichuan, Songliao, Subei, Tarim, and Yangtze Platform. Source: ARI, 2013. XX. China EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment

316

Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Oil-shale utilization at Morgantown, WV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fully aware of the nation's need to develop high-risk and long-term research in eastern oil-shale and low-grade oil-shale utilization in general, the US DOE/METC initiated an eastern oil-shale characterization program. In less than 3 months, METC produced shale oil from a selected eastern-US oil shale with a Fischer assay of 8.0 gallons/ton. In view of the relatively low oil yield from this particular oil shale, efforts were directed to determine the process conditions which give the highest oil yield. A 2-inch-diameter electrically heated fluidized-bed retort was constructed, and Celina oil shale from Tennessee was selected to be used as a representative eastern oil shale. After more than 50 runs, the retorting data were analyzed and reviewed and the best oil-yield operating condition was determined. In addition, while conducting the oil-shale retorting experiments, a number of technical problems were identified, addressed, and overcome. Owing to the inherent high rates of heat and mass transfers inside the fluidized bed, the fluidized-bed combustor and retorting appear to be a desirable process technology for an effective and efficient means for oil-shale utilization. The fluidized-bed operation is a time-tested, process-proven, high-throughput, solid-processing operation which may contribute to the efficient utilization of oil-shale energy.

Shang, J.Y.; Notestein, J.E.; Mei, J.S.; Romanosky, R.R.; King, J.A.; Zeng, L.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Enriching off gas from oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

Liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort in which a combustion zone is advanced therethrough by a method which includes the steps of establishing a combustion zone in the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and introducing a gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone in the direction the combustion zone is to be advanced through the in situ oil shale retort. The gaseous feed mixture comprises an oxygen supplying gas and water vapor and is introduced into the combustion zone at a rate sufficient to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone within a predetermined range of temperatures above the retorting temperature of the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and sufficient to advance the combustion zone through the in situ oil shale retort. The introduction of the gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone generates combustion products gases which together with the portion of the gaseous feed mixture which does not take part in the combustion process, is called flue gas. The flue gas passes through the oil shale on the advancing side of the combustion zone, thereby retorting the oil shale to produce liquid and gaseous products. The liquid product and the retort off gas, which comprises gaseous product and flue gas, are withdrawn from the in situ oil shale retort at a point on the advancing side of the retorting zone. 47 claims, 1 figure.

Cha, C.Y.; Ridley, R.D.

1977-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

319

Controls on reservoir development in Devonian Chert: Permian Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Chert reservoirs of the Lower Devonian Thirtyone Formation contain a significant portion of the hydrocarbon resource in the Permian basin. More than 700 million bbl of oil have been produced from these rocks, and an equivalent amount of mobile oil remains. Effective exploitation of this sizable remaining resource, however, demands a comprehensive appreciation of the complex factors that have contributed to reservoir development. Analysis of Thirtyone Formation chert deposits in Three Bar field and elsewhere in the Permian basin indicates that reservoirs display substantial heterogeneity resulting from depositional, diagenetic, and structural processes. Large-scale reservoir geometries and finer scale, intra-reservoir heterogeneity are primarily attributable to original depositional processes. Despite facies variations, porosity development in these cherts is principally a result of variations in rates and products of early silica diagenesis. Because this diagenesis was in part a function of depositional facies architecture, porosity development follows original depositional patterns. In reservoirs such as Three Bar field, where the Thirtyone Formation has been unroofed by Pennsylvanian deformation, meteoric diagenesis has created additional heterogeneity by causing dissolution of chert and carbonate, especially in areas of higher density fracturing and faulting and along truncated reservoir margins. Structural deformation also has exerted direct controls on heterogeneity that are particularly noteworthy in reservoirs under waterflood. High-density fracture zones create preferred flow paths that result in nonuniform sweep through the reservoir. Faulting locally creates compartments by offsetting reservoir flow units. As such, the processes and models defined here improve understanding of the causes of heterogeneity in all Thirtyone chert reservoirs in the Permian basin and aid recovery of the sizable hydrocarbon resource remaining in these rocks.

Ruppel, S.C.; Hovorka, S.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Focus on the Marcellus Shale By Lisa Sumi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale By Lisa Sumi FOR THE OIL & GAS ACCOUNTABILITY PROJECT on potential oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale formation in northeastern Pennsylvania · www.ogap.org #12;Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale A REPORT COMPILED FOR THE OIL AND GAS

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

322

Effects of diagenesis on the Nd-isotopic composition of black shales from the 420 Ma Utica Shale Magnafacies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of diagenesis on the Nd-isotopic composition of black shales from the 420 Ma Utica Shale Abstract The Utica black shales were deposited in the Taconic Foreland basin 420 Ma ago. The organic matter in these shales is of marine origin and the timing of deposition of these shales has been constrained

Basu, Asish R.

