National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for deviation diminishing gradually

  1. Global temperature deviations as a random walk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, O.

    1996-12-31

    Surface air temperature is the main parameter to represent the earth`s contemporary climate. Several historical temperature records on a global/monthly basis are available. Time-series analysis shows that they can be modelled via autoregressive moving average models closely connected to the classical random walk model. Fitted models emphasize a nonstationary character of the global/monthly temperature deviation from a certain level. The nonstationarity explains all trends and periods, found in the last century`s variability of global mean temperature. This means that the short-term temperature trends are inevitable and may have little in common with a currently increasing carbon dioxide amount. The calculations show that a reasonable understanding of the contemporary global mean climate is attainable, assuming random forcing to the climate system and treating temperature deviation as a response to it. The forcings occur due to volcanic eruptions, redistribution of cloudiness, variations in snow and ice covered areas, changes in solar output, etc. Their impact can not be directly estimated from changes of the earth`s radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, because actual measurements represent mixture of the forcings and responses. Thus, it is impossible empirically to separate the impact of one particular forcing (e.g., that due to increase of CO{sub 2} amount) from the sequence of all existing forcings in the earth climate system. More accurate modelling involving main feedback loops is necessary to ease such a separation.

  2. Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test Program for Certain Commercial Items Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test Program for Certain Commercial ...

  3. Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Higher Levels of CO2 May Diminish...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Decision Making Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Higher Levels of CO2 May Diminish Decision Making Performance You are ...

  4. Class Deviation- FAR 24.402(b) Trade Agreements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached for you information and use is a Class Deviation executed by the Senior Procurement Executives of NNSA and DOE addressing the Trade Agreements dollar thresholds at FAR 25.402(b). Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 2012-01 was issued to allow agencies to execute class deviations to authorize use of the updated Trade Agreements dollar thresholds pending the formal amendment of the FAR.

  5. Class Deviation – Extending the Biobased Product Reporting Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council (CAAC) issued Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 2013-01 to encourage agencies to extend the reporting deadline contained in paragraph (c)(2) of the clause at FAR 52.223-2, Affirmative Procurement of Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts, from October 31, 2012 to December 31, 2012. This Policy Flash forwards the approved DOE class deviation and the Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 2013-01.

  6. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  7. Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-11-10

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  8. Low-energy magnetic radiation: Deviations from GOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frauendorf, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wimmer, K.

    2014-10-15

    A pronounced spike at low energy in the strength function for magnetic radiation (LEMAR) is found by means of Shell Model calculations, which explains the experimentally observed enhancement of the dipole strength. LEMAR originates from statistical low-energy M1-transitions between many excited complex states. Re-coupling of the proton and neutron high-j orbitals generates the strong magnetic radiation. LEMAR is closely related to Magnetic Rotation. LEMAR is predicted for nuclides participating in the r-process of element synthesis and is expected to change the reaction rates. An exponential decrease of the strength function and a power law for the size distribution of the B(M1) values are found, which strongly deviate from the ones of the GOE of random matrices, which is commonly used to represent complex compound states.

  9. POLICY FLASH 2013-59 Class Deviation (FAR) 19.15, Women-Owned...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    POLICY FLASH 2013-59 Class Deviation (FAR) 19.15, Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program POLICY FLASH 2013-59 Class Deviation (FAR) 19.15, Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB)...

  10. AL2005-04ClassDeviation.pdf | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5-04ClassDeviation.pdf AL2005-04ClassDeviation.pdf PDF icon AL2005-04ClassDeviation.pdf More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - al2005-04.doc Microsoft Word - Matrixpart2.doc Acquisition Letter No. AL 2014-01

  11. Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program for Certain Commercial Items | Department of Energy Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test Program for Certain Commercial Items Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test Program for Certain Commercial Items The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council (CAAC) issued Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter (CAAL) 2013-03 on May 7, 2013; authorizing covered agencies to approve a Class Deviation to remove the dollar limitations on

  12. Microsoft Word - Flash2006-47DeviatedClauseII.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    970.5227-3 Technology Transfer Mission (Deviation-July 2006) This clause has as its purpose implementation of the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989 (Sections...

  13. Class Deviation from the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) 952.204-2, Security Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A class deviation from DEAR 952.204-2, Security Requirements, has been issued. The DEAR will be amended to reflect this change in an upcoming rulemaking.

  14. Updated Class Deviation for FAR 52.209-5, Certifications Regarding Responsibility Matters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached is the updated DOE Class Deviation for FAR 52.209-5, Certifications Regarding Responsibility Matters, addressing felony convictions under Federal laws and unpaid Federal tax liabilities. This Class Deviation was previously provided in Policy Flash 2012-40. The Class Deviation has been updated to reflect additional direction to federal agencies contained in Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 2014-01. Solicitation provisions are now included for FY 2012 and 2013 funding actions, and for FY 2014 and subsequent year funding actions. A FAR case has been initiated to formally incorporate the guidance into the FAR.

  15. POLICY FLASH 2013-59 Class Deviation (FAR) 19.15, Women-Owned...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lawrence Butler, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division at (202) 287-1945 or at lawrence.butler@hq.doe.gov. Policy Flash 13 Class Deviation.pdf CAAC Letter...

  16. Policy Flash 2014-09 Class Deviation from the Department of Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lawrence Butler, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division at (202) 287-1945 or at lawrence.butler@hq.doe.gov. Policy Flash 13 Class Deviation(2) (3).pdf Signed...

  17. Gradual degradation of concrete fiber containers and preliminary Safety analysis for the Slovak near-surface repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, Juraj

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: National Radioactive Waste Repository will be used for safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Mochovce, Slovak Republic. The Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) has developed a conceptual model that strongly overestimated radiological exposures for the Normal Evolution Scenario (NES). Radioactive waste management required additional measures for safe disposal of radioactive waste to minimize the potential consequence to the workers and the public. Use of Fiber Reinforced Containers (FRC) is proposed to enhance the performance of the potential repository for safe disposal of radioactive waste and reduce the probability of exposure. This paper contains the description of models, methods, results from experimental measurements and input data, which were used for probabilistic calculations of the lifetime FRC. The Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) for the FRC lifetime was used to modify the conceptual model for NES. The model assumed gradual degradation of the FRC and gradual intrusion of water to the repository volume. These assumptions are in contrary to the ones in the PSAR that assumed instantaneous degradation of the FRC and instantaneous fill-up of the repository volume. The model showed that the new assumptions resulted in less radiological consequences, which allows for final design modifications of the repository. (author)

  18. Class Deviation – FAR 52.209-5, Certifications Regarding Responsibility Matters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council issued Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 2012-02, encouraging covered agencies to approve the issuance of a Class Deviation to implement the prohibitions of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012 (Pub. L. 112-74), until such time as the FAR is formally amended. This Policy Flash forwards the approved DOE class deviation and provides a solicitation provision that addresses felony convictions under any Federal law, and unpaid Federal tax liabilities.

  19. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  20. Deviation from high-entropy configurations in the atomic distributions of a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multi-principal-element alloy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Deviation from high-entropy configurations in the atomic distributions of a multi-principal-element alloy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deviation from high-entropy configurations in the atomic distributions of a multi-principal-element alloy The alloy-design strategy of combining multiple elements in near-equimolar ratios has shown great potential for producing exceptional engineering materials, often known as

  1. Class Deviation FAR 52.222-8 Payrolls and Basic Records

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached for your information is a class deviation executed by the Senior Procurement Executives of NNSA and DOE (Attachment 1). It allows a deviation to FAR 52.222-8, Payrolls and Basic Records, so construction contractors can submit copies of payrolls without the home addresses of individual employees and showing only the last four digits of their social security numbers. Also attached is the revised clause for your convenience (Attachment 2).

  2. Efficiency and large deviations in time-asymmetric stochastic heat engines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gingrich, Todd R.; Rotskoff, Grant M.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2014-10-24

    In a stochastic heat engine driven by a cyclic non-equilibrium protocol, fluctuations in work and heat give rise to a fluctuating efficiency. Using computer simulations and tools from large deviation theory, we have examined these fluctuations in detail for a model two-state engine. We find in general that the form of efficiency probability distributions is similar to those described by Verley et al (2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4721), in particular featuring a local minimum in the long-time limit. In contrast to the time-symmetric engine protocols studied previously, however, this minimum need not occur at the value characteristic of a reversible Carnot engine. Furthermore, while the local minimum may reside at the global minimum of a large deviation rate function, it does not generally correspond to the least likely efficiency measured over finite time. Lastly, we introduce a general approximation for the finite-time efficiency distribution,more » $$P(\\eta )$$, based on large deviation statistics of work and heat, that remains very accurate even when $$P(\\eta )$$ deviates significantly from its large deviation form.« less

  3. Public Access to Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS) – FAR Clause 52.209-8 Class Deviation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached is a class deviation executed by the Senior Procurement Executives of NNSA and DOE. It allows a deviation to Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) clause 52.209-8, Updates of Information Regarding Responsibility Matters (DEVIATION) (OCT 2010). Given the requirements of Public Law 111-212, it is necessary to deviate from use of the current clause. Contracting Officers shall begin using the revised clause in new solicitations and contracts as prescribed at FAR 9.104-7(c).

  4. Gradual crossover in molecular organization of stable liquid H{sub 2}O at moderately high pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koga, Yoshikata; Westh, Peter; Yoshida, Koh; Inaba, Akira; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-15

    Using the literature raw data of the speed of sound and the specific volume, the isothermal compressibility, κ{sub T}, a second derivative thermodynamic quantity of G, was evaluated for liquid H{sub 2}O in the pressure range up to 350 MPa and the temperature to 50 ºC. We then obtained its pressure derivative, dκ{sub T}/dp, a third derivative numerically without using a fitting function to the κ{sub T} data. On taking yet another p-derivative at a fixed T graphically without resorting to any fitting function, the resulting d{sup 2}κ{sub T}/dp{sup 2}, a fourth derivative, showed a weak but clear step anomaly, with the onset of the step named point X and its end point Y. In analogy with another third and fourth derivative pair in binary aqueous solutions of glycerol, dα{sub p}/dx{sub Gly} and d{sup 2}α{sub p}/dx{sub Gly}{sup 2}, at 0.1 MPa (α{sub p} is the thermal expansivity and x{sub Gly} the mole fraction of solute glycerol) in our recent publication [J. Solution Chem. 43, 663-674 (2014); DOI:10.1007/s10953-013-0122-7], we argue that there is a gradual crossover in the molecular organization of pure H{sub 2}O from a low to a high p-regions starting at point X and ending at Y at a fixed T. The crossover takes place gradually spanning for about 100 MPa at a fixed temperature. The extrapolated temperature to zero p seems to be about 70 – 80 °C for points X and 90 – 110 °C for Y. Furthermore, the mid-points of X and Y seem to extrapolate to the triple point of liquid, ice Ih and ice III. Recalling that the zero x{sub Gly} extrapolation of point X and Y for binary aqueous glycerol at 0.1 MPa gives about the same T values respectively, we suggest that at zero pressure the region below about 70 °C the hydrogen bond network is bond-percolated, while above about 90 ºC there is no hydrogen bond network. Implication of these findings is discussed.

  5. Acquisition Letter 07 and Class Deviation for Nondisplacement of Qualified Workers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The attached Acquisition Letter and Class Deviation to the DEAR are issued to provide guidance to Contracting Officers on the proper implementation of the new nondisplacement requirements contained in Executive Order (EO) 13495 and part 9 of Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

  6. MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Arnd

    2010-02-10

    A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

  7. SCALING DEVIATIONS F O R NEUTRINO REACTIONS IN AYSMPTOTICALLY FREE FIELD THEORIES*

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SCALING DEVIATIONS F O R NEUTRINO REACTIONS IN AYSMPTOTICALLY FREE FIELD THEORIES* A. ZeeYt F, Wilczek and S. B. Treiman /- / N O T I C E This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United Stater Atomic Energy Commhaion, nor any of their employees, nor M Y of their contractors, rubeontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the

  8. Design, drilling, and testing of a deviated HTHP exploration well in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, K.P.; MacAndrew, R.

    1994-12-01

    Significant quantities of hydrocarbon reserves are contained in North Sea high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) reservoirs. Development of these reserves will require deviated wells. This paper outlines the planning, drilling, and testing of the first deviated HTHP well in the UK Sector of the North Sea. The high temperature requires mud systems, downhole equipment, and tools designed to work at elevated temperatures. The convergence of pore and fracture pressures leads to problems owing to the narrow band of mud weight between inducing losses and inducing a kick. This aspect of these wells probably causes the most trouble. The high mud weights required for well control leads to a situation where, owing to the large difference between formation-fluid and mud pressure gradients, mud overbalance becomes so high at the bottom of long permeable hole sections that differential sticking becomes likely. These problems are magnified when drilling small-diameter directional holes. The most important single factor in controlling these problems is the mud system design.

  9. GTA weld penetration and the effects of deviations in machine variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giedt, W.H.

    1987-07-01

    Analytical models for predicting the temperature distribution during GTA welding are reviewed with the purpose of developing a procedure for investigating the effects of deviations in machine parameters. The objective was to determine the accuracy required in machine settings to obtain reproducible results. This review revealed a wide range of published values (21 to 90%) for the arc heating efficiency. Low values (21 to 65%) were associated with evaluation of efficiency using constant property conduction models. Values from 75 to 90% were determined from calorimetric type measurements and are applicable for more accurate numerical solution procedures. Although numerical solutions can yield better overall weld zone predictions, calculations are lengthy and complex. In view of this and the indication that acceptable agreement with experimental measurements can be achieved with the moving-point-source solution, it was utilized to investigate the effects of deviations or errors in voltage, current, and travel speed on GTA weld penetration. Variations resulting from welding within current goals for voltage (+-0.1 V), current (+-3.0 A), and travel speed (+-2.0%) were found to be +-2 to 4%, with voltage and current being more influential than travel speed.

  10. Computer simulator of coiled tubing wellbore cleanouts in deviated wells recommends optimum pump rate and fluid viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    Key factors in the efficient removal of sand fill from deviated wells are the proper selection of a fluid and the pump rates. The operation should be designed to (1) reduce or eliminate the formation of beds of particles in the annulus between the casing and tubing, (2) maintain the particles in suspension and (3) transport the fill to the surface. A new design tool for coiled tubing (CT) cleanouts in deviated wells has been developed. Based on a mechanistic model of particle transport in deviated wells, it predicts the conditions under which a particle bed is formed, calculates the depth of the bed and determines whether the bed slides upward, remains stationary or slides back down the well. Moreover, it calculates the minimum pump rate required to achieve complete suspension of the fill for different fluid viscosities, sand pick-up rates and deviation angles, thereby allowing a simple assessment of the optimum design parameters.

  11. Class Deviation from Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information Systems (FAPIIS) Requirement at Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 9.4

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached is Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 20 10-02. which recommends that civilian agencies authorize class deviations from FAR provisions 9.406-3(f)(1) and 9.407-3(e)(l), the specific portions of the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information Systems (FAPIIS) rule requiring debarring and suspending officials to enter administrative agreements into the FAPSIIS data system. Accordingly, also attached is the Department of Energy's class deviation suspending compliance with this portion of the FAPIIS rule.

  12. Locality and nonlocality of classical restrictions of quantum spin systems with applications to quantum large deviations and entanglement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Roeck, W. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Maes, C. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Schtz, M. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Neto?n, K. E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be

    2015-02-15

    We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle.

  13. Class Deviation- DEAR 950.7006 /AL 2012-10, Implementation of the Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 2005

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A class deviation from DEAR 950.7006, Statutory nuclear hazards indemnity agreement, has been issued pending formal amendment of the DEAR Clause 952.250-70, Nuclear Hazards Indemnity Agreement. Acquisition Letter 2005-15 includes an alternative model clause for use in place of DEAR clause 952.250-70 until the dear amended.

  14. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.

    1998-10-27

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  15. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow and density of fluid in a conduit having a gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  16. Improved blade profile loss and deviation angle models for advanced transonic compressor bladings. Part 1: A model for subsonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, W.M.; Hennecke, D.K.; Fottner, L.

    1996-01-01

    New blading concepts as used in modern transonic axial-flow compressors require improved loss and deviation angle correlations. The new model presented in this paper incorporates several elements and treats blade-row flows having subsonic and supersonic inlet conditions separately. In the first part of this paper two proved and well-established profile loss correlations for subsonic flows are extended to quasi-two-dimensional conditions and to custom-tailored blade designs. Instead of a deviation angle correlation, a simple method based on singularities is utilized. The comparison between the new model and a recently published model demonstrates the improved accuracy in prediction of cascade performance achieved by the new model.

  17. Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test Program for Certain Commercial Items

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council issued Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 2013-02, authorizing covered agencies to extend the Commercial Item Test Program in FAR 13.5. Section 822 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, Public Law 112-239, extended the authority for the test program until January 1, 2015. An expedited FAR case is being processed to change the date of expiration for the program in FAR 13.500(d). Until such time, the Class Deviation to extend the Commercial Item Test Program in FAR 13.5 is appropriate to implement the extended authority contained in Section 822 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013. This Policy Flash forwards the approved DOE class deviation.

  18. Theoretical study on mode competition between fundamental and second harmonic modes in a 0.42 THz gyrotron with gradually tapered complex cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Qixiang Yu, Sheng; Zhang, Tianzhong; Li, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics of mode competition in the complex cavity gyrotron are studied by using multi-frequency, time-dependent theory with the cold-cavity longitudinal profile approximation. Based on the theory, a code is written to simulate the mode competition in the gradually tapered complex cavity gyrotron operating at second harmonic oscillation. The simulations tracking seven competition modes show that single mode oscillation of the desired mode TE{sub 17.4} at 150 kW level can be expected with proper choice of operating parameters. Through studying on mode competition, it is proved that the complex cavity has a good capability for suppressing the mode competition. Meanwhile, it is found that TE{sub 17.3} could be excited in the first cavity as a competition mode when the gyrotron operating at large beam current, which leads to that TE{sub 17.3} and TE{sub 17.4} with different frequencies can coexist stably in the complex cavity gyrotron with very close amplitudes. Thus, the complex cavity might be used for multi-frequency output gyrotron.

  19. Policy Flash 2013-31 Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test Program for Certain Commercial Items

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached is Policy Flash 2013-31 Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test Program for Certain Commercial Items

  20. How the main condition of phase stability can explain the effect of the velocity deviation of secondary electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostajeran, M.

    2014-11-15

    In this work, a main condition for phase stability has been employed to investigate the effects of the velocity deviation of the electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors (MPs). In a previous study [M. Mostajeran, Phys. Plasmas 21, 053108 (2014)], a stability equation was derived, where the secondary electron was assumed to have zero initial velocity and the phase deviation from the resonant phase was considered. In this work, both deviations in phase and velocity from the resonant condition are taken into account, assuming nonzero initial velocity for the secondary electrons. Using the main condition for stability, it is shown that MP discharge can rise in situations, where large velocity deviations from initial velocity and large phase deviations from resonant phase exist. This is contrary to what can be predicted on the basis of the simple stability condition. This result is further confirmed by numerical simulations.

  1. Deviations from tribimaximal mixing due to the vacuum expectation value misalignment in A{sub 4} models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, James; Rodejohann, Werner

    2010-05-01

    The addition of an A{sub 4} family symmetry and extended Higgs sector to the standard model can generate the tribimaximal mixing pattern for leptons, assuming the correct vacuum expectation value alignment of the Higgs scalars. Deviating this alignment affects the predictions for the neutrino oscillation and neutrino mass observables. An attempt is made to classify the plethora of models in the literature, with respect to the chosen A{sub 4} particle assignments. Of these models, two particularly popular examples have been analyzed for deviations from tribimaximal mixing by perturbing the vacuum expectation value alignments. The effect of perturbations on the mixing angle observables is studied. However, it is only investigation of the mass-related observables (the effective mass for neutrinoless double beta decay and the sum of masses from cosmology) that can lead to the exclusion of particular models by constraints from future data, which indicates the importance of neutrino mass in disentangling models. The models have also been tested for fine-tuning of the parameters. Furthermore, a well-known seesaw model is generalized to include additional scalars, which transform as representations of A{sub 4} not included in the original model.

  2. Arsenic transformation predisposes human skin keratinocytes to UV-induced DNA damage yet enhances their survival apparently by diminishing oxidant response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Yang; Kojima, Chikara; Chignell, Colin; Mason, Ronald; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-09-15

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark of UV-induced skin cancer. In the current work, inorganic arsenite exposure (100 nM) did not induce ODD during the 30 weeks required for malignant transformation. Although acute UV-treatment (UVA, 25 J/cm{sup 2}) increased ODD in passage-matched control cells, once transformed by arsenic to As-TM cells, acute UV actually further increased ODD (> 50%). Despite enhanced ODD, As-TM cells were resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. The response of apoptotic factors and oxidative stress genes was strongly mitigated in As-TM cells after UV exposure including increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and reduced Caspase-3, Nrf2, and Keap1 expression. Several Nrf2-related genes (HO-1, GCLs, SOD) showed diminished responses in As-TM cells after UV exposure consistent with reduced oxidant stress response. UV-exposed As-TM cells showed increased expression of cyclin D1 (proliferation gene) and decreased p16 (tumor suppressor). UV exposure enhanced the malignant phenotype of As-TM cells. Thus, the co-carcinogenicity between UV and arsenic in skin cancer might involve adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure generally mitigating the oxidative stress response, allowing apoptotic by-pass after UV and enhanced cell survival even in the face of increased UV-induced oxidative stress and increased ODD. - Highlights: > Arsenic transformation adapted to UV-induced apoptosis. > Arsenic transformation diminished oxidant response. > Arsenic transformation enhanced UV-induced DNA damage.

  3. Improved blade profile loss and deviation angle models for advanced transonic compressor bladings. Part 2: A model for supersonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, W.M.; Hennecke, D.K.; Fottner, L.

    1996-01-01

    New blading concepts as used in modern transonic axial-flow compressors require improved loss and deviation angle correlations. The new model presented in this paper incorporates several elements and treats blade-row flows having subsonic and supersonic inlet conditions separately. The second part of the present report focuses on the extension of a well-known correlation for cascade losses at supersonic inlet flows. It was originally established for DCA bladings and is now modified to reflect the flow situation in blade rows having low-cambered, arbitrarily designed blades including precompression blades. Finally, the steady loss increase from subsonic to supersonic inlet-flow velocities demonstrates the matched performance of the different correlations of the new model.

  4. Class Deviation addressing Buy American Act requirements in Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) 970.5244-1, Contractor Purchasing System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The attached class deviation from DEAR 970.5244-1(g) has been issued to increase the dollar threshold from $100,000 to $500,000 for: (1) determinations of individual item non-availability requiring the prior concurrence of the Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA)

  5. Real-Time Pretreatment Review Limits Unacceptable Deviations on a Cooperative Group Radiation Therapy Technique Trial: Quality Assurance Results of RTOG 0933

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondi, Vinai; Cui, Yunfeng; Mehta, Minesh P.; Manfredi, Denise; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James M.; Rowley, Howard; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: RTOG 0933 was a phase II trial of hippocampal avoidance during whole brain radiation therapy for patients with brain metastases. The results demonstrated improvement in short-term memory decline, as compared with historical control individuals, and preservation of quality of life. Integral to the conduct of this trial were quality assurance processes inclusive of pre-enrollment credentialing and pretreatment centralized review of enrolled patients. Methods and Materials: Before enrolling patients, all treating physicians and sites were required to successfully complete a “dry-run” credentialing test. The treating physicians were credentialed based on accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging–computed tomography image fusion and hippocampal and normal tissue contouring, and the sites were credentialed based on protocol-specified dosimetric criteria. Using the same criteria, pretreatment centralized review of enrolled patients was conducted. Physicians enrolling 3 consecutive patients without unacceptable deviations were permitted to enroll further patients without pretreatment review, although their cases were reviewed after treatment. Results: In all, 113 physicians and 84 sites were credentialed. Eight physicians (6.8%) failed hippocampal contouring on the first attempt; 3 were approved on the second attempt. Eight sites (9.5%) failed intensity modulated radiation therapy planning on the first attempt; all were approved on the second attempt. One hundred thirteen patients were enrolled in RTOG 0933; 100 were analyzable. Eighty-seven cases were reviewed before treatment; 5 (5.7%) violated the eligibility criteria, and 21 (24%) had unacceptable deviations. With feedback, 18 cases were approved on the second attempt and 2 cases on the third attempt. One patient was treated off protocol. Twenty-two cases were reviewed after treatment; 1 (4.5%) violated the eligibility criteria, and 5 (23%) had unacceptable deviations. Conclusions: Although >95% of the cases passed the pre-enrollment credentialing, the pretreatment centralized review disqualified 5.7% of reviewed cases, prevented unacceptable deviations in 24% of reviewed cases, and limited the final unacceptable deviation rate to 5%. Thus, pretreatment review is deemed necessary in future hippocampal avoidance trials and is potentially useful in other similarly challenging radiation therapy technique trials.

  6. Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to Implement Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Policy Memorandum M-12-16, Providing Prompt Payment to Small Business Subcontractors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council (CAAC) issued Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 2012-03 to distribute a class deviation clause agencies may use to require prime contractors to pay small business subcontractors on an accelerated timetable to the maximum extent practicable. This Policy Flash forwards the approved DOE class deviation and the Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 2012-03, containing the OMB/FAR Council class deviation clause.

  7. Final Technical Report - Large Deviation Methods for the Analysis and Design of Monte Carlo Schemes in Physics and Chemistry - DE-SC0002413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupuis, Paul

    2014-03-14

    This proposal is concerned with applications of Monte Carlo to problems in physics and chemistry where rare events degrade the performance of standard Monte Carlo. One class of problems is concerned with computation of various aspects of the equilibrium behavior of some Markov process via time averages. The problem to be overcome is that rare events interfere with the efficient sampling of all relevant parts of phase space. A second class concerns sampling transitions between two or more stable attractors. Here, rare events do not interfere with the sampling of all relevant parts of phase space, but make Monte Carlo inefficient because of the very large number of samples required to obtain variance comparable to the quantity estimated. The project uses large deviation methods for the mathematical analyses of various Monte Carlo techniques, and in particular for algorithmic analysis and design. This is done in the context of relevant application areas, mainly from chemistry and biology.

  8. Class Deviation by General Services Administration (GSA) to Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 51.1, Contractor Use of Government Supply Sources, for Time and Material or Labor Hour Procurements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The attached GSA class deviation to FAR Part 51, Contractor Use of Government Supply Sources, dated October 8,2009, permits contracting officers to authorize all GSA contractors, who are performing an order on a time and material (T&M) or labor-hour (LH) basis, to purchase supplies and service from other schedule contractors or process requisitions through the GSA Supply Program. This deviation is effective for five years to October 7,2014, unless otherwise revised or rescinded.

  9. Do diminishing marginal returns apply to DSM?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. electric power industry is currently spending approximately $2 billion annually on demand-side management (DSM) programs, a substantial increase over just a few years ago. The level of DSM spending is expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future, according to various industry surveys. Environmental benefits are among the chief assumed - and expected - benefits of DSM. In fact, the answer to how much cost-effective and achievable DSM is available depends, to some extent, on whether the value of environmental benefits of DSM is considered explicitly or implicitly. Several states now specifically require the environmental effect of alternative supply or demand options to be considered in utility resource-planning decisions. On the surface, it seems plausible that, assuming the current level of DSM is `good` for the environment, an even more aggressive level of DSM would be even better. Carrying this line of argument a step further would suggest that a highly aggressive DSM strategy, coupled with a heavy dose of nonpolluting renewable energy technologies, would eliminate the need for all new supply-side resources and be the closest thing to achieving nirvana - low-cost, environmentally benign electricity service - in utility resource planning. Those advocating such a strategy argue that is is not only justified from an environmental point of view, but also from an economic perspective, because it is the cheapest course of action to follow.

  10. Band gap estimation from temperature dependent Seebeck measurementDeviations from the 2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max} relation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, Zachary M.; Kim, Hyun-Sik; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-01-12

    In characterizing thermoelectric materials, electrical and thermal transport measurements are often used to estimate electronic band structure properties such as the effective mass and band gap. The Goldsmid-Sharp band gap, E{sub g}?=?2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max}, is a tool widely employed to estimate the band gap from temperature dependent Seebeck coefficient measurements. However, significant deviations of more than a factor of two are now known to occur. We find that this is when either the majority-to-minority weighted mobility ratio (A) becomes very different from 1.0 or as the band gap (E{sub g}) becomes significantly smaller than 10 k{sub B}T. For narrow gaps (E{sub g}???6 k{sub B}T), the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics applied by Goldsmid-Sharp break down and Fermi-Dirac statistics are required. We generate a chart that can be used to quickly estimate the expected correction to the Goldsmid-Sharp band gap depending on A and S{sub max}; however, additional errors can occur for S?

