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Sample records for development impact models

  1. Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy...

  2. Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-02-26

    Brochure on the Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for calculating the economic impacts of wind development.

  3. New Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the use of wind power forecasting in power systems operations, and a visual impact risk analysis and mitigation system. Addthis Related Articles Model Examines Cumulative Impacts...

  4. Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Small Wind: JEDI Model in the Works (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation covers the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in economic impact analysis for wind power Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, JEDI results, small wind JEDI specifics, and a request for information to complete the model.

  5. Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    but an incomplete understanding of the bird's response to the development of wind farms and other structures could lead to unnecessary or ineffective restrictions. The model...

  6. Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

    2013-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

  7. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  8. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model, National Renewable...

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    project owners, and others interested in the economic impacts from new electricity generation projects. JEDI's user-friendly design allows novices to explore the statewide...

  9. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M.

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  10. Transmission Line Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are freely available, user-friendly tools that estimate the potential economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The Transmission Line JEDI model can be used to field questions about the economic impacts of transmission lines in a given state, region, or local community. This Transmission Line JEDI User Reference Guide was developed to provide basic instruction on operating the model and understanding the results. This guide also provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data contained in the model.

  11. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model Geothermal User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Augustine, C.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-09-01

    The Geothermal Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an Excel-based user-friendly tools that estimates the economic impacts of constructing and operating hydrothermal and Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) power generation projects at the local level for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Model Geothermal User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in using and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted.

  12. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Models - About JEDI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial Toolkit is anModels Models The

  13. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Models - Advanced Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial Toolkit is anModels Models

  14. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Models - Downloading the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial Toolkit is anModels ModelsJEDI

  15. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Models - Interpreting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial Toolkit is anModels

  16. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Models - Limitations of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial Toolkit is anModelsJEDI

  17. Modeling the Effects of Low Impact Development Practices on Streams at the Watershed Scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannak, Sa'D A

    2014-04-28

    of dilution which in its turn negatively reflects on aquatic life health. DeGaspari et al. (2009) utilized hydrologic modeling to emulate hydrologic metrics for different 7 development scenarios. The aim of the study was to determine which development...

  18. A regional economic impact model for identifying the relationship between transportation investments and economic development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freyre, German Eleodoro

    1989-01-01

    Impacts 21 3. 5 Past Applications of the REIMHS Model 22 I V PROPOSED METHODOLOGY 24 4. 1 Project Classification Criteria 4. 2 Allocation of Project Costs 4. 3 Computation and Distribution of the Efficiency Savings 24 26 31 TABLE OF CONTENTS... OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCIION 1. 1 General Background 1. 2 Objectives of the Research 1. 3 Summary of Research Plan 1. 4 Thesis Organization II LITERATURE REVIEW I I I OVERVIEW OF THE REIMHS MODEL 14 3. 1 Distribution of the Monetary...

  19. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing theActivation byIs aItem NotJ.NOONC 1

  20. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    K. : THE COMMUNITY EARTH SYSTEM MODEL, B. Am. Meteor. Soc. ,M. : The Community Earth System Model: A Framework forin the Community Earth System Model, Geo- scientific Model

  1. Environmental Impacts of Increased Hydroelectric Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Increased Hydroelectric Development at Existing Dams Environmental Impacts of Increased Hydroelectric Development at Existing Dams This report describes the...

  2. Houston Low Impact Development Competition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adair, R.

    2011-01-01

    ?ve always done it? is more and more counterproductive ? For local government, the costs of keeping pace with inevitable results of traditional development is major burden ? Change is inevitable ? Leadership role is better than the alternative... Impact Development ? Treats rainwater as a resource rather than a waste product ? Mimics nature to achieve our goals ? Clean, infiltrate, store, use it where it hits the ground ? Restores, protects, promotes natural habitat, water resources ?It...

  3. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    S. , and Colin, J. -L. : Miner- alogy as a critical factorCAM5, the simulation with miner- alogy has relatively highforcing for both models with miner- alogy. For CAM4, while

  4. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scanza, R. A.; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, S.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-07-02

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral componentsmore »in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as +0.05 W m?2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy and compare this both with simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 W m?2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, ?0.05 and ?0.17 W m?2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in-situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.« less

  5. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scanza, Rachel; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Y.; Albani, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale, using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral componentsmore »in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as + 0.05 Wm?˛ for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy. We compare this to the radiative forcing from simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 Wm?˛) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, -0.05 and -0.17 Wm?˛, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.« less

  6. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanza, Rachel; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Y.; Albani, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale, using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral components in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as + 0.05 Wm?˛ for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy. We compare this to the radiative forcing from simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 Wm?˛) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, -0.05 and -0.17 Wm?˛, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.

  7. Assessing the economic impact of indirect liquefaction process improvements: Volume 1, Development of the integrated indirect liquefaction model and baseline case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.C. (Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (USA). Civil Systems Div.)

    1990-10-01

    This report documents the development of an integrated indirect liquefaction system model, which processes input coal to refined liquid products, and the model's application in the analysis of a baseline case. The baseline case uses Shell gasification of coal followed by gas cleaning to produce a clean synthesis gas for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The raw liquid products are refined to produce gasoline and diesel. Costs of liquid products have been estimated for the baseline plant. The model also alloys many sensitivity studies to be performed so that the economic impacts of research and development advances can be quantified. When used in this manner, the model can provide research guidance for future indirect liquefaction studies. 18 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C.; Long, Michael S.