323

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production of portland cement from a 1.8:1 mixture of limestone and raw oil shale.oil production and result in a new, high-risk tech- nology while modification of as-received spent shale

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. York, E. D. , Amoco Oil Co. , letter to J. P. Fox,Reaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Shale Energy Resources Alliance (SERA)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

contActS contActS George Darakos Business Manager 412-386-7390 george.darakos@netl.doe.gov Barbara Kutchko, PhD Shallow Stray Gas, Research Team Leader 412-386-5149 barbara.kutchko@netl.doe.gov Natalie Pekney, PhD Air Emissions, Research Team Leader 412-386-5953 natalie.pekney@netl.doe.gov Paul Ziemkiewicz, PhD Water, Research Team Leader 304-293-6958 pziemkie@wvu.edu nEtL-RUA PARtnERS Carnegie Mellon University Penn State University of Pittsburgh URS Corporation Virginia Tech West Virginia University Shale Energy Resources Alliance (SERA) Mission To support the environmentally and socially sustainable development of shale resources through collaborative research and development among industry, university, and government partners on: resource characterization; drilling and

326

Hugoniots of Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Standard experimental shock wave techniques were used to obtain Hugoniots of Anvil Points oil shale as functions of richness and orientation in the pressure regime encountered in the near-field region of an explosion. The shock response was found to be sensitive to kerogen content but independent of bedding orientation relative to the direction of shock propagation. A two-component model combining the inferred dynamic parameters for the end members (kerogen and mineral matrix) is adequate to predict the Hugoniots of oil shale of any arbitrary composition. Hence, the Hugoniots, as for other material properties, can be ultimately uniquely related to the oil yield. Preliminary dynamic results from samples obtained from other sites in Colorado and Wyoming indicate that this is generally true within the accuracy required for predictive explosive rock breakage calculations. 7 figures.

Carter, W.J.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

James W. Bunger

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

International developments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An overview of oil shale research and development outside the US provides a status report on technology approaches under active consideration in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, West Germany, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Soviet Union, Thailand, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. The status report covers the development plans and project costs of industrial projects. The technologies under consideration include the Fushun, Galoter, Kiviter, Lurgi, and Petrosix processes. 10 references.

Uthus, D.B.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Oil shale up-date  

SciTech Connect

The development of large domestic oil shale resources in an environmentally acceptable manner is technically feasible. Such development is approaching economic attractiveness. It is an essential step in attacking the major national problem: increasing oil imports. Several things have been impeding oil shale development. First, until recently there has been a lack of viable technology. Second, environmental regulations are becoming increasingly restrictive. These have become so unrealistic that the bare undeveloped ground in oil shale country fails to comply. Most of this area is now classified as a nonattainment area. The third reason is economic uncertainty. This relates to price and other governmental controls which make it impossible to predict future conditions with enough confidence to justify private investments. In an effort to overcome this uncertainty, while retaining the impeding controls, all types of governmental incentives and supports are being proposed by the Administration, the Congress, and the industry. This study highlights the current status of the more prominent technologies. It suggest that the next logical step in their advancement is the construction and operation of single full-size retorts or modules.

Pforzheimer, H.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Oil shale mining and the environment. [Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Experimental mining of oil shale, to date, has been conducted only in the shallow Mahogany Zone and has utilized only the room and pillar mining method. The U.S. Bureau of Mines is planning a demonstration mine in the deep, thick oil-shale deposits in Colorado. This study describes the 4 mining concepts that are planned for demonstration and the interrelationship of these concepts and the environment. The environmental aspects of oil-shale development also are discussed.

Rajaram, V.; Kauppila, T.A.; Bolmer, R.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Gas Shale PlaysÂ… The Global Transition  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Canada EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment Canada EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment May 17, 2013 I-1 I. CANADA SUMMARY Canada has a series of large hydrocarbon basins with thick, organic-rich shales that are assessed by this resource study. Figure I-1 illustrates certain of the major shale gas and shale oil basins in Western Canada. Figure I-1. Selected Shale Gas and Oil Basins of Western Canada Source: ARI, 2012. I. Canada EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment May 17, 2013 I-2 The full set of Canadian shale gas and shale oil basins assessed in this study include:

332

Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer This Primer on Modern Shale Gas Development in the United...

333

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are unique to in-situ oil shale production, Literature fromother industries to oil shale production because these dataThe processes used in production of oil shale have not been

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Why is shale gas important? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Why is shale gas important? Why is shale gas important? Why is shale gas important? Energy.gov...

335

How is shale gas produced? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home How is shale gas produced? How is shale gas produced? How is shale gas produced? Energy.gov Careers...