  11. Diminished cage effect in solid p-H{sub 2}: Infrared spectra of ClSCS, ClCS, and ClSC in an irradiated p-H{sub 2} matrix containing Cl{sub 2} and CS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chiung-Wei; Lee, Yaw-Chang; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2010-04-28

    Irradiation of a p-H{sub 2} matrix containing Cl{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} at 3.3 K with laser emission at 340 nm followed by annealing of the matrix produced main features at 1479.5 and 1480.8 cm{sup -1}. These lines are attributed to {nu}{sub 1} (SCS antisymmetric stretching) mode of ClSCS. Irradiation of the matrix at 355 nm decomposes ClSCS. Products CS (1272.2 and 1271.1 cm{sup -1}), ClCS (1193.9/1191.9 and 637.5 cm{sup -1}), and ClSC (1137.0 cm{sup -1}) were observed upon annealing. The assignments were based on comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers and {sup 13}C- and {sup 34}S-isotopic ratios with those predicted with density-functional theories (B3LYP and BPW91/aug-cc-pVTZ). These results demonstrate that the cage effect of solid p-H{sub 2} is diminished so that isolated Cl was produced via photodissociation of Cl{sub 2} in situ and subsequently reacted with CS{sub 2} to form ClSCS, but not ClC(=S)SCl, upon annealing; typically ClC(=S)SCl was produced as the major product on irradiation of noble-gas matrices containing Cl{sub 2} and CS{sub 2}. Observation of ClSCS but not ClCS{sub 2} is consistent with the theoretical prediction that only formation of the former proceeds via a barrierless path. Similarly, upon irradiation of ClSCS at 355 nm, Cl, CS, and CS{sub 2} were produced; subsequent annealing of the irradiated matrix produced ClSC and ClCS via barrierless paths.

  12. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-12-09

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases.

  13. Deviation from high-entropy configurations in the atomic distributions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Understanding the elemental distribution, and, thus, the evolution of the configurational entropy during solidification, is undertaken in the present study using the ...

  14. CLASS DEVIATION FINDINGS AND DETERMINATION USE OF CLAUSE TO IMPLEMENT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Order and the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council is required to provide for inclusion of the contract clause in Federal procurement solicitations and contracts subject to...

  15. CLASS DEVIATION FINDINGS AND DETERMINATION TO IMPLEMENT AN APPROPRIATI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROVISION RELATED TO INTERNAL CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENTS AND THE REPORTING OF FRAUD, WASTE, AND ABUSE Findings I. Section 743 of Division E, Title VII of the Consolidated...

  16. Deviation from high-entropy configurations in the atomic distributions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The alloy-design strategy of combining multiple elements in near-equimolar ratios has ... In addition, the results suggest that the high-entropy-alloy-design strategy may be ...

  17. ACCESS TO AND OWNERSHIP OF RECORDS (OCT 2014) (DEVIATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and employee benefits; drug testing records, labor negotiation records; records on ethics, employee concerns; records generated during the course of responding to allegations ...

  18. Gradual Release of Strongly Bound Nitric Oxide from Fe2(NO)2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), is shown to strongly bind nitric oxide at 298 K. Adsorption isotherms indicate an adsorption capacity greater than 16 wt %, corresponding to the...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    decline gradually last week as markets returned to relatively normal operation. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) At the Henry Hub, the spot market...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    decline gradually last week as markets returned to relatively normal operation. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) At the Henry Hub, the spot market...

  1. Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Higher Levels of CO2 May Diminish...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION Word Cloud More ...

  2. Inhibition of K+ permeability diminishes alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated effects on norepinephrine release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimanyi, I.; Folly, G.; Vizi, E.S.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of two different potassium channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and quinine, on the alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated modulation of norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated. Pairs of mouse vasa deferentia were loaded with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine (/sup 3/H-NE), superfused continuously, and stimulated electrically. 4-AP (5.3 x 10(-4) M), and quinine (10(-5) M) enhanced the stimulation-evoked release of tritium significantly. The electrically induced release of radioactivity was reduced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists (1-NE and xylazine) and enhanced by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Both effects were affected markedly by 4-AP or quinine: the depressant action of 1-NA and xylazine was partially antagonized and the facilitatory effect of yohimbine was completely abolished during the blockade of the potassium channels. It is suggested that the blockade of the potassium permeability counteracts negative feedback modulation; therefore, it seems likely that the stimulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors leads to an enhanced potassium permeability and hyperpolarization of varicose axon terminals.

  3. High temperature thermal insulating composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W. (Golden, CO); Lewis, Jr., John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A composite contains in one region graphite flakes and refractory fibers in arbonized polymeric resin and in an adjacent region a gradually diminishing weight proportion of graphite flakes, refractory fibers, and the same carbonized resin.

  4. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.

  5. Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1998-02-10

    A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.

  6. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solli, Linn Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS{sup −1}, obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids.

  7. Limitations and Recommendations in the Use of Compression and Leak-Down Tests to Monitor Gradual Engine Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; West, Brian H

    2011-01-01

    Compression and leak-down tests are frequently used to identify and diagnose failed engine power cylinders. It is also often desirable in research and testing programs to use these tests to monitor incremental changes in cylinder leakage. This paper investigates whether these tests are adequate in their present form to monitor incremental changes in cylinder leakage. Results are presented from two vehicle fleets at two test sites. Compression and leak-down tests were conducted on these fleets periodically during a mileage accumulation study. The results were used to establish the variability inherent in the compression and leak-down test processes. Comparisons between the results at the initial mileage test for the study vehicles with those at the final mileage test are shown to be largely within the uncertainty established for repeat assessments. The relative overlap in the magnitude of leakage changes and measurement uncertainty shows that the leak-down and compression tests are not useful in their present forms for monitoring incremental changes in engine leakage. Recommendations for reducing the variability of the leak-down test, perhaps making it useful for future studies, are presented.

  8. What is behind small deviations of quantum mechanics theory from experiments? Observer's mathematics point of view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khots, Boris; Khots, Dmitriy

    2014-12-10

    Certain results that have been predicted by Quantum Mechanics (QM) theory are not always supported by experiments. This defines a deep crisis in contemporary physics and, in particular, quantum mechanics. We believe that, in fact, the mathematical apparatus employed within today's physics is a possible reason. In particular, we consider the concept of infinity that exists in today's mathematics as the root cause of this problem. We have created Observer's Mathematics that offers an alternative to contemporary mathematics. This paper is an attempt to relay how Observer's Mathematics may explain some of the contradictions in QM theory results. We consider the Hamiltonian Mechanics, Newton equation, Schrodinger equation, two slit interference, wave-particle duality for single photons, uncertainty principle, Dirac equations for free electron in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, and topology provided by Observer's Mathematics (see www.mathrelativity.com). Certain results and communications pertaining to solution of these problems are provided.

  9. Policy Flash 2013-64 Acquisition Letter 10 and Class Deviation for Nondisplacement of Qualified Workers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Jason Taylor of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division, Office of Policy, Office of Acquisition and Project Management at...

  10. Policy Flash 2013-31 Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test Program for Certain Commercial Items Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Richard Bonnell of the...

  11. AL 2013-10 - Signed Class Deviation 970.5244-1.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  12. Policy Flash 2013-64 Acquisition Letter 10 and Class Deviation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jason Taylor of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division, Office of Policy, Office of Acquisition and Project Management at (202) 287-1560 or at jason.taylor@hq.doe....

  13. Policy Flash 2013-64 Acquisition Letter 10 and Class Deviation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Policy, Office of Acquisition and Project Management at (202) 287-1560 or at jason.taylor@hq.doe.gov. PDF icon Policy FlashNondisplacement.pdf PDF icon...

  14. Recent HRIBF Research - Deviations from U(5) Symmetry in 116Cd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent Federal Register Notices Recent Federal Register Notices The Department of Energy (DOE) has compiled a table of Federal Register notices published by the Appliance and Equipment Standards Program, beginning January 2014. Information regarding notices associated with current rulemakings, but not listed, can be found on the appropriate rulemakings web page section. Each rulemaking page provides links to notices and to rulemaking dockets, and other information regarding pending rulemakings,

  15. Policy Flash 2014-28 Updated Class Deviation for FAR 52.209-5...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Kevin M. Smith, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division, at Kevin.M.Smith@hq.doe.gov , or at (202) ...

  16. Policy Flash 2014-09 Class Deviation from the Department of Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Lawrence Butler, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division at (202) 287-1945 or at...

  17. Policy Flash 2014-10 Class Deviation DEAR 952.204-02 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEAR 952.204-02 Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Lawrence Butler, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division at (202) 287-1945 or at...

  18. Policy Flash 2014-09 Class Deviation from the Department of Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (DEAR) 952.204-2 Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Lawrence Butler, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division at (202) 287-1945 or at...

  19. Microsoft Word - Flash2006-47JulyDeviatedClause.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    administration of this contract, such as financial, administrative, cost and pricing, or management information. (4) Limited rights data, as used in this clause, means data, other...

  20. POLICY FLASH 2013-59 Class Deviation (FAR) 19.15, Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Lawrence Butler, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division at (202) 287-1945 or at lawrence.butler@hq.doe.gov.

  1. Deviation from high-entropy configurations in the atomic distributions of a multi-principal-element alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Santodonato, Louis J.; Zhang, Yang; Feygenson, Mikhail; Parish, Chad M.; Gao, Michael C.; Weber, Richard J. K.; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tang, Zhi; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-01-20

    The alloy-design strategy of combining multiple elements in near-equimolar ratios has shown great potential for producing exceptional engineering materials, often known as high-entropy alloys . Understanding the elemental distribution, and, thus, the evolution of the configurational entropy during solidification, is undertaken in the present study using the Al1.3CoCrCuFeNi model alloy. Here we show that, even when the material undergoes elemental segregation, precipitation, chemical ordering and spinodal decomposition, a significant amount of disorder remains, due to the distributions of multiple elements in the major phases. The results suggest that the high-entropy alloy-design strategy may be applied to a wide range ofmore » complex materials, and should not be limited to the goal of creating single-phase solid solutions.« less

  2. Deviation from high-entropy configurations in the atomic distributions of a multi-principal-element alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Santodonato, Louis J.; Zhang, Yang; Feygenson, Mikhail; Parish, Chad M.; Gao, Michael C.; Weber, Richard J. K.; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tang, Zhi; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-01-20

    The alloy-design strategy of combining multiple elements in near-equimolar ratios has shown great potential for producing exceptional engineering materials, often known as “high-entropy alloys”. Understanding the elemental distribution, and, thus, the evolution of the configurational entropy during solidification, is undertaken in the present study using the Al1.3CoCrCuFeNi model alloy. Here we show that even when the material undergoes elemental segregation, precipitation, chemical ordering, and spinodal decomposition, a significant amount of disorder remains, due to the distributions of multiple elements in the major phases. In addition, the results suggest that the high-entropy-alloy-design strategy may be applied to a wide range ofmore » complex materials, and should not be limited to the goal of creating single-phase solid solutions.« less

  3. Policy Flash 2014-28 Updated Class Deviation for FAR 52.209-5, Certifications Regarding Responsibility Matters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Kevin M. Smith, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division, at Kevin.M.Smith@hq.doe.gov , or at (202) 287-1614.

  4. Policy Flash 2014-09 Class Deviation from the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) 952.204-2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Lawrence Butler, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division at (202) 287-1945 or at lawrence.butler@hq.doe.gov.

  5. Solar spectral irradiance changes during cycle 24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchenko, S. V.; DeLand, M. T.

    2014-07-10

    We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow long-term (years) and short-term (weeks) changes in the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the 265-500 nm spectral range. During solar Cycle 24, in the relatively line-free regions the SSI changed by ?0.6% 0.2% around 265 nm. These changes gradually diminish to 0.15% 0.20% at 500 nm. All strong spectral lines and blends, with the notable exception of the upper Balmer lines, vary in unison with the solar 'continuum'. Besides the lines with strong chromospheric components, the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH, and CN spectral bands. Following the general trend seen in the solar 'continuum', the variability of spectral lines also decreases toward longer wavelengths. The long-term solar cycle SSI changes are closely, to within the quoted 0.1%-0.2% uncertainties, matched by the appropriately adjusted short-term SSI variations derived from the 27 day rotational modulation cycles. This further strengthens and broadens the prevailing notion about the general scalability of the UV SSI variability to the emissivity changes in the Mg II 280 nm doublet on timescales from weeks to years. We also detect subtle deviations from this general rule: the prominent spectral lines and blends at ? ? 350 nm show slightly more pronounced 27 day SSI changes when compared to the long-term (years) trends. We merge the solar data from Cycle 21 with the current Cycle 24 OMI and GOME-2 observations and provide normalized SSI variations for the 170-795 nm spectral region.

  6. Cation Intermixing And Electronic Deviations At The Insulating LaCrO3/SrTiO3(001) Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, Robert J.; Qiao, Liang; Zhang, Hongliang; Shutthanandan, V.; Ciston, Jim; Kabius, Bernd C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2013-10-29

    The interface between polar perovskite LaCrO3 (LCO) and non-polar SrTiO3(001) (STO), grown by molecular beam epitaxy, is examined using a combination of electron microscopy, spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The LCO/STO(001) interface is insulating, a potential counter example for the claim that polar/nonpolar perovskite interfaces should be conductive by virtue of an electronic reconstruction to alleviate the polar discontinuity. The A-site cations of these ABO3 perovskites are found to diffuse across the interface to a greater extent than the B-site cations, based on high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The B-site cation valences are shown to be partially reduced near the interface by analysis of EELS near-edge structures. The location and direction of these electronic modifications do not intuitively compensate the charge imbalance imposed by uneven cation inter-diffusion, and yet both the film and interface are insulating. These results highlight the importance of both the physical and electronic structure of such complex interfaces in determining their characteristics. Furthermore, the extent of inter-diffusion is shown to increase with increasing LCO film thickness, suggesting a potential mechanism behind the critical thickness for interfacial conductivity in other polar/non-polar oxide systems, and a fundamental limitation on the formation of abrupt interfaces in LCO/STO(001).

  7. LoCuSS: A COMPARISON OF CLUSTER MASS MEASUREMENTS FROM XMM-NEWTON AND SUBARU-TESTING DEVIATION FROM HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM AND NON-THERMAL PRESSURE SUPPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yu-Ying; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Finoguenov, Alexis; Smith, Graham P.; Sanderson, Alastair J. R.; Piffaretti, Rocco; Valdarnini, Riccardo; Evrard, August E.; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2010-03-10

    We compare X-ray hydrostatic and weak-lensing mass estimates for a sample of 12 clusters that have been observed with both XMM-Newton and Subaru. At an over-density of DELTA = 500, we obtain 1 - M {sup X}/M {sup WL} = 0.01 +- 0.07 for the whole sample. We also divided the sample into undisturbed and disturbed sub-samples based on quantitative X-ray morphologies using asymmetry and fluctuation parameters, obtaining 1 - M {sup X}/M {sup WL} = 0.09 +- 0.06 and -0.06 +- 0.12 for the undisturbed and disturbed clusters, respectively. In addition to non-thermal pressure support, there may be a competing effect associated with adiabatic compression and/or shock heating which leads to overestimate of X-ray hydrostatic masses for disturbed clusters, for example, in the famous merging cluster A1914. Despite the modest statistical significance of the mass discrepancy, on average, in the undisturbed clusters, we detect a clear trend of improving agreement between M {sup X} and M {sup WL} as a function of increasing over-density, M{sup X}/M{sup WL}=(0.908+-0.004)+(0.187+-0.010){center_dot} log{sub 10}(DELTA/500). We also examine the gas mass fractions, f{sub gas} = M {sup gas}/M {sup WL}, finding that they are an increasing function of cluster radius, with no dependence on dynamical state, in agreement with predictions from numerical simulations. Overall, our results demonstrate that XMM-Newton and Subaru are a powerful combination for calibrating systematic uncertainties in cluster mass measurements.

  8. Policy Flash 2014-09 Class Deviation from the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) 952.204-2, Security Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Lawrence Butler, of the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division at (202) 287-1945 or at lawrence.butler@hq.doe.gov.

  9. FIRST Center Research Perspective_Mamontov_QENS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gradual development of the separate localized relaxation in liquids on cooling down makes one- component QENS data fitting inadequate, as manifested by the difference plot (data minus fit) deviation from zero level. Measurements performed at the neutron backscattering spectrometer BASIS of the Spallation Neutron Source, ORNL, suggest that the extent of the separation between the main and secondary relaxations scales with temperature as (T b /T), where T b is boiling temperature. FIRST Center

  10. Two-photon spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlawin, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Schlawin@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States); Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitt Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strae 3, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    The utility of quantum light as a spectroscopic tool is demonstrated for frequency-dispersed pump-probe, integrated pump-probe, and two-photon fluorescence signals which show Ramsey fringes. Simulations of the frequency-dispersed transmission of a broadband pulse of entangled photons interacting with a three-level model of matter reveal how the non-classical time-bandwidth properties of entangled photons can be used to disentangle congested spectra, and reveal otherwise unresolved features. Quantum light effects are most pronounced at weak intensities when entangled photon pairs are well separated, and are gradually diminished at higher intensities when different photon pairs overlap.

  11. A new approach for the determinination of horizontal wind direction fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibarra, J.I.

    1995-09-01

    A new method to determine horizontal wind direction fluctuations {sigma}{sub {theta}} is presented based on the hypothesis of a Gaussian distribution of wind direction that gradually moves to a circular, uniform distribution under near-calm conditions. A theoretical formulation for {sigma}{sub {theta}}, the persistence of wind and the total horizontal standard deviation {sigma} is provided and supported by experimental observations, both in a complex terrain valley site and in an open grassland spot in Spain. Comparisons of the proposed model with observations yielded a fairly good agreement, making the theoretical functions a straightforward procedure for use in atmospheric dispersion calculations. The method also provides insights on either the residual diffusivity in near-calm conditions or the maximal observable standard deviation. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. S. 943: A Bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to facilitate the use of abandoned mine reclamation fund moneys to replace water supplies that have been contaminated or diminished by coal mining practices. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 9, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The bill describes mandatory and discretionary allocations of funds to a state or Indian reservation for the purpose of water reclamation. The stated objectives of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act are amended to allow 50 percent of a state's mandatory allocation to be used for the construction of public water treatment plants and distribution facilities to take the place of water supplies that have been contaminated as a result of coal practices undertaken prior to August 3, 1977, regardless of whether the contamination has been exacerbated by coal mining practices since that date, when construction would be more economical than repair of existing facilities.

  13. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-09-14

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  14. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Doan, Tien M.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  15. Substitution of Ni for Fe in superconducting Fe?.??Te?.?Se?.? depresses the normal-state conductivity but not the magnetic spectral weight

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Jinghui; Tranquada, J. M.; Zhong, Ruidan; Li, Shichao; Gan, Yuan; Xu, Zhijun; Zhang, Cheng; Ozaki, T.; Matsuda, M.; Zhao, Yang; et al

    2015-01-05

    We have performed systematic resistivity and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on Fe?.???zNizTe?.?Se?.? samples to study the impact of Ni substitution on the transport properties and the low-energy (? 12 meV) magnetic excitations. It is found that, with increasing Ni doping, both the conductivity and superconductivity are gradually suppressed; in contrast, the low-energy magnetic spectral weight changes little. Comparing with the impact of Co and Cu substitution, we find that the effects on conductivity and superconductivity for the same degree of substitution grow systematically as the atomic number of the substituent deviates from that of Fe. The impact of the substituentsmoreas scattering centers appears to be greater than any contribution to carrier concentration. The fact that low-energy magnetic spectral weight is not reduced by increased electron scattering indicates that the existence of antiferromagnetic correlations does not depend on electronic states close to the Fermi energy.less

  16. Sensitivity of the threshold voltage of organic thin-film transistors to light and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Cong; Marinov, Ognian; Deen, M. Jamal; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam Ravi; Wu, Yiliang

    2015-05-14

    Analyses of extensive experiments with organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) indicate that the threshold voltage V{sub T} of an OTFT has a temporal differential sensitivity. In particular, V{sub T} changes initially by changing the light illumination intensity or making/removing a contact of water with the organic semiconductor. Keeping the conditions stationary, then the initial shift of V{sub T} diminishes, since the time dependence of V{sub T} gradually recovers the OTFT to the state before applying the change in the environmental conditions. While still causing a differential and time-variant shift of V{sub T}, the deionized water does not have a dramatic impact on OTFTs that use the polymer DKPP-?T (diketopyrrolopyrrole ?-unsubstituted quaterthiophene) as the active semiconductor material. Observations for the impact of water are made from experiments with an OTFT that has a microfluidic channel on the top the electrical channel, with the water in the microfluidic channel in direct contact with the electrical channel of the OTFT. This arrangement of electrical and microfluidic channels is a novel structure of the microfluidic OTFT, suitable for sensing applications of liquid analytes by means of organic electronics.

  17. Ab Initio Calculation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemical Shift Anisotropy Tensors 1. Influence of Basis Set on the Calculation of 31P Chemical Shifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, T.M.

    1998-09-01

    The influence of changes in the contracted Gaussian basis set used for ab initio calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phosphorous chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors was investigated. The isotropic chemical shitl and chemical shift anisotropy were found to converge with increasing complexity of the basis set at the Hartree-Fock @IF) level. The addition of d polarization function on the phosphorous nucIei was found to have a major impact of the calculated chemical shi~ but diminished with increasing number of polarization fimctions. At least 2 d polarization fimctions are required for accurate calculations of the isotropic phosphorous chemical shift. The introduction of density fictional theory (DFT) techniques through tie use of hybrid B3LYP methods for the calculation of the phosphorous chemical shift tensor resulted in a poorer estimation of the NMR values, even though DFT techniques result in improved energy and force constant calculations. The convergence of the W parametem with increasing basis set complexity was also observed for the DFT calculations, but produced results with consistent large deviations from experiment. The use of a HF 6-31 l++G(242p) basis set represents a good compromise between accuracy of the simulation and the complexity of the calculation for future ab initio calculations of 31P NMR parameters in larger complexes.

  18. N-(N-[2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)acetyl]-(S)-alanyl)-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT): an inhibitor of γ-secretase, revealing fine electronic and hydrogen-bonding features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco; Afonine, Pavel; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2010-12-01

    The title compound, C{sub 23}H{sub 26}F{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, is a dipeptidic inhibitor of γ-secretase, one of the enzymes involved in Alzheimer’s dis@@ease. The mol@@ecule adopts a compact conformation, without intra@@molecular hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, one of the amide N atoms forms the only inter@@molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond; the second amide N atom does not form hydrogen bonds. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data permitted the unequivocal location and refinement without restraints of all H atoms, and the identification of the characteristic shift of the amide H atom engaged in the hydrogen bond from its ideal position, resulting in a more linear hydrogen bond. Significant residual densities for bonding electrons were revealed after the usual SHELXL refinement, and modeling of these features as additional inter@@atomic scatterers (IAS) using the program PHENIX led to a significant decrease in the R factor from 0.0411 to 0.0325 and diminished the r.m.s. deviation level of noise in the final difference Fourier map from 0.063 to 0.037 e Å{sup −3}.

  19. Substitution of Ni for Fe in superconducting Fe0.98Te0.5Se0.5 depresses the normal-state conductivity but not the magnetic spectral weight

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Jinghui; Zhong, Ruidan; Li, Shichao; Gan, Yuan; Xu, Zhijun; Zhang, Cheng; Ozaki, T.; Matsuda, M.; Zhao, Yang; Li, Qiang; et al

    2015-01-05

    We have performed systematic resistivity and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on Fe₀.₉₈₋zNizTe₀.₅Se₀.₅ samples to study the impact of Ni substitution on the transport properties and the low-energy (≤ 12 meV) magnetic excitations. It is found that, with increasing Ni doping, both the conductivity and superconductivity are gradually suppressed; in contrast, the low-energy magnetic spectral weight changes little. Comparing with the impact of Co and Cu substitution, we find that the effects on conductivity and superconductivity for the same degree of substitution grow systematically as the atomic number of the substituent deviates from that of Fe. The impact of the substituentsmore » as scattering centers appears to be greater than any contribution to carrier concentration. The fact that low-energy magnetic spectral weight is not reduced by increased electron scattering indicates that the existence of antiferromagnetic correlations does not depend on electronic states close to the Fermi energy.« less

  20. The transition mechanism from a symmetric single period discharge to a period-doubling discharge in atmospheric helium dielectric-barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage.

  1. Verification of conventional equations of state for tantalum under quasi-isentropic compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binqiang, Luo; Guiji, Wang; Jianjun, Mo; Hongpin, Zhang; Fuli, Tan; Jianheng, Zhao; Cangli, Liu; Chengwei, Sun

    2014-11-21

    Shock Hugoniot data have been widely used to calibrate analytic equations of state (EOSs) of condensed matter at high pressures. However, the suitability of particular analytic EOSs under off-Hugoniot states has not been sufficiently verified using experimental data. We have conducted quasi-isentropic compression experiments (ICEs) of tantalum using the compact pulsed power generator CQ-4, and explored the relation of longitudinal stress versus volume of tantalum under quasi-isentropic compression using backward integration and characteristic inverse methods. By subtracting the deviatoric stress and additional pressure caused by irreversible plastic dissipation, the isentropic pressure can be extracted from the longitudinal stress. Several theoretical isentropes are deduced from analytic EOSs and compared with ICE results to validate the suitability of these analytic EOSs in isentropic compression states. The comparisons show that the Gruneisen EOS with Gruneisen Gamma proportional to volume is accurate, regardless whether the Hugoniot or isentrope is used as the reference line. The Vinet EOS yields better accuracy in isentropic compression states. Theoretical isentropes derived from Tillotson, PUFF, and Birch-Murnaghan EOSs well agree with the experimental isentrope in the range of 0–100 GPa, but deviate gradually with pressure increasing further.

  2. Comparative study of polar and semipolar (112?2) InGaN layers grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, Duc V. E-mail: peter.parbrook@tyndall.ie; Zubialevich, V. Z.; Oehler, F.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Alam, S. N.; Parbrook, P. J. E-mail: peter.parbrook@tyndall.ie; Caliebe, M.; Scholtz, F.

    2014-10-21

    InGaN layers were grown simultaneously on (112?2) GaN and (0001) GaN templates by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. At higher growth temperature (?750C), the indium content (<15%) of the (112?2) and (0001) InGaN layers was similar. However, for temperatures less than 750C, the indium content of the (112?2) InGaN layers (15%26%) were generally lower than those with (0001) orientation (15%32%). The compositional deviation was attributed to the different strain relaxations between the (112?2) and (0001) InGaN layers. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements of the (112?2) InGaN layers showed an emission wavelength that shifts gradually from 380 nm to 580 nm with decreasing growth temperature (or increasing indium composition). The peak emission wavelength of the (112?2) InGaN layers with an indium content of more than 10% blue-shifted a constant value of ?(5060) nm when using higher excitation power densities. This blue-shift was attributed to band filling effects in the layers.

  3. --No Title--

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS) - FAR Clause 52.209-8 Class Deviation SUMMARY: Attached is a class deviation executed by the Senior Procurement...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    days during the holiday period as cold weather blanketed much of the area. .(See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) (Temperature map) (Temperature Deviation Map). Prices in...

  5. Computational study of the shock driven instability of a multiphase particle-gas system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    None, None

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the interaction of a shock wave with a multiphase particle-gas system which creates an instability somewhat similar to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability but with a larger parameter space. Because this parameter space is large, we only present an introductory survey of the effects of many of these parameters. We highlight the effects of particle-gas coupling, incident shock strength, particle size, effective system density differences, and multiple particle relaxation time effects. We focus on dilute flows with mass loading up to 40% and do not attempt to cover all parametric combinations. Instead, we vary one parameter at a timemore » leaving additional parametric combinations for future work. The simulations are run with the Ares code, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which uses a multiphase particulate transport method to model two-way momentum and energy coupling. A brief validation of these models is presented and coupling effects are explored. It is shown that even for small particles, on the order of 1μm, multi-phase coupling effects are important and diminish the circulation deposition on the interface by up to 25%. These coupling effects are shown to create large temperature deviations from the dusty gas approximation, up to 20% greater, especially at higher shock strengths. It is also found that for a multiphase instability, the vortex sheet deposited at the interface separates into two sheets. In conclusion, depending on the particle and particle-gas Atwood numbers, the instability may be suppressed or enhanced by the interactions of these two vortex sheets.« less

  6. Powering | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Subsea Electrification and Seafloor Oil and Gas Processing Conventional oil and gas reserves are diminishing, which is driving the need to explore new unconventional ...

  7. DOE/IG-0058

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... STAR label, thus reducing energy savings, increasing consumer risk, and diminishing the value of the recent infusion of 300 million for ENERGY STAR rebates under the Recovery Act. ...

  8. Office of Inspector General Annual Performance Plan 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... STAR label, thus reducing energy savings, increasing consumer risk, and diminishing the value of the recent infusion of 300 million for ENERGY STAR rebates under the Recovery Act. ...

  9. Sustainable Buildings and Infrastructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "A sustainable society is one which satisfies its needs without diminishing the prospects of future generations."- Lester R. Brown, Founder and President, Worldwatch Institute

  10. DOE Mediation Service Announcement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    any workplace conflict can be the subject of a mediation; our goal is to diminish friction, increase productivity and reduce the escalation of disputes. Over the next several...

  11. WHITE HOUSE COUNCIL ON WOMEN AND GIRLS RECENT AGENCY ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... has been created in communities that have been a source of child victims. These efforts have diminished the social acceptance of this practice and reduced the number of ...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    to become Tropical Storm Chris, resulted in heavy rainfall, diminishing cooling load in Texas and Louisiana. On the week, California recorded the highest regional increase...

  13. Microsoft Word - IESP-roadmap-1.1.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... and may increase the adoption of new models by offering ... and diminishing the investment in HPC resources by ... or whether all the inefficiency, over time, involves ...

  14. Microsoft Word - IESP-roadmap.docx - IESP-roadmap.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... and may increase the adoption of new models by offering ... and diminishing the investment in HPC resources by ... or whether all the inefficiency, over time, involves ...

  15. LESSONS LEARNED LEARNED LESSONS N E P A

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased since the pre-industrial era, driven largely by economic and...

  16. Screenable Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) in recycled paper create a number of problems for the recycling process, including lost production and diminished product quality. Unlike conventional PSAs, a...