    2013-05-20

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  9. Climate change: comparative impact on developing and developed countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate change: comparative impact on developing and developed countries PAUL CHINOWSKY1 , CAROLYN. In these projections, climate change is a global issue with potential impacts for every country. However, the relative levels to determine the relative impact of climate change in the context of a single infrastructure

  10. Geothermal Development Job Types and Impacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of geothermal power plants and direct-use applications creates a variety of jobs. And the resulting job creation and economic activity within the geothermal industry positively impacts...

  11. National Laboratory Impacts and Developments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Technology-to-Market program supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives that make access to laboratory-developed technologies and capabilities easier and increase partnerships with the clean energy private sector.

  12. Privacy Impact Assessment Development and Membership Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    1 Privacy Impact Assessment Development and Membership Information I. System Identification 1. IT System Name: Development and Membership Information System (DMIS) 2. Mission Sponsor: Virginia Clark and membership. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected. The Development

  13. Development of the forSIM model to quantify positive and negative hydrological impacts of tropical reforestation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Nick A

    University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK b Division of Water Sciences, UNESCO, 1 Rue Miollis, Paris 75732, France and negative changes, even for a single micro-basin. To initiate a more holistic and multi- scale approach, we. Secondly, the model structure allows us to highlight basin-scale time-series observations needed

  14. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of...

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty: A Handbook...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty: A Handbook for Practitioners Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects...

  16. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios...

  17. Green Impact Universities is founded upon the successful Sound Impact Awards (now known as Green Impact Students Unions) developed by NUS to decrease the negative environmental impacts of Student's Unions. Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pumfrey, David

    1. History Green Impact Universities is founded upon the successful Sound Impact Awards (now known as Green Impact Students Unions) developed by NUS to decrease the negative environmental impacts of Student of Bristol to adapt the Sound Impact model to green departments within the University environment. Called

  18. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  19. Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model section on the Wind Powering America website.

  20. Development of a Kelp-type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Taiping; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Gill, Gary A.

    2014-02-07

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of global energy demand, the interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially unlimited supply of uranium resource. With recent advances in seawater uranium extraction technology, extracting uranium from seawater could be economically feasible when the extraction devices are deployed at a large scale (e.g., several hundred km2). There is concern however that the large scale deployment of adsorbent farms could result in potential impacts to the hydrodynamic flow field in an oceanic setting. In this study, a kelp-type structure module was incorporated into a coastal ocean model to simulate the blockage effect of uranium extraction devices on the flow field. The module was quantitatively validated against laboratory flume experiments for both velocity and turbulence profiles. The model-data comparison showed an overall good agreement and validated the approach of applying the model to assess the potential hydrodynamic impact of uranium extraction devices or other underwater structures in coastal oceans.

  1. Siting solar energy development to minimize biological impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoms, DM; Dashiell, SL; Davis, FW

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife conservation and solar energy development in theand the selection of solar energy sites in Andalusia (bio- diversity impacts of solar energy development in the

  2. DEVELOPMENT IMPACT FEE ADOPTION AND ITS EFFECTS IN TEXAS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambs, Jonathan G.

    2010-01-20

    The purpose of my thesis is to study what factors affect the adoption of impact fees in Texas and what effects impact fees have on city budgets. This research was done using two models. The first model looked at the adoption of impact fees...

  3. Wind Farm Power System Model Development: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.

    2004-07-01

    In some areas, wind power has reached a level where it begins to impact grid operation and the stability of local utilities. In this paper, the model development for a large wind farm will be presented. Wind farm dynamic behavior and contribution to stability during transmission system faults will be examined.

  4. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  5. DOE Announces Webinars on an Offshore Wind Economic Impacts Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Offshore Wind Economic Impacts Model, Resources for Tribal Energy Efficiency Projects, and More DOE Announces Webinars on an Offshore Wind Economic Impacts Model, Resources for...

  6. Tools for dynamic model development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaber, Spencer Daniel

    2014-01-01

    For this thesis, several tools for dynamic model development were developed and analyzed. Dynamic models can be used to simulate and optimize the behavior of a great number of natural and engineered systems, from the ...

  7. Mitigating Potential Environmental Impacts of Energy Development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Field Test Wind Energy Bat Impact Minimization Technologies University of Michigan Gets Offshore Wind Ready for Winter on Lake Michigan Energy Department Announces New Projects...

  8. Development of Reference Models and Design Tools (LCOE Models...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Reference Models and Design Tools (LCOE Models) Development of Reference Models and Design Tools (LCOE Models) Development of Reference Models and Design Tools (LCOE...

  9. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  10. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios S. Tegen, D. Keyser, and F. Flores-Espino National Renewable Energy Laboratory J....

  11. Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach Webinar: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts of Offshore Wind

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Starting more than a year ago, NREL initiated work to expand the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to include fixed-bottom offshore wind technology. Following the completion of the...

  12. LEDSGP/analysis/impacts/DIAWebinar on Development Impact Assessment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Low Emissions Development AgencyCompany Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Joint Implementation...

  13. Development of embrittlement prediction models for U.S. power reactors and the impact of the heat-affected zone to thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.A.