336

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

20 to 40% of the oil shale, and explosively rubblizing andCEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P, K, Mehta Civil Engineering

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~in Second Briefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, LawrenceReactions in Colorado Oil Shale, Lawrence Report UCRL-

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Control Strategies for Abandoned in situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented elt the TUJelfth Oil Shale Synlposittnz, Golden,for Abandoned In Situ Oil Shale Retorts P. Persoll and ]. P.Water Pollution of Spent Oil Shale Residues, EDB Lea,

Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~Mathematical Hodel for In-Situ Shale Retorting," in SecondBriefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, Lawrence Livermore

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Control Strategies for Abandoned in situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented elt the TUJelfth Oil Shale Synlposittnz, Golden,for Abandoned In Situ Oil Shale Retorts P. Persoll and ]. P.Pollution of Spent Oil Shale Residues, EDB Lea, Salinity

Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Impacts of Marcellus Shale Development on Municipal Governments in Susquehanna  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impacts of Marcellus Shale Development on Municipal Governments in Susquehanna and Washington Marcellus shale gas development. The study focused on how gas development is affecting the demand (1) their already extensive shale activity; (2) their divergent geographical, cultural

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

343

INTER-MOUNTAIN BASINS SHALE BADLAND extent exaggerated for display  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTER-MOUNTAIN BASINS SHALE BADLAND R.Rondeau extent exaggerated for display ACHNATHERUM HYMENOIDES HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE Achnatherum hymenoides Shale Barren Herbaceous Vegetation ARTEMISIA BIGELOVII SHRUBLAND ALLIANCE Leymus salinus Shale Sparse Vegetation Overview: This widespread ecological system

344

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Challenges are Associated with Challenges are Associated with Shale Gas Production? Developing any energy resource - whether conventional or non-conventional like shale - carries with it the possibility and risk of environmental, public health, and safety issues. Some of the challenges related to shale gas production and hydraulic fracturing include: * Increased consumption of fresh water (volume and sources); * Induced seismicity (earthquakes) from shale flowback water disposal;Chemical disclosure of fracture fluid additives; * Potential ground and surface water contamination; * Air quality impacts; * Local impacts, such as the volume of truck traffic, noise, dust and land disturbance.

345

Virginia Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas > Navigator Energy Glossary ... Download Data (XLS File) No chart available. Virginia Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

346

Production Optimization in Shale Gas Reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Natural gas from organic rich shales has become an important part of the supply of natural gas in the United States. Modern drilling and… (more)

Knudsen, Brage Rugstad

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

,"Miscellaneous Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

348

,"Shale Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases "  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Shale Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases ",36,"Annual",2011,"6302009" ,"Release...

349

Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves Acquisitions ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Available; W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 812013 Next Release Date: 812014 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions...

350

,"Shale Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases "  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Shale Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ",36,"Annual",2011,"6302009" ,"Release...

351

,"Shale Natural Gas New Field Discoveries "  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Shale Natural Gas New Field Discoveries ",36,"Annual",2011,"6302009" ,"Release...

352

The Black Shale Basin of West Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Black Shale Basin of West Texas covers an area in excess of 21,000 square miles and includes the region from Terrell and Pecos Counties… (more)

Cole, Charles Taylor, 1913-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

steam, and groundwater intrusion during oil shale retorting: retort water and gas condensate.Steam Stripping of Occi- dental petroleum Retort No. 6 Gas Condensate,

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

,"Wyoming Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

355

,"Pennsylvania Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

356

,"Montana Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

357

,"Colorado Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

358

,"Oklahoma Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

359

,"Arkansas Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

360

,"Michigan Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

,"Ohio Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

362

,"Kentucky Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

363

Water application related to oil shale listed  

SciTech Connect

A water right application filed by the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. is reported for surface waters and ground water in Rio Blanco County, Colorado.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Method and apparatus for distilling oil shale  

SciTech Connect

In an oil shale retrort there is the combination of a plurality of interconnected hollow sections, each having a flat bottom, the bottom surfaces of the sections lying in different planes and being inclined at an angle greater than the angle of repose for powdered oil shale whereby oil shale will flow by the action of gravity alone. Means are located at the juncture of each of the sections for abruptly changing the direction of flow of the shale whereby the velocity is reduced.

White, C.O.

1929-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

365

Enriching off gas from oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

A method whereby liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort is discussed. A combustion zone is advanced by establishing a combustion zone in the oil shale and introducing a gaseous feed mixture into the zone in the direction the zone is to be advanced through the oil shale retort. The gaseous feed mixture consists of an oxygen supplying gas and water vapor and is introduced into the combustion zone at a rate sufficient to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone within a predetermined range of temperatures above the retorting temperature of the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort. The introduction of the gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone generates combustion product gases which together with the portion of the gaseous feed mixture which does not take part in the combustion process, is called flue gas. The flue gas passes through the oil shale on the advancing side of the combustion zone, thereby retorting the oil shale to produce liquid and gaseous products. The liquid product and the retort off gas, which consists of gaseous product and flue gas, are withdrawn from the in situ oil shale retort at a point on the advancing side of the retorting zone. (47 claims) (Continuation-in-part of U.S. Appl. 492,289, f. 7/26/74)

Cha, C.Y.; Ridley, R.D.

1977-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

366

Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Developments in oil shale in 1983  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale development activities continued at a somewhat restricted pace during 1983. The activities reflect the continued soft economic environment in the petroleum industry. A limited number of projects are active, and research is continuing on processes, materials handling, mining techniques, and resource evaluation. Past oil shale development papers have highlighted resources and activities in several states in the eastern and western portions of the United States. This paper highlights Australian oil shale geology and developments and Canadian oil shale geology and developments. 5 figures, 1 table.

Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Hutton, A.C.; Macauley, G.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

showing potential for subsidence and spent shale leaching.cracking and ground subsidence, and low leaving largeto 210 m overburden), and subsidence. These problems may be

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Shale Gas Proved Reserves - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual : Download Series History: Definitions, Sources & Notes 2007 2008 View History; U.S. ...

370

Challenges and strategies of shale gas development.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this paper is to help new investors and project developers identify the challenges of shale gas E&P and to enlighten them of… (more)

Lee, Sunje

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Improved Casing for Shales - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shale gas boom in recent years has been due to modern technology in hydraulic fracturing to create extensive artificial fractures around well bores. Proper ...

372

Shale recharge and production behavior of geopressured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reservoir simulator MUSHRM was used to study the conditions under which significant shale recharge may be expected. The calculations presented herein show that shale recharge is a strong function of the vertical shale permeability but is not greatly influenced by the shale compressibility. Significant shale recharge will occur only if the vertical shale permeability is at least of the order of 0.01 ..mu..d.

Garg, S.K.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identified in Oil Shale and Shale Oil. list." 1. Preliminaryrisks of large scale shale oil production are sufficient tofound in oil shale and shale oil by EMIC and ETIC, has

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil Shale Products. LERCfor Use 1n Oil Shale and Shale Oil. OSRD-32, 1945. Jeris, J.Water coproduced with shale oil and decanted from it is

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemicals Identified in Oil Shale and Shale Oil. list." 1.of Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am.Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Waters", in Oil Shale

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES..............................1 A2. VARIABILITY IN SHALE WELL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE ............................1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 APPENDIX1 Contents A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES..............................1 A2. VARIABILITY IN SHALE WELL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE ............................1 A3. GHG FOR FLOWBACK GAS CAPTURE IN SHALE PLAYS..9 A5. REFERENCES

377

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

Second eastern gas shales symposium. Preprints. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

Ten papers are included on the eastern gas shale project, characterization of the shale, and stimulation. Separate abstracts were prepared for all ten papers. (DLC)

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

380

Louisiana (with State Offshore) Shale Production (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Shale Production (Billion Cubic...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

382

Texas (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion...

383

Arkansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Arkansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

384

Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

385

Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

386

Louisiana--North Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Louisiana--North Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana--North Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

387

Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

388

Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

389

Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer Modern Shale Gas Development in the...

390

Louisiana--North Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Louisiana--North Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana--North Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

391

Lower 48 States Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Lower 48 States Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

392

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

393

California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

394

New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

395

Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

396

West Virginia Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) West Virginia Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

397

West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Annual Download Data (XLS File) West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

398

Alabama (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Alabama (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion...

399

Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

400

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Hosts Conference Call on Shale...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here Home Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Hosts Conference Call on Shale Gas Draft Report Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Hosts Conference Call on Shale Gas...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Texas (with State Offshore) Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas (with State Offshore) Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas (with State Offshore) Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)...

402

Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Natural Gas from...

403

Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

404

Louisiana (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves...

405

North Dakota Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) North Dakota Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

406

Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

407

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Subcommittee Releases Shale...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Agencies You are here Home Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Subcommittee Releases Shale Gas Recommendations Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Subcommittee Releases Shale Gas...

408

California (with State off) Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) California (with State off) Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California (with State off) Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)...

409

Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

410

New Mexico Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) New Mexico Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

411

California (with State off) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) California (with State off) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California (with State off) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion...

412

Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale Natural Contamination from the Mancos...

413

U.S. Shale Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) U.S. Shale Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Shale Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

414

Characterization of Gas Shales by X-ray Raman Spectroscopy |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

137-322 Drew Pomerantz, Schlumberger Unconventional hydrocarbon resources such as gas shale and oil-bearing shale have emerged recently as economically viable sources of...

415

Oil Shale Research in the United States | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Research in the United States Oil Shale Research in the United States Profiles of Oil Shale Research and Development Activities In Universities, National Laboratories, and Public...

416

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Oil Shale Reserves...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Shale Reserves Site - 013 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Naval Oil Shale Reserves Site (013 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site...

417

Calif--San Joaquin Basin onsh Shale Proved Reserves (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

onsh Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Calif--San Joaquin Basin onsh Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) No Data Available For This Series - No Data Reported; --...

418

DOE's Early Investment in Shale Gas Technology Producing Results...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE's Early Investment in Shale Gas Technology Producing Results Today DOE's Early Investment in Shale Gas Technology Producing Results Today February 2, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis...

419

Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Active oil shale operations: Eastern Uinta Basin  

SciTech Connect

A Utah Geological and Mineral survey Map of the Eastern Uinta Basin is presented. Isopach lines for the Mahogany oil shale are given, along with the locations of active oil shale operations and the land ownership (i.e. federal, state, or private).