  17. Red Lake Weatherization Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is located at Red Lake Housing Authority Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians Red Lake , MN Red Lake Band of Chippewas Area overview Reservation (Diminished Lands) and Surroundings ...

  18. Cathedral Rock Picnic Area Rehabilitation Environmental Assessment

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Visitor Experience Additional parking spaces allow for more vehicles in the area, which increases associated noise and air pollution. This diminishes the experience of visitors who ...

  19. Microsoft Word - Final FS ROD.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... of renewable resources such as wind, solar, and geothermal in the West (Black & ... systems may diminish the need for some future long- distance transmission, current ...

  20. Geothermal Technologies Program Coproduction Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coproduced geothermal resources can deliver near-term energy savings, diminish greenhouse ... Geothermal Power Oil & Gas Coproduction Opportunity The U.S. Department of Energy's ...

  1. Polarized Photofission Fragment Angular Distributions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the energy difference between the barrier penetration would diminish the natural preference ... JETP, 61:684, 1971. 34 A. Krasznahorkay. Handbook of Nucl. Chem., volume 1. ...

  2. Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2005 2005 Summer Motor Fuels Outlook Update (Figure 1) ... recently diminished; in practice, only Energy Information AdministrationShort-Term ...

  3. DOE/EIA-M059(2007)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Adjust CTL investment costs over forecast. Purpose: Have CTL investment costs reflect learning and diminished resources. A decline rate in investment costs is used to model...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Republic of Korea and Japan, diminishing the impact of local pollution controls. ... within several megacities may reflect mixed efforts to cope with air quality degradation. ...

  5. A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Republic of Korea and Japan, diminishing the impact of local pollution controls. ... within several megacities may reflect mixed efforts to cope with air quality degradation. ...

  6. Structural phase transition, narrow band gap, and room-temperature ferromagnetism in [KNbO{sub 3}]{sub 1?x}[BaNi{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2}O{sub 3??}]{sub x} ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenliang; Yang, Pingxiong Chu, Junhao; Deng, Hongmei

    2014-09-15

    Structural phase transition, narrow band gap (E{sub g}), and room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) have been observed in the [KNbO{sub 3}]{sub 1?x}[BaNi{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2}O{sub 3??}]{sub x} (KBNNO) ceramics. All the samples have single phase perovskite structure, but exhibit a gradual transition behaviour from the orthorhombic to a cubic structure with the increase of x. Raman spectroscopy analysis not only corroborates this doping-induced change in normal structure but also shows the local crystal symmetry for x ? 0.1 compositions to deviate from the idealized cubic perovskite structure. A possible mechanism for the observed specific changes in lattice structure is discussed. Moreover, it is noted that KBNNO with compositions x?=?0.10.3 have quite narrow E{sub g} of below 1.5?eV, much smaller than the 3.2?eV band gap of parent KNbO{sub 3} (KNO), which is due to the increasing Ni 3d electronic states within the gap of KNO. Furthermore, the KBNNO materials present RTFM near a tetragonal to cubic phase boundary. With increasing x from 0 to 0.3, the magnetism of the samples develops from diamagnetism to ferromagnetism and paramagnetism, originating from the ferromagneticantiferromagnetic competition. These results are helpful in the deeper understanding of phase transitions, band gap tunability, and magnetism variations in perovskite oxides and show the potential role, such materials can play, in perovskite solar cells and multiferroic applications.

  7. The variations in long term TLD measurements of environmental background radiation at locations in southeastern New York state and northern New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiello, M.L.

    1997-06-01

    The variations of the measured dose rate in air should be recognized especially where background radiation is used as a comparative benchmark to assess radiation surveillance and environmental remediation work. In this note, the natural variations of the combined gamma and cosmic-ray background air-dose rate as measured by lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosimeters are reported. The dosimeters were deployed monthly at locations within 150 km of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory in New York City. Urban and suburban stations were established with simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements at some locations. Measurements were obtained over 10 to 18 years. The mean air-dose rates from the six outdoor and four indoor stations vary from 50.8 to 123.1 nGy h{sup -1}. The range of the annual dose rates expressed as a percent-difference of the minimum and maximum is 5.3 to 18.0%. Commonly, 1-mo deviations from the long term mean of about {+-}10 to {+-}25% are observed. An abrupt decrease in the annual dose rate at one of the measurement sites was attributed to a minor relocation of a dosimeter. Structural shielding factors for the first and second floors of a residence are reported. The ground level location of a dosimeter inside another residence apparently resulted in a very high shielding factor. Finally, a gradual decrease of the dose rate at most of the stations is shown to exist (approximately -0.3 nGy h{sup -1} y{sup -1} for the outdoor stations). Plausible causes of this trend are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Comparative study of two- and three-dimensional modeling on arc discharge phenomena inside a thermal plasma torch with hollow electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Keun Su; Park, Jin Myung; Choi, Sooseok; Kim, Jongin; Hong, Sang Hee

    2008-02-15

    A comparative study between two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) modeling is carried out on arc discharge phenomena inside a thermal plasma torch with hollow electrodes, in order to evaluate the effects of arc root configuration characterized by either 2D annular or 3D highly localized attachment on the electrode surface. For this purpose, a more precise 3D transient model has been developed by taking account of 3D arc current distribution and arc root rotation. The 3D simulation results apparently reveal that the 3D arc root attachment brings about the inherent 3D and turbulence nature of plasma fields inside the torch. It is also found that the constricted arc column near the vortex chamber plays an important role in heating and acceleration of injected arc gases by concentrating arc currents on the axis of the hollow electrodes. The inherent 3D nature of arc discharge is well preserved inside the cathode region, while these 3D features slowly diminish behind the vortex chamber where the turbulent flow begins to be developed in the anode region. Based on the present simulation results, it is noted that the mixing effects of the strong turbulent flow on the heat and mass transfer are mainly responsible for the gradual relaxation of the 3D structures of plasma fields into the 2D axisymmetric ones that eventually appear in the anode region near the torch exit. From a detailed comparison of the 3D results with the 2D ones, the arc root configuration seems to have a significant effect on the heat transfer to the electrode surfaces interacting with the turbulent plasma flow. That is, in the 2D simulation based on an axisymmetric stationary model, the turbulence phenomena are fairly underestimated and the amount of heat transferred to the cold anode wall is calculated to be smaller than that obtained in the 3D simulation. For the validation of the numerical simulations, calculated plasma temperatures and axial velocities are compared with experimentally measured ones, and the 3D simulation turns out to be more accurate than the 2D simulation as a result of a relatively precise description of the turbulent phenomena inside the torch using a more realistic model of arc root attachment. Finally, it is suggested that the 3D transient formulation is indeed required for describing the real arc discharge phenomena inside the torch, while the 2D stationary approach is sometimes useful for getting practical information about the time-averaged plasma characteristics outside the torch because of its simplicity and rapidness in computation.

  9. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    WEIGHTED) State Week Total Week Deviation from Normal Week Deviation from Last Year NEW ENGLAND 97 -30 4 MIDDLE ATLANTIC 69 -40 9 E N CENTRAL 53 -60 13 W N CENTRAL 39 -63 -10...

  10. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    WEIGHTED) State Week Total Week Deviation from Normal Week Deviation from Last Year NEW ENGLAND 109 17 47 MIDDLE ATLANTIC 108 32 56 E N CENTRAL 135 54 50 W N CENTRAL 125 54...

  11. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    WEIGHTED) State Week Total Week Deviation from Normal Week Deviation from Last Year NEW ENGLAND 109 0 10 MIDDLE ATLANTIC 104 12 17 E N CENTRAL 140 44 42 W N CENTRAL 132 47 50...

  12. Policy Flash 2012-62

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SUBJECT: Class Deviation - DEAR 950.7006 AL 2012-10, Implementation of the Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 2005 SUMMARY: A class deviation from DEAR 950.7006, Statutory...

  13. Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Node-to-Node Time Deviation on XT4s and XT5s Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to-Node Time Deviation on ...

  14. Detection and quantification system for monitoring instruments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dzenitis, John M. (Danville, CA); Hertzog, Claudia K. (Houston, TX); Makarewicz, Anthony J. (Livermore, CA); Henderer, Bruce D. (Livermore, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-08-12

    A method of detecting real events by obtaining a set of recent signal results, calculating measures of the noise or variation based on the set of recent signal results, calculating an expected baseline value based on the set of recent signal results, determining sample deviation, calculating an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, setting an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation, and determining whether the signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

  15. Modeling the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage into an Unconfined...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the case of well failure during injection, and column experiments to simulate more gradual leaks such as those occurring along undetected faults, fractures, or well linings. ...

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the case of well failure during injection, and column experiments to simulate more gradual leaks such as those occurring along undetected faults, fractures, or well linings. ...

  17. NuMat Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    nanomaterials for gas storage and separation applications. ... Adsorbed Natural Gas fuel tanks for natural gas vehicles ... and supporting the gradual displacement of foreign oil. ...

  18. EIA Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and the East last week as the four cities monitored for this report recorded gradually rising temperatures (see Temperature graph). Despite the expected slack demand...

  19. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... While coal has regained some of its market share because of gradually rising natural gas prices, the combination of favorable economics and the lower conventional air pollution and ...

  20. The Effect of Roll Waves on the Hydrodynamics of Falling Films Observed in Vertical Column Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.A.

    2001-06-28

    A thin falling film is well suited to simultaneous heat and mass transfer because of the small thermal resistance through the film and because of the large contact surface achievable at low flow rates. The film enters as a smooth laminar flow and quickly transitions into small-amplitude wavy flow. The waves grown in length and amplitude and are identified as roll waves. This flow regime is termed wavy-laminar flow, and modern heat and mass transfer equipment operate in this complicated transition regime. Research published in open literature has shown the mass flow rate in the rollwaves to be about 10 to 20 times greater than that in the laminar substrate. As the film fully develops, the waves grow in mass and the film substrate thins because fluid is swept from the substrate by the secondary flows of the roll wave. Many studies have been conducted to measure and correlate the film thickness of wavy-laminar flows. Literature data show that Nusselt's theory for smooth laminar flow can over predict the film thickness by as much as 20% for certain wavy-laminar flow conditions. The hydrodynamics of falling films were therefore studied to measure the film thickness of a free-surface falling film and to better understand the parameters that affect the variations of the film thickness. A flow loop was set up for measuring the thickness, wave amplitude,and frequency of a film during hydrodynamic flow. Decreasing the pipe diameter caused the amplitude of the wavy flow to diminish. Measurements monitored from stations along the falling film showed a thinning of film thickness. Fully developed flow required large starting lengths of about 0.5 m. The film thickness increases as the Reynolds number (Re) increases. Increasing the Kapitza number (Ka) causes a decrease in the film thickness. Regression analysis showed that the Re and Ka numbers described the data trends in wavy-laminar flow. Rather than correlating the Re number in discrete ranges of the Ka number as earlier researchers have done, this research made the Ka number an independent regression variable along with the Re number. The correlation explains 96% of the total variation in the data and predicts the experimental data within an absolute average deviation of {+-} 4.0%. The correlation supports the calculation of a fully developed film thickness for wavy-laminar falling films.

  1. Sexual Functioning Among Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated With Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Intra-Vaginal Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damast, Shari; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Eaton, Anne; Patil, Sujata; Mosenkis, Jeffrey; Bennett, Antonia; Atkinson, Thomas; Jewell, Elizabeth; Leitao, Mario; Barakat, Richard; Carter, Jeanne; Basch, Ethan

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and factors associated with diminished sexual functioning in early stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with simple hysterectomy and adjuvant brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 104 patients followed in a radiation oncology clinic completed questionnaires to quantify current levels of sexual functioning. The time interval between hysterectomy and questionnaire completion ranged from <6 months to >5 years. Multivariate regression was performed using the FSFI as a continuous variable (score range, 1.2-35.4). SD was defined as an FSFI score of <26, based on the published validation study. Results: SD was reported by 81% of respondents. The mean ({+-} standard deviation) domain scores in order of highest-to-lowest functioning were: satisfaction, 2.9 ({+-}2.0); orgasm, 2.5 ({+-}2.4); desire, 2.4 ({+-}1.3); arousal, 2.2 ({+-}2.0); dryness, 2.1 ({+-}2.1); and pain, 1.9 ({+-}2.3). Compared to the index population in which the FSFI cut-score was validated (healthy women ages 18-74), all scores were low. Compared to published scores of a postmenopausal population, scores were not statistically different. Multivariate analysis isolated factors associated with lower FSFI scores, including having laparotomy as opposed to minimally invasive surgery (effect size, -7.1 points; 95% CI, -11.2 to -3.1; P<.001), lack of vaginal lubricant use (effect size, -4.4 points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -0.2, P=.040), and short time interval (<6 months) from hysterectomy to questionnaire completion (effect size, -4.6 points; 95% CI, -9.3-0.2; P=.059). Conclusions: The rate of SD, as defined by an FSFI score <26, was prevalent. The postmenopausal status of EC patients alone is a known risk factor for SD. Additional factors associated with poor sexual functioning following treatment for EC included receipt of laparotomy and lack of vaginal lubricant use.

  2. Theoretical foundation for measuring the groundwater age distribution.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr, 4He and themean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2-D and 3-D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3-D domains differ significantly from 2-D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3-D systems. Groundwater environmental tracers can provide important constraints for the calibration of groundwater flow models. Direct simulation of environmental tracer concentrations in models has the additional advantage of avoiding assumptions associated with using calculated groundwater age values. This study quantifies model uncertainty reduction resulting from the addition of environmental tracer concentration data. The analysis uses a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and the calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method. Results indicate a significant reduction in the uncertainty in permeability with the addition of environmental tracer data, relative to the use of hydraulic measurements alone. Anthropogenic tracers and their decay products, such as CFC11, 3H, and 3He, provide significant constraint oninput permeability values in the model. Tracer data for 39Ar provide even more complete information on the heterogeneity of permeability and variability in the flow system than the anthropogenic tracers, leading to greater parameter uncertainty reduction.

  3. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency. A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okwen, Roland; Frailey, Scott; Leetaru, Hannes; Moulton, Sandy

    2014-09-30

    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to normalized baseline E ranges ranks fluvial deltaic and turbidite highest and shelf carbonate lowest. The estimated average normalized baseline E of turbidite, and shelf carbonate depositional environments are 42.5% and 13.1%, with corresponding standard deviations of 11.3%, and 3.10%, respectively. Simulations of different plume management techniques suggest that the horizontal well, multi-well injection with brine production from blanket vertical producers are the most efficient E enhancement strategies in seven of eight depositional environments; for the fluvial deltaic depositional environment, vertical well with blanket completions is the most efficient. This study estimates normalized baseline E ranges for eight depositional environments, which can be used to assess the CO2 storage resource of candidate formations. This study also improves the general understanding of depositional environment’s influence on E. The lessons learned and results obtained from this study can be extrapolated to formations in other US basins with formations of similar depositional environments, which should be used to further refine regional and national storage resource estimates in future editions of the Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas of the United States. Further study could consider the economic feasibility of the E enhancement strategies identified here.

  4. ORIGIN OF 12 {mu}m EMISSION ACROSS GALAXY POPULATIONS FROM WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donoso, E.; Yan Lin; Tsai, C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Leisawitz, D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Stanford, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 {mu}m with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of {approx}10{sup 5} galaxies at (z) = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range {approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 {mu}m emission. We find that most ({approx}80%) of the 12 {mu}m emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 {mu}m emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L{sub [Oiii]} < 10{sup 7} L{sub .}) is produced by older stars, with ages of {approx}1-3 Gyr. We find that L{sub 12{mu}m} linearly correlates with stellar mass for SF galaxies. At fixed 12 {mu}m luminosity, weak AGNs deviate toward higher masses since they tend to be hosted by massive, early-type galaxies with older stellar populations. SF galaxies and weak AGNs follow different L{sub 12{mu}m}-SFR (star formation rate) relations, with weak AGNs showing excess 12 {mu}m emission at low SFR (0.02-1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). This is likely due to dust grains heated by older stars. While the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of SF galaxies is nearly constant, the SSFR of weak AGNs decreases by {approx}3 orders of magnitude, reflecting the very different star formation efficiencies between SF galaxies and massive, early-type galaxies. Stronger type II AGNs in our sample (L[{sub Oiii]} > 10{sup 7} L{sub .}), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 {mu}m color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  5. Application of a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter to nonreference condition dosimetry in the postal dose audit system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuno, Hideyuki, E-mail: h-mizuno@nirs.go.jp; Fukumura, Akifumi; Fukahori, Mai [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Sakata, Suoh; Yamashita, Wataru; Takase, Nobuhiro [Association for Nuclear Technology in Medicine, 7-16, Nihonbashikodenmacho, Chuou-ku, Tokyo 103-0001 (Japan); Yajima, Kaori [Toho University Omori Medical Center, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan); Katayose, Tetsurou [Chiba Cancer Center, 666-2 Nitona-Cho, Chuoh-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Abe-Sakama, Kyoko; Kanai, Tatsuaki [Gunma University, Heavy Ion Medical Research Center, 4-2, Aramaki-machi, Maebashi City, Gunma 371-8510 (Japan); Kusano, Yohsuke [Kanagawa Cancer Center, 1-1-2 Nakao, Asahi-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 241-8515 (Japan); Shimbo, Munefumi [Saitama Medical Center, 1981, Kamoda, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-8550 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a set of correction factors of the radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RGD) output for field size changes and wedge insertions. Methods: Several linear accelerators were used for irradiation of the RGDs. The field sizes were changed from 5 5 cm to 25 25 cm for 4, 6, 10, and 15 MV x-ray beams. The wedge angles were 15, 30, 45, and 60. In addition to physical wedge irradiation, nonphysical (dynamic/virtual) wedge irradiations were performed. Results: The obtained data were fitted with a single line for each energy, and correction factors were determined. Compared with ionization chamber outputs, the RGD outputs gradually increased with increasing field size, because of the higher RGD response to scattered low-energy photons. The output increase was about 1% per 10 cm increase in field size, with a slight difference dependent on the beam energy. For both physical and nonphysical wedged beam irradiation, there were no systematic trends in the RGD outputs, such as monotonic increase or decrease depending on the wedge angle change if the authors consider the uncertainty, which is approximately 0.6% for each set of measured points. Therefore, no correction factor was needed for all inserted wedges. Based on this work, postal dose audits using RGDs for the nonreference condition were initiated in 2010. The postal dose audit results between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. The mean difference between the measured and stated doses was within 0.5% for all fields with field sizes between 5 5 cm and 25 25 cm and with wedge angles from 15 to 60. The standard deviations (SDs) of the difference distribution were within the estimated uncertainty (1SD) except for the 25 25 cm field size data, which were not reliable because of poor statistics (n = 16). Conclusions: A set of RGD output correction factors was determined for field size changes and wedge insertions. The results obtained from recent postal dose audits were analyzed, and the mean differences between the measured and stated doses were within 0.5% for every field size and wedge angle. The SDs of the distribution were within the estimated uncertainty, except for one condition that was not reliable because of poor statistics.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SAND2014-20203C 1 Influencing Future Exploratory Drilling Rates-A Potential Approach for ... This would not eliminate, but would certainly diminish, the rate of exploratory drilling ...

  7. T

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as well as the diminishing cost in recent years have been propelled mainly by the video ... However, in recent years, the pace of increasing processor speed slowed, largely due to ...

  8. SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES From the Chief Technology Officer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... I n an era of diminishing energy resources and global climate change, solid-state lighting is a key technology. If LED electrical- to-optical energy conversion efficiency goals of ...

  9. ORISE: Undergraduate Research Experiences - Michael Capozzoli

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and measure dimensions, tolerances and deviations in parts produced by additive manufacturing. Click image to enlarge. Paris Cornwell's participation in the Laboratory...

  10. Microsoft Word - AL2006-08.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (071206) NUMBER DATE SUBJECT 2002-06 081402 Domestic and Foreign Procurement Preference Rules 2002-08 120202 Project Labor Agreements 2005-04 110204 Class Deviation to ...

  11. Flash2011-18 OPAM | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS) - FAR Clause 52.209-8 Class Deviation 2011-18 Attachment Public Access to Federal Awardee Performance and...

  12. DATE: TO: FROM:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Assistance Policy, MA-61 Office of Procurement and Assistance Management SUBJECT: Class Deviation by General Services Administration (GSA) to Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  13. Policy Flash 2015-04 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Division Office of Policy Office of Acquisition and Project Management SUBJECT: Class Deviation for Use of Clause 52.222-99, Establishing a Minimum Wage for Contractors...

  14. ARM - Datastreams - sonicwind2d

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Show all measurements Measurement Units Variable Horizontal wind Wind direction vector mean degree SonicWDDUWVT ( time ) Wind direction vector mean standard deviation...

  15. Policy Flash Archive Search File

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flash2001-12 FAR Class Deviation Addressing ... Advance Award Notification System Flash2001-28 Greening the ... the Business Process Change for Inter-Entity ...

  16. PROJECT MANAGEMENT RISK COMMITTEE (PMRC) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Any deviation to this procedure must be approved by the PMRC Chair. Secretariat Functions ... advising the PMRC Chair and the Chief Executive for Project Management (CE) on all ...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    likely contributed to the modest rally in prices early in the week. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) However, expectations of warmer temperatures early this week and...

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - Gai_2014_CNMS_StaffScienceHighlight_NatureComm...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    emergent physical phenomena at surfaces requires the capability to probe local composition, recognize minute deviations from ideal structures, and explore atomic coupling to...

  19. Parameterized reduced-order models using hyper-dual numbers....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the real system in the ROM. However, real, physical systems often deviate from the idealized models used in simulations due to variations in manufacturing or other factors. ...

  20. Policy Flash 2011-98.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    managementprocurement-and-acquisitionpolicy-flashes. Questions regarding this Class Deviation may be directed to Kevin M. Smith at (202) 287-1614 or Kevin.M.Smith@hq...

  1. Microsoft Word - STIP 11732.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Not modeled at this time are those perturbations from the more recent pulse height light (PHL) tally feature, although what spectral deviations are seen can be largely attributed ...

  2. Preliminary Benchmarking Efforts and MCNP Simulation Results...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Not modeled at this time are those perturbations from the more recent pulse height light (PHL) tally feature, although what spectral deviations are seen can be largely attributed ...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    normal temperatures, prices moved down at most major markets last week. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) At the Henry Hub, the spot market...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    normal temperatures, prices moved down at most major markets last week. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) At the Henry Hub, the spot market...

  5. Temperature Data for Week Ending May 12, 2005

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Temperature Data for Week Ending May 12, 2005 (F) Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service Average Temperature Deviation Between Average...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    15, 2001 Natural gas prices generally rose last week despite mild temperatures throughout much of the country (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map). After beginning the week...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and standard deviation of a set of data. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadshow-big-your-footprint Download Watt Does It Cost To Use It? Students learn how electrical...

  8. --No Title--

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Management SUBJECT: Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 19.15, Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program SUMMARY: The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council...

  9. GDR: Submission 412

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 crosssections in Adobe Illustrator format. - Originated 12312013 by University of Nevada Reno. 1 Resource...

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    also learn how to calculate the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation of a set of data. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadshow-big-your-footprint Download Summer...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    also learn how to calculate the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation of a set of data. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadshow-big-your-footprint Current search...

  12. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Electric Power Sector Coal Stocks: February 2016 Stocks In February, U.S. coal stockpiles remained relatively flat compared to the previous month, deviating from the normal ...

  13. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (United States) Denver Regional Office, Golden, CO (United States) Department of ... effective diameter, mean diameter, standard deviation of the droplet diameters about ...

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States) Yucca Mountain ... typically within a standard deviation of +- 3% for nearly cloud-free winter conditions. ...

  15. Symmetry Breaking of H2 Dissociation by a Single Photon

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    ... The curves represent theory (solid red line), experiment (circles with error bars representing standard deviation), and fit of the experimental data with spherical harmonics ...

  16. DE-SOL-0008449 REPORTING REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... for deviation to quality policy; and control of corrective ... conventions, and metrics that are to be applied to ... that specific parts and product handling, storage, ...

  17. Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.1- Acquisition Regulations System- (March 2004)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section discusses the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council, agency acquisition regulations, deviations from the FAR and DEAR, ratification of unauthorized commitments, and Contracting Officers and their representatives.

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Rotating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between bracketing calibration events. The standard deviation of random errors stemming from photon noise and CCD readout noise are calculated at each pixel in every scan....

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    days (HDDs) for the week ending October 11, according to the National Weather Service See Temperature Map.) (See Deviation Map.). Temperatures in major consuming market areas were...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    days (HDDs) for the week ending October 11, according to the National Weather Service See Temperature Map.) (See Deviation Map.). Temperatures in major consuming market areas were...

  1. MISR-Derived Statistics of Cumulus Geometry at TWP Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    derived from satellite (Figure 4a) and surface (Figure 5a) observations. Summary To test the potential for deriving the basic statistics (mean, standard deviation, and...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    also learn how to calculate the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation of a set of data. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadshow-big-your-footprint Download Life With...

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    also learn how to calculate the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation of a set of data. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadshow-big-your-footprint Download Watt Does...

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    also learn how to calculate the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation of a set of data. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadshow-big-your-footprint Download Energy...

  5. Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.0- Acquisition Regulations System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section discusses the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council, agency acquisition regulations, deviations from the FAR and DEAR, ratification of unauthorized commitments, and Contracting Officers and their representatives.

  6. Climate Change Impacts on Fish and Wildlife

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Earth’s climate is changing. In some places such as the Arctic, the change is rapid and profound, while in other areas change has been less dramatic and more gradual. But virtually everywhere,...

  7. Gyrotron cavity resonator with an improved value of Q

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, David S.; Shively, James F.

    1982-10-26

    A gyrotron cavity resonator is connected smoothly and directly to an output waveguide with a very gradually tapered wall so that values of external Q lower than twice the diffraction limit are obtainable.

  8. Gas Flux Sampling (Evans, Et Al., 2001) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    show that gas samples collected by either sudden pre-evacuated container or gradual gas pump. Removal of tens of cm3 of gas through an access pipe appear to reflect steady-state...

  9. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a half-kilometer route that tell a complex story about the gradual desiccation of the Red Planet. Perhaps most notable among findings from the ChemCam team is that all of the...

  10. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Surprisingly, we find that the Ti atom is displaced along (111) frommore its inversion symmetry center for x0.05. However, this average local Ti displacement gradually changes ...

  11. Fact #647: November 1, 2010 Sales Shifting from Light Trucks to Cars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From 2005 to 2009 light vehicle sales have gradually shifted toward cars over light trucks. The graph below shows this trend broken down by the major manufacturers. This trend is more evident among...

  12. Another Side of Light - B

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (continued) A B C D B. The implication According to Maxwell's theory, when charged particles vibrate and stir up waves in the electromagnetic force fields around them, energy from the particles' vibration should pass into the waves gradually. Furthermore, when electromagnetic waves run into charged particles and set the particles to vibrating (or alter their existing vibration), the energy transfer from the waves to the charged particles should also be gradual. The theory also-crucially-implies

  13. Surface control bent sub for directional drilling of petroleum wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Directional drilling apparatus for incorporation in a drill string, wherein a lower apparatus section is angularly deviated from vertical by cam action and wherein rotational displacement of the angularly deviated apparatus section is overcome by additional cam action, the apparatus being operated by successive increases and decreases of internal drill string pressure.

  14. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems: Experimental assessment of noise performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Tang, Jie; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To reduce radiation dose in CT imaging, the statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) method has been introduced for clinical use. Based on the principle of MBIR and its nonlinear nature, the noise performance of MBIR is expected to be different from that of the well-understood filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction method. The purpose of this work is to experimentally assess the unique noise characteristics of MBIR using a state-of-the-art clinical CT system. Methods: Three physical phantoms, including a water cylinder and two pediatric head phantoms, were scanned in axial scanning mode using a 64-slice CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at seven different mAs levels (5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300). At each mAs level, each phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 times to generate an image ensemble for noise analysis. Both the FBP method with a standard kernel and the MBIR method (Veo{sup }, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for CT image reconstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) noise power spectrum (NPS), two-dimensional (2D) NPS, and zero-dimensional NPS (noise variance) were assessed both globally and locally. Noise magnitude, noise spatial correlation, noise spatial uniformity and their dose dependence were examined for the two reconstruction methods. Results: (1) At each dose level and at each frequency, the magnitude of the NPS of MBIR was smaller than that of FBP. (2) While the shape of the NPS of FBP was dose-independent, the shape of the NPS of MBIR was strongly dose-dependent; lower dose lead to a redder NPS with a lower mean frequency value. (3) The noise standard deviation (?) of MBIR and dose were found to be related through a power law of ????(dose){sup ??} with the component ? ? 0.25, which violated the classical ????(dose){sup ?0.5} power law in FBP. (4) With MBIR, noise reduction was most prominent for thin image slices. (5) MBIR lead to better noise spatial uniformity when compared with FBP. (6) A composite image generated from two MBIR images acquired at two different dose levels (D1 and D2) demonstrated lower noise than that of an image acquired at a dose level of D1+D2. Conclusions: The noise characteristics of the MBIR method are significantly different from those of the FBP method. The well known tradeoff relationship between CT image noise and radiation dose has been modified by MBIR to establish a more gradual dependence of noise on dose. Additionally, some other CT noise properties that had been well understood based on the linear system theory have also been altered by MBIR. Clinical CT scan protocols that had been optimized based on the classical CT noise properties need to be carefully re-evaluated for systems equipped with MBIR in order to maximize the method's potential clinical benefits in dose reduction and/or in CT image quality improvement.