    1998-05-01

    The NRC Regulatory Guide 1.99 Revision 2 was based on 177 surveillance data points and the EPRI data base, where 76% of 177 data points and 60% of EPRI data base were from Westinghouse`s data. Therefore, other vendors` radiation environment may not be properly characterized by R.G. 1.99`s prediction. To minimize scatter from the influences of the irradiation temperature, neutron energy spectrum, displacement rate, and plant operation procedures on embrittlement models, improved embrittlement models based on group data that have similar radiation environments and reactor design and operation criteria are examined. A total of 653 shift data points from the current FR-EDB, including 397 Westinghouse data, 93 B and W data, 37 CE data, and 106 GE data, are used. A nonlinear least squares fitting FORTRAN program, incorporating a Monte Carlo procedure with 35% and 10% uncertainty assigned to the fluence and shift data, respectively, was written for this study. In order to have the same adjusted fluence value for the weld and plate material in the same capsule, the Monte Carlo least squares fitting procedure has the ability to adjust the fluence values while running the weld and plate formula simultaneously. Six chemical components, namely, copper, nickel, phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, and molybdenum, were considered in the development of the new embrittlement models. The overall percentage of reduction of the 2-sigma margins per delta RTNDT predicted by the new embrittlement models, compared to that of R.G. 1.99, for weld and base materials are 42% and 36%, respectively. Currently, the need for thermal annealing is seriously being considered for several A302B type RPVs. From the macroscopic view point, even if base and weld materials were verified from mechanical tests to be fully recovered, the linking heat affected zone (HAZ) material has not been properly characterized. Thus the final overall recovery will still be unknown. The great data scatter of the HAZ metals may be the result of the metallurgical heterogeneity that exists in the HAZ. The proposed data fitting procedure for the HAZ material is presented in the paper.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Research & Development Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stricker, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances that drive economic growth require both public and private investment. The U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories play a crucial role by conducting the type of research, testing and evaluation that is beyond the scope of regulators, academia or industry. Examples of such work from the past year can be found in these pages. Idaho National Laboratory’s engineering and applied science expertise helps deploy new technologies for nuclear energy, national security and new energy resources. Unique infrastructure, nuclear material inventory and vast expertise converge at INL, the nation’s nuclear energy laboratory. Productive partnerships with academia, industry and government agencies deliver high-impact outcomes. This edition of INL’s Impacts magazine highlights national and regional leadership efforts, growing capabilities, notable collaborations, and technology innovations. Please take a few minutes to learn more about the critical resources and transformative research at one of the nation’s premier applied science laboratories.

  15. Education Spending: Impacts on Human Capital Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struminger, Rhonda

    2013-08-27

    and this leads to new occupations and economic growth for the larger community (OECD 2010a; Romer 1990, 1986). To boost all students to a skill level that will bolster the economy requires a commitment to students, 14 especially those who are least... inequality can actually impedes a country’s economic growth (Breen 1997). The impact education can have in a country when there is less inequality is significant. “Less egalitarian societies have lower average achievement, lower percentages of very highly...

  16. Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  17. Wind Energy Development and its Impacts on Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    PotentialWind Energy Resource Potential New U.S. Generating CapacityNew U.S. Generating Capacity Wind energy1 Wind Energy Development and its Impacts on Wildlife Carrie Lowe, M.S. Candidate UniversityOutline · Introduction · Wind energy in the U.S. I t ildlif· Impacts on wildlife · Guidelines · Future directions

  18. Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM) Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model (GETEM) Development Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM) Development Project objective: Provide a tool for estimating the performance and...

  19. Oral English development and its impact on emergent reading achievement: a comparative study of transitional bilingual and structured english immersion models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Fuhui

    2009-05-15

    This quantitative study derived from an on-going federal experimental research project targeting Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) receiving services in four program models: control/experimental transitional ...

  20. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Sadie; Nawaz, Kathleen; Sandor, Debra

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  1. Climate Impact of Transportation A Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Grahn, Maria; Kitous, Alban; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page

    2013-06-01

    Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global service demand (passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers), fuel use, and CO2 emissions of five different global transport models using harmonized input assumptions on income and population. For four models we also evaluate the impact of a carbon tax. All models project a steep increase in service demand over the century. Technology is important for limiting energy consumption and CO2 emissions, but quite radical changes in the technology mix are required to stabilize or reverse the trend. While all models project liquid fossil fuels dominating up to 2050, they differ regarding the use of alternative fuels (natural gas, hydrogen, biofuels, and electricity), because of different fuel price projections. The carbon tax of US$200/tCO2 in 2050 stabilizes or reverses global emission growth in all models. Besides common findings many differences in the model assumptions and projections indicate room for improvement in modeling and empirical description of the transport system.

  2. Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei; Gong, Zizheng

    2014-09-15

    The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4?mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23?mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3?km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T{sub e}, n{sub e})???v{sub p}{sup 3}. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data.

  3. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF UNSATURATED FLOW FUNCTIONS FOR LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FILTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEVELOPMENT OF UNSATURATED FLOW FUNCTIONS FOR LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS to thank the members of the UNH Stormwater Center group for the continuous help with this project

  5. OSPREY Model Development Status Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica J Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University, and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. Georgia Institute of Technology is developing fundamental level model to describe the equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption process, which are to be integrated with OSPREY. This report discusses the progress made on expanding OSPREY to be multiple component and the integration of macroscale and microscale level models. Also included in this report is a brief OSPREY user guide.

  6. The impact of oil on a developing country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikein, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

  7. Maui Electrical System Model Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deliverable ­ Report on System Model Development By GE Global Research Niskayuna, New York And University of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Under Award No. DE-FC-06NT42847 Task 8 of Hawaii Hawaii Natural Energy Institute School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology July 2008 #12

  8. Modeling the Impact of Operator Trust on Performance in Multiple Robot Control,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, F.