Ritzma, H.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Assay products from Green River oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Data from 66 material-balanced assays conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laramie Energy Technology Center, and The Oil Shale Corporation were compiled and analyzed to determine the pyrolysis stoichiometry for Green River formation oil shales originating in and near the Mahogany zone. Shale samples came from four sites in Colorado and one in Utah, and ranged in oil content from 12 to 258 L/Mg (3 to 62 gal/ton). Average values and pairwise correlation coefficients are reported for all data (except sulfur analyses) available on the shales, e.g., elemental analyses of shales and oils, distribution of organic carbon in products, gas composition, and some ratios of elemental composition. The wide range of organic carbon contents made it possible to demonstrate the sensitivity of assay product distribution to oil shale grade. A linear correlation for shale grade as a function of weight percent organic carbon in raw shale is presented. An average stoichiometry for pyrolysis of the organic material is also calculated and compared with others available in the literature.

Singleton, M.F.; Koskinas, G.J.; Burnham, A.K.; Raley, J.H.

1982-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

423

Indirect heating pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hot, non-oxygenous gas at carefully controlled quantities and at predetermined depths in a bed of lump oil shale provides pyrolysis of the contained kerogen of the oil shale, and cool non-oxygenous gas is passed up through the bed to conserve the heat

Jones, Jr., John B. (Grand Junction, CO); Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO)

1978-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

424

Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Application of computer blast modeling to oil shale mining  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been considerable interest in the development of computer models to describe rock fragmentation by blasting. The interest for this work has come primarily for application to large scale coal or mineral surface mines. However, the basic models developed for these applications are equally applicable for examining typical underground oil shale operations. Models that can predict blasting results starting from first principles can impact room and pillar mining in a number of ways including optimizing round design, control of particle size, evaluation of new explosives, minimizing pillar damage, and developing blasting schemes that can be used in conjunction with continuous miners. In this study, the authors explore how these codes can be used to model the blasting geometry encountered in room and pillar mining operations.

Hommert, P.J.; Preece, D.S.; Thorne, B.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

General screening criteria for shale gas reservoirs and production data analysis of Barnett shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale gas reservoirs are gaining importance in United States as conventional oil and gas resources are dwindling at a very fast pace. The purpose of this study is twofold. First aim is to help operators with simple screening criteria which can help them in making certain decisions while going after shale gas reservoirs. A guideline chart has been created with the help of available literature published so far on different shale gas basins across the US. For evaluating potential of a productive shale gas play, one has to be able to answer the following questions: 1. What are the parameters affecting the decision to drill a horizontal well or a vertical well in shale gas reservoirs? 2. Will the shale gas well flow naturally or is an artificial lift required post stimulation? 3. What are the considerations for stimulation treatment design in shale gas reservoirs? A comprehensive analysis is presented about different properties of shale gas reservoirs and how these properties can affect the completion decisions. A decision chart presents which decision best answers the above mentioned questions. Secondly, research focuses on production data analysis of Barnett Shale Gas reservoir. The purpose of this study is to better understand production mechanisms in Barnett shale. Barnett Shale core producing region is chosen for the study as it best represents behavior of Barnett Shale. A field wide moving domain analysis is performed over Wise, Denton and Tarrant County wells for understanding decline behavior of the field. It is found that in all of these three counties, Barnett shale field wells could be said to have established pressure communication within the reservoir. We have also studied the effect of thermal maturity (Ro %), thickness, horizontal well completion and vertical well completion on production of Barnett Shale wells. Thermal maturity is found to have more importance than thickness of shale. Areas with more thermal maturity and less shale thickness are performing better than areas with less thermal maturity and more shale thickness. An interactive tool is developed to access the production data according to the leases in the region and some suggestions are made regarding the selection of the sample for future studies on Barnett Shale.

Deshpande, Vaibhav Prakashrao

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Oil shale and tar sands technology: recent developments  

SciTech Connect

The detailed, descriptive information in this book is based on US patents, issued since March 1975, that deal with the technology of oil shale and tar sands. The book contains an introductory overview of the subject. Topics included are oil shale retorting, in situ processing of oil shale, shale oil refining and purification processes, in situ processing of tar sands, tar sands separation processes.

Ranney, M.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Location and Geology Fig 1. The Macasty black shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Quebec, is organic-rich black shale and hosting oil and gas. It is equivalent to the Ithaca shaleLocation and Geology Fig 1. The Macasty black shale in the Anticosti Island in the Gulf of St. d13C for calcite disseminated in the black shale range from 2.6o to 2.8 / The values are lower

429

Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development

430

Utilization of Oil Shale Retorting Technology and Underground Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper analyzes the world's oil shale development and status of underground dry distillation technology and, through case studies proved the advantages of underground dry distillation technology. Global oil shale resource-rich, many countries in the ... Keywords: oil shale, ground retorting, underground dry distillation, shale oil, long slope mining

Chen Shuzhao; Guo Liwen; Xiao Cangyan; Wang Haijun

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

Dalang, Robert C.

432

Marcellus Shale Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing; Technicalities and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Marcellus Shale Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing; Technicalities and Controversies Kyle J Ferrar;UNITED STATES SHALE BASINS Modern Shale Gas Development in the U.S.: A Primer, (2009) U.S. Dept of Energy Development http://www.secinfo.com/DB/SEC/2007 #12;Where to Drill? Harper, John A. (2008). The Marcellus Shale

Sibille, Etienne

433

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st the Marcellus shale In addition to the specific questions identified for the case of Marcellus shale gas in New

Angenent, Lars T.