  15. Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to-Node Time

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deviation on XT4s and XT5s (Conference) | SciTech Connect Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to-Node Time Deviation on XT4s and XT5s Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to-Node Time Deviation on XT4s and XT5s We present a new high precision clock synchronization algorithm designed for large XT4 and XT5 leadership-class machines. The algorithm, which is designed to support OS noise reduction through

  16. Influence of discharge gap on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L.; Zhang, G. L.; Jin, D. Z.; Dai, J. Y.; Yang, L.

    2012-02-15

    The influence of the discharge gap between cathode and anode on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc (SVA) ion source is presented in this paper. Planar cathode and cylindrical hollow anode made of titanium are investigated. There is a great need in present accelerator injection research for SVA source to produce the small deviation of the ion current beam. Current research shows that increasing the short discharge gap can reduce the level of ion current deviation and ion charge deviation from 29% and 31% to 15% and 17%, respectively. A microplasma plume generation mechanism in SVA and scanning electron microscopic results can be used to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  17. MOA-2010-BLG-523: 'FAILED PLANET' = RS CVn STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, A.; Yee, J. C.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S.; Hung, L.-W.; Bond, I. A.; Udalski, A.; Han, C.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Greenhill, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Bensby, T.; Allen, W.; Almeida, L. A.; Jablonski, F.; Bos, M.; Christie, G. W.; DePoy, D. L.; Lee, C.-U.; Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; RoboNet Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; and others

    2013-02-15

    The Galactic bulge source MOA-2010-BLG-523S exhibited short-term deviations from a standard microlensing light curve near the peak of an A {sub max} {approx} 265 high-magnification microlensing event. The deviations originally seemed consistent with expectations for a planetary companion to the principal lens. We combine long-term photometric monitoring with a previously published high-resolution spectrum taken near peak to demonstrate that this is an RS CVn variable, so that planetary microlensing is not required to explain the light-curve deviations. This is the first spectroscopically confirmed RS CVn star discovered in the Galactic bulge.

  18. Geothermal Power/Oil & Gas Coproduction Opportunity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    2012-02-01

    Coproduced geothermal resources can deliver near-term energy savings, diminish greenhouse gas emissions, extend the economic life of oil and gas fields, and profitably utilize oil and gas field infrastructure. This two-pager provides an overview of geothermal coproduced resources.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  20. Heavy oil and coal conversion via the Aurabon process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, C.P.; Humbach, M.J.; Thompson, G.J.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Although time estimates vary, all forecasts point to a reduction in the availability of light crude oils. As the light crude supplies diminish, the role of resid upgrading in the refinery flow scheme must increase to allow the refinery the ability to convert heavier crudes into transportation fuels.

  1. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  2. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  3. Synthetic biology R&D risks: Social-institutional contexts matter!

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Bjornstad, David J.; Shumpert, Barry L.; Campa, Maria Fernanda; Bergmann, Rachael A.; Stelling, Savannah C.

    2016-02-15

    Social and institutional analyses currently are missing from considerations of synthetic biology R&D-related biosafety, which instead have bioethics, governance, or technical orientations. Social and institutional context shapes standard practice. Analyzing context helps identify circumstances that create, amplify, or diminish risk, thereby revealing new opportunities for avoiding or managing those risks.

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    most markets in the eastern two-thirds of the country, and warm temperatures were a prime contributor in California (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) Net additions to...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    most markets in the eastern two-thirds of the country, and warm temperatures were a prime contributor in California (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) Net additions to...

  6. http://www.leg.state.nv.us/nac/nac-445a.html

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... (d) The results of deviation checks conducted on a well which is constructed by drilling a pilot hole and enlarging that hole by reaming or other methods. Page 340 of 343 ...

  7. The pomeron in closed bosonic string theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fazio, A. R.

    2010-12-22

    We compute the couplings of the pomeron to the first few mass levels of closed bosonic string states in flat space. We recognize the deviation from the linearity of the Regge trajectories in a five dimensional anti De Sitter background.

  8. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    degree-days are deviations above the mean daily temperature of 65 F. For example, a weather station recording a mean daily temperature of 78 F would report 13 cooling...

  9. Policy Flash 2011-98 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8 Policy Flash 2011-98 The attached class deviation from DEAR 970.5244-1(g) has been issued to increase the dollar threshold from 100,000 to 500,000 for: (1) determinations of...

  10. Flash2010-75.pdf | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Flash2010-75.pdf Flash2010-75.pdf More Documents & Publications Policy Flash 2014-09 Class Deviation from the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) 952.204-2 Policy...

  11. High-speed photography of the bubble generated by an airgun ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimations of the bubble-wall velocity and bubble radius estimated from high-speed film sequences are also presented, and are compared with modeled results. The deviation between ...

  12. Acquisition Letters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    August 11, 2006 Acquisition Letter No. AL 2006-10 Class Deviation for Certain DEAR Intellectual Property Clauses October 24, 1993 Acquisition Letter No. AL 1994-19 Basic...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    will end the withdrawal season in a range of 1,200-1,300 Bcf. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviations Map) Other Market Trends: EIA Received Public Comments on Weekly...

  14. Replaces EIA-459F All Other Editions Are Obsolete OMB Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9. Open Items 10. Status Assessment and Forecast 11. Description of Attachments 12. ... If no deviations from the plan are forecast, enter a check in the box provided. Item 11 - ...

  15. Replaces EIA-459B U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activity Bar Intermediate Event completed early or late Time now and work done B Major milestones with an activity bar A D Schedule Deviation (not yet approved) F First change ...

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comparison is 0.86 with a normal deviation of 20% about this line. In addition to a case study where we examine the radiative feedback to the TOA, surface and atmosphere by a...

  17. Direct-Current Resistivity At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  18. Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  19. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Haleakala Volcano Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  20. Gas Flux Sampling At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  1. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Deviation of Nuclear Radii from a Smooth A Dependence for Neutron Data Dietrich, F S ; Anderson, J D ; Bauer, R W ; Girod, M ; Gogny, D ; Grimes, S M ; Hilaire, S ; McNabb, D P ...

  2. Electric Micro Imager Log At Coso Geothermal Area (2003) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be corrected for well-bore deviation. References Rose, P.; Barton, C.; McCulloch, J.; Moore, J.N.; Kovac, K.; Sheridan, J.; Spielman, P.; Berard, B. (1 January 2003) The Coso EGS...

  3. CRUSTAL STRESS HETEROGENEITY IN THE VICINITY OF COSO GEOTHERMAL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the CGF and outside the production area, and a control well several tens of kilometers south of the CGF. Average directions of Shmin and its standard deviation are similar...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (2) fabrication (2) formed (2) growth factors (2) ion beams (2) liquids (2) Filter by ... 15 nm as shown by the marked deviation in stress-strain relations as well as elastic ...

  5. BPA-2015-01296-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    It is from the Aprill4, 2015letter from DW Gregoire of Energy Northwest to the NRC with subject: COLUMBIA GENERATING STATION, DOCKET NO. 50-397 DEVIATION FROM BWRVIP FLAW...

  6. Consideration of Dynamical Effects on Parameterization of Clooud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lies in the specification of the r e ratio as a function of the relative dispersion (defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean radius of the droplet...

  7. RFS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A common measure of risk or uncertainty in the market is to define price volatility as the standard deviation of daily relative changes in price T N i T N N p p Volatility * - D - ...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map). Gas-customer-weighted heating degree-days (HDD) for the week ranged from 18 to nearly 40 percent greater than normal for such...

  9. BUFFERED WELL FIELD OUTLINES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Option Explicit Const cFEETPERMETER As Double 3.281 ' ' deviation factor is applied to the buffer distance ' so with a buffer distance of 100 and factor of 0.05 the ' ...

  10. Microsoft Word - al2005-04.doc | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    al2005-04.doc Microsoft Word - al2005-04.doc PDF icon Microsoft Word - al2005-04.doc More Documents & Publications AL2005-04ClassDeviation.pdf Microsoft Word - Matrixpart2.doc...

  11. Energy distribution of nonequilibrium electrons and optical phonons in GaAs under band-to-band pumping by intense short pulses of light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altybaev, G. S.; Kumekov, S. E. Mahmudov, A. A.

    2009-03-15

    Deviation from the Fermi distribution of nonequilibrium electrons and distribution of 'hot' optical phonons in GaAs under band-to-band pumping by picosecond pulses of light are calculated.

  12. G

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... of why traditional forms of contracting will not meet the Department's needs; o The planned structure of the ... of the acquisition (a class deviation to the to the FAR ...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as a brief heat wave in the eastern half of the country caused a rise in prices (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) that was somewhat undone by...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as a brief heat wave in the eastern half of the country caused a rise in prices (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) that was somewhat undone by...

  15. Section 62

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on the local information alone. The temporal-filtering is accomplished by a Gaussian filter, with a standard deviation of 6 hours and a window of plus or minus 24 hours....

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) The spot market price at the Henry Hub in Louisiana ended the week down 62 cents at 2.15 per MMBtu. On the NYMEX futures...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Deviation Map). After beginning the week down on Monday, October 8, spot prices at the Henry Hub climbed through Thursday before dropping 10 cents on Friday, October 12, to end...

  18. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    only a few parameters to simulate the main aspects of the realistic cloud fields like mean, standard deviation and correlation often assumed to be a power-law. These models are...

  19. InfiniBand-Connected LNET Routers Wheaton College Georgia Institute...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5.64 r 410.05 416.34 405.79 3.88 Benchmark Methods Run each test n times, collect mean and standard deviation Test parameter combinations: Number of Nodes File Size...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) prices at the Henry Hub spot market moved down late in the week, falling to 3.06 per MMBtu on Friday. Net injections...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) prices at the Henry Hub spot market moved down late in the week, falling to 3.06 per MMBtu on Friday. Net injections...

  2. DISCLAIMER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by the manufacturer have been quoted instead. February 2010, DOESC-ARMTR-050 5 5.1.1.1 Definition of Uncertainty We define uncertainty as the range of probable maximum deviation...

  3. Policy Flash 2012-62 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Policy Flash 2012-62 Policy Flash 2012-62 Attached is Policy Flash 2012-62 Class Deviation DEAR 950.7006AL 2012-10, Implementation of the Price-Anderson Act of 2005 Questions...

  4. Policy Flash 2012-21 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 Policy Flash 2012-21 Attached is Policy Flash 2012-21 Class Deviation on Trade Agreements. PolicyFlash2012-21.pdf More Documents & Publications Policy Flash 2012-30 Policy...

  5. Summary Article: IEA HPP Annex 36: Quality Installation / Quality Maintenance Sensitivity Studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hourahan, Glenn; Domanski, Piotr; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    The outcome from this Annex activity clearly identifies that poorly designed, installed, and/or maintained heat pumps operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy compared to their as-designed potential. Additionally, it is clear that small faults for a given field-observed practice are significant, that some attribute deviations (in various equipment applications and geographical locations) have a larger impact than others, and that multiple faults or deviations have a cumulative impact on heat pump performance.

  6. TRANSCOM Fact Sheet

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Features: Position and Messaging: data is updated at 4 to 7-minute intervals and shared with author- ized Federal, State and Tribal customers across the United States. 2-Way communications: Communications Cen- ter and Shipper have two way communications with Drivers. Route Deviation: can alert the operator if a route deviation has occurred. TRANSCOM is the Department of Energy (DOE) satellite tracking and communications system used to monitor radioactive material shipments from DOE and Nuclear

  7. Optimum phase space probabilities from quantum tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Arunabha S.; Roy, S. M.

    2014-01-15

    We determine a positive normalised phase space probability distribution P with minimum mean square fractional deviation from the Wigner distribution W. The minimum deviation, an invariant under phase space rotations, is a quantitative measure of the quantumness of the state. The positive distribution closest to W will be useful in quantum mechanics and in time frequency analysis. The position-momentum correlations given by the distribution can be tested experimentally in quantum optics.

  8. The measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon at Fermilab

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Logashenko, I.

    2015-06-17

    The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is one of the most precisely measured quantities in experimental particle physics. Its latest measurement at Brookhaven National Laboratory deviates from the Standard Model expectation by approximately 3.5 standard deviations. The goal of the new experiment, E989, now under construction at Fermilab, is a fourfold improvement in precision. Furthermore, we discuss the details of the future measurement and its current status.

  9. Higher order QED in high-mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltz, Anthony J.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2010-08-15

    Lowest order and higher order QED calculations have been carried out for the RHIC high mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs observed by PHENIX with single zero-degree-calorimeter triggers. The lowest order QED results for the experimental acceptance are about two standard deviations larger than the PHENIX data. Corresponding higher order QED calculations are within one standard deviation of the data.

  10. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2015 [Data Announcements] New MICROBASE Ensemble Data Set Available Bookmark and Share Height-time plots for 30-minute ensemble means and standard deviations of liquid effective radius are shown here from the MICROBASEEN data set. Height-time plots for 30-minute ensemble means and standard deviations of liquid effective radius are shown here from the MICROBASEEN data set. A new data set of ensemble cloud retrievals from the March 2000 intensive observational period at the Southern Great

  11. Method of validating measurement data of a process parameter from a plurality of individual sensor inputs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for generating a validated measurement of a process parameter at a point in time by using a plurality of individual sensor inputs from a scan of said sensors at said point in time. The sensor inputs from said scan are stored and a first validation pass is initiated by computing an initial average of all stored sensor inputs. Each sensor input is deviation checked by comparing each input including a preset tolerance against the initial average input. If the first deviation check is unsatisfactory, the sensor which produced the unsatisfactory input is flagged as suspect. It is then determined whether at least two of the inputs have not been flagged as suspect and are therefore considered good inputs. If two or more inputs are good, a second validation pass is initiated by computing a second average of all the good sensor inputs, and deviation checking the good inputs by comparing each good input including a present tolerance against the second average. If the second deviation check is satisfactory, the second average is displayed as the validated measurement and the suspect sensor as flagged as bad. A validation fault occurs if at least two inputs are not considered good, or if the second deviation check is not satisfactory. In the latter situation the inputs from each of all the sensors are compared against the last validated measurement and the value from the sensor input that deviates the least from the last valid measurement is displayed.

  12. Delta: the First Pion Nucleon Resonance - Its Discovery and Applications

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Nagle, D. E.

    1984-07-01

    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described.

  13. Even-odd oscillation and valley polarization of transmission between multilayer graphenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakanishi, Takeshi; Ando, Tsuneya

    2013-12-04

    Electron transmission through a boundary between multi-layer graphenes with Bernal stacking consisting of different number of layers is studied. A valley polarization in transmission probability appears as in monolayer and bilayer systems, exhibits considerable oscillation depending of even or odd layer numbers, and its amplitude gradually decreases with the layer number. The total transmission shows oscillation with much smaller amplitude.

  14. Damping of linear waves via ionization and recombination in homogeneous plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2010-11-15

    An oscillation-center model is proposed that analytically describes transformation of an arbitrary homogeneous linear wave at gradual ionization and recombination in homogeneous plasma. For the case when either of the processes dominates, general adiabatic invariants are found, from which the wave energy is derived as a function of the frequency.

  15. Strain engineering in graphene by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papasimakis, N.; Mailis, S.; Huang, C. C.; Al-Saab, F.; Hewak, D. W.; Luo, Z.; Shen, Z. X.

    2015-02-09

    We demonstrate that the Raman spectrum of graphene on lithium niobate can be controlled locally by continuous exposure to laser irradiation. We interpret our results in terms of changes to doping and mechanical strain and show that our observations are consistent with light-induced gradual strain relaxation in the graphene layer.

  16. How to implement once a week recycling, once a week trash pick-up and live to tell about it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reighart, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    The implementation of a recycling program in Maryland is described. The program involved changing from a biweekly trash collection to a once a week trash collection and a once a week recyclable collection; public resistance to the change was anticipated. Major program elements included pilot programs and gradual implementation of the new program. Public reaction to the new program has been generally favorable.

  17. Rock mass response to the decline in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holub, K.

    2006-01-15

    Geomechanical problems of mining in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin were studied on the basis of longterm experience gained from seismological observations. They could serve as reasonable models of rock-mass response to temporary reduction and gradual decline in mining activities and mine closure.

  18. METHOD OF SEPARATING HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, O.N.

    1958-12-01

    The process of separating a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and tritium by contacting finely dlvided palladium with the mixture in order to adsorb the gases, then gradually heating the palladium and collecting the evolved fractlons, is described. The fraction first given off is richer in trltium than later fractions.

  19. Self-actuated device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hecht, Samuel L.

    1984-01-01

    A self-actuated device, of particular use as a valve or an orifice for nuclear reactor fuel and blanket assemblies, in which a gas produced by a neutron induced nuclear reaction gradually accumulates as a function of neutron fluence. The gas pressure increase occasioned by such accumulation of gas is used to actuate the device.

  20. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored options for use of nuclear weapons in local wars and in preemptive strikes were also left out.

  1. Bias current dependence of the spin lifetime in insulating Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misuraca, Jennifer Kim, Joon-Il; Xiong, Peng; Molnár, Stephan von; Lu, Jun; Meng, Kangkang; Chen, Lin; Yu, Xuezhe; Zhao, Jianhua

    2014-02-24

    The spin lifetime and Hanle signal amplitude dependence on bias current has been investigated in insulating Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As:Si using a three-terminal Hanle effect geometry. The amplitudes of the Hanle signals are much larger for forward bias than for reverse bias, although the spin lifetimes found are statistically equivalent. The spin resistance-area product shows a strong increase with bias current for reverse bias and small forward bias until 150 μA, beyond which a weak dependence is observed. The spin lifetimes diminish substantially with increasing bias current. The dependence of the spin accumulation and lifetime diminish only moderately with temperature from 5 K to 30 K.

  2. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hampden-Smith, M. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Kodas, T. T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto.

  3. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, R.R.; Ricco, A.J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto. 5 figures.

  4. NERSC-ScienceHighlightSlidesDec09.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December, 2009 NERSC Science Highlights Mitigating Global Climate Change Objective: Determine if global warming can still be diminished if society cuts emissions of greenhouse gases. Accomplishments: CCSM used at NERSC, ORNL, ANL, & NCAR to study a century of climate conditions, two CO 2 scenarios. * 70% cut in emissions would save arctic ice, reduce sea level rise. Implications: Provide policymakers with appropriate research so they can make informed decisions to avoid the worst impacts of

  5. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  6. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  7. kirk gerdes | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    kirk gerdes kirk-gerdes.jpg Chemical Engineer Dr.Kirk Gerdes came to NETL as an ORISE intern in 2006 and has been innovating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology ever since. Today, Gerdes leads a group of more than 30 researchers in pursuit technologies that support commercialization of SOFC. The research team integrates fundamental and applied experiments and computations especially to stabilize SOFC performance and to reduce SOFC degradation, which will diminish costs and ultimately bring

  8. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1991-04-05

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl{sub 2} and Li/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} batteries.

  9. Sustainable Development Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sustainable Buildings and Infrastructure Sustainable Buildings and Infrastructure "A sustainable society is one which satisfies its needs without diminishing the prospects of future generations." - Lester R. Brown, Founder and President, Worldwatch Institute Department of Energy facilities managers have a significant role to play in achieving the goals of E.O. 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental Energy and Transportation Management and E.O. 13514, Federal Leadership in

  10. Growth of mercuric iodide single crystals from dimethylsulfoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlston, Richard C.

    1976-07-13

    Dimethylsulfoxide is used as a solvent for the growth of red mercuric iodide (HgI.sub.2) crystals for use in radiation detectors. The hygroscopic property of the solvent allows controlled amounts of water to enter into the solvent phase and diminish the large solubility of HgI.sub.2 so that the precipitating solid collects as well-defined euhedral crystals which grow into a volume of several cc.

  11. State and Local Energy Investment Partnerships: Partnerships for Low Cost Clean Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Local Energy Investment Partnerships Partnerships for Low Cost Clean Energy The Vision 1. Double the deployment of wind, solar, geothermal, and other renewable electricity generation by 2020. 2. Cut in half the energy wasted by our homes and businesses over the next 20 years. - President Barack Obama, 2013 State of the Union Address The Challenge 1. Taxpayer and ratepayer funds alone cannot finance a 20% increase in energy efficiency across all of America's buildings. 2. Nor can diminishing

  12. Microsoft Word - PAvogadro_02_19_2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    QRPA study of Giant Monopole Resonances Dr. Paolo Avogadro Texas A&M University at Commerce, Texas ABSTRACT The quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) is a successful approach to study giant monopole resonances (GMR) in superfluid nuclei. Recent experimental findings, however, challenged the so far most accurate theoretical models. In order to diminish these discrepancies it is desirable to use a code with the lesser possible number of approximations. We developed a technique called

  13. Duality Apparently Confirmed In Jefferson Laboratory Experiments |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Duality Apparently Confirmed In Jefferson Laboratory Experiments Duality Apparently Confirmed In Jefferson Laboratory Experiments 1999 Isaac Newton, inventor of calculus and creator of classical physics, is thought by some to be the most intelligent person to have ever lived. When Albert Einstein introduced his theories of General and Special Relativity, Newton's Stature was not diminished, but increased. One genius, Newton, made the work of another, Einstein, possible.

  14. Microsoft Word - Highlights BulletsFinal.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short-Term Energy Outlook March 2004 Gasoline Outlook (Figures 1 to 3) Gasoline inventories remained tight and crude oil prices rose again in February. The prospects for oil prices diminishing significantly prior to the driving season have weakened, and there is a high likelihood of additional gasoline price increases this spring. Even if unexpected significant refinery or pipeline disruptions are avoided, national monthly average regular gasoline pump prices are projected to reach a peak of

  15. Production taxes: stealthy killer of revenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohrenz, J.; Dougherty, E.L.; Burzlaff, B.H.

    1983-02-07

    A model of the rate of oil and gas production from a given piece of property in terms of the development cost and net operating revenues illustrates that high taxes and royalties diminish the optimal production rate and ultimately render valueless an otherwise potentially valuable productive property. The economic viability of a mineral prospect is much more sensitive to production taxes and royalties than to other factors affecting a prospect's value.

  16. SAR image formation with azimuth interpolation after azimuth transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry; Armin W. , Martin; Grant D. , Holzrichter; Michael W.

    2008-07-08

    Two-dimensional SAR data can be processed into a rectangular grid format by subjecting the SAR data to a Fourier transform operation, and thereafter to a corresponding interpolation operation. Because the interpolation operation follows the Fourier transform operation, the interpolation operation can be simplified, and the effect of interpolation errors can be diminished. This provides for the possibility of both reducing the re-grid processing time, and improving the image quality.

  17. Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Breaking down biomass could help in converting biomass to fuels. March 26, 2012 Biomass Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is an attractive alternative as a feedstock for the production of renewable chemicals and fuels. Get Expertise Researcher Susan Hanson Inorganic Isotope & Actinide Chem Email Researcher Ruilian Wu Bioenergy & Environmental

  18. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.

    1993-01-01

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl.sub.2 and Li/SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 batteries.

  19. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-04-13

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl[sub 2] and SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl[sub 2] and Li/SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] batteries.

  20. Tokamak error fields and locked modes (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tokamak error fields and locked modes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tokamak error fields and locked modes The effects of externally applied, resonant magnetic field perturbations on tokamak plasmas are discussed. An analytical model assuming tokamak ordering and narrow islands clarifies the conditions under which error fields are amplified or diminished by self- consistent effects. A strong amplification of error fields near marginal tearing stability is found to broaden the range

  1. Apparatus and Method for Rapid Cooling of Large Area Substrates in Vacuum -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Apparatus and Method for Rapid Cooling of Large Area Substrates in Vacuum Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This innovation facilitates rapid cooling in a vacuum (from 200 oC to 25 oC) and greatly diminishes the time required to produce complex thin films requiring multiple deposition steps. Description Thin film deposition in vacuum requires careful control of substrate temperature, as this has a large effect on

  2. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W. -L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H. -H.

    2014-12-15

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada using CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4) global model with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation [3-D - PP (plane-parallel)] adjustment to ensure that energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization.more » We show that deviations of the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains, but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while decreases for higher elevations with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases in higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  3. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  4. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meinke, Rainer

    2013-08-20

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  5. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meinke, Rainer

    2011-08-09

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  6. Vapor-liquid equilibria for an R134a/lubricant mixture: Measurements and equation-of-state modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, M.L.; Holcomb, C.D.; Outcalt, S.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    2000-07-01

    The authors measured bubble point pressures and coexisting liquid densities for two mixtures of R-134a and a polyolester (POE) lubricant. The mass fraction of the lubricant was approximately 9% and 12%, and the temperature ranged from 280 K to 355 K. The authors used the Elliott, Suresh, and Donohue (ESD) equation of state to model the bubble point pressure data. The bubble point pressures were represented with an average absolute deviation of 2.5%. A binary interaction parameter reduced the deviation to 1.4%. The authors also applied the ESD model to other R-134a/POE lubricant data in the literature. As the concentration of the lubricant increased, the performance of the model deteriorated markedly. However, the use of a single binary interaction parameter reduced the deviations significantly.

  7. Control of friction at the nanoscale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir

    2010-04-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  8. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  9. POLICY FLASH 2015-17 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    POLICY FLASH 2015-17 POLICY FLASH 2015-17 DATE: March 11, 2015 TO: Procurement Directors FROM: Director Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division Office of Policy Office of Acquisition Management SUBJECT: Class Deviation to DEAR 970.5244-1 SUMMARY: The attached Class Deviation to the DEAR is issued to add the "Service Contract Reporting" clause prescribed in FAR 4.1705 and "Minimum Wages under Executive Order 13658" clause prescribed in FAR 22.1906 to the list of

  10. ON THE ENERGY SPECTRA OF GeV/TeV COSMIC RAY LEPTONS (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect ON THE ENERGY SPECTRA OF GeV/TeV COSMIC RAY LEPTONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ON THE ENERGY SPECTRA OF GeV/TeV COSMIC RAY LEPTONS Recent observations of cosmic ray (CR) electrons from several instruments have revealed various degrees of deviation in the measured electron energy distribution from a simple power law, in the form of an excess around 0.1-1 TeV energies. An even more prominent deviation and excess has been observed in the fraction of CR positrons

  11. On the Energy Spectra of GeV/TeV Cosmic Ray Leptons (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect On the Energy Spectra of GeV/TeV Cosmic Ray Leptons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the Energy Spectra of GeV/TeV Cosmic Ray Leptons Recent observations of cosmic ray electrons from several instruments have revealed various degrees of deviation in the measured electron energy distribution from a simple power-law, in a form of an excess around 0.1 to 1 TeV energies. An even more prominent deviation and excess has been observed in the fraction of cosmic ray

  12. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for bi-directional rotation seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2009-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  13. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2015-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  14. Synthesis of SnO{sub 2} Nanoparticles Using Ultrasonication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Sanhita; Devi, P. Sujatha

    2010-10-04

    The use of ultrasonic energy for chemical synthesis has recently become an interesting and growing area of research. Using this form of energy, we have synthesized nanoparticles of SnO{sub 2}(8-30 nm) at room temperature by a sonication assisted precipitation technique. In order to understand the effect of ultrasonic energy on particle size and their distribution, the precipitation time was varied during the preparation. A sonication time of 3 h was found to be optimum to produce SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles having size below 10 nm. We found that a gradual increase of the sonication time gradually decreases the particle size with interesting morphology and increased surface area. The butane sensing properties of the synthesized powders exhibited a direct influence of the sonication time on the sensing properties. A 3 h sonicated sample, exhibited a maximum response of around 98.88% towards 5000 ppm butane at 450 deg. C with a fast recovery time.

  15. In situ study of HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition on InP(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Zhernokletov, D.

    2013-04-29

    The interfacial chemistry of the native oxide and chemically treated InP samples during atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfO{sub 2} growth at 250 Degree-Sign C has been studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The In-oxide concentration is seen to gradually decrease on the native oxide and acid etched samples. No significant changes of the P-oxide concentrations are detected, while the P-oxides chemical states are seen to change gradually during the initial cycles of ALD on the native oxide and the chemically treated samples. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S treatment strongly decreases In-oxide and P-oxide concentrations prior to ALD and maintains low concentrations during the ALD process.

  16. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO₄ for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Ji-guang; Wang, Chongmin

    2015-05-18

    LiFePO4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO4 materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO4 cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding is of great importance for the design and improvement of new LiFePO4 cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation.

  17. The spin state of iron in minerals of Earth's lower mantle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Lin, Jung -Fu

    2005-06-23

    Here, the spin state of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at temperatures and pressures typical for the Earth's lower mantle is discussed. We predict an extended high-spin to low-spin crossover region along the geotherm for Fe-dilute systems depending on crystal-field splitting, pairing energy, and cooperative interactions. In particular, spin transitions in ferromagnesium silicate perovskite and ferropericlase, the dominant lower mantle components, should occur in a wide temperature-pressure range. We also derive a gradual volume change associated with such transitions in the lower mantle. The gradual density changes and the wide spin crossover regions seem incompatible with lower mantle stratification resulting from amore » spin transition.« less

  18. Non-Gaussian density fluctuations from entropically generated curvature perturbations in ekpyrotic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2008-03-15

    We analyze the non-Gaussian density perturbations generated in ekpyrotic/cyclic models based on heterotic M theory. In this picture, two scalar fields produce nearly scale-invariant entropic perturbations during an ekpyrotic phase that are converted into curvature modes after the ekpyrotic phase is complete and just before the big bang. Both intrinsic nonlinearity in the entropy perturbation and the conversion process contribute to non-Gaussianity. The range of the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} depends on how gradual the conversion process is and the steepness of the scalar field potential during the ekpyrotic phase. Although a wider range is possible, in principle, natural values of the ekpyrotic parameters combined with a gradual conversion process lead to values of -50 < or approx. f{sub NL} < or approx. +200, typically much greater than slow-roll inflation but within the current observational bounds.