    We developed a system dynamics model to simulate the impact of operator trust on performance in multiple robot control. Analysis of a simulated urban search and rescue experiment showed that operators decided to manually ...

  9. WINDExchange: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *4 o** 0, WF* W3Funding School

  10. Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Engine Concept Development Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Presentation shows how 1-cylinder testing, 3D combustion CFD and 1D gas exchange with an...

  11. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salcito, Kendyl; University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel; NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202; NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 ; Utzinger, Jürg; University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel ; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark; NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human rights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.

  12. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental Impact Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    locations. V.G.2 Impacts Environmental effects at the hillThis EIR IV. Environmental Setting, Impacts, and Mitigationsafety hazards, environmental impacts, and aesthetic impacts

  13. Impact of solar-energy development: the aggregate impact on basic economic objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative (or complementary) programs are presented. The discussion distinguishes between short-run (one to five years) and long-run (over five years) impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing stock. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficiency, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense. (LEW)

  14. Assessing the cumulative environmental impact of hydropower construction on river systems based on energy network model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Assessing the cumulative environmental impact of hydropower construction on river systems based 2014 Keywords: Hydropower construction Sustainable energy development Environmental impact assessment Energy network model a b s t r a c t Hydropower is the major renewable energy source for many nations

  15. Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu,...

  16. A Study of the Economic Impact of Water Impoundment Through Validity Testing of a Comparitive-Projection Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, J. E.; Heideman, K. E.

    1969-01-01

    An established economic simulation model for reservoir development was applied to ten reservoir projects throughout Texas. The model as a predictor of economic impact was given a difficult test because of the diversity of geographic, economic...

  17. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  18. Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 -...

  19. Modeling plant growth and development Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    Modeling plant growth and development Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz Department of Computer Science plant models or "virtual plants" are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form

  20. Environ. Impact Asses. Rev., Vol. 38, Jan. 2013, p. 35-43. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused and reliability. Key words: Health impact, indicator, air pollution, traffic-related emissions 1. Introduction health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions Véronique Lépicier a , Mireille Chiron b, 1 , Robert

  1. POWER PLANT IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A SIMPLE FISHERY PRODUCTION MODEL APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POWER PLANT IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A SIMPLE FISHERY PRODUCTION MODEL APPROACH ALECD. MACCALL,' KEITHR power plant entrainment mortality as a fraction (Rc) of the abundance ofthat cohort in the absence of power plant impact can be calculated by Rc = exp (-Ejtj) wheretj is the duration oflife stagei, and

  2. Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

  3. Water Body Temperature Model for Assessing Climate Change Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    climatological data and thermal pollution from river-based power plants to historical river flow data in orderWater Body Temperature Model for Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Thermal Cooling Ken Strzepek Climate Change Impacts on Thermal Cooling Ken Strzepek* , Charles Fant* , Yohannes Gebretsadik , Megan

  4. Computational modeling of electrostatic charge and fields produced by hypervelocity impact

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crawford, David A.

    2015-05-19

    Following prior experimental evidence of electrostatic charge separation, electric and magnetic fields produced by hypervelocity impact, we have developed a model of electrostatic charge separation based on plasma sheath theory and implemented it into the CTH shock physics code. Preliminary assessment of the model shows good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the model and prior experiments at least in the hypervelocity regime for the porous carbonate material tested. The model agrees with the scaling analysis of experimental data performed in the prior work, suggesting that electric charge separation and the resulting electric and magnetic fields can be a substantial effectmore »at larger scales, higher impact velocities, or both.« less

  5. PACKAGE IMPACT MODELS AS A PRECURSOR TO CLADDING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Bajwa, Christopher S.; Piotter, Jason

    2013-02-01

    The evaluation of spent nuclear fuel storage casks and transportation packages under impact loading is an important safety topic that is reviewed as part of cask and package certification by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Explicit dynamic finite element models of full systems are increasingly common in industry for determining structural integrity during hypothetical drop accidents. Full cask and package model results are also used as the loading basis for single fuel pin impact models, which evaluate the response of fuel cladding under drop conditions. In this paper, a simplified package system is evaluated to illustrate several important structural dynamic phenomena, including the effect of gaps between components, the difference in local response at various points on a package during impact, and the effect of modeling various simplified representations of the basket and fuel assemblies. This paper focuses on the package impact analysis, and how loading conditions for a subsequent fuel assembly or fuel cladding analysis can be extracted.

  6. Modeling environmental impact of unfired bricks in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachau Walker, Miriam E. (Miriam Elizabeth)

    2013-01-01

    Brick manufacturing requires a considerable amount of energy and land, but these numbers have been difficult to quantify in rural parts of the developing world. The environmental impact of unfired bricks in India is ...

  7. Ex post analysis of economic impacts from wind power development in U.S. counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jason P

    2014-01-01

    Figure 1. Location of Wind Power Development in the UnitedFigure 4: Total Installed Wind Power Capacity (MW): 2000 -development impacts of wind power installations. References

  8. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Locatelli, R.

    A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model ...

  9. The impact of subsea boosting on deepwater field development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribeiro, O.J.S.; Camargo, R.M.T.; Paulo, C.A.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the impact that the use of a subsea boosting system will have on the development of a deepwater field. The analysis covers the technology demands and constraints encountered on screening studies executed for the fields of Marlim, Albacora and Barracuda, as well as an overview of the economic benefits encountered. The paper focuses on the technological demands and constraints identified as well as some considerations about possible alternatives. The demands and constraints identified in the study will provide the industry with some more input to guide the development of the subsea boosting technology, as well as a better understanding of how to apply this new tool on the development of deepwater prospects. The results of the screening study are showing that the subsea boosting systems are a valuable tool to reduce the costs of deepwater developments. The cost cutting possibilities through an integration between the conventional subsea hardware and the subsea boosting systems and the combination of boosting systems are promising alternatives. The encouraging economic results found, as well as the demands and constraints raised in the paper will be of use for those trying to apply these technologies in various areas of the world.