434

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal 101 Lesson 1: Cleaning Up Coal Clean Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still...

435

Gasification characteristics of eastern oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is evaluating the gasification characteristics of Eastern oil shales as a part of a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and HYCRUDE Corporation to expand the data base on moving-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Gasification of shale fines will improve the overall resource utilization by producing synthesis gas or hydrogen needed for the hydroretorting of oil shale and the upgrading of shale oil. Gasification characteristics of an Indiana New Albany oil shale have been determined over temperature and pressure ranges of 1600 to 1900/sup 0/F and 15 to 500 psig, respectively. Carbon conversion of over 95% was achieved within 30 minutes at gasification conditions of 1800/sup 0/F and 15 psig in a hydrogen/steam gas mixture for the Indiana New Albany oil shale. This paper presents the results of the tests conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor to obtain reaction rate data and in a continuous mini-bench-scale unit to obtain product yield data. 2 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Oil shale retorting and retort water purification process  

SciTech Connect

An oil shale process is provided to retort oil shale and purify oil shale retort water. In the process, raw oil shale is retorted in an in situ underground retort or in an above ground retort to liberate shale oil, light hydrocarbon gases and oil shale retort water. The retort water is separated from the shale oil and gases in a sump or in a fractionator or quench tower followed by an API oil/water separator. After the retort water is separated from the shale oil, the retort water is steam stripped, carbon adsorbed and biologically treated, preferably by granular carbon adsorbers followed by activated sludge treatment or by activated sludge containing powdered activated carbon. The retort water can be granularly filtered before being steam stripped. The purified retort water can be used in various other oil shale processes, such as dedusting, scrubbing, spent shale moisturing, backfilling, in situ feed gas injection and pulsed combustion.

Venardos, D.G.; Grieves, C.G.

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

437

Differential thermal analysis of the reaction properties of raw and retorted oil shale with air  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study to determine the kinetics of combustion of oil shale and its char by using differential thermal analysis are reported. The study indicates that Colorado oil shale and its char combustion rate is the fastest while Fushun oil shale and its char combustion rate is the slowest among the six oil shales used in this work. Oil shale samples used were Fushun oil shale, Maoming oil shale, Huang county oil shale, and Colorado oil shale.

Wang, T.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays Review of Emerging Resources:  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays Review of Emerging Resources: July 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Depa rtment of Energy W ashington, DC 20585 This page inTenTionally lefT blank The information presented in this overview is based on the report Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays, which was prepared by INTEK, Inc. for the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The full report is attached. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies.

439

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers Why is Shale Gas Important?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Why is Shale Gas Important? Why is Shale Gas Important? With the advance of extraction technology, shale gas production has led to a new abundance of natural gas supply in the United States over the past decade, and is expected to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the unproved technically recoverable U.S. shale gas resource is estimated at 482 trillion cubic feet. 1 Estimated proved and unproved shale gas resources amount to a combined 542 trillion cubic feet (or 25 percent) out of a total U.S. resource of 2,203 trillion cubic feet. 2 U.S. shale gas production has increased 12-fold over the last

440

Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

442

What is shale gas and why is it important?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Over the past decade, the combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has allowed access to large volumes of shale gas that were previously uneconomical to produce. The production of natural gas from shale formations has rejuvenated the natural gas industry in the United States.

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

443

Gas Shale PlaysÂ… The Global Transition  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

VIII. Poland EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment VIII. Poland EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment May 17, 2013 VIII-1 VIII. POLAND (INCLUDING LITHUANIA AND KALININGRAD) SUMMARY Poland has some of Europe's most favorable infrastructure and public support for shale development. The Baltic Basin in northern Poland remains the most prospective region with a relatively simple structural setting. The Podlasie and Lublin basins also have potential but are

444

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and INTRODUCTION Oil shale production by vertical modified1 aspects of oil shale production air, solid waste, andimpacts of oil shale production, and to develop information

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF FIGURES Areal extent of oil shale deposits in the Greencommercial in~·situ oil shale facility. Possible alternativefor pyrolysis of oil shale Figure 7. Establishment of

Amy, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Characterization of Spent Shale s . , , . • • . . • ,4. Preparation of Spent Shale Samples and Procedure forof Particular Types of Spent Shale References • Appendix A.

Amy, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Mineral Sequestration of Carbon Dixoide in a Sandstone-Shale System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

microfractures in geopressured shales. AAPG Bulletin 77(8),Porosimetry measurement of shale fabric and its relationshipof intra-aquifer shales and the relative effectiveness of

Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Method for retorting oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

1985-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

450

Shale oil and shale gas resources are globally abundant - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Several nations have begun to evaluate and test the production potential of shale formations located in their countries. Poland, for example, ...

451

EIA - Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal...