  19. Transition Core Properties during Conversion of the NBSR from HEU to LEU Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson A. L.; Diamond D.

    2013-10-31

    The transition of the NBSR from HEU to LEU fuel is challenging due to reactivity constraints and the need to maintain an uninterrupted science program, the mission of the NBSR. The transition cannot occur with a full change of HEU to LEU fuel elements since the excess reactivity would be large enough that the NBSR would violate the technical specification for shutdown margin. Manufacturing LEU fuel elements to represent irradiated fuel elements would be cost prohibitive since 26 one-of-a-kind fuel elements would need to be manufactured. For this report a gradual transition from the present HEU fuel to the proposed LEU fuel was studied. The gradual change approach would follow the present fuel management scheme and replace four HEU fuel elements with four LEU fuel elements each cycle. This manuscript reports the results of a series of calculations to predict the neutronic characteristics and how the neutronics will change during the transition from HEU to LEU in the NBSR.

  20. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for bi-directional rotation seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2011-11-15

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  1. Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical Print Ignition chemistry involves a complex web of reactions. By studying the reaction products-looking at this web from its perimeter inward-researchers have gradually deduced the nature of the "reactive intermediate" molecules that must lie at the center. Decades of research worldwide have shown that hydroperoxyalkyl radicals-a class of reactive molecules denoted as "QOOH"-must be a central connection in this network. At the ALS,

  2. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documenting stone age cleverness by tool development March 7, 2013 Ancient handaxe craftsmanship gives insight into mental advances LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 12, 2013-LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 12, 2013-Stone Age man's gradual improvement in tool development, particularly in crafting stone handaxes, is providing insight into the likely mental advances these early humans made a million years ago. Better tools make for better hunting, and better tools come from more sophisticated thought processes.

  3. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rapid ice-wedge melting accelerates permafrost decline March 15, 2016 Widespread Artic phenomenon carries major hydrological, climate implications LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 15, 2016-A new study of permafrost has found that the ice wedges forming the prevalent honeycomb pattern across the tundra appear to be melting rapidly across the Arctic, changing the hydrology of the region and accelerating the release of greenhouse gases with major implications for global warming. While the gradual warming of

  4. Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled Several IOP projects have been scheduled for the SGP CART site this spring. These projects either have already begun or will begin shortly. Radiosondes The RS-90 Transition IOP is currently under way. The RS-90 model radiosonde is gradually replacing the older RS-80 model. Radiosondes are instrument packages attached to and launched by weather balloons. The instruments measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity as the

  5. A Guide to Building Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    Commissioning is the process of verifying that a building's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems perform correctly and efficiently. Without commissioning, system and equipment problems can result in higher than necessary utility bills and unexpected and costly equipment repairs. This report reviews the benefits of commissioning, why it is a requirement for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, and why building codes are gradually adopting commissioning activities into code.

  6. Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical Print Ignition chemistry involves a complex web of reactions. By studying the reaction products-looking at this web from its perimeter inward-researchers have gradually deduced the nature of the "reactive intermediate" molecules that must lie at the center. Decades of research worldwide have shown that hydroperoxyalkyl radicals-a class of reactive molecules denoted as "QOOH"-must be a central connection in this network. At the ALS,

  7. Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical Print Ignition chemistry involves a complex web of reactions. By studying the reaction products-looking at this web from its perimeter inward-researchers have gradually deduced the nature of the "reactive intermediate" molecules that must lie at the center. Decades of research worldwide have shown that hydroperoxyalkyl radicals-a class of reactive molecules denoted as "QOOH"-must be a central connection in this network. At the ALS,

  8. Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical Print Ignition chemistry involves a complex web of reactions. By studying the reaction products-looking at this web from its perimeter inward-researchers have gradually deduced the nature of the "reactive intermediate" molecules that must lie at the center. Decades of research worldwide have shown that hydroperoxyalkyl radicals-a class of reactive molecules denoted as "QOOH"-must be a central connection in this network. At the ALS,

  9. fe0013565-UOregon | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts Last Reviewed 12/2/2015 DE-FE0013565 Goal The project goal is to create models that will be used to improve forecasts of slope stability and pockmark development, which could prevent disruptions of hydrate reserves and possible release of hydrates into the atmosphere. Performers University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5219 Background Natural gas hydrate reservoirs are dynamic systems that evolve gradually but can also decompose

  10. Skirting terahertz waves in a photo-excited nanoslit structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shalaby, Mostafa E-mail: thomas.feurer@iap.unibe.ch; Fabia?ska, Justyna; Feurer, Thomas E-mail: thomas.feurer@iap.unibe.ch; Peccianti, Marco; Ozturk, Yavuz; Vidal, Francois; Morandotti, Roberto; Sigg, Hans

    2014-04-28

    Terahertz fields can be dramatically enhanced as they propagate through nanometer-sized slits. The enhancement is mediated by a significant accumulation of the induced surface charges on the surrounding metal. This enhancement is shown here to be dynamically modulated while the nanoslits are gradually shunted using a copropagating optical beam. The terahertz fields are found to skirt the nanoscale photo-excited region underneath the slits, scattering to the far field and rigorously mapping the near field.

  11. Internal roll compression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Graydon E.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a machine for squeezing water out of peat or other material of low tensile strength; the machine including an inner roll eccentrically positioned inside a tubular outer roll, so as to form a gradually increasing pinch area at one point therebetween, so that, as the rolls rotate, the material is placed between the rolls, and gets wrung out when passing through the pinch area.

  12. mhtml:file://H:\CATX\APPROVED-CXS\EERE FOA 1201 - Rankine Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . ., . . BNL-68599 PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE David J. Schlyer Iodine-123 Probably the most 'widely used cyclotron produced radiohalogen is 1-123. It has gradually replaced I-13 1 as the isotope of choice for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals containing radioiodine. It gives a much lower radiation dose to the patient and the gamma ray energy of 159 keV is ideally suited for use in a gamma camera. The gamma ray will penetrate tissue very effectively without excessive radiation dose. For this

  13. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  14. ARM - Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PastSediment Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Sediment Sediments such as marine sediment, lake sediment, and loess (wind sediment) provide us with additional information. These sediments are found in layers and gradually accumulate. Cores of these sediments may give the

  15. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook November 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. While West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices have remained slightly below our previous baseline projection for October, current prices are close to $29 per barrel, with prices for the 5 trading days ending November 5 averaging $29.20 per barrel (Figure 1). Our projected gradual decline toward $27 per barrel reflects a slow but steady return toward more normal levels of petroleum stock in industrialized countries compared

  16. Press Room - Events - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2014 2014 Summer Fuels Outlook Key factors driving the short-term outlook * World liquid fuels consumption growth driven by emerging economies, with continuing consumption declines in OECD countries. * Non-OPEC supply growth, particularly in North America, expected to keep pace with world liquid fuels consumption growth and contribute to modest declines in world crude oil prices. * Brent crude oil prices fall gradually over the forecast, averaging, from $109 per barrel in 2013 to $105 per

  17. On the crisis stability of a submarine deterrent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    Without defenses, stability indices fall monotonically as the number of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) is reduced. For few SLBMs, the favorable stability properties of the survivable SLBMs are masked by the unfavorable stability properties of the non-survivable land missiles. With ground-based interceptor (GBI) defenses, stability initially falls faster. The number of GBIs could be increased gradually to minimize their impact on stability.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, J.M.; Weills, J.T.

    1960-03-15

    A method is given for operating a nuclear reactor having a negative coefficient of reactivity to compensate for the change in reactor reactivity due to the burn-up of the xenon peak following start-up of the reactor. When it is desired to start up the reactor within less than 72 hours after shutdown, the temperature of the reactor is lowered prior to start-up, and then gradually raised after start-up.

  19. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  20. Planar optical waveguides for optical panel having gradient refractive index core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-08-24

    An optical panel is disclosed. A plurality of stacked planar optical waveguides are used to guide light from an inlet face to an outlet face of an optical panel. Each of the optical waveguides comprises a planar sheet of core material having a central plane. The core material has an index of refraction which decreases as the distance from the central plane increases. The decrease in the index of refraction occurs gradually and continuously.

  1. Localized surface plasmon assisted contrast microscopy for ultrathin transparent specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Feifei; Lu, Dylan; Aguinaldo, Ryan; Ma, Yicong; Sinha, Sunil K.; Liu, Zhaowei

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a high contrast imaging technique, termed localized surface plasmon assisted contrast microscopy, by combining localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) and dark-field microscopy technique. Due to the sensitive response of LSPR to the refractive index of the surrounding media, this technique is capable of converting a small refractive index difference to a change in scattering intensity, resulting in a high-contrast, diffraction limited image of a thin unstained specimen with small, gradual refractive-index variation.

  2. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Reference Case

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Outlook for U.S. Coal and Nuclear Electricity Generation for 2013 EIA Energy Conference June 18, 2013 | Washington, DC by Jim Diefenderfer, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear & Renewables Analysis U. S. Energy Information Administration Over time the electricity mix gradually shifts to lower-carbon options, led by growth in natural gas and renewable generation 2 U.S. electricity net generation trillion kilowatthours Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013 25% 19% 42% 13% 1% Nuclear Oil and

  3. Tuning the magnetic and structural phase transitions of PrFeAsO via Fe/Ru

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spin dilution (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Neutron diffraction and muon spin relaxation measurements are used to obtain a detailed phase diagram of PrFe1{xRuxAsO. The isoelectronic substitution of Ru for Fe acts eectively as spin dilution, suppressing both the structural and magnetic phase transitions. The temperature, TS, of the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural phase transition decreases gradually as a function of x. Slightly below TS coherent precessions of the muon spin are

  4. Onset of electron acceleration in a flare loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharykin, Ivan; Liu, Siming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Fletcher, Lyndsay, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-20

    We carried out a detailed analysis of X-ray and radio observations of a simple flare loop that occurred on 2002 August 12, with the impulsive hard X-ray (HXR) light curves dominated by a single pulse. The emission spectra of the early impulsive phase are consistent with an isothermal model in the coronal loop with a temperature reaching several keV. A power-law high-energy spectral tail is evident near the HXR peak time, in accordance with the appearance of footpoints at high energies, and is well correlated with the radio emission. The energy content of the thermal component keeps increasing gradually after the disappearance of this nonthermal component. These results suggest that electron acceleration only covers the central period of a longer and more gradual energy dissipation process and that the electron transport within the loop plays a crucial role in the formation of the inferred power-law electron distribution. The spectral index of power-law photons shows a very gradual evolution, indicating that the electron accelerator is in a quasi-steady state, which is confirmed by radio observations. These results are consistent with the theory of stochastic electron acceleration from a thermal background. Advanced modeling with coupled electron acceleration and spatial transport processes is needed to explain these observations more quantitatively, which may reveal the dependence of the electron acceleration on the spatial structure of the acceleration region.

  5. Viscous throughflow modeling of axial compressor bladerows using a tangential blade force hypothesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallimore, S.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the modeling of axial compressor blade rows in an axisymmetric viscous throughflow method. The basic method, which has been reported previously, includes the effects of spanwise mixing, using a turbulent diffusion model, and endwall shear within the throughflow calculation. The blades are modeled using a combination of existing two-dimensional blade performance predictions for loss and deviation away from the annulus walls and a novel approach using tangential blade forces in the endwall regions. Relatively simple assumptions about the behavior of the tangential static pressure force imposed by the blades allow the secondary deviations produced by tip clearance flows and the boundary layer flows at fixed blade ends to be calculated in the axisymmetric model. Additional losses are assigned in these regions based on the calculated deviations. The resulting method gives realistic radial distributions of loss and deviation across the whole span at both design and off-design operating conditions, providing a quick method of estimating the magnitudes of these effects in the preliminary design process. Results from the method are compared to measured data in low and high-speed compressors and multistage three-dimensional viscous CFD predictions.

  6. Cuprate-titanate superconductor and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toreki, R.; Poeppelmeier, K.; Dabrowski, B.

    1995-05-23

    A new copper oxide superconductor of the formula Ln{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Sr{sub 2}Cu{sub 3{minus}y}Ti{sub y}O{sub 7+{delta}} is disclosed, and exhibits a {Tc} of 60 K with deviations from linear metallic behavior as high as 130 K. 2 Figs.

  7. Cuprate-titanate superconductor and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toreki, Robert; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth; Dabrowski, Bogdan

    1995-01-01

    A new copper oxide superconductor of the formula Ln.sub.1-x M.sub.x Sr.sub.2 Cu.sub.3-y Ti.sub.y O.sub.7+.delta. is disclosed, and exhibits a Tc of 60.degree. K. with deviations from linear metallic behavior as high as 130.degree. K.

  8. CX-012607: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Establish 0.1 mg/L Cu as a target value for the ETP H Retention Basin (HRB) influent per a deviation to the ETP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). CX(s) Applied: B3.1Date: 41809 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  9. Interrelationship of Program Regulations and Financial Assistance Regulations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1980-04-24

    The purpose of this Order is to set forth the interrelationship between all program regulations which will result in assistance awards (Program Regulations) and the Department of Energy Assistance Regulations (DOE-AR, 10 CRF Part 600), including procedures for exceptions, deviations or waivers.

  10. Temperature evolution of electromotive force from Pt on yttrium-iron-garnet under ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohshima, Ryo; Emoto, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Teruya; Ando, Yuichiro; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2015-05-07

    Temperature evolution of electromotive force from Pt due to the inverse spin Hall effect is studied. Pure spin current is injected from yttrium-iron-garnet by using spin pumping technique. The electromotive force from the Pt monotonically decreases with decreasing temperature, and it is showed that there is a deviation between the measured and the calculated electromotive forces.

  11. Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Comprehensive catalogue of drill?hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross?sections in Adobe Illustrator format.

  12. Dependence of short and intermediate-range order on preparation in experimental and modeled pure a-Si

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Holmstrom, Eero; Haberl, Bianca; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Arenal, Raul; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Petersen, Timothy C.; Liu, Amelia

    2016-02-20

    Variability in the short-to-intermediate range order of pure amorphous silicon prepared by different experimental and computational techniques is probed by measuring mass density, atomic coordination, bond-angle deviation, and dihedral angle deviation. It is found that there is significant variability in order parameters at these length scales in this archetypal covalently bonded, monoatomic system. This diversity strongly reflects preparation technique and thermal history in both experimental and simulated systems. Experiment and simulation do not fully quantitatively agree, partly due to differences in the way parameters are accessed. However, qualitative agreement in the trends is identified. Relaxed forms of amorphous silicon closelymore » resemble continuous random networks generated by a hybrid method of bond-switching Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation. As-prepared ion implanted amorphous silicon can be adequately modeled using a structure generated from amorphization via ion bombardement using energetic recoils. Preparation methods which narrowly avoid crystallization such as experimental pressure-induced amorphization or simulated melt-quenching result in inhomogeneous structures that contain regions with significant variations in atomic ordering. Ad hoc simulated structures containing small (1 nm) diamond cubic crystal inclusions were found to possess relatively high bond-angle deviations and low dihedral angle deviations, a trend that could not be reconciled with any experimental material.« less

  13. ChallengeHER-2015-Flyer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ChallengeHER-2015-Flyer ChallengeHER-2015-Flyer PDF icon ChallengeHER-2015-Flyer.pdf More Documents & Publications Contract Connections @ ChallengeHER, Norfolk VA, October 14 POLICY FLASH 2016-21 Class Deviation from the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 13.5, Test Program for Certain Commercial Items

  14. A Cylindrical Microlens With An Internally Reflective Surface And A Method Of Fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Freitas, Barry L.

    2005-09-27

    A fast (high numerical aperture) cylindrical microlens, which includes an internally reflective surface, that functions to deviate the direction of the light that enters the lens from its original propagation direction is employed in optically conditioning laser diodes, laser diode arrays and laser diode bars.

  15. Cylindrical microlens with an internally reflecting surface and a method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Freitas, Barry L.

    2004-03-23

    A fast (high numerical aperture) cylindrical microlens, which includes an internally reflective surface, that functions to deviate the direction of the light that enters the lens from its original propagation direction is employed in optically conditioning laser diodes, laser diode arrays and laser diode bars.

  16. Simulation-guided optimization of small-angle analyzer geometry in the neutron backscattering spectrometer SPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuttke, Joachim; Zamponi, Michaela [Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Jlich Centre for Neutron Science at MLZ, Lichtenbergstrae 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Jlich Centre for Neutron Science at MLZ, Lichtenbergstrae 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    The resolution of neutron backscattering spectrometers deteriorates at small scattering angles where analyzers deviate from exact backscattering. By reducing the azimuth angle range of the analyzers, the resolution can be improved with little loss of peak intensity. Measurements at the spectrometer SPHERES are in excellent agreement with simulations, which proves the dominance of geometric effects.

  17. Behavior-dependent Routing: Responding to Anomalies with Automated Low-cost Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Best, Daniel M.; Noonan, Christine F.; Thompson, Seth R.; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Fink, Glenn A.; Peterson, Elena S.

    2015-10-12

    This is a conference paper submission describing research and software implementation of a cybersecurity concept that uses behavior models to trigger changes in routing of network traffic. As user behavior deviates more and more from baseline models, traffic is routed through more elevated layers of analysis and control.

  18. The. tau. one-prong problem and recent measurements by the HRS (High Resolution Spectrometer) collaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repond, J.

    1989-05-22

    We summarize recent measurements by the HRS collaboration of the topological branching fractions, the production cross section, the lifetime, and the rate into electrons of the {tau} lepton. An inconsistency with theoretical expectations persists at the level of two standard deviations. 11 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Diversity in short-to-intermediate range order in pure forms of amorphous silicon generated by a variety of experimental and modeling techniques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Holmstrom, Eero; Haberl, Bianca; Pakarinen, Olli H; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Arenal, Raul; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Petersen, Timothy C.; Liu, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Variability in the short-to-intermediate range order of pure amorphous silicon prepared by different experimental and computational techniques is probed by measuring mass density, atomic coordination, bond-angle deviation, and dihedral angle deviation. It is found that there is significant variability in order parameters at these length scales in this archetypal covalently bonded, monoatomic system. This diversity strongly reflects preparation technique and thermal history in both experimental and simulated systems. Experiment and simulation do not fully quantitatively agree, partly due to differences in the way parameters are accessed. However, qualitative agreement in the trends is identified. Relaxed forms of amorphous silicon closelymore » resemble continuous random networks generated by a hybrid method of bond-switching Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation. As-prepared ion implanted amorphous silicon can be adequately modeled using a structure generated from amorphization via ion bombardement using energetic recoils. Preparation methods which narrowly avoid crystallization such as experimental pressure-induced amorphization or simulated melt-quenching result in inhomogeneous structures that contain regions with significant variations in atomic ordering. Ad hoc simulated structures containing small (1 nm) diamond cubic crystal inclusions were found to possess relatively high bond-angle deviations and low dihedral angle deviations, a trend that could not be reconciled with any experimental material.« less

  20. Constraints on the structure of naked singularities in classical general relativity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, R.P.A.; Joshi, P.S.

    1988-02-15

    The known examples of naked singularities in general relativity are, in a certain sense, either gravitationally or causally innocuous. A cosmic censorship theorem is formulated and proved to the effect that this behaviour is characteristic of naked singularities in general spacetimes which do not deviate too far from spherical symmetry. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  1. Diversity in short-to-intermediate range order in pure forms of amorphous silicon generated by a variety of experimental and modeling techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmstrom, Eero; Haberl, Bianca; Pakarinen, Olli H; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Arenal, Raul; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Petersen, Timothy C.; Liu, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Variability in the short-to-intermediate range order of pure amorphous silicon prepared by different experimental and computational techniques is probed by measuring mass density, atomic coordination, bond-angle deviation, and dihedral angle deviation. It is found that there is significant variability in order parameters at these length scales in this archetypal covalently bonded, monoatomic system. This diversity strongly reflects preparation technique and thermal history in both experimental and simulated systems. Experiment and simulation do not fully quantitatively agree, partly due to differences in the way parameters are accessed. However, qualitative agreement in the trends is identified. Relaxed forms of amorphous silicon closely resemble continuous random networks generated by a hybrid method of bond-switching Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation. As-prepared ion implanted amorphous silicon can be adequately modeled using a structure generated from amorphization via ion bombardement using energetic recoils. Preparation methods which narrowly avoid crystallization such as experimental pressure-induced amorphization or simulated melt-quenching result in inhomogeneous structures that contain regions with significant variations in atomic ordering. Ad hoc simulated structures containing small (1 nm) diamond cubic crystal inclusions were found to possess relatively high bond-angle deviations and low dihedral angle deviations, a trend that could not be reconciled with any experimental material.

  2. Trusted materials using orthogonal testing. 2015 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Benthem, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to prove (or disprove) that a reasonable number of simple tests can be used to provide a unique data signature for materials, changes in which could serve as a harbinger of material deviation, prompting further evaluations. The routine tests are mutually orthogonal to any currently required materials specification tests.

  3. Verification of the MCU precision code and ROSFOND neutron data in application to the calculations of criticality of fast reactors with highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, N. I.; Kalugin, M. A.; Kulakov, A. S.; Novoseltsev, A. P.; Sergeev, G. S.; Shkarovskiy, D. A.; Yudkevich, M. S.

    2014-12-15

    Calculation of 335 critical assemblies (benchmark experiments) with the core of highly enriched uranium and reflectors of various materials is performed. The statistical analysis of the results shows that, for all 16 materials studied, the absolute value of the most probable deviation of the calculated value of K{sub eff} from the experimental one does not exceed 0.005.

  4. Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Tuohy, A.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Brooks, D.

    2012-05-01

    Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. This article discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.

  5. CIGS Material and Device Stability: A Processing Perspective (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, K.

    2012-03-01

    This is a general overview of CIGS material and device fundamentals. In the first part, the basic features of high efficiency CIGS absorbers and devices are described. In the second part, some examples of previous collaboration with Shell Solar CIGSS graded absorbers and devices are shown to illustrate how process information was used to correct deviations and improve the performance and stability.

  6. Is the assumption of normality or log-normality for continuous response data critical for benchmark dose estimation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Kan; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Setzer, R. Woodrow

    2013-11-01

    Continuous responses (e.g. body weight) are widely used in risk assessment for determining the benchmark dose (BMD) which is used to derive a U.S. EPA reference dose. One critical question that is not often addressed in doseresponse assessments is whether to model the continuous data as normally or log-normally distributed. Additionally, if lognormality is assumed, and only summarized response data (i.e., mean standard deviation) are available as is usual in the peer-reviewed literature, the BMD can only be approximated. In this study, using the hybrid method and relative deviation approach, we first evaluate six representative continuous doseresponse datasets reporting individual animal responses to investigate the impact on BMD/BMDL estimates of (1) the distribution assumption and (2) the use of summarized versus individual animal data when a log-normal distribution is assumed. We also conduct simulation studies evaluating model fits to various known distributions to investigate whether the distribution assumption has influence on BMD/BMDL estimates. Our results indicate that BMDs estimated using the hybrid method are more sensitive to the distribution assumption than counterpart BMDs estimated using the relative deviation approach. The choice of distribution assumption has limited impact on the BMD/BMDL estimates when the within dose-group variance is small, while the lognormality assumption is a better choice for relative deviation method when data are more skewed because of its appropriateness in describing the relationship between mean and standard deviation. Additionally, the results suggest that the use of summarized data versus individual response data to characterize log-normal distributions has minimal impact on BMD estimates. - Highlights: We investigate to what extent the distribution assumption can affect BMD estimates. Both real data analysis and simulation study are conducted. BMDs estimated using hybrid method are more sensitive to distribution assumption. Summarized continuous data are adequate for BMD estimation.

  7. Residual foreground contamination in the WMAP data and bias in non-Gaussianity estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chingangbam, Pravabati; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2013-02-01

    We analyze whether there is any residual foreground contamination in the cleaned WMAP 7 years data for the differential assemblies, Q, V and W. We calculate the correlation between the foreground map, from which long wavelength correlations have been subtracted, and the foreground reduced map for each differential assembly after applying the Galaxy and point sources masks. We find positive correlations for all the differential assemblies, with high statistical significance. For Q and V, we find that a large fraction of the contamination comes from pixels where the foreground maps have positive values larger than three times the rms values. These findings imply the presence of residual contamination from Galactic emissions and unresolved point sources. We redo the analysis after masking the extended point sources cataloque of Scodeller et al. [7] and find a drop in the correlation and corresponding significance values. To quantify the effect of the residual contamination on the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in the CMB we add estimated contaminant fraction to simulated Gaussian CMB maps and calculate the characteristic non-Gaussian deviation shapes of Minkowski Functionals that arise due to the contamination. We find remarkable agreement of these deviation shapes with those measured from WMAP data, which imply that a major fraction of the observed non-Gaussian deviation comes from residual foreground contamination. We also compute non-Gaussian deviations of Minkowski Functionals after applying the point sources mask of Scodeller et al. and find a decrease in the overall amplitudes of the deviations which is consistent with a decrease in the level of contamination.

  8. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2015-05-19

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (Community Climate System Model version 4; Community Atmosphere Model/Community Land Model – CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation (3-D–PP (plane-parallel)) adjustment to ensure that the energy balance atmore » the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher-elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while it decreases for higher elevations, with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases at higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  9. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and BaCO.sub.3, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO.sub.3 enables lower temperature fuel cell operation.

  10. Molecular Recognition: Preparation and Characterization of Two Tripodal Anion Receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokri, Alireza; Deng, Shihu; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2014-03-01

    Two new tripodal hydroxyl-based anion receptors (1 and 2) are reported and their molecular complexes with Cl, H2PO4 , and OAc along with the (M1) ion of 1 were characterized by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase and by binding constant determinations in four solvents (i.e., CDCl3, CD2Cl2, CD3COCD3, and CD3CN). An intramolecular hydrogen bond network (HBN) in hexaol 1 was found to diminish its binding whereas the triol 2 is the strongest aliphatic hydroxyl-based receptor to date.

  11. PPPL successfully tests system for mitigating instabilities called

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "ELMs" | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL successfully tests system for mitigating instabilities called "ELMs" By John Greenwald September 29, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Close-up view of the high-speed propellor inside the injector. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Princeton Office of Communications ) Close-up view of the high-speed propellor inside the injector. PPPL has successfully tested a Laboratory-designed device to be used to diminish the size of

  12. PPPL successfully tests system for mitigating instabilities called

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "ELMs" | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL successfully tests system for mitigating instabilities called "ELMs" By John Greenwald September 29, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Close-up view of the high-speed propellor inside the injector. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Princeton Office of Communications ) Close-up view of the high-speed propellor inside the injector. PPPL has successfully tested a Laboratory-designed device to be used to diminish the size of

  13. Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1992-07-21

    A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system. 5 figs.

  14. RCRA Part B permit modifications for cost savings and increased flexibility at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jierree, C.; Ticknor, K.

    1996-10-01

    With shrinking budgets and downsizing, a need for streamlined compliance initiatives became evident at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Therefore, Rocky Mountain Remediation Services (RMRS) at the RFETS successfully and quickly modified the RFETS RCRA Part B Permit to obtain significant cost savings and increased flexibility. This `was accomplished by requesting operations personnel to suggest changes to the Part B Permit which did not diminish overall compliance and which would be most. cost beneficial. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsequently obtained approval of those changes from the Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment (CDPHE).

  15. Hydrogen responses of ultrathin Pd films and nanowire networks with a Ti buffer layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Latimer, M. L.; Xu, T.; Kwok, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report on hydrogen responses of ultrathin films and nanowire networks of palladium on titanium buffered silicon substrates and filtration membranes, respectively. We found that in both systems signatures such as retarding responses and saturation of the resistance changes at high hydrogen concentrations associated with the transition from Pd/H solid solution to Pd hydride diminish with decreasing the thickness of the palladium layer from 7 to 2 nm. Our results not only reveal a new way to suppress the phase transition in Pd/H system but also provide an alternative approach to achieve fast and sensitive hydrogen sensors with a wide concentration detection range.

  16. National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to the Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    Since the third National Energy Plan in 1981 total energy efficiency has increased, domestic energy resources are being developed more effectively, oil prices have declined, US dependence on foreign energy sources has diminished, and the nation's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions has been reduced markedly. The policy goal is an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs. Strategies include minimizing federal control and involvement in energy markets while maintaining public health and safety and environmental quality and promoting a balanced and mixed energy resource system. Federal programs and actions in energy are reviewed.

  17. jul01

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    July 2001) 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2001 Overview OPEC and World Oil Prices Since it is clear that OPEC does not intend to increase production quotas at this time, we presume that the weakening in oil prices that has developed since mid-June is likely to diminish and that prices may strengthen over the course of the rest of the summer. Such a development seems likely even though Iraq has agreed to resume U.N.-supervised exports. We assume for the base case projection that total OPEC

  18. Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system.

  19. Entanglement, avoided crossings, and quantum chaos in an Ising model with a tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthik, J.; Sharma, Auditya; Lakshminarayan, Arul [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-02-15

    We study a one-dimensional Ising model with a magnetic field and show that tilting the field induces a transition to quantum chaos. We explore the stationary states of this Hamiltonian to show the intimate connection between entanglement and avoided crossings. In general, entanglement gets exchanged between the states undergoing an avoided crossing with an overall enhancement of multipartite entanglement at the closest point of approach, simultaneously accompanied by diminishing two-body entanglement as measured by concurrence. We find that both for stationary as well as nonstationary states, nonintegrability leads to a destruction of two-body correlations and distributes entanglement more globally.