  10. Graduate Opportunities in Earth Systems Modeling and Climate Impacts on Hydrology and Water Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graduate Opportunities in Earth Systems Modeling and Climate Impacts on Hydrology and Water research assistantships available in the general area of earth systems modeling and climate impacts

  11. Development, Antibiotic Production, and Ribosome Assembly in Streptomyces venezuelae Are Impacted by RNase J and RNase III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot, Marie A.

    Development, Antibiotic Production, and Ribosome Assembly in Streptomyces venezuelae Are Impacted model system Streptomyces venezuelae. We show that each enzyme makes a unique contribution to the growth and development of S. venezuelae and further affects the secondary metabolism and antibiotic production

  12. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-12-22

    This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

  13. Modeling Momentum Transfer from Kinetic Impacts: Implications for Redirecting Asteroids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stickle, A. M.; Atchison, J. A.; Barnouin, O. S.; Cheng, A. F.; Crawford, D. A.; Ernst, C. M.; Fletcher, Z.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-05-19

    Kinetic impactors are one way to deflect a potentially hazardous object headed for Earth. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is designed to test the effectiveness of this approach and is a joint effort between NASA and ESA. The NASA-led portion is the Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) and is composed of a ~300-kg spacecraft designed to impact the moon of the binary system 65803 Didymos. The deflection of the moon will be measured by the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) (which will characterize the moon) and from ground-based observations. Because the material properties and internal structure ofmore »the target are poorly constrained, however, analytical models and numerical simulations must be used to understand the range of potential outcomes. Here, we describe a modeling effort combining analytical models and CTH simulations to determine possible outcomes of the DART impact. We examine a wide parameter space and provide predictions for crater size, ejecta mass, and momentum transfer following the impact into the moon of the Didymos system. For impacts into “realistic” asteroid types, these models produce craters with diameters on the order of 10 m, an imparted ?v of 0.5–2 mm/s and a momentum enhancement of 1.07 to 5 for a highly porous aggregate to a fully dense rock.« less

  14. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, S.; Katz, J.; Wurtenberger, L.

    2014-01-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  15. Sandia Energy - Sandia Develops Stochastic Production Cost Model...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Analysis Analysis Modeling Modeling & Analysis Computational Modeling & Simulation Solar Newsletter Sandia Develops Stochastic Production Cost Model Simulator for Electric...

  16. Development and application of earth system models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development and application of earth system models Ronald G. Prinn *Reprinted from Proceedings, 2011) The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;Development and application of earth system

  17. Mesoscale Model Development and the Meteorological Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass, Clifford F.

    Mesoscale Model Development and the Meteorological Community Cliff Mass University of Washington: Although the U.S. remains a leader in mesoscale model development and application, the community is not fulfilling its potential. The resources of the U.S. mesoscale forecasting community are considerable

  18. Nucleation and condensation model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, H.; Lyman, J.; Breshears, D.; Zerkle, D.; Wilson, C.; Hewitt, C.; Gallegos, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is a final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to bring to maturity a theoretical and experimental capability of the Laboratory to perform basic research in nucleation and condensation of water vapor. This report provides a general description of this capability and summarizes specific work in two areas: development and use of a combustive flow facility (CFF) to measure water monomer depletion in a supersonic nozzle and nucleation pulse experiments for investigation of transport effects on water droplet growth dynamics. The later work was performed in collaboration with Dr. Wehrner Strey in Goettingen, Germany. Preliminary water absorption data from the CFF experiment are presented. The nucleation pulse data is described along with an analysis that shows under the condition of the experiment the growth rate of water droplets is limited by monomer diffusion.

  19. TOOLS TO MODEL ROAD IMPACTS Providing scientific knowledge and technology to sustain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    TOOLS TO MODEL ROAD IMPACTS Providing scientific knowledge and technology to sustain our nation://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE_home.shtml BACKGROUND The Rocky Mountain Research Station has a long his- tory of developing tools that meet the needs. Existing tools have been optimized to answer particular man- agement questions at specific spatial scales

  20. Development, evaluation, and design applications of an AMTEC converter model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Cliff Alan

    2002-01-01

    An AMTEC converter model was developed and its effectiveness as a design tool was evaluated. To develop the model, requirements of the model were defined, modeling equations were selected, and a methodology for model development was established...