452

Oil shale: a new set of uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

The discovery and delivery of North Sea oil has created an uncertain future for the British oil shale industry in spite of its lower price per barrel. While oil companies have long been interested in a secure shale oil source for chemical feedstocks, environmental concerns, mining difficulties, and inflated operating costs have counteracted the opportunity provided by the 1973 oil embargo. With the financial risks of oil shale mining and retorting too great for a single company, research efforts have shifted to a search for technologies that will be multistaged and less costly, such as in-situ mining, in-situ processing, and hydraulic fracturing. Successful testing and demonstration of these processes will determine the future commercial role of oil shales. 17 references and footnotes.

Schanz, J.J. Jr.; Perry, H.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Overview of LASL oil shale program  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is involved in a broad spectrum of oil shale-related activities for the US Department of Energy (DOE), including the bed preparation design of a modified in situ retort. This aspect of oil shale research has been identified by DOE as one of the limiting technologies impeding commerical, in situ development of oil shale. The retort bed must have uniform particle size, permeability, and void distributions to allow proper retorting and optimum resource recovery. Controlled fracturing using chemical explosives and carefully designed blasting schemes are the only feasible methods to attain this distribution. This approach to the bed preparation problem is a coordinated research program of explosives characterization, dynamic rock mechanics, predictive computer modeling, and field verification tests. The program is designed to develop the predictive fracturing capability required for the optimum rubbing of the shale.

Morris, W.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Oil shale. environmental and health issues  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and health issues include the solid-waste disposal problem; the possibility of the release of toxic and carcinogenic constituents into the environment; water requirements in a water-poor area; the potential air pollution problems; the low resource utilization of some of the processes; and the relative energy production compared with energy input. Such issues arise from the fact that it takes 1.5 tons of oil shale to make 1 bbl of oil, which, for a 1 million bbl/day industry, would require the processing of 480 million tons/yr of shale and would produce 390 million tons/yr of spent shale. The various oil shale processing technologies are briefly described.

Chappell, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Kentucky Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 2 2 5 2010's 4 4...

456

Michigan Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 148 122 132...

457

Montana Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 12 13 7 2010's 13...

458

Colorado Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 1 2010's 1 3...

459

Arkansas Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 94 279 527 2010's...

460

Oklahoma Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 40 168 249 2010's...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "devonian shale coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Ohio Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) No chart available. Ohio Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

462

Wyoming Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) No chart available. Wyoming Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

463

Western States Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) No chart available. Western States Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

464

Ohio Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) No chart available. Ohio Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

465

Gas collection system for oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ oil shale retorting process is described in which a cavity filled with broken particles of oil shale is formed within the subsurface oil shale formation and air is forced down through the cavity to sustain combustion of the top layer of oil shale particles, the products of combustion being withdrawn at the bottom of the cavity. A plurality of exhaust pipes traverse the bottom of the cavity and extend out through the sealed entrance to the retort cavity. The pipes are supported above the floor of the cavity and have holes opening on the bottom side of the pipes through which the product gases are withdrawn from the cavity. Valves in each pipe control the flow so as to balance the flow distribution of air and exhaust gases through the retorting cavity.

Ridley, R.D.; Burton, R.S. III

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Insulated dipole antennas for heating oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Insulated dipole antennas in the HF band are potentially useful in heating shale i n s i t u to extract oil. To help evaluate the efficiency of such antennas

John P. Casey; Rajeev Bansal

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Multiscale strength homogenization : application to shale nanoindentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shales are one of the most encountered materials in sedimentary basins. Because of their highly heterogeneous nature, their strength prediction for oil and gas exploitation engineering has long time been an enigma. In this ...

Gathier, Benjamin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

In situ recovery of shale oil  

SciTech Connect

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean oil shale deposit by excavating a columnar void having a vertically extending free face, drilling blasting holes adjacent to the columnar void and parallel to the free face, loading the blasting holes with explosive, and detonating the explosive in a single round to expand the shale adjacent to the columnar void toward the free face in layers severed in a sequence progressing away from the free face and to fill with fragmented oil shale the columnar void and the space in the in situ retort originally occupied by the expanded shale prior to the expansion. A room having a horizontal floor plan that coincides approximately with the horizontal cross section of the retort to be formed is excavated so as to intersect the columnar void. The blasting holes are drilled and loaded with explosive from the room. The room can lie above the columnar void, below the columnar void, or intermediate the ends of the columnar void. In one embodiment, the columnar void is cylindrical and the blasting holes are arranged in concentric rings around the columnar void. In another embodiment, the columnar void is a slot having one or more large parallel, planar vertical free faces, toward which the oil shale in the retort under construction can be explosively expanded. The blasting holes are arranged in planes parallel to these faces. The resulting retort generally has a cross section coinciding with the placement of the blasting holes and a height determined for the greater part by the vertical height of the columnar void. To form a retort having a large cross-sectional area, a plurality of columnar voids can be excavated and the shale in the retort expanded toward the respective columnar voids to form a continuous fragmented permeable mass of oil shale.

French, G.B.