  20. Iran seeking help in regaining prerevolution oil and gas flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tippee, B.

    1996-02-19

    This paper reviews the goals of the Iranian oil and gas industry to rebuild their oil and gas production facilities by using foreign investment. It discusses the historical consequences of war in the region to diminish the production and postpone the recovery of natural gas which is currently flared. It describes the major projects Iran hopes to develop through international partnerships and includes field development, pipeline construction, gas reinjection, gas treatment facilities, and new offshore operation. The paper also reviews the US policy on Iran and its attempt to apply sanctions towards this country.

  1. Disorder and size effects on Kondo interactions and magneticcorrelations in CePt2 nanoscrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.Y.; Huang, P.H.; Ou, M.N.; Wang, C.R.; Yao, Y.D.; Lee,T.K.; Ho, M.Y.; Lawrence, J.M.; Booth, C.H.

    2006-12-12

    The evolution of the Kondo effect and magnetic correlations with size reduction in CePt{sub 2} nanoparticles (3.1-26 nm) is studied by analysis of the temperature-dependent specific heat and magnetic susceptibility. The antiferromagnetic correlations diminish with size reduction. The Kondo effect predominates at small particle size with trivalent, small Kondo temperature (T{sub K}) magnetic regions coexisting with strongly mixed valent, large T{sub K} nonmagnetic regions. We discuss the role of structural disorder, background density of states and the electronic quantum size effect on the results.

  2. Fuel processing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    2011-08-02

    An improved fuel processor for fuel cells is provided whereby the startup time of the processor is less than sixty seconds and can be as low as 30 seconds, if not less. A rapid startup time is achieved by either igniting or allowing a small mixture of air and fuel to react over and warm up the catalyst of an autothermal reformer (ATR). The ATR then produces combustible gases to be subsequently oxidized on and simultaneously warm up water-gas shift zone catalysts. After normal operating temperature has been achieved, the proportion of air included with the fuel is greatly diminished.

  3. Method for fast start of a fuel processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    2008-01-29

    An improved fuel processor for fuel cells is provided whereby the startup time of the processor is less than sixty seconds and can be as low as 30 seconds, if not less. A rapid startup time is achieved by either igniting or allowing a small mixture of air and fuel to react over and warm up the catalyst of an autothermal reformer (ATR). The ATR then produces combustible gases to be subsequently oxidized on and simultaneously warm up water-gas shift zone catalysts. After normal operating temperature has been achieved, the proportion of air included with the fuel is greatly diminished.

  4. Development of nonlinearity in a growing self-excited dust-density wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, T. M.; Goree, J.

    2011-01-15

    The development of nonlinearity is observed in a naturally occurring planar dust-density wave. As it propagates through a dusty plasma, the wave grows and harmonics are generated. The amplitudes, wave numbers, and growth rates are measured for the fundamental and its harmonics. The energy in the harmonic modes exhibits a strong exponential increase with diminishing gas pressure, until it levels off at lower gas pressures. The wave numbers and growth rates for the harmonics are near integer multiples of those for the fundamental.

  5. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  6. Recent Progress toward Robust Photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, G. A.; Bierman, J. C. [Saxet Surface Science, Austin, TX 78744 (United States)

    2009-08-04

    RF photoinjectors for next generation spin-polarized electron accelerators require photo-cathodes capable of surviving RF gun operation. Free electron laser photoinjectors can benefit from more robust visible light excited photoemitters. A negative electron affinity gallium arsenide activation recipe has been found that diminishes its background gas susceptibility without any loss of near bandgap photoyield. The highest degree of immunity to carbon dioxide exposure was achieved with a combination of cesium and lithium. Activated amorphous silicon photocathodes evince advantageous properties for high current photoinjectors including low cost, substrate flexibility, visible light excitation and greatly reduced gas reactivity compared to gallium arsenide.

  7. NREL-Led Team Improves and Accelerates Battery Design (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is leading some of the best minds from U.S. auto manufacturers, battery developers, and automotive simulation tool developers in a $20 million project to accelerate the development of battery packs and thus the wider adoption of electric-drive vehicles. The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) collaboration is developing sophisticated software tools to help improve and accelerate battery design and boost the performance and consumer appeal of electric-drive vehicles with the ultimate goal of diminishing petroleum consumption and polluting emissions.

  8. Treatment of addiction to ethanol and addictive-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating alcohol addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from alcohol addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increase central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of alcohol.

  9. Alternatives to lumber and plywood in home construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, E.

    1993-04-01

    The diminished supply and unstable price of lumber is compelling designers, builders, and developers to explore alternative materials for residential construction. The report discusses several commercially available alternative materials or building systems that may be used in framing and sheathing, including: engineered wood products; laminated fiberboard that can be used for sheathing walls; light-gauge structural steel components for floors, walls and roof systems; foam core structure sandwich panels for walls and roofs; and a variety of concrete and concrete block systems, many of which include insulation material.

  10. A WRF Simulation of the Impact of 3-D Radiative Transfer on Surface Hydrology over the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, K. N.; Gu, Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lee, W- L.; Fovell, R. G.

    2013-12-03

    We investigate 3-D mountains/snow effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, applied at a 30 km grid resolution, is used in conjunction with a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization covering a time period from 1 November 2007 to 31 May 2008, during which abundant snowfall occurred. A comparison of the 3-D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3-D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes, and on the consequent elevation dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. In particular, during the winter months, large deviations (3-DPP, in which PP denotes the plane-parallel approach) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours due to shading effects for elevations below 2.5 km. During spring, positive deviations shift to the earlier morning. Over mountaintops higher than 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40-60Wm?2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, which leads to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, positive SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Overall, this study shows that deviations of SWE due to 3-D radiation effects range from an increase of 18%at the lowest elevation range (1.5-2 km) to a decrease of 8% at the highest elevation range (above 3 km). Since lower elevation areas occupy larger fractions of the land surface, the net effect of 3-D radiative transfer is to extend snowmelt and snowmelt-driven runoff into the warm season. Because 60-90% of water resources originate from mountains worldwide, the aforementioned differences in simulated hydrology due solely to 3-D interactions between solar radiation and mountains/snow merit further investigation in order to understand the implications of modeling mountain water resources, and these resources vulnerability to climate change and air pollution.

  11. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  12. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  13. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  14. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part I: Experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-oil mixture flow boiling inside small tubes with inside diameters of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm are investigated experimentally. The test condition of nominal oil concentration is from 0% to 5%, mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 3.2 to 14 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature of 5 C, inlet quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and quality change from 0.1 to 0.2. Wavy, wavy-annular, annular and mist-annular flow pattern in 6.34 mm tube are observed, while only slug-annular and annular flow pattern are observed in 2.50 mm tube. Oil presence can make annular flow to form early and to retard to diminish in quality direction at nominal oil concentration {>=}3%. Augmentation effect of oil on heat transfer coefficient becomes weakened or even diminishes for small diameter tube while detrimental effect of oil on small tube performance becomes more significant than large tube. For both test tubes, variation of heat transfer coefficient and enhanced factor with oil concentration is irregular. Two-phase heat transfer multiplier with refrigerant-oil mixture properties increases consistently and monotonically with local oil concentration at different vapor quality. (author)

  15. Using new edges for anomaly detection in computer networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, Joshua Charles

    2015-05-19

    Creation of new edges in a network may be used as an indication of a potential attack on the network. Historical data of a frequency with which nodes in a network create and receive new edges may be analyzed. Baseline models of behavior among the edges in the network may be established based on the analysis of the historical data. A new edge that deviates from a respective baseline model by more than a predetermined threshold during a time window may be detected. The new edge may be flagged as potentially anomalous when the deviation from the respective baseline model is detected. Probabilities for both new and existing edges may be obtained for all edges in a path or other subgraph. The probabilities may then be combined to obtain a score for the path or other subgraph. A threshold may be obtained by calculating an empirical distribution of the scores under historical conditions.

  16. Simultaneous effect of modified gravity and primordial non-Gaussianity in large scale structure observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzatuny, Nareg; Khosravi, Shahram; Baghram, Shant; Moshafi, Hossein E-mail: khosravi@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: hosseinmoshafi@iasbs.ac.ir

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the simultaneous effect of primordial non-Gaussianity and the modification of the gravity in f(R) framework on large scale structure observations. We show that non-Gaussianity and modified gravity introduce a scale dependent bias and growth rate functions. The deviation from ?CDM in the case of primordial non-Gaussian models is in large scales, while the growth rate deviates from ?CDM in small scales for modified gravity theories. We show that the redshift space distortion can be used to distinguish positive and negative f{sub NL} in standard background, while in f(R) theories they are not easily distinguishable. The galaxy power spectrum is generally enhanced in presence of non-Gaussianity and modified gravity. We also obtain the scale dependence of this enhancement. Finally we define galaxy growth rate and galaxy growth rate bias as new observational parameters to constrain cosmology.

  17. A Study of the Conservatism of Resonant Shock Test Fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cap, J.S.

    1998-12-03

    Portions of a series of end-of-life tests are described for a Sandia National Li~boratories- designed space-based sensor that utilizes a mercury-cadmium-telluride focal plane array. Variations in background intensity are consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal variations in solar position cause changes in the pattern of shadows falling across the compartment containing the optical elements, filter-band components, and focal plane array. When the sensor compartment is most fully illuminated by the sun, background intensities are large and their standard deviations tend to be large. During the winter season, when the compartment is most fully shadowed by surrounding structure, backgrounci intensities are small and standard deviations tend to be small. Details in the surrounding structure are speculated to produce transient shadows that complicate background intensifies as a function of time or of sensor position in orbit. KEYwoRDs Noise measurements, background intensity, focal plane array, mercury-cadmium-telluride.

  18. Precision Measurements of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2010-08-01

    New high precision polarization measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio in the Q^2 from 0.3 to 0.7 [GeV/c]^2 have been made. These elastic H(e,e'p) measurementswere done in Jefferson Lab's Hall A using 80% longitudinally polarized electrons and recoil polarimetry. For Q^2 greater than 1 [GeV/c]^2, previous polarization data indicated a strong deviation of the form factor ratio from unity which sparked renewed theoretical and experimental interest in how two-photon diagrams have been taken into account. The new high precision data indicate that the deviation from unity, while small, persists even at Q^2 less than 1 [GeV/c]^2.

  19. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China) [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China); Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Zhuang, Wei, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China); Gao, Yi Qin, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  20. Measurement of the Magnet Blocks for SSRF Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Yongzhou; Zhang Jidong; Zhou Qiaogen; Qian Zhenmei; Li Yang

    2010-06-23

    Two in-vacuum undulators IVU25s and one elliptically polarized undulator EPU100 have been developed for SSRF. Two IVU25s with the same hybrid design contain about 640 Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} magnet blocks and the dimension of blocks is 65 Wx25 Hx9 D. The EPU100 of the APPLE-II type contains about 690 NdFeB magnet blocks with the dimension of 35 Wx35 Hx25 D. This paper describes the magnetic measurements of these magnet blocks with the Helmholtz coil measurement system for IVU25 magnet blocks and the Hall probe measurement system for EPU100 magnet blocks. The measured maximum magnetic moment deviation and the maximum angle deviation are less than {+-}1.0% and 1.1 deg. respectively both for Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} blocks and NdFeB blocks and satisfy the specifications of undulators.

  1. Evolution of Griffith's phase in La{sub 0.4}Bi{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 1?x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} perovskite oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayal, Vijaylakshmi Kumar, Punith V.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.

    2014-05-07

    Samples of La{sub 0.4}Bi{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 1?x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} have been prepared and their microstructure, composition, and magnetic properties have been investigated for x?=?0.05, 0.1, and 0.5.The deviation in the inverse susceptibility behavior from Curie-Weiss law and increase in susceptibility exponent indicates the evolution of the Griffith's phase in La{sub 0.4}Bi{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 1?x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} around T{sub C}. The presence of Griffith's Phase is inferred due to magnetic frustration with increasing Ti concentration. The deviation between field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization curves is observed in these samples and is attributed to the appearance of the spin glass or cluster glass state that arises due to the magnetic anisotropy.

  2. Density and surface tension of melts of zirconium and hafnium fluorides with lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katyshev, S.F.; Artemov, V.V.; Desyatnik, V.N.

    1988-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the temperature dependence of the density and surface tension of melts of LiF-ZrF/sub 4/ and LiF-HfF/sub 4/. Density and surface tension were determined by the method of maximum pressure in an argon bubble. On the basis of experimental data over the entire concentration range the molar volumes and their relative deviations from the additive molar volumes were calculated for 1100/sup 0/K. The positive deviations of the molar volumes from additivity in the LiF-HfF/sub 4/ system (22.45%) were greater than in the LiF-ZrF/sub 4/ system (15.75%). This indicated that the reaction with lithium fluoride is intensified with the switch to the hafnium fluoride. Results also demonstrated that the fluorides are surface-active components in the molten mixtures.

  3. Specific absorption rate calculations of magnetite, using a modified linear response model for applications in magnetic hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernández S, A. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Cano, M. E. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Torres-Arenas, J.

    2014-11-07

    Currently the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by magnetic nanoparticles is studied for biomedical applications of cancer thermotherapy. Several experiments are conduced following the framework of the Rosensweig model, in order to estimate their specific absorption rate. Nevertheless, this linear approximation involves strong simplifications which constrain their accuracy and validity range. The main aim of this work is to incorporate the deviation of the sphericity assumption in particles shapes, to improve the determination of their specific absorption rate. The correction to the effective particles volume is computed as a measure of the apparent amount of magnetic material, interacting with the external AC magnetic field. Preliminary results using the physical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, exhibit an important correction in their estimated specific absorption rate, as a function of the apparent mean particles radius. Indeed, we have observed using a small deviation (6% of the apparent radius), up to 40% of the predicted specific absorption rate by the Rosensweig linear approximation.

  4. Reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xin Zhao, Xiangmo Hui, Fei Ma, Junyan Yang, Lan

    2014-10-06

    Clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied extensively in recent years and many protocols are put forward based on the point of statistical signal processing, which is an effective way to optimize accuracy. However, the accuracy derived from the statistical data can be improved mainly by sufficient packets exchange, which will consume the limited power resources greatly. In this paper, a reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization is proposed to optimize sync accuracy without expending additional sync packets. As a contribution, a linear weighted fusion scheme for multiple clock deviations is constructed with the collaborative sensing of clock timestamp. And the fusion weight is defined by the covariance of sync errors for different clock deviations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in terms of sync overhead and sync accuracy.

  5. Enhancement of Br ( B d → μ + μ - ) / Br ( B s → μ + μ - ) in supersymmetric unified models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2015-05-14

    We explain the 2.3σ deviation in the recent measurements of the neutral B meson decays into muon pairs from the standard model prediction in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified models using antisymmetric coupling as a new source of flavor violation. We show a correlation between the Bd→μ⁺μ⁻ decay and the CP phase in the Bd→J/ψK decay and that their deviations from the standard model predictions can be explained after satisfying constraints arising from various hadronic and leptonic rare decay processes, B-B¯, K-K¯ oscillation data, and electric dipole moments of electron and neutron. The allowed parameter space is typically representedmore » by pseudoscalar Higgs mass mA≤1 TeV and tanβH(≡vu/vd)≲20 for squark and gluino masses around 2 TeV.« less

  6. Crosstalk compensation in analysis of energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophersen, Jon P; Morrison, John L; Morrison, William H; Motloch, Chester G; Rose, David M

    2014-06-24

    Estimating impedance of energy storage devices includes generating input signals at various frequencies with a frequency step factor therebetween. An excitation time record (ETR) is generated to include a summation of the input signals and a deviation matrix of coefficients is generated relative to the excitation time record to determine crosstalk between the input signals. An energy storage device is stimulated with the ETR and simultaneously a response time record (RTR) is captured that is indicative of a response of the energy storage device to the ETR. The deviation matrix is applied to the RTR to determine an in-phase component and a quadrature component of an impedance of the energy storage device at each of the different frequencies with the crosstalk between the input signals substantially removed. This approach enables rapid impedance spectra measurements that can be completed within one period of the lowest frequency or less.

  7. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bestwick, A. J.; Fox, E. J.; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  8. Mixing of process heels, process solutions, and recycle streams: Results of the small-scale radioactive tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta; JP Bramson; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; MA Mann; MJ Steele; RT Steele; RG Swoboda; MW Urie

    2000-05-17

    Various recycle streams will be combined with the low-activity waste (LAW) or the high-level waste (HLW) feed solutions during the processing of the Hanford tank wastes by BNFL, Inc. In addition, the LAW and HLW feed solutions will also be mixed with heels present in the processing equipment. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of mixing specific process streams. Observations were made regarding adverse reactions (mainly precipitation) and effects on the Tc oxidation state (as indicated by K{sub d} measurements with SuperLig{reg_sign} 639). The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-023, Rev. 0, Small Scale Mixing of Process Heels, Solutions, and Recycle Streams. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  9. Ultrasonic imaging system for in-process fabric defect detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Lawrence, William P.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1997-01-01

    An ultrasonic method and system are provided for monitoring a fabric to identify a defect. A plurality of ultrasonic transmitters generate ultrasonic waves relative to the fabric. An ultrasonic receiver means responsive to the generated ultrasonic waves from the transmitters receives ultrasonic waves coupled through the fabric and generates a signal. An integrated peak value of the generated signal is applied to a digital signal processor and is digitized. The digitized signal is processed to identify a defect in the fabric. The digitized signal processing includes a median value filtering step to filter out high frequency noise. Then a mean value and standard deviation of the median value filtered signal is calculated. The calculated mean value and standard deviation are compared with predetermined threshold values to identify a defect in the fabric.

  10. Observation of the rare $B^0_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay from the combined analysis of CMS and LHCb data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-05-13

    A joint measurement is presented of the branching fractions $B^0_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $B^0\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ in proton-proton collisions at the LHC by the CMS and LHCb experiments. The data samples were collected in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and in 2012 at 8 TeV. The combined analysis produces the first observation of the $B^0_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay, with a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations, and the best measurement of its branching fraction so far, and three standard deviation evidence for the $B^0\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay. The measurements are statistically compatible with SM predictions and impose stringent constraints on several theories beyond the SM.

  11. Nonlinear structure-composition relationships in the Ge1-ySny/Si(100) (y<0.15) system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beeler, R.; Roucka, R.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Kouvetakis, J.; Menéndez, J.

    2011-07-26

    The compositional dependence of the cubic lattice parameter in Ge1-ySny alloys has been revisited. Large 1000-atom supercell ab initio simulations confirm earlier theoretical predictions that indicate a positive quadratic deviation from Vegard's law, albeit with a somewhat smaller bowing coefficient, θ = 0.047 Å, than found from 64-atom cell simulations (θ = 0.063 Å). On the other hand, measurements from an extensive set of alloy samples with compositions y < 0.15 reveal a negative deviation from Vegard's law. The discrepancy with earlier experimental data, which supported the theoretical results, is traced back to an unexpected compositional dependence of the residualmore » strain after growth on Si substrates. The experimental bowing parameter for the relaxed lattice constant of the alloys is found to be θ = -0.066 Å. Possible reasons for the disagreement between theory and experiment are discussed in detail.« less

  12. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems FY 2010 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski

    2010-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program during FY 2010. Thermodynamic investigations into metal extraction dependencies on lactate and HDEHP have been performed. These metal distribution studies indicate a substantial deviation from the expected behavior at conditions that are typical of TALSPEAK process operational platform. These studies also identify that no thermodynamically stable mixed complexes exist in the aqueous solutions and increasing the complexity of the organic medium appears to influence the observed deviations. Following on from this, the first calorimetric measurement of the heat of extraction of americium across a liquid-liquid boundary was performed.

  13. A CODE TO COMPUTE THE EMISSION OF THIN ACCRETION DISKS IN NON-KERR SPACETIMES AND TEST THE NATURE OF BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2012-12-20

    Astrophysical black hole (BH) candidates are thought to be the Kerr BHs predicted by general relativity, but the actual nature of these objects has still to be proven. The analysis of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a geometrically thin and optically thick accretion disk around a BH candidate can provide information about the geometry of the spacetime around the compact object and it can thus test the Kerr BH hypothesis. In this paper, I present a code based on a ray-tracing approach and capable of computing some basic properties of thin accretion disks in spacetimes with deviations from the Kerr background. The code can be used to fit current and future X-ray data of stellar-mass BH candidates and constrain possible deviations from the Kerr geometry in the spin parameter-deformation parameter plane.

  14. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  15. Isotope Geochemistry of Calcite Coatings and the Thermal History of the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.D. Marshall; J.F. Whelan

    2000-07-27

    Calcite and opal coatings found on fracture footwalls and lithophysal cavity bottoms in the volcanic section at Yucca Mountain (exposed in a tunnel) contain a record of gradual chemical and isotopic changes that have occurred in the unsaturated zone. The thin (less than 6 cm) coatings are composed primarily of calcite, opal, chalcedony, and quartz. Fluid inclusions in calcite that homogenize at greater than ambient temperatures provide impetus for geochronologic studies in order to determine the thermal history. In the welded Topopah Spring Tuff (12.7 Ma), U-Pb ages of opal and chalcedony layers provide evidence of a long history of deposition throughout the past 10 m.y. However, these ages can constrain the ages of associated calcite layers only in samples with an easily interpretable microstratigraphy. Strontium isotope ratios in calcite increase with microstratigraphic position from the base up to the outermost surface of the coatings. The strontium incorporated in these coatings records the systematic change in pore-water isotopic composition due to water-rock interaction primarily in the overlying nonwelded tuffs. A one-dimensional advection-reaction model simulates strontium isotope ratios measured in pore water extracted from core in three vertical boreholes adjacent to the tunnel. By calculating the strontium isotope compositions of the rocks at various past times, the model predicts a history of the strontium isotope ratios in the water that matches the record in the calcite and therefore provides approximate ages. Oxygen isotope ratios measured in calcite gradually increase with decreasing model strontium age. Assuming that the oxygen isotope ratio of the percolating water was relatively constant, this trend indicates a gradual cooling of the rocks over millions of years, in agreement with thermal modeling of magma beneath the 12-Ma Timber Mountain caldera just north of Yucca Mountain. This model predicts that temperatures significantly exceeding current geotherm values occurred prior to 6 Ma. We find no evidence for Quaternary or recent thermal perturbations to the cooling rocks.

  16. A solar eruption driven by rapid sunspot rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruan, Guiping; Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Wang, Shuo; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jiangtao; Xu, Haiqing; Li, Gang; Li, Xing

    2014-04-01

    We present the observation of a major solar eruption that is associated with fast sunspot rotation. The event includes a sigmoidal filament eruption, a coronal mass ejection, and a GOES X2.1 flare from NOAA active region 11283. The filament and some overlying arcades were partially rooted in a sunspot. The sunspot rotated at ?10 hr{sup 1} during a period of 6 hr prior to the eruption. In this period, the filament was found to rise gradually along with the sunspot rotation. Based on the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observation, for an area along the polarity inversion line underneath the filament, we found gradual pre-eruption decreases of both the mean strength of the photospheric horizontal field (B{sub h} ) and the mean inclination angle between the vector magnetic field and the local radial (or vertical) direction. These observations are consistent with the pre-eruption gradual rising of the filament-associated magnetic structure. In addition, according to the nonlinear force-free field reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field, a pre-eruption magnetic flux rope structure is found to be in alignment with the filament, and a considerable amount of magnetic energy was transported to the corona during the period of sunspot rotation. Our study provides evidence that in this event sunspot rotation plays an important role in twisting, energizing, and destabilizing the coronal filament-flux rope system, and led to the eruption. We also propose that the pre-event evolution of B{sub h} may be used to discern the driving mechanism of eruptions.

  17. Formative time of breakdown modeled for the ignition of air and n-butane mixtures using effective ionization coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Popugaev, S. D.; Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Jiao, C. Q.

    2008-12-15

    It is shown that simulations of ignition by electric arc discharge in n-butane and air mixtures have interesting features, which deviate from results obtained by simple extension of calculations based on methanelike fuels. In particular, it is demonstrated that lowering the temperature of the n-butane-air mixture before ignition under certain conditions will actually decrease the ignition stage time as well as the required electric field.

  18. Higgs boson decays in the littlest Higgs model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.A.; Martinez, R.; Rodriguez, J.-Alexis

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the two body Higgs boson decays in the framework of the littlest Higgs model. The decay H{yields}{gamma}Z is computed at one-loop-level and, using previous results, we evaluate the branching fractions in the framework of the littlest Higgs model. A wide range of the space parameter of the model is considered and possible deviations from the standard model are explored.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Our Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Our Process CRADA Process Sandia offers two basic types of CRADAs: Standard CRADAs & Umbrella CRADAs. The terms and conditions are substantively similar: a few modifications have been made to the Umbrella CRADA to account for how the proposed work is defined and captured. Use of the wrong document type or deviation from the template format (font type, headers, table format, etc.) in any way WILL create problems for processing AND cause a delay in start of work. Please contact

  20. Lepton flavor violation in Higgs boson decays under the rare tau decay

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    results (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Lepton flavor violation in Higgs boson decays under the rare tau decay results Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lepton flavor violation in Higgs boson decays under the rare tau decay results We study lepton flavor violation (LFV) associated with tau leptons in the framework of the two Higgs doublet model, in which LFV couplings are introduced as a deviation from Model II Yukawa interaction. Parameters of the model are constrained from

  1. X:\ARM_19~1\P377-392.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Session Papers 381 Figure 1. Annual behavior of the aerosol number density in the ground atmospheric layer (-) and of its column density (through the mixing layer) (o-o); vertical bars show rms deviations. Some Results of an Experimental Study of the Atmospheric Aerosol in Tomsk: A Combined Approach V. V. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia As widely accepted, the atmospheric aerosol strongly con- tributes to the formation of the

  2. X:\ARM_19~1\PG93-112.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Figure 1. Drizzle parameters. The data for these measurements were taken on June 6, 1992, at 6 am. The first three Doppler moments from the vertically pointing radar were used in a log-normal three parameter cloud droplet model to determine the vertical profiles of modal radius, the standard deviation, and the number of droplets. Island Based Radar and Microwave Radiometer Measurements of Stratus Cloud Parameters During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) A. S. Frisch C. W.

  3. X:\ARM_19~1\PGS53-62.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    z i , z i , z i V s , V t Session Papers 59 Figure 1. Temporal and spatial standard deviation of sensible heat flux over the SGP CART site. Values are normalized by the mean sensible heat flux, as defined in the text. Using Remotely Sensed Planetary Boundary Layer Variables as Estimates of Areally Averaged Heat Flux R. L. Coulter, T. J. Martin, and D. J. Holdridge Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Homogeneity across the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation

  4. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, Randall; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Anand; Wavrik, Kathryn

    2001-09-07

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas, (2) to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems, and (3) to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs. Work was directed at both injection wells and production wells and at vertical, horizontal, and highly deviated wells.

  5. web_comments.xls

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Date Rec Type Recommendations/ Comments Name Organization 1/9/2004 Reliability Standards Future reliability standards must strike a balance between detailed, rigid requirements, which provide little or no latitude for deviation, and standards, which are objective-based and allow for innovation and invention to achieve intended goals. Each standard should identify its importance on the BPS reliability in terms of the potential short-term (operating time horizon) vs. long-term (planning time

  6. Nonlinear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    inward particle flux component in trapped electron mode turbulence P. W. Terry University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 R. Gatto Università di Roma "Tor Vergata," 00133 Rome, Italy ͑Received 12 April 2006; accepted 18 May 2006; published online 21 June 2006͒ Trapped electron turbulence is shown to have a significant inward particle flux component associated with nonlinear deviations of the density-potential cross correlation from the quasilinear value. The cross

  7. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  8. Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections (Dataset) | Data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Explorer Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections Title: Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections Comprehensive catalogue of drill-hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross-sections in Adobe Illustrator format. Authors: Faulds, James E. Publication Date: 2013-12-31

  9. Room-temperature creep of tantalum tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schober, T.; Trinkaus, H. )

    1990-06-15

    We report on long-term creep experiments on dilute tantalum tritides at room temperature. Significant deviations of the recorded strain rates from isotropic swelling are found above approximately 30 MPa. We attribute this room-temperature creep to a stress-induced preferential dislocation loop punching by bubbles in crystallographic directions close the stress axis. Quantitative estimates show that this mechanism can indeed account for the observed creep rates.

  10. Detecting DNA regulatory motifs by incorporating positional trendsin information content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kechris, Katherina J.; van Zwet, Erik; Bickel, Peter J.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-05-04

    On the basis of the observation that conserved positions in transcription factor binding sites are often clustered together, we propose a simple extension to the model-based motif discovery methods. We assign position-specific prior distributions to the frequency parameters of the model, penalizing deviations from a specified conservation profile. Examples with both simulated and real data show that this extension helps discover motifs as the data become noisier or when there is a competing false motif.

  11. Habilitation thesis on STT and Higgs searches in WH production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnenschein, Lars; /Paris U., VI-VII

    2006-12-01

    The detector of the D0 experiment at the proton anti-proton collider Tevatron in Run II is discussed in detail. The performance of the collider and the experiment is presented. Standard model Higgs searches with integrated luminosities between 260 pb{sup -1} and 950 pb{sup -1} and their combination are performed. No deviation from SM background expectation has been observed. Sensitivity prospects at the Tevatron are shown.

  12. SU-E-T-560: Commissioning An HDR Freiburg Flap Applicator for Skin Lesion Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dou, K; Li, B; Lerma, F; Aroumougame, V; Sarfaraz, M; Laser, B; Jacobs, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Flexible Freiburg flap used with high dose rate afterloaders is easy to cut into any size for any body site and to dwell with a precise source position, conforms to curved skin surface and then to the planned target. However, unlike intracavity or interstitial situations, incomplete scatter environment due to flap applicators exposed to air might lead to dose difference between the delivered and planned. This research is focused on the dose deviation of incomplete scatter versus full scatter. Methods: A 12x12 cm of Freiburg flap applicator was used for the validation. A Nucletron Oncentra Brachy Ver. 4.3 treatment planning system (TPS) was used for treatment planning. However, no heterogeneity correction incorporated into the brachytherap TPS needs to be considered. A Philips Brilliance CT Big Bore was employed for CT scan. Radiation was delivered using a Nucletron HDR remote afterloader system. A 10cm bolus was used to cover the flap for obtaining a full scatter. An OSL, ion chamber, and Gafchromic EBT2 film were used for commissioning the flap applicator. Results: The applicator calibration at 5mm depth was performed using an OSL dosimeter. Applicator source dwelling positions with 1D and 2D array exposed to and recorded by Gafchromic EBT2 film showed an agreement within 1mm. 1D array of Freiburg flap exhibited 4.2% cooler in dose with incomplete scatter than full scatter. 2D array showed 7.1% lower in dose for incomplete scatter than full scatter. The deviation was found more than 10% beyond 8cm in depth. Conclusion: Significant dose deviation caused by the incomplete scatter environment was found to be 7.1% at 1cm depth. This deviation was increased with increasing depth. The inaccuracy resulted from the incomplete scatter can be fixed by either placing a bolus on the top of the flap or making the plan at least 7% hotter.

  13. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bell-Shaped Curve Captures Cloud System Variability Submitter: Lamb, P. J., University of Oklahoma Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D18205, doi:10.1029/2005JD006158. Figure 1. Reflectivity standard deviation PDFs, resampled as a function of timescale and contoured by equal values of probability, show an increase in variability with scale. The PDF modes lie mostly along the mean

  14. Uncertainty quantification of CO₂ saturation estimated from electrical resistance tomography data at the Cranfield site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xianjin; Chen, Xiao; Carrigan, Charles R.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2014-06-03

    A parametric bootstrap approach is presented for uncertainty quantification (UQ) of CO₂ saturation derived from electrical resistance tomography (ERT) data collected at the Cranfield, Mississippi (USA) carbon sequestration site. There are many sources of uncertainty in ERT-derived CO₂ saturation, but we focus on how the ERT observation errors propagate to the estimated CO₂ saturation in a nonlinear inversion process. Our UQ approach consists of three steps. We first estimated the observational errors from a large number of reciprocal ERT measurements. The second step was to invert the pre-injection baseline data and the resulting resistivity tomograph was used as the prior information for nonlinear inversion of time-lapse data. We assigned a 3% random noise to the baseline model. Finally, we used a parametric bootstrap method to obtain bootstrap CO₂ saturation samples by deterministically solving a nonlinear inverse problem many times with resampled data and resampled baseline models. Then the mean and standard deviation of CO₂ saturation were calculated from the bootstrap samples. We found that the maximum standard deviation of CO₂ saturation was around 6% with a corresponding maximum saturation of 30% for a data set collected 100 days after injection began. There was no apparent spatial correlation between the mean and standard deviation of CO₂ saturation but the standard deviation values increased with time as the saturation increased. The uncertainty in CO₂ saturation also depends on the ERT reciprocal error threshold used to identify and remove noisy data and inversion constraints such as temporal roughness. Five hundred realizations requiring 3.5 h on a single 12-core node were needed for the nonlinear Monte Carlo inversion to arrive at stationary variances while the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) stochastic inverse approach may expend days for a global search. This indicates that UQ of 2D or 3D ERT inverse problems can be performed on a laptop or desktop PC.

  15. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - X-Ray and UV Photoelectron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy X-Ray and UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy Example of graph made with cluster tool; plots counts (Y-axis) vs. binding energy (X-axis) for PET Carbon 1S. High-resolution XPS spectra of carbon 1s from polyethylene terephthalate backsheet material, showing excellent quantitative agreement between measured and predicted peak area ratios. Subtle differences in polymer functionality are assessed by deviations from stoichiometry. In photoemission techniques, we use either X-rays or

  16. Alignment reference device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  17. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration (MYRDD) Plan - Appendix A: Budgetary Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A - Budgetary Information Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan Page A - 1 Appendix A -Budgetary Information The schedule for completing the milestones and achieving the targets and RD&D priorities outlined in this plan is based on expected funding levels, the current stage of development of different technologies, and the perceived difficulty in attaining the targets. Deviation from the expected funding levels may alter the schedule for completion of the tasks and

  18. Cloudy Skies W. Wiscombe and A. Davis NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W. Wiscombe and A. Davis NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Climate & Radiation Branch Greenbelt, MD 20771 A. Marshak SSAI Lanham, MD 20706 Standard Gaussian-type statistics are not really adequate to describe atmospheric variability; this traditional approach implicitly dismisses fluctuations as "noise" of use only in computing a standard deviation which, together with the mean, presumably varies so little in space and time that one can meaningfully speak of

  19. Uncertainty quantification of CO₂ saturation estimated from electrical resistance tomography data at the Cranfield site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Xianjin; Chen, Xiao; Carrigan, Charles R.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2014-06-03

    A parametric bootstrap approach is presented for uncertainty quantification (UQ) of CO₂ saturation derived from electrical resistance tomography (ERT) data collected at the Cranfield, Mississippi (USA) carbon sequestration site. There are many sources of uncertainty in ERT-derived CO₂ saturation, but we focus on how the ERT observation errors propagate to the estimated CO₂ saturation in a nonlinear inversion process. Our UQ approach consists of three steps. We first estimated the observational errors from a large number of reciprocal ERT measurements. The second step was to invert the pre-injection baseline data and the resulting resistivity tomograph was used as the priormore » information for nonlinear inversion of time-lapse data. We assigned a 3% random noise to the baseline model. Finally, we used a parametric bootstrap method to obtain bootstrap CO₂ saturation samples by deterministically solving a nonlinear inverse problem many times with resampled data and resampled baseline models. Then the mean and standard deviation of CO₂ saturation were calculated from the bootstrap samples. We found that the maximum standard deviation of CO₂ saturation was around 6% with a corresponding maximum saturation of 30% for a data set collected 100 days after injection began. There was no apparent spatial correlation between the mean and standard deviation of CO₂ saturation but the standard deviation values increased with time as the saturation increased. The uncertainty in CO₂ saturation also depends on the ERT reciprocal error threshold used to identify and remove noisy data and inversion constraints such as temporal roughness. Five hundred realizations requiring 3.5 h on a single 12-core node were needed for the nonlinear Monte Carlo inversion to arrive at stationary variances while the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) stochastic inverse approach may expend days for a global search. This indicates that UQ of 2D or 3D ERT inverse problems can be performed on a laptop or desktop PC.« less

  20. In what sense a neutron star-black hole binary is the holy grail for testing gravity?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagchi, Manjari; Torres, Diego F. E-mail: dtorres@ieec.uab.es

    2014-08-01

    Pulsars in binary systems have been very successful to test the validity of general relativity in the strong field regime [1-4]. So far, such binaries include neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) systems. It is commonly believed that a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary will be much superior for this purpose. But in what sense is this true? Does it apply to all possible deviations?.

  1. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Macrophysical and Microphysical Properties of Deep Convective Clouds as Observed by MODIS Download a printable PDF Submitter: Li, Z., University of Maryland Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: N/A Distributions of cloud optical depth from Aqua in four regions. The mean and standard deviation of the distributions are given for each region indicated by latitude and longitude range in each panel. The means and

  2. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black Carbon Reduction of Snow Albedo Submitter: Kirchstetter, T. W., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Aerosol Life Cycle Journal Reference: Hadley OL and TW Kirchstetter. 2012. "Black carbon reduction of snow albedo." Nature Climate Change, , doi:10.1038/nclimate1433. Spectrally weighted snow albedo over the 300-2,500 nm solar spectrum: derived from our experiments (dots, 1 standard deviation) and modelled using SNICAR

  3. March

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March /newsroom/_assets/images/newsroom-icon.jpg March We are your source for reliable, up-to-date news and information; our scientists and engineers can provide technical insights on our innovations for a secure nation. Surface climate anomalies in 2011 for precipitation, daily maximum temperature, and dewpoint. Maps show spatial distributions of anomalies as standard deviations from the 1895-2014 mean. Yellow areas indicate locations of 2011 fires Researchers explore correlation between

  4. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  5. Temperature-based Instanton Analysis: Identifying Vulnerability in Transmission Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kersulis, Jonas; Hiskens, Ian; Chertkov, Michael; Backhaus, Scott N.; Bienstock, Daniel

    2015-04-08

    A time-coupled instanton method for characterizing transmission network vulnerability to wind generation fluctuation is presented. To extend prior instanton work to multiple-time-step analysis, line constraints are specified in terms of temperature rather than current. An optimization formulation is developed to express the minimum wind forecast deviation such that at least one line is driven to its thermal limit. Results are shown for an IEEE RTS-96 system with several wind-farms.

  6. A Study of Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Engine with the European

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Particulate Measurement Programme | Department of Energy A comparison of regulated emissions measured by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and particle number emissions with the Joint Research Committee participating international laboratories was a success, and the CARB measurements and standard deviations compared well with the other laboratories PDF icon deer09_dwyer.pdf More Documents & Publications Emissions from the European Light Duty Diesel Vehicle During DPF Regeneration

  7. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3# MILESTONE SCHEDULE ~ ~ PLAN ~ ~ STATUS REPORT FORM APPROVED (11-84) OMB NO. 1910-1400 1. TITLE 2. REPORTING PERIOD 3. IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 4. PARTICIPANT NAME AND ADDRESS 5. START DATE 6. COMPLETION DATE 7. ELEMENT 8. REPORTING 9. DURATION FY FY 10. PERCENT CODE ELEMENT COMPLETE a. b. Plan Actual 11. SIGNATURE OF PARTICIPANT'S PROJECT MANAGER AND DATE Symbols Major event with an activity bar Time now and work done Schedule deviation (not yet approved) First change approved (slippage)

  8. Tank 241-AP-103 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples and Analytical Results for the Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-12-09

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-103 (AP-103) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-103 samples were performed as directed in ''Compatibility Grub Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999'' (Sasaki 1999a). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. No notification limits were exceeded.

  9. PFP up-right lift UL-20/26 manlifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morley, J.M.

    1994-11-09

    This Technical Evaluation of Equipment Maintenance (TEEM) is provided principally to document vendor suggested maintenance requirements and deviations from vendor suggested requirements, and provide documentation to support PM procedures. As additional maintenance activities are identified, they will be documented in later revisions. This TEEM is applicable to four single-person manlifts. The report documents preventive maintenance evaluations, semi-annual checks, safety rules before the use of the manlifts, and routine service checks.

  10. Shell structure in the density profiles for noninteracting fermions in anisotropic harmonic confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vignolo, Patrizia; Minguzzi, Anna

    2003-05-01

    We develop a Green's function method to evaluate the exact equilibrium particle-density profiles of noninteracting Fermi gases in external harmonic confinement in any spatial dimension and for arbitrary trap anisotropy. While in a spherically symmetric configuration the shell effects are negligible in the case of a large number of particles, we find that for very anisotropic traps the quantum effects due to single-level occupancy and the deviations from the Thomas-Fermi approximation are also visible for mesoscopic clouds.

  11. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  12. Effects of self-irradiation in plutonium alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chung, B. W.; Lema, K. E.; Allen, P. G.

    2015-09-16

    In this paper, we present updated results of self-irradiation effects on 238Pu-enriched 239Pu alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. We obtained the self-irradiation equivalent time of nearly 200 years, nearly 100 years longer than in our previous papers. At this extended aging, we find the rate of decrease in density has slowed significantly, stabilizing around 15.73 g/cc, without signs of void swelling. The volume expansion measured at 35°C also shows apparent saturation at less than 0.25%. Quasi-static tensile measurement still show gradual increase in the strength of plutonium alloys with age.

  13. Water for future Mars astronauts?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water for future Mars astronauts? Water for future Mars astronauts? Within its first three months on Mars, NASA's Curiosity Rover saw a surprising diversity of soils and sediments along a half-kilometer route that tell a complex story about the gradual desiccation of the Red Planet. September 26, 2013 This image shows two areas on Mars in a location named Rocknest that were scooped out by the Curiosity Rover last year. Researchers took samples of the areas to determine whether they were wetter

  14. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for future Mars astronauts? September 26, 2013 Diversity of Martian soils leaves Los Alamos scientists thirsty for more LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Sept. 26, 2013-Within its first three months on Mars, NASA's Curiosity Rover saw a surprising diversity of soils and sediments along a half-kilometer route that tell a complex story about the gradual desiccation of the Red Planet. Perhaps most notable among findings from the ChemCam team is that all of the dust and fine soil contains small amounts of water.

  15. LNG_v11_appendixupdate.qxd

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e B a s i c F a c t s Liquefied Natural Gas: About This Report Growing Demand for Natural Gas Natural gas plays a vital role in the U.S. energy supply and in achieving the nation's economic and environmental goals. Although natural gas production in North America is projected to gradually increase through 2025, consumption has begun to outpace available domestic natural gas supply. Over time, this gap will widen. Emergence of the Global LNG Market One of several

  16. Tailoring the energy level alignment at the Co/Alq{sub 3} interface by controlled cobalt oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, Norman; Steil, Sabine; Großmann, Nicolas; Fetzer, Roman; Cinchetti, Mirko; Aeschlimann, Martin

    2013-12-16

    We have studied the influence of oxygen exposure at the prototypical interface between cobalt and the organic semiconductor tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (III) (Alq{sub 3}) by photoemission spectroscopy. We find that oxidation of the cobalt leads to a gradual suppression of hybrid interface states, to a progressive change in the work function and to a continuous energetic shift of the molecular orbitals towards higher binding energies. Based on these observations, we propose controlled oxidation of the ferromagnetic electrode as an easy and effective possibility to tune the performance of organic spintronics devices.

  17. METHOD OF SUSTAINING A NEUTRONIC CHAIN REACTING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fermi, E.; Leverett, M.C.

    1957-11-12

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors and a method of sustainlng a chain reaction. The reactor shown in the patent for carrying out the method is the gas-cooled type comprised of a solid moderator having a plurality of passages therethrough for receiving bodies of fissionable material. In carrying out the method, the reactor is loaded by inserting in the passages fuel elements and moderator material in a proportion to sustain a chain reaction As the reproduction ratio decreases below the desired fiiaire due to impurities formed during operation of the reactor, the moderator material is gradually replaced with additional fuel material to maintain the reproduction ratio above unity.

  18. Effects of surface diffusion on high temperature selective emitters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peykov, Daniel; Yeng, Yi Xiang; Celanovic, Ivan; Joannopoulos, John D.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Using morphological and optical simulations of 1D tantalum photonic crystals at 1200K, surface diffusion was determined to gradually reduce the efficiency of selective emitters. This was attributed to shifting resonance peaks and declining emissivity caused by changes to the cavity dimensions and the aperture width. Decreasing the structures curvature through larger periods and smaller cavity widths, as well as generating smoother transitions in curvature through the introduction of rounded cavities, was found to alleviate this degradation. An optimized structure, that shows both high efficiency selective emissivity and resistance to surface diffusion, was presented.

  19. Graphene-based terahertz photodetector by noise thermometry technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ming-Jye; Wang, Ji-Wun; Wang, Chun-Lun; Chiang, Yen-Yu; Chang, Hsian-Hong

    2014-01-20

    We report the characteristics of graphene-based terahertz (THz) photodetector based on noise thermometry technique by measuring its noise power at frequency from 4 to 6 GHz. Hot electron system in graphene microbridge is generated after THz photon pumping and creates extra noise power. The equivalent noise temperature and electron temperature increase rapidly in low THz pumping regime and saturate gradually in high THz power regime which is attributed to a faster energy relaxation process involved by stronger electron-phonon interaction. Based on this detector, a conversion efficiency around 0.15 from THz power to noise power in 46?GHz span has been achieved.

  20. LATTICE WITH SMALLER MOMENTUM COMPACTION FACTOR FOR PEP-II HIGH ENERGY RING

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect LATTICE WITH SMALLER MOMENTUM COMPACTION FACTOR FOR PEP-II HIGH ENERGY RING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LATTICE WITH SMALLER MOMENTUM COMPACTION FACTOR FOR PEP-II HIGH ENERGY RING At present, the PEP-II bunch length and vertical beta function {beta}*{sub y} at the Interaction Point (IP) are about of the same size. To increase luminosity, it is planned to gradually reduce {beta}*{sub y}. For the maximum effect, bunch length has to be also

  1. Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical Tracking the Elusive QOOH Radical Print Monday, 29 June 2015 00:00 Ignition chemistry involves a complex web of reactions. By studying the reaction products-looking at this web from its perimeter inward-researchers have gradually deduced the nature of the "reactive intermediate" molecules that must lie at the center. Decades of research worldwide have shown that hydroperoxyalkyl radicals-a class of reactive molecules denoted as "QOOH"-must be

  2. austin-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary World oil markets, while remaining sensitive to near-term supply indicators, including U.S. inventory levels, are, in our estimation, still on track to deliver gradually declining crude oil prices through the end of this year and through 2001 as well. World supply in 2000 (76.6 million barrels per day) is expected to exceed demand (75.8 million barrels per day), leading to a reversal of the downshift in petroleum inventories in industrialized countries observed since mid-1999. Our base

  3. Influence of system temperature on the micro-structures and dynamics of dust clusters in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Y. L.; Huang, F.; He, Y. F.; Wu, L.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Yu, M. Y.

    2015-06-15

    Influence of the system temperature on the micro-structures and dynamics of dust clusters in dusty plasmas is investigated through laboratory experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. The micro-structures, defect numbers, and pair correlation function of the dust clusters are studied for different system temperatures. The dust grains' trajectories, the mean square displacement, and the corresponding self-diffusion coefficient of the clusters are calculated for different temperatures for illustrating the phase properties of the dust clusters. The simulation results confirm that with the increase in system temperature, the micro-structures and dynamics of dust clusters are gradually changed, which qualitatively agree with experimental results.

  4. Development and utilization of new and renewable energy with Stirling engine system for electricity in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, W.; Abenavoli, R.I.; Carlini, M.

    1996-12-31

    China is the largest developing country in the world. Self-supporting and self-sustaining energy supply is the only solution for development. Recently, fast economic development exposed gradually increasing pressure of energy demand and environment concern. In order to increase the production of electricity of China, the Stirling engine system should be developed. This paper provides an investigation of energy production and consumption in China. The main features of the energy consumption and the development objectives of China`s electric power industry are also described. The necessity and possibility of development of Stirling engine system is discussed.

  5. Impacts of dependent development on community and resources in Kilenge, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, J.

    1987-06-01

    In recent years, many rural Third World communities have suffered from the gradual degradation of the natural resources on which they depend. The Kilenge of the West New Britain, Papua New Guinea, offer such an example. The paper examines some of the nutritional, economic, social, and political impacts of these changes on the individual, on the household, and on the community in one Kilenge village. It argues that there may be alternatives to dependent development for this community. It concludes that redirected priorities can assist indigenous communities like Kilenge to achieve sustainable self-directed economic improvement.

  6. New bounded skew central difference scheme. Part 1: Formulation and testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moukalled, F.; Darwish, M.

    1997-01-01

    The skew central difference scheme is combined with the normalized variable formulation to yield a new bounded skew central difference scheme. The newly developed scheme is tested and compared with the upwind scheme, the bounded skew upwind scheme, and the high-resolution SMART scheme by solving four problems: (1) pure convection of a step profile in an oblique velocity field; (2) sudden expansion of an oblique flow field in a rectangular cavity; (3) driven flow in a skew cavity; and (4) gradual expansion in an axisymmetric, nonorthogonal channel. Results generated reveal the new scheme to be bounded and to be the most accurate among those investigated.

  7. Massive Gulf leak ushers in age of tough oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-15

    A recent public opinion poll released on June 24, 2010, concluded that 63 percent of those surveyed support the idea that reducing emissions and increasing alternative energy are worth pursuing even if that means increased costs. The Energy Information Administration's latest Annual Energy Outlook shows that the current financial crisis has reduced U.S. oil imports from their all time peak of 60 percent and projects a gradually declining percentage through 2035 under the reference case, and even lower if oil prices remain high -- reaching $210 per barrel by 2035 in 2008 dollars.

  8. Isotope Effects and Helium Retention Behavior in Vanadium Tritide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Jr., R. C.; Attalla, A.; Craft, B. D.

    1985-04-01

    The relaxation times of the H, T, and 3He nuclei have been measured in vanadium hydride and tritide samples. Substantial isotope effects in both the phase transition temperatures and diffusion parameters have been found. When compared to hydrides, the tritide samples have lower transition temperatures and faster mobilities. The differences in the occupancies of the interstitial sites are largely responsible for these isotope effects. Most of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay remain trapped in microscopic bubbles formed with the VTx lattice. Evidence is presented for the gradual growth of the helium bubbles over periods of hundreds of days.

  9. What Happens After Your Home Energy Audit? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Happens After Your Home Energy Audit? What Happens After Your Home Energy Audit? January 29, 2014 - 11:45am Addthis Learn more about home energy audits with this Energy 101 video. Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory How can I participate? If you've taken the time to have a home energy audit done on your house, making some gradual changes can help you save money and energy. So you unwrapped your favorite Christmas present-a shiny new home energy audit-and then found a

  10. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V.; Cash, David L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  11. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Cash, D.L.

    1984-11-21

    A solid thermoplastic polymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infustant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  12. aug00n

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2000 Summary World oil markets, while remaining sensitive to near-term supply indicators, including U.S. inventory levels, are, in our estimation, still on track to deliver gradually declining crude oil prices through the end of this year and through 2001 as well. World supply in 2000 (76.6 million barrels per day) is expected to exceed demand (75.8 million barrels per day), leading to a reversal of the downshift in petroleum inventories in industrialized countries observed since mid-1999. Our

  13. Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex of Photosynthesis Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the

  14. October 25

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 October 25 Attending: Eric Marjorie Lisa Elizabeth Cluster Utilization: Running at capacity with over 1800 cores in services. Some nodes are out of warranty, though so this number will gradually shrink as those nodes will not get fixed when they fail. Outages: None. Upcoming Downtimes: There will be an NGF outage in December but the date is still being nogotiated. Procurements/New Hardware: 20 new compute nodes are in service now as are 2 new xrootd servers for ALICE. The eliza16 expansion

  15. Method for removal of methane from coalbeds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for removing methane gas from underground coalbeds prior to mining the coal which comprises drilling at least one borehole from the surface into the coalbed. The borehole is started at a slant rather than directly vertically, and as it descends, a gradual curve is followed until a horizontal position is reached where the desired portion of the coalbed is intersected. Approaching the coalbed in this manner and fracturing the coalbed in the major natural fraction direction cause release of large amounts of the trapped methane gas.

  16. Low-energy magnetic response and Yb valence in the Kondo insulator YbB{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Nefeodova, E. V.; Staub, U.; Mignot, J.-M.; Lazukov, V. N.; Sadikov, I. P.; Soderholm, L.; Wassermann, S. R.; Paderno, Yu. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2001-02-01

    X-ray absorption and high-resolution inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on the Kondo insulator YbB{sub 12} are reported. The ytterbium L{sub 3}-edge spectrum consists of a single white line with no observable temperature dependence between 10 and 295 K, indicating that the Yb valence is closer to 3+ than was concluded from previous high-resolution photoemission and XPS results. The neutron measurements confirm the existence of a gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum for T=5K, and show that its gradual suppression as temperature increases is due to the appearance of an extra quasielastic component in the magnetic dynamical response.

  17. Deregulation of electric power: a framework for analysis. Draft discussion paper, Phase I report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Institutional reforms in the regulation of the US electric power industry are examined in terms of current policy, its ability to promote economic efficiency in power generation and delivery, and the overall need for reform from both the suppliers' and consumers' viewpoints. Following this examination, four alternative deregulation scenarios are described and analyzed. It is concluded that rapid movement to deregulation would be unwise, and that a combination of gradual deregulation of some aspects of the power industry combined with more effective regulation of other aspects plus providing financial incentives and the legal authority for utilities to reorganize themselves voluntarily along more efficient lines would be the most desirable course of action. (LCL)

  18. Method and apparatus for reducing diffraction-induced damage in high power laser amplifier systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Newnam, Brian E.; Shapiro, Stanley L.; Terrell, Jr., N. James

    1976-01-01

    Self-focusing damage caused by diffraction in laser amplifier systems may be minimized by appropriately tailoring the input optical beam profile by passing the beam through an aperture having a uniform high optical transmission within a particular radius r.sub.o and a transmission which drops gradually to a low value at greater radii. Apertures having the desired transmission characteristics may readily be manufactured by exposing high resolution photographic films and plates to a diffuse, disk-shaped light source and mask arrangement.

  19. Containment pressurization and burning of combustible gases in a large, dry PWR containment during a station blackout sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.; Fan, C.T. (National Tsing-Hua Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hsinchu (TW))

    1992-07-01

    In this paper, responses of a large, dry pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment in a station blackout sequence are analyzed with the CONTAIN, MARCH3, and MAAP codes. Results show that the predicted containment responses in a station blackout sequence of these three codes are substantially different. Among these predictions, the MAAP code predicts the highest containment pressure because of the large amount of water made available to quench the debris upon vessel failure. The gradual water boiloff by debris pressurizes the containment. The combustible gas burning models in these codes are briefly described and compared.

  20. What Ignites a Neutron Star?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Happens After Your Home Energy Audit? What Happens After Your Home Energy Audit? January 29, 2014 - 11:45am Addthis Learn more about home energy audits with this Energy 101 video. Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory How can I participate? If you've taken the time to have a home energy audit done on your house, making some gradual changes can help you save money and energy. So you unwrapped your favorite Christmas present-a shiny new home energy audit-and then found a

  1. MODERN THEORIES OF CARBON-BASED ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS: A SHORT REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meunier, Vincent; Feng, Guang; Huang, Jingsong; Qiao, Rui; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models for electrochemical capacitors range from the original Helmholtz model and mean-field continuum models, to the surface curvature-based post-Helmholtz models, and to modern atomistic simulations. Here, we review current theoretical models that have been useful at shedding light on experimental findings but also provide predictive capabilities that are needed to achieve the optimization of supercapacitors. Due to the non-planar surface of materials at the nanoscale, the original Helmholtz model is gradually found to be outdated, in particular for carbon materials. We show that the surface curvature-based models provide a better description of the interfacial behavior of carbon materials.

  2. Are we seeing global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1997-05-09

    Despite considerable progress, the question of whether the observed gradual increase in global mean temperature over the last century is indeed caused by human activities or is simply an expression of natural climate variation on a larger spatial and temporal scales remains a controversial issue. To answer this question three things are needed: prediction of the anthropogenic climate change signal; determination of the natural climate variability noise; and computation of the signal-to-noise ratio and test of whether the ratio exceeds some predefined statistical detection threshold. This article discusses all these issues and the uncertainties involved in getting definitive answers. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Energy level alignment in polymer organic solar cells at donor-acceptor planar junction formed by electrospray vacuum deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Hong, Jong-Am; Kwon, Dae-Gyeon; Seo, Jaewon; Park, Yongsup

    2014-04-21

    Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), we have measured the energy level offset at the planar interface between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and C{sub 61}-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). Gradual deposition of PCBM onto spin-coated P3HT in high vacuum was made possible by using electrospray vacuum deposition (EVD). The UPS measurement of EVD-prepared planar interface resulted in the energy level offset of 0.91?eV between P3HT HOMO and PCBM LUMO, which is considered as the upper limit of V{sub oc} of the organic photovoltaic cells.

  4. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook August 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. Average crude oil prices for July were little changed from June. The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot average for July was $30.75 per barrel compared to $30.66 in June. EIA's Outlook is for prices to remain firm through the rest of 2003, or at least until autumn, when OECD oil inventories may rebuild above observed 5-year lows. Once inventories have been rebuilt, WTI oil prices may slide gradually to $26 per barrel during

  5. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    10 1 November 2010 Short-Term Energy Outlook November 9, 2010 Release Highlights  EIA expects the price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to average about $83 per barrel this winter (October 1 to March 31), a $5.50-per-barrel increase over last winter and $3 per barrel more than in last month's Outlook. Projected WTI prices rise gradually to $87 per barrel by the fourth quarter of 2011 as U.S. and global economic conditions improve. EIA's forecast assumes U.S. gross domestic product

  6. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 1 September 2009 Short-Term Energy Outlook September 9, 2009 Release Highlights  Volatility persists for crude oil spot prices, although over narrower ranges than seen earlier this year and last year. EIA expects the price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to average about $70 per barrel in the fourth quarter of 2009, a $27-increase over the first quarter of the year. The forecast for average WTI prices rises gradually to about $75 per barrel by December 2010 as world economic

  7. Microsphere-chain waveguides: Focusing and transport properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Kenneth W., E-mail: kallen62@uncc.edu; Astratov, Vasily N., E-mail: astratov@uncc.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Darafsheh, Arash; Abolmaali, Farzaneh [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Mojaverian, Neda; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Lupu, Anatole [Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-07-14

    It is shown that the focusing properties of polystyrene microsphere-chain waveguides (MCWs) formed by sufficiently large spheres (D???20?, where D is the sphere diameter and ? is the wavelength of light) scale with the sphere diameter as predicted by geometrical optics. However, this scaling behavior does not hold for mesoscale MCWs with D???10? resulting in a periodical focusing with gradually reducing beam waists and in extremely small propagation losses. The observed effects are related to properties of nanojet-induced and periodically focused modes in such structures. The results can be used for developing focusing microprobes, laser scalpels, and polarization filters.

  8. Momentum space iterative solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, G. Zs.; Borbély, S.; Nagy, L.

    2013-11-13

    We present a novel approach, the iterative solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (iTDSE model), for the investigation of atomic systems interacting with external laser fields. This model is the extension of the momentum-space strong-field approximation (MSSFA) [1], in which the Coulomb potential was considered only as a first order perturbation. In the iTDSE approach higher order terms were gradually introduced until convergence was achieved. Benchmark calculations were done on the hydrogen atom, and the obtained results were compared to the direct numerical solution [2].

  9. Tank waste chemistry: A new understanding of waste aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babad, H.; Camaioni, D.M.; Lilga, M.A.; Samuels, W.D.; Strachan, D.M.

    1993-02-01

    There is concern about the risk of uncontrolled exothermic reaction(s) in Hanford Site waste tanks containing NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 2} based salts and/or metal hydroxide sludges in combination with organics or ferrocyanides. However, gradual oxidation of the waste in the tanks to less reactive species appears to have reduced the risk. In addition, wastes sampled to date contain sufficiently large quantities of water so that propagation reactions are highly unlikely. This paper investigates various aspects of the aging of Hanford tank wastes.

  10. Petroleum coke supply: present problems and future prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, H.H.

    1982-08-01

    Since the 1973 OPEC oil embargo, the coke market's strength has gradually shifted, for the most part, from the buyer to the seller. This general assessment is subject to localized exceptions and temporary reversals (such as the present market weakness due to the low level of primary aluminum production). However, there are two major factors which will influence the trend toward higher coke prices for anode use by aluminum producers: decreasing supplies of high-quality coke, and revised marketing strategies of coke producers.

  11. The Grid-idea and its evolution.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Laszewski, G.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review the essence of the Grid-Idea. Specifically, we explore the changing definition of the Grid and follow its evolution over the past decade. This evolution is motivated by the gradual expansion of management issues that must be addressed to make production Grids a reality and to meet user requirements for increased functionality. Additionally, we focus on the evolutionary path of the Globus Toolkit taken to address the increasing needs of the community. We also discuss the evolutionary inclusion of commodity technologies as illustrated by the Java Commodity Grid Project.

  12. CONTROL FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lichtenberger, H.V.; Cameron, R.A.

    1959-03-31

    S>A control rod operating device in a nuclear reactor of the type in which the control rod is gradually withdrawn from the reactor to a position desired during stable operation is described. The apparatus is comprised essentially of a stop member movable in the direction of withdrawal of the control rod, a follower on the control rod engageable with the stop and means urging the follower against the stop in the direction of withdrawal. A means responsive to disengagement of the follower from the stop is provided for actuating the control rod to return to the reactor shut-down position.

  13. Final Report - The Decline and Fall of the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RIORDAN, MICHAEL

    2011-11-29

    In October 1993 the US Congress terminated the Superconducting Super Collider at the time the largest pure-science project ever attempted, with a total cost estimated to exceed $10 billion. It was a stunning loss for the US highenergy physics community, which until that moment had perched for decades at the pinnacle of American science. Ever since 1993, this once-dominant scientific community has been in gradual decline. With the 2010 startup of research on the CERN Large Hadron Collider and the 2011 shutdown of the Fermilab Tevatron, world leadership in elementary-particle physics has crossed the Atlantic and returned to Europe.

  14. Method for fabricating a seal between a ceramic and a metal alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Siegel, W.T.

    1983-08-16

    A method of fabricating a seal between a ceramic and an alloy comprising the steps of prefiring the alloy in an atmosphere with a very low partial pressure of oxygen, firing the assembled alloy and ceramic in air, and gradually cooling the fired assembly to avoid the formation of thermal stress in the ceramic. The method forms a bond between the alloy and the ceramic capable of withstanding the environment of a pressurized water reactor and suitable for use in an electrical conductivity sensitive liquid level transducer.

  15. Method for fabricating a seal between a ceramic and a metal alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelsey, Jr., Paul V.; Siegel, William T.

    1983-01-01

    A method of fabricating a seal between a ceramic and an alloy comprising the steps of prefiring the alloy in an atmosphere with a very low partial pressure of oxygen, firing the assembled alloy and ceramic in air, and gradually cooling the fired assembly to avoid the formation of thermal stress in the ceramic. The method forms a bond between the alloy and the ceramic capable of withstanding the environment of a pressurized water reactor and suitable for use in an electrical conductivity sensitive liquid level transducer.

  16. Measurement of top quark-antiquark pair production in association with a W or Z boson in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2014-09-17

    The measurement of a cross section for the production of top quark–antiquark pairs (tt¯) in association with a vector boson V (W or Z) in proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV is presented. The results are based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1 recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement is performed in three leptonic (e and μ) channels: a same-sign dilepton analysis targeting tt¯W events, and trilepton and four-lepton analyses designed for tt¯Z events. In the same-sign dilepton channel, the tt¯W cross section is measured as σtt¯W=170+90-80(stat)±70(syst)fb, corresponding to a significance ofmore » 1.6 standard deviations over the background-only hypothesis. Combining the trilepton and four-lepton channels, a direct measurement of the tt¯Z cross section, σtt¯Z=200+80-70(stat)+40-30(syst)fb-1, is obtained with a significance of 3.1 standard deviations. Finally, the measured cross sections are compatible with standard model predictions within their experimental uncertainties. The inclusive tt¯V process is observed with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations from the combination of all three leptonic channels.« less

  17. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Schuler, Timothy

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  18. Laser metrology for coherent multi-telescope arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shao, Michael; Massie, Norbert A.

    1993-01-01

    In multi-telescope arrays that comprise multiple telescopes, a beam-combining module, and flat mirrors for directing light beams from the multiple telescopes to the beam combining module, a laser metrology system is used for monitoring various pathlengths along a beam path where deviations are likely. Some pathlengths are defined simply by a pair of retroreflectors or reflectors at both ends. Lengths between pairs of retroreflectors are measured and monitored by laser interferometers. One critical pathlength deviation is related to the displacement of the flat mirror. A reference frame is set up relative to the beam-combining module to form and define the coordinate system within which the positions of the flat mirrors are measured and monitored. In the preferred embodiment, a pair of retroreflectors along the optical axis of the beam-combining module defines a reference frame. A triangle is formed by the reference frame as the base and another retroreflector at the flat mirror as the vertex. The triangle is used to monitor the position of the flat mirror. A beam's pathlength is dynamically corrected in response to the monitored deviations.

  19. Laser metrology for coherent multi-telescope arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shao, M.; Massie, N.A.

    1993-05-04

    In multi-telescope arrays that comprise multiple telescopes, a beam-combining module, and flat mirrors for directing light beams from the multiple telescopes to the beam combining module, a laser metrology system is used for monitoring various pathlengths along a beam path where deviations are likely. Some pathlengths are defined simply by a pair of retroreflectors or reflectors at both ends. Lengths between pairs of retroreflectors are measured and monitored by laser interferometers. One critical pathlength deviation is related to the displacement of the flat mirror. A reference frame is set up relative to the beam-combining module to form and define the coordinate system within which the positions of the flat mirrors are measured and monitored. In the preferred embodiment, a pair of retroreflectors along the optical axis of the beam-combining module defines a reference frame. A triangle is formed by the reference frame as the base and another retroreflector at the flat mirror as the vertex. The triangle is used to monitor the position of the flat mirror. A beam's pathlength is dynamically corrected in response to the monitored deviations.

  20. Growth kinetics of AlFe intermetallic compounds during annealing treatment of friction stir lap welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Movahedi, M., E-mail: m_movahedi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H., E-mail: kokabi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyed Reihani, S.M., E-mail: reihani@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, H., E-mail: hossein.najafi@epfl.ch [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (ICMP), EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Farzadfar, S.A., E-mail: seyed-amir.farzadfar@mail.mcgill.ca [McGill University, Department of Materials Engineering, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Cheng, W.J., E-mail: d9603505@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, C.J., E-mail: cjwang@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we explored the growth kinetics of the AlFe intermetallic (IM) layer at the joint interface of the St-12/Al-5083 friction stir lap welds during post-weld annealing treatment at 350, 400 and 450 C for 30 to 180 min. Optical microscope (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to investigate the structure of the weld zone. The thickness and composition of the IM layers were evaluated using image analysis system and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. Moreover, kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis was performed to evaluate the level of stored energy in the as-welded state. The results showed that the growth kinetics of the IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. Presence of the IM compounds as well as high stored energy near the joint interface of the as-welded sample was recognized to be the origin of the observed deviation from the parabolic diffusion law. - Highlights: This work provided a new insight into growth kinetics of AlFe IM thickness. The growth kinetics of IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. IM near the joint interface was the origin of deviation from the parabolic law. High stored energy at joint interface was origin of deviation from parabolic law.

  1. Thermophysical Properties of Alloy 617 from 25C to 1000C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. H. Rabin; R. N. Wright; W. D. Swank

    2013-09-01

    Key thermophysical properties needed for the successful design and use of Alloy 617 in steam generator and heat exchanger applications have been measured experimentally, and results are compared with literature values and results obtained from some other commercial NiCr alloys and model materials. Specifically, the thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and specific heat capacity have been measured for Alloy 617 over a range of temperatures, allowing calculation of thermal conductivity up to 1000 degrees C. It has been found that the thermal conductivity of Alloy 617 exhibits significant deviation from monotonic behavior in the temperature range from 600 degrees C to 850 degrees C, the temperatures of interest for most heat transfer applications. The non-linear behavior appears to result primarily from short-range order/disorder phenomena known to occur in the NiCr system. Similar deviation from monotonic behavior was observed in the solid solution NiCr-W Alloy 230, and lesser deviations were observed in iron based Alloy 800H and an austenitic stainless steel. Measured thermophysical property data are provided for four different heats of Alloy 617, and it is shown that property variations between the four different heats are not significant. Measurements were also obtained from Alloy 617 that was aged for up to 2000 h at 750 degrees C, and it was found that this aging treatment does not significantly influence the thermophysical properties.

  2. Cosmology in general massive gravity theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@aquila.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We study the cosmological FRW flat solutions generated in general massive gravity theories. Such a model are obtained adding to the Einstein General Relativity action a peculiar non derivative potentials, function of the metric components, that induce the propagation of five gravitational degrees of freedom. This large class of theories includes both the case with a residual Lorentz invariance as well as the case with rotational invariance only. It turns out that the Lorentz-breaking case is selected as the only possibility. Moreover it turns out that that perturbations around strict Minkowski or dS space are strongly coupled. The upshot is that even though dark energy can be simply accounted by massive gravity modifications, its equation of state w{sub eff} has to deviate from -1. Indeed, there is an explicit relation between the strong coupling scale of perturbations and the deviation of w{sub eff} from -1. Taking into account current limits on w{sub eff} and submillimiter tests of the Newton's law as a limit on the possible strong coupling scale, we find that it is still possible to have a weakly coupled theory in a quasi dS background. Future experimental improvements on short distance tests of the Newton's law may be used to tighten the deviation of w{sub eff} form -1 in a weakly coupled massive gravity theory.

  3. Measurement of top quark-antiquark pair production in association with a W or Z boson in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ $\\,\\text {TeV}$

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2014-09-17

    The measurement of a cross section for the production of top quarkantiquark pairs (tt) in association with a vector boson V (W or Z) in proton-proton collisions at ?s=8 TeV is presented. The results are based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1 recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement is performed in three leptonic (e and ?) channels: a same-sign dilepton analysis targeting ttW events, and trilepton and four-lepton analyses designed for ttZ events. In the same-sign dilepton channel, the ttW cross section is measured as ?ttW=170+90-80(stat)70(syst)fb, corresponding to a significance ofmore1.6 standard deviations over the background-only hypothesis. Combining the trilepton and four-lepton channels, a direct measurement of the ttZ cross section, ?ttZ=200+80-70(stat)+40-30(syst)fb-1, is obtained with a significance of 3.1 standard deviations. Finally, the measured cross sections are compatible with standard model predictions within their experimental uncertainties. The inclusive ttV process is observed with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations from the combination of all three leptonic channels.less

  4. Dependence of inverse-spin Hall effect and spin-rectified voltage on tantalum thickness in Ta/CoFeB bilayer structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang-Il; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Seung-Young; Kim, Dong-Jun; Park, Byong-Guk

    2015-01-19

    Ta-layer thickness (t{sub Ta}) dependence of the measured DC voltage V from the inverse-spin Hall effect (ISHE) in Ta/CoFeB bilayer structure is experimentally investigated using the ferromagnetic resonance in the TE{sub 011} resonant cavity. The ISHE signals excluding the spin-rectified effect (SRE) were separated from the fitted curve of V against t{sub Ta}. For t{sub Ta} ≈ λ{sub Ta} (Ta-spin diffusion length = 2.7 nm), the deviation in ISHE voltage V{sub ISH} between the experimental and theoretical values is significantly increased because of the large SRE contribution, which also results in a large deviation in the spin Hall angle θ{sub SH} (from 10% to 40%). However, when t{sub Ta} ≫ λ{sub Ta}, the V{sub ISH} values are consistent with theoretical values because the SRE terms become negligible, which subsequently improves the accuracy of the obtained θ{sub SH} within 4% deviation. The results will provide an outline for an accurate estimation of the θ{sub SH} for materials with small λ value, which would be useful for utilizing the spin Hall effect in a 3-terminal spintronic devices in which magnetization can be controlled by in-plane current.

  5. An analytic model for the response of a CZT detector in diagnostic energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeClair, Robert J.; Wang Yinkun; Zhao Peiying; Boileau, Michel; Wang, Lilie; Fleurot, Fabrice [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada) and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    A CdZnTe detector (CZTD) can be very useful for measuring diagnostic x-ray spectra. The semiconductor detector does, however, exhibit poor hole transport properties and fluorescence generation upon atomic de-excitations. This article describes an analytic model to characterize these two phenomena that occur when a CZTD is exposed to diagnostic x rays. The analytical detector response functions compare well with those obtained via Monte Carlo calculations. The response functions were applied to 50, 80, and 110 kV x-ray spectra. Two 50 kV spectra were measured; one with no filtration and the other with 1.35 mm Al filtration. The unfiltered spectrum was numerically filtered with 1.35 mm of Al in order to see whether the recovered spectrum resembled the filtered spectrum actually measured. A deviation curve was obtained by subtracting one curve from the other on an energy bin by bin basis. The deviation pattern fluctuated around the zero line when corrections were applied to both spectra. Significant deviations from zero towards the lower energies were observed when the uncorrected spectra were used. Beside visual observations, the exposure obtained using the numerically attenuated unfiltered beam was compared to the exposure calculated with the actual filtered beam. The percent differences were 0.8% when corrections were applied and 25% for no corrections. The model can be used to correct diagnostic x-ray spectra measured with a CdZnTe detector.

  6. Friction of different monolayer lubricants in MEMs interfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Street, Mark D.; Ashurst, William Robert; Corwin, Alex David

    2006-01-01

    This report details results from our last year of work (FY2005) on friction in MEMS as funded by the Campaign 6 program for the Microscale Friction project. We have applied different monolayers to a sensitive MEMS friction tester called the nanotractor. The nanotractor is also a useful actuator that can travel {+-}100 {micro}m in 40 nm steps, and is being considered for several MEMS applications. With this tester, we can find static and dynamic coefficients of friction. We can also quantify deviations from Amontons' and Coulomb's friction laws. Because of the huge surface-to-volume ratio at the microscale, surface properties such as adhesion and friction can dominate device performance, and therefore such deviations are important to quantify and understand. We find that static and dynamic friction depend on the monolayer lubricant applied. The friction data can be modeled with a non-zero adhesion force, which represents a deviation from Amontons' Law. Further, we show preliminary data indicating that the adhesion force depends not only on the monolayer, but also on the normal load applied. Finally, we also observe slip deflections before the transition from static to dynamic friction, and find that they depend on the monolayer.

  7. Mechanochemical synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles by using WO{sub 3}/Zn/C powder mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoseinpur, Arman; Vahdati Khaki, Jalil; Marashi, Maryam Sadat

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nano particles of WC are synthesized by mechanochemical process. ? Zn was used to reduce WO{sub 3}. ? By removing ZnO from the milling products with an acid leaching, WC will be the final products. ? XRD results showed that the reduction reactions were completed after 36 h. ? TEM and SEM images showed that the morphology of produced powder is nearly spherical like. -- Abstract: In this research we introduce a new, facile, and economical system for fabrication of tungsten carbide (WC) nano particle powder. In this system WO{sub 3}, Zn, and C have been ball-milled for several hours, which led to the synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles. The synthesized WC can successfully be separated from the ball-milled product by subjecting the product powder to diluted HCl for removing ZnO and obtaining WC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the reduction of WO{sub 3} will be completed gradually by increasing milling time up to 36 h. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that after 36 h of milling the particle size of the fabricated powder is nano metric (about 20 nm). Results have shown that this system can surmount some main problems occurred in previous similar WC synthesizing systems. For example carbothermic reduction reactions, which lead to the synthesis of W{sub 2}C instead of WC, would not be activated because in this system reactions take place gradually.

  8. RGGI goes live, and debate begins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-15

    The 10-state Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), covers emissions from 233 power plants, large industrial sites and companies with self-generation exceeding 25 MW in the Northeast. The initial aim is to cap carbon emissions within the region at their current level of 188 million tons, and subsequently cut them 10 percent by 2018. RGGI plans to start slowly, gradually tightening the requirements. The first auction of 12.5 million carbon permits involved six states with the other four still finalizing the arrangements. It started at a floor of $1.86 per ton, with the price expected to gradually rise to $5-7 per ton and higher. RGGI has scheduled 14 such auctions by the end of 2011. The plan is to reduce the number of credits issued by 2.5 percent each year starting in 2014, forcing prices to rise. That will encourage participants to cut their emissions rather than buy offsets. The initial auction covers the three-year period 2009-11.

  9. Considerations for cold weather construction using high density polyethylene for corrosion control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szklarz, K.E.; Baron, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is commonly used as material for corrosion-resistant piping in the petroleum industry. It is used as thick-walled self-supporting linepipes, as internal liners for steel linepipe, and as protective jackets for insulated linepipes. In Canada, it is not uncommon for operations, such as pipeline installation, to be performed during the winter season when temperatures are in the 0 C to {minus}20 C range. Brittle failures of HDPE materials have been experienced during such sub-zero operations, particularly when pipe handling and bending is involved. This study evaluated the changes in HDPE mechanical properties within the temperature range of 10 C to {minus}40 C to understand any embrittlement phenomena that may be occurring. HDPE undergoes substantial increases in modulus and strength at lower temperatures and increasing strain rate. The changes are gradual and over a wide range of temperature with no sharp cut-off temperature at which brittle behavior will occur. Flexural properties behave in a similar manner. A notch, causing a local increased strain rate, has a significant effect on the failure behavior of HDPE material with a gradual transition in behavior of ductility and load at below 0 C.

  10. Mullins effect in a filled elastomer under uniaxial tension

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maiti, A.; Small, W.; Gee, R. H.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Chinn, S. C.; Wilson, T. S.; Maxwell, R. S.

    2014-01-16

    Modulus softening and permanent set in filled polymeric materials due to cyclic loading and unloading, commonly known as the Mullins effect, can have a significant impact on their use as support cushions. The quantitative analysis of such behavior is essential to ensure the effectiveness of such materials in long-term deployment. In this work we combine existing ideas of filler-induced modulus enhancement, strain amplification, and irreversible deformation within a simple non-Gaussian constitutive model to quantitatively interpret recent measurements on a relevant PDMS-based elastomeric cushion. Also, we find that the experimental stress-strain data is consistent with the picture that during stretching (loading)more » two effects take place simultaneously: (1) the physical constraints (entanglements) initially present in the polymer network get disentangled, thus leading to a gradual decrease in the effective cross-link density, and (2) the effective filler volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing strain due to the irreversible pulling out of an initially occluded volume of the soft polymer domain.« less

  11. Gas breakdown mechanism in pulse-modulated asymmetric ratio frequency dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Jizhong, E-mail: jsun@dlut.edu.cn; Ding, Zhenfeng; Ding, Hongbin; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Nozaki, Tomohiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Wang, Zhanhui [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-08-15

    The gas breakdown mechanisms, especially the roles of metastable species in atmospheric pressure pulse-modulated ratio frequency barrier discharges with co-axial cylindrical electrodes, were studied numerically using a one dimensional self-consistent fluid model. Simulation results showed that in low duty cycle cases, the electrons generated from the channels associated with metastable species played a more important role in initializing next breakdown than the direct ionization of helium atoms of electronic grounded states by electron-impact. In order to quantitatively evaluate the contribution to the discharge by the metastables, we defined a characteristic time and examined how the value varied with the gap distance and the electrode asymmetry. The results indicated that the lifetime of the metastable species (including He*and He{sub 2}{sup *}) was much longer than that of the pulse-on period and as effective sources of producing electrons they lasted over a period up to millisecond. When the ratio of the outer radius to the inner radius of the cylindrical electrodes was far bigger than one, it was found that the metastables distributed mainly in a cylindrical region around the inner electrode. When the ratio decreased as the inner electrode moved outward, the density of metastables in the discharge region near the outer electrode became gradually noticeable. As the discharging gap continued to decrease, the two hill-shaped distributions gradually merged to one big hill. When the discharge spacing was fixed, asymmetric electrodes facilitated the discharge.

  12. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Shifeng, Huang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2014-12-28

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

  13. Cenozoic climates: evidence from the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Cenozoic biostratigraphy and climatology of the North Atlantic and adjacent land areas reflects the continuing fragmentation of Eurasia and concomitant changes on ocean-continent geometry. A latitudinal (zonal) Mesozoic circulation pattern evolved into a predominantly longitudinal (meridional) pattern during the Cenozoic in which the development of oceanic gateways and barriers gradually decreased the efficiency of poleward heat transfer resulting in the progressive climatic change which has taken place over the past 50 million years. Cenozoic distributional data from the North Atlantic and adjacent land areas will be reviewed from the following fields: a) terrestrial vertebrates and floras: b) marine calcareous microplankton and benthic foraminifera; c) other marine invertebrates. Available data suggests that the present climate in the northern hemisphere has resulted from a gradual, but inexorable, strengthening of latitudinal and vertical temperature gradients punctuated by several brief intervals of accelerated change. The absence of evidence for northern hemisphere polar glaciation prior to the late Neogene does not preclude seasonal cooling near the freezing point in post-Eocene time. Evidence for early Paleogene cold climates is not reflected in the fossil record.

  14. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tulk, Christopher A; dos Santos, Antonio M.; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Molaison, Jamie J; Sales, Brian C; Honkimaeki, Veijo

    2015-01-01

    The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection of the mechanisms associated with pressure induced amorphization in these systems, as well as the structure of the recovered phase. It is observed that, between 14.7 and 35 GPa the second peak in the structure factor function gradually disappears. Analysis of the radial distribution function extracted from those data indicate that this feature is associated with gradual cage collapse and breakdown of the tetrahedral structure with the consequent systematic lengthening of the nearest-neighbor framework bonds. This suggests an overall local coordination change to an even higher density amorphous form. Upon recovery from high pressure, the sample remains amorphous, and while there is some indication of the guest-host cage reforming, it doesn't seem that the tetrahedral coordination is recovered. As such, the compresion-decompression process in this systems gives rise to three distict amorphous forms.

  15. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D. E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ?} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ?} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ?} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ?} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ? 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ?} ? 10{sup 54} erg s{sup 1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  16. Resistivity During Boiling in the SB-15-D Core from the Geysers Geothermal Field: The Effects of Capillarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.; Duba, A.; Bonner, B.; Kasameyer, P.

    1997-01-01

    In a laboratory study of cores from borehole SB-15-D in The Geysers geothermal area, we measured the electrical resistivity of metashale with and without pore-pressure control, with confining pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures between 20 and 150 C, to determine how the pore-size distribution and capillarity affected boiling. We observed a gradual increase in resistivity when the downstream pore pressure or confining pressure decreased below the phase boundary of free water. For the conditions of this experiment, boiling, as indicated by an increase in resistivity, is initiated at pore pressures of approximately 0.5 to 1 bar (0.05 to 0.1 MPa) below the free-water boiling curve, and it continues to increase gradually as pressure is lowered to atmospheric. A simple model of the effects of capillarity suggests that at 145 C, less than 15% of the pore water can boil in these rocks. If subsequent experiments bear out these preliminary observations, then boiling within a geothermal reservoir is controlled not just by pressure and temperature but also by pore-size distribution. Thus, it may be possible to determine reservoir characteristics by monitoring changes in electrical resistivity as reservoir conditions change.

  17. Competition between cotunneling, Kondo effect, and direct tunneling in discontinuous high-anisotropy magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciudad D.; Arena D.; We, Z.-C.; Hindmarch, A.T.; Negusse, E.; Han, X.-F.Han; Marrows, C.H.

    2012-06-07

    The transition between Kondo and Coulomb blockade effects in discontinuous double magnetic tunnel junctions is explored as a function of the size of the CoPt magnetic clusters embedded between AlO{sub x} tunnel barriers. A gradual competition between cotunneling enhancement of the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and the TMR suppression due to the Kondo effect has been found in these junctions, with both effects having been found to coexist even in the same sample. It is possible to tune between these two states with temperature (at a temperature far below the cluster blocking temperature). In addition, when further decreasing the size of the CoPt clusters, another gradual transition between the Kondo effect and direct tunneling between the electrodes takes place. This second transition shows that the spin-flip processes found in junctions with impurities in the barrier are in fact due to the Kondo effect. A simple theoretical model able to account for these experimental results is proposed.

  18. Reactivation of landslides by surface subsidence from longwall mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Ackman, T.E.

    1984-12-01

    Subsidence research by the US Bureau of Mines has identified and documented the occurrence of landslides over a longwall mining area in the Dunkard basin. Mining by longwall methods has been observed or produce a gradual surface subsidence profile of up to 60% of the thickness of the mined coal bed. The gradual subsidence of panels averaging 600 x 5000 ft (180 x 1525 m) can cause reactivation of older landslide deposits by decreasing the support to the landslide toe area. Examination of surficial features over a longwall mining area comprised of nine panels has led to the identification of several reactivated landslides. The two largest landslides occurred above a thin sandstone member with several associated springs. The largest landslides ranged from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m) in length and from 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) in width. Maximum scarp-slope displacements were approximately 7 ft (2 m). Less significant mass wasting was also observed over the longwall panels. Identification of landslides was accomplished through examination of premining aerial photographs and geologic field investigation. Characterization of reactivated zones was achieved through evaluation of current aerial 2-ft (0.6-m) surface contour map and field surveys. Recognition of problem areas will make civic and mining personnel aware of the landslide potential so that damage in such areas can be minimized.

  19. Analysis of Flow in Pilot Operated Safety and Relief Valve of Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Soon-Bum; Lee, Dong-Won; Kim, In-Goo; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Hho-Jung

    2004-07-01

    When the POSRV equipped in a nuclear power plant opens in instant by a failure in coolant system of PWR, a moving shock wave generates, and propagates downstream of the valve, inducing a complicated unsteadiness. The moving shock wave may exert severe load to the structure. In this connection, a method of gradual opening of the valve is used to reduce the load acting on the wall at the downstream of the POSRV. In the present study, experiments and calculations are performed to investigate the detail unsteady flow at the various pipe units and the effect of valve opening time on the flow downstream of the valve. In calculation by using of air as working fluid, 2-dimensional, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by finite volume method. It was found that when the incident shock wave passes through the pipe unit, it may experience diffraction, reflection and interaction with a vortex. Furthermore, the geometry of the pipe unit affects the reflection type of shock wave and changes the load acting on the wall of pipe unit. It was also turned out that the maximum force acting on the wall of the pipe unit becomes in order of T-junction, 108 deg. elbow and branch in magnitude, respectively. And, the results obtained that show that the rapid pressure rise due to the moving shock wave by instant POSRV valve opening is attenuated by employing the gradual opening. (authors)

  20. Squeezing of particle distributions by expanding magnetic turbulence and space weather variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffolo, D.; Seripienlert, A.; Tooprakai, P.; Chuychai, P.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: achara.ser@mahidol.ac.th E-mail: p.chuychai@sci.mfu.ac.th

    2013-12-10

    Among the space weather effects due to gradual solar storms, greatly enhanced high-energy ion fluxes contribute to radiation damage to satellites, spacecraft, and astronauts and dominate the hazards to air travelers, which motivates examination of the transport of high-energy solar ions to Earth's orbit. Ions of low kinetic energy (up to ?2 MeV nucleon{sup 1}) from impulsive solar events exhibit abrupt changes due to filamentation of the magnetic connection from the Sun, indicating that anisotropic, field-aligned magnetic flux tubelike structures persist to Earth's orbit. By employing a corresponding spherical two-component model of Alfvnic (slab) and two-dimensional magnetic fluctuations to trace simulated trajectories in the solar wind, we show that the distribution of high-energy (E ? 1 GeV) protons from gradual solar events is squeezed toward magnetic flux structures with a specific polarity because of the conical shape of the flux structures. Conical flux structures and the squeezing of energetic particle distributions should occur in any astrophysical wind or jet with expanding, magnetized, turbulent plasma. This transport phenomenon contributes to event-to-event variability in ground level enhancements of GeV-range ions from solar storms, presenting a fundamental uncertainty in space weather prediction.