  1. Siting solar energy development to minimize biological impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoms, DM; Dashiell, SL; Davis, FW

    2013-01-01

    renewable energy development projects on species and habitats in areas designated for energy development [

  2. Quantitative assessment of biological impact using transcriptomic data and mechanistic network models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Ty M. [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Sewer, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Sewer@pmi.com [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Martin, Florian; Belcastro, Vincenzo [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Frushour, Brian P. [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Gebel, Stephan [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH, Edmund-Rumpler-Strasse 5, 51149 Koeln (Germany); Park, Jennifer [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Schlage, Walter K. [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH, Edmund-Rumpler-Strasse 5, 51149 Koeln (Germany); Talikka, Marja [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Vasilyev, Dmitry M.; Westra, Jurjen W. [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C. [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to biologically active substances such as therapeutic drugs or environmental toxicants can impact biological systems at various levels, affecting individual molecules, signaling pathways, and overall cellular processes. The ability to derive mechanistic insights from the resulting system responses requires the integration of experimental measures with a priori knowledge about the system and the interacting molecules therein. We developed a novel systems biology-based methodology that leverages mechanistic network models and transcriptomic data to quantitatively assess the biological impact of exposures to active substances. Hierarchically organized network models were first constructed to provide a coherent framework for investigating the impact of exposures at the molecular, pathway and process levels. We then validated our methodology using novel and previously published experiments. For both in vitro systems with simple exposure and in vivo systems with complex exposures, our methodology was able to recapitulate known biological responses matching expected or measured phenotypes. In addition, the quantitative results were in agreement with experimental endpoint data for many of the mechanistic effects that were assessed, providing further objective confirmation of the approach. We conclude that our methodology evaluates the biological impact of exposures in an objective, systematic, and quantifiable manner, enabling the computation of a systems-wide and pan-mechanistic biological impact measure for a given active substance or mixture. Our results suggest that various fields of human disease research, from drug development to consumer product testing and environmental impact analysis, could benefit from using this methodology. - Highlights: • The impact of biologically active substances is quantified at multiple levels. • The systems-level impact integrates the perturbations of individual networks. • The networks capture the relationships between the biological mechanisms. • Four exposure experiments have been assessed to validate the methodology. • The impact results were consistent with the corresponding phenotypic measures.

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling the impacts of global warming on predation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling the impacts of global warming on predation and biotic resistance in regulating or limiting exotic prey. We investigate how global warming potentially alters the strength damselfly Megalag- rion calliphya as predator and the invasive southern house mosquito Culex

  4. Original article Modelling herbicide treatment impact on groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Modelling herbicide treatment impact on groundwater quality in a central Italy of different weed control strategies on groundwater quality in a Central Italy area (Umbria) where the drinking and twenty-two weed control strategies were tested for their groundwater concentrations. Two maps reporting

  5. Ex post analysis of economic impacts from wind power development in U.S. counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jason P

    2014-01-01

    some time. This workapplies ex post econometric evaluationby analyzing the ex post impacts of past developments usingEstimation We use an ex post econometric approach relying on

  6. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL POLICIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL POLICIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL- SCALE HYDROELECTRIC analysis, there is a familiar list of features which distinguish major hydroelectric projects from other

  7. Economic Impacts of Wind Turbine Development in U.S. Counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J., Brown

    2012-01-01

    GAO). 2004. Renewable Energy: Wind Power’s Contribution tothe Economic Impacts of Wind Energy Development: An Input-applied in advance of wind energy project construction. n ×

  8. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental Impact Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    unaffected by grading and project development or off-site atunaffected by grading and project development or off-site atresources during project development and excavation under

  9. Regulation mechanisms in spatial stochastic development models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri Finkelshtein; Yuri Kondratiev

    2008-09-04

    The aim of this paper is to analyze different regulation mechanisms in spatial continuous stochastic development models. We describe the density behavior for models with global mortality and local establishment rates. We prove that the local self-regulation via a competition mechanism (density dependent mortality) may suppress a unbounded growth of the averaged density if the competition kernel is superstable.

  10. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  11. Sandia Energy - Tidal & Current Modeling Development and Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tidal & Current Modeling Development and Validation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Technology Development Tidal & Current Modeling Development and...

  12. The impact of multifamily development on single family home prices in the Greater Boston Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuur, Arah (Arah Louise Adele)

    2005-01-01

    The impact of large, multifamily developments on nearby single-family home prices was tested in five towns in the Greater Boston Area. Case studies that had recent multifamily developments built near transit nodes or town ...

  13. Cumulative biophysical impact of small and large hydropower development, Nu River, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Cumulative biophysical impact of small and large hydropower development, Nu River, China Authors hydropower facilities. This support is manifested in national and international energy and development policies designed to incentivize growth in the small hydropower sector while curtailing large dam

  14. Development and application of procedures to evaluate air quality and visibility impacts of low-altitude flying operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebsch, E.J.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the development and application of procedures to evaluate the effects of low-altitude aircraft flights on air quality and visibility. The work summarized in this report was undertaken as part of the larger task of assessing the various potential environmental impacts associated with low-altitude military airspaces. Accomplishing the air quality/visibility analysis for the GEIS included (1) development and application of an integrated air quality model and aircraft emissions database specifically for Military Training Route (MTR) or similar flight operations, (2) selection and application of an existing air quality model to analyze the more widespread and less concentrated aircraft emissions from military Operations Areas (MOAs) and Restricted Areas (RAs), and (3) development and application of procedures to assess impacts of aircraft emissions on visibility. Existing air quality models were considered to be inadequate for predicting ground-level concentrations of pollutants emitted by aircraft along MTRs; therefore, the Single-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (SAILS) and Multiple-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (MAILS) models were developed to estimate potential impacts along MTRs. Furthermore, a protocol was developed and then applied in the field to determine the degree of visibility impairment caused by aircraft engine exhaust plumes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Energy Development Impacts on State Roadways: A Review of DOT Policies, Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Development Impacts on State Roadways: A Review of DOT Policies, Programs and Practices across Eight States Final Report PRC 14-29 F #12;2 Energy Development Impacts on State Roadways: A Review of DOT Policies, Programs and Practices across Eight States Texas A&M Transportation Institute PRC 14

  16. AN EVALUATION OF THE WILDLIFE IMPACTS OF OFFSHORE WIND DEVELOPMENT RELATIVE TO FOSSIL FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    AN EVALUATION OF THE WILDLIFE IMPACTS OF OFFSHORE WIND DEVELOPMENT RELATIVE TO FOSSIL FUEL POWER. Jarvis All Rights Reserved #12;AN EVALUATION OF THE WILDLIFE IMPACTS OF OFFSHORE WIND DEVELOPMENT in offshore wind energy. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Jeremy Firestone

  17. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental Impact Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    project is to accelerate the development of renewable and sustainable sources of energyProject is to accelerate the development of renewable and sustainable sources of energy

  18. Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2014-09-30

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While many studies have been conducted to assess and map tidal energy resources, efforts for quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts have been limited. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model and its application for assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with tidal energy extraction. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a tidally dominant estuary. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines installed in an idealized estuary were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes due to tidal energy extraction. Model results indicated that a large number of turbines are required to extract the maximum tidal energy and cause significant reduction of the volume flux. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in a stratified estuary. The tidal turbine model was applied to simulate tidal energy extraction in Puget Sound, a large fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast.

  19. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  20. Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M.; Newbery, J.D.H.

    1997-08-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

  1. Brazilian Dairy Model: Impacts of Agricultural Policies and Exogenous Shocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues Carvalho, Glauco

    2015-04-28

    structural econometric model of the Brazilian dairy sector is used to analyze the consequences of changes in policies and other variables of interest on the production, consumption, and milk prices. A stochastic approach is also developed that incorporates...

  2. Lasting social impact : Community Development Venture Capital investing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silberberg, Hattie Paige

    2008-01-01

    Community Development Venture Capital Funds (CDVC) funds are an emerging group of Community Development Financial Institutions, that make equity investments in businesses in economically distressed areas. As equity investors, ...

  3. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-12-03

    This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiation. It is based on the model used to calculate temperatures and volume fractions in an annular vessel containing an aqueous solution of uranium . The experiment was repeated at several electron beam power levels, but the CFD analysis was performed only for the 12 kW irradiation, because this experiment came the closest to reaching a steady-state condition. The aim of the study is to compare results of the calculation with experimental measurements to determine the validity of the CFD model.

  4. Long-term impacts of aerosols on vertical development of cloud and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Z.; Liu Y.; Niu, F.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ding, Y.

    2011-11-13

    Aerosols alter cloud density and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This leads to changes in cloud microphysics and atmospheric stability, which can either suppress or foster the development of clouds and precipitation. The net effect is largely unknown, but depends on meteorological conditions and aerosol properties. Here, we examine the long-term impact of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and rainfall frequencies, using a 10-year dataset of aerosol, cloud and meteorological variables collected in the Southern Great Plains in the United States. We show that cloud-top height and thickness increase with aerosol concentration measured near the ground in mixed-phase clouds-which contain both liquid water and ice-that have a warm, low base. We attribute the effect, which is most significant in summer, to an aerosol-induced invigoration of upward winds. In contrast, we find no change in cloud-top height and precipitation with aerosol concentration in clouds with no ice or cool bases. We further show that precipitation frequency and rain rate are altered by aerosols. Rain increases with aerosol concentration in deep clouds that have a high liquid-water content, but declines in clouds that have a low liquid-water content. Simulations using a cloud-resolving model confirm these observations. Our findings provide unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation.

  5. Smart Structures: Model Development and Control Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smart Structures: Model Development and Control Applications Ralph C. Smith Center for Research for smart structure which utilize piezoelectric, electrostrictive, magnetostrictive or shape memory alloys of the structure. The limitations on the mass and size of transducers are often relaxed in industrial applications

  6. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF IMPACT NOISE Cristina Daz Cereceda | Laboratori de Clcul Numric | Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huerta, Antonio

    NUMERICAL MODELLING OF IMPACT NOISE Cristina Díaz Cereceda | Laboratori de Cŕlcul Numčric Modelling of Impact Noise. In Congreso de Métodos Numéricos en Ingeniería 2009. [2] J. Hetherington, J. Poblet-Puig, A. Rodríguez-Ferran. Numerical Modelling of Impact Noise in Lightweight Floors: a Modal

  7. The process of and barriers to environmentally-oriented real estate development : examining the role of organizational structure, project delivery methods and contracts in low impact development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Charu, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) is a site planning approach that limits the environmental impact of development on the local hydrological regime. By preserving and mimicking natural landscape features, LID introduces a new ...

  8. Identify types of development and climate impacts that are country...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, a new tool has been...

  9. Siting solar energy development to minimize biological impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoms, DM; Dashiell, SL; Davis, FW

    2013-01-01

    Areas of high solar energy potential are often in fragileby 20 km to ensure that potential solar energy sites weresolar development from the perspective of minimizing potential

  10. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

    1993-12-31

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE`s upstream as well as downstream natural gas R&D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE`s Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R&D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R&D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R&D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R&D programs.

  11. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the analysis shows that the propagation of error method introduces essentially negligible error, especially when compared to the uncertainty associated with some of the estimates themselves. The results of these uncertainty analyses generally quantify and identify the sources of uncertainty in the overall cost estimation. The obvious generalization—that capital cost uncertainty is the main driver—can be shown to be an accurate generalization for the current state of reactor cost analysis. However, the detailed analysis on a component-by-component basis helps to demonstrate which components would benefit most from research and development to decrease the uncertainty, as well as which components would benefit from research and development to decrease the absolute cost.

  12. Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in small reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallman, Tyler N.; Radel, Tracy E.; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Villa, Daniel L.; Smith, Brandon M.; Radel, Ross F.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident or for large fuel bundles in a shipping container following an accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (Pronto3D or Presto) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to enable MCNP geometric queries to be performed using Pronto3D output. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.

  13. Multiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    impact on environmental degradation, health, and the livelihood of artisanal miners. We concludeMultiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development impact Kaakpema Yelpaalaa,b , Saleem H. Alic,d, * a Yale University, School of Epidemiology and Public

  14. Economic Impact of the Texas Forest Sector, 2004 Forest Resource Development and Sustainable Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Impact of the Texas Forest Sector, 2004 Forest Resource Development and Sustainable Forestry Texas Forest Service College Station, Texas November 2006 #12;Economic Impact of the Texas Forest Texas economy. METHODS This study uses the input-output method to estimate the direct and total economic

  15. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aberdeen, University of

    Renewable energy AIS data Time-lapse Marine mammals Acoustic disturbance a b s t r a c t The potentialMonitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q Nathan D impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability

  16. Development of a Thermoacoustic Model for Evaluating Passive Damping Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehman, Syed; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2005-01-01

    The calculation of thermoacoustic oscillations. J. Sound008 "Development of a Thermoacoustic Model for EvaluatingDevelopment of a Thermoacoustic Model for Evaluating Passive

  17. TSPA Model Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Processes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TSPA Model Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Processes Affecting Performance of a Salt Repository for Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste TSPA Model Development and...

  18. New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources February 7, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -...

  19. Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice Sheet Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development...

  20. Modeling Climate and Production-related Impacts on Ice-core Beryllium-10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Climate and Production-related Impacts on Ice-core Beryllium-10 Christy Veeder Submitted Modeling Climate and Production-related Impacts on Ice-core Beryllium-10 Christy Veeder I use the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE general circulation model to ex- amine the how beryllium-10, a cosmogenic

  1. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  2. The development of a methodology to quantify the impacts of information management strategies on EPC projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreau, Karen Anne

    1997-01-01

    This research develops and demonstrates a methodology to quantify time and cost impacts on Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) projects resulting from information management driven process changes in design related activities. Many...

  3. Session: Bat ecology related to wind development and lessons learned about impacts on bats from wind development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Greg; Kunz, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two paper presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. It was the first of the sessions to shift the focus to the issue of wind energy development's impacts specifically to bats. The presentations discussed lessons that have been learned regarding direct and indirect impacts on bats and strategies planned to address such issues. Presenters addressed what the existing science demonstrates about land-based wind turbine impacts on bats, including: mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts, species and numbers killed, per turbine rates/per MW generated, and impacts on threatened and endangered species. They discussed whether there is sufficient data for wind turbines and bat impacts for projects in the eastern US, especially on ridge tops. Finally, the subject of offshore impacts on bats was briefly addressed, including what lessons have been learned in Europe and how these can be applied in the U S. Paper one, by Greg Johnson, was titled ''A Review of Bat Impacts at Wind Farms in the US''. Paper two, by Thomas Kunz, was titled ''Wind Power: Bats and Wind Turbines''.

  4. Reduced order models for prediction of groundwater quality impacts from CO? and brine leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Liange; Carroll, Susan; Bianchi, Marco; Mansoor, Kayyum; Sun, Yunwei; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-12-31

    A careful assessment of the risk associated with geologic CO? storage is critical to the deployment of large-scale storage projects. A potential risk is the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by the leakage of CO? and brine leakage from deep subsurface reservoirs. In probabilistic risk assessment studies, numerical modeling is the primary tool employed to assess risk. However, the application of traditional numerical models to fully evaluate the impact of CO? leakage on groundwater can be computationally complex, demanding large processing times and resources, and involving large uncertainties. As an alternative, reduced order models (ROMs) can be used as highly efficient surrogates for the complex process-based numerical models. In this study, we represent the complex hydrogeological and geochemical conditions in a heterogeneous aquifer and subsequent risk by developing and using two separate ROMs. The first ROM is derived from a model that accounts for the heterogeneous flow and transport conditions in the presence of complex leakage functions for CO? and brine. The second ROM is obtained from models that feature similar, but simplified flow and transport conditions, and allow for a more complex representation of all relevant geochemical reactions. To quantify possible impacts to groundwater aquifers, the basic risk metric is taken as the aquifer volume in which the water quality of the aquifer may be affected by an underlying CO? storage project. The integration of the two ROMs provides an estimate of the impacted aquifer volume taking into account uncertainties in flow, transport and chemical conditions. These two ROMs can be linked in a comprehensive system level model for quantitative risk assessment of the deep storage reservoir, wellbore leakage, and shallow aquifer impacts to assess the collective risk of CO? storage projects.

  5. Reduced order models for prediction of groundwater quality impacts from CO? and brine leakage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Liange; Carroll, Susan; Bianchi, Marco; Mansoor, Kayyum; Sun, Yunwei; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-12-31

    A careful assessment of the risk associated with geologic CO? storage is critical to the deployment of large-scale storage projects. A potential risk is the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by the leakage of CO? and brine leakage from deep subsurface reservoirs. In probabilistic risk assessment studies, numerical modeling is the primary tool employed to assess risk. However, the application of traditional numerical models to fully evaluate the impact of CO? leakage on groundwater can be computationally complex, demanding large processing times and resources, and involving large uncertainties. As an