1977-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

469

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

SciTech Connect

Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Reverse combustion oil-shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oil shale was retorted in a laboratory retort with the flame front and gas flow moving concurrently and countercurrently. Results indicate countercurrent flow produced a lower oil yield and a higher heating value of the retort gas than concurrent flow. Energy recovery from the oil shale was essentially the same when the retorting was done with either concurrent or countercurrent flame and gas movement. Laboratory results are compared with large scale retorts operated under similar conditions.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.; Dockter, L.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?˘ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?˘ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?˘ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?˘ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

472

Environmental control costs for oil shale processes  

SciTech Connect

The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 6: oil-shale development in the Piceance Creek Basin and potential water-quality changes  

SciTech Connect

This report brackets the stream quality changes due to pre-mining pumping activites required to prepare oil shale lease Tracts C-a and C-b for modified in situ retorting. The fluxes in groundwater discharged to the surface were identified for Tract C-b in a modeling effort by another laboratory. Assumed fluxes were used for Tract C-a. The quality of the groundwater aquifers of the Piceance Basin is assumed to be that reported in the literature. The changes are bracketed in this study by assuming all premining pumping is discharged to the surface stream. In one case, the pumped water is assumed to be of a quality like that of the upper aquifer with a relatively high quality. In the second case, the pumped water is assumed to come from the lower aquifer. Complete mixing and conservation of pollutants was assumed at sample points at the White River and at Lees Ferry of the Colorado River. A discussion of possible secondary effects of oil shale and coal mining is presented. In addition, a discussion of the uncertainties associated with the assumptions used in this study and alternative uses for the water to prevent stream contamination by oil shale development is provided.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Two-stage oil shale retorting process and disposal of spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Formation is excavated from an in situ oil shale retort site for forming at least one void within the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent such a void. The remaining zone is explosively expanded toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. Oil shale in the in situ retort is retorted to produce liquid and gaseous products, leaving a mass of spent oil shale particles in the in situ retort. Oil shale particles excavated from the in situ retort site are separately retorted, such as in a surface retorting operation, producing liquid and gaseous products and spent surface retorted oil shale particles. The spent surface retorted particles are disposed of by forming an aqueous slurry of the particles, and pumping the slurry into a spent in situ retort. In one embodiment, the aqueous slurry is introduced into a hot lower portion of the spent retort where contact with hot spent oil shale particles generates steam which, in turn, is withdrawn from the spent retort in usable form. In another embodiment, water from the aqueous slurry introduced into a spent in situ retort collects at a level within the retort. The water can be recovered by drilling a drainage hole upwardly from a lower level drift into the level within the spent retort where the water collects and draining the water through the drainage hole to the lower level drift for recovery.

Tassoney, J.P.

1983-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

475

Transport in shales and the design of improved water-based shale drilling fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transport of water and ions in shales and its impact on shale stability were studied to facilitate the improvement of water-based muds as shale drilling fluids. Transport parameters associated with flows driven by gradients in pressure and chemical potential were quantified in key laboratory and full-scale experiments. The experimental results show that the low-permeability matrices of intact, clay-rich shales can act as imperfect or leaky membranes that will sustain osmotic flow of water. Moreover, the ability of shales to act as osmotic membranes is shown to provide a powerful new means for stabilizing these rocks when exposed to water-based drilling fluids. Guidelines are presented for effective exploitation of shale membrane action and induced osmotic flows through optimized water-based drilling fluid formulation. In addition, special attention is given to induced electro-osmotic water flow in shales driven by electric potential gradients, which may provide an exciting, new, environmentally benign means for stabilizing shale formations.

Oort, E. van; Hale, A.H.; Mody, F.K.; Roy, S.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measured mercury levels in shale gases and waters. The TLV'srecovery shale Spent shale gas (wet) CS~35 cs~s6 CS-57 CS-59on large areas of the shale bed if gas channeling and

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

INTERCOMPARISON STUDY OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN RAW AND SPENT OIL SHALES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements ~n Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RI-Analytical Chemistry of Oil Shale and Tar Sands. Advan. inFischer Assay of Standard Oil-Shale Sample. Preprints, Div.

Fox, J.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

In-situ laser retorting of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale formations were retorted in-situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation. After fracturing a region of oil shale formation by directing a high energy laser beam into one of the wells and focussing the laser beam into a region of oil shale formation from a laser optical system, compressed gas was forced into the well which supports combustion in the flame front ignited by laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale and recovering gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured oil shale from one of the auxiliary wells.

Bloomfield, H.S.

1977-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

479

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: Experiment and kinetic analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of El-Lajjun oil shale were thermally decomposed in a laboratory retort system under a slow heating rate (0.07 K/s) up to a maximum temperature of 698--773 K. After decomposition, 0.02 kg of spent shale was extracted by chloroform in a Soxhlet extraction unit for 2 h to investigate the ultimate amount of shale oil that could be produced. The retorting results indicate an increase in the oil yields from 3.24% to 9.77% of oil shale feed with retorting temperature, while the extraction results show a decrease in oil yields from 8.10% to 3.32% of spent shale. The analysis of the data according to the global first-order model for isothermal and nonisothermal conditions shows kinetic parameters close to those reported in literature.

Khraisha, Y.H.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or by refin- ing and using shale Oil Mass balances and oil.shale retorting produces shale oil, mobility factors wereand retort operating shale, shale oil, retorting (LETC) con-

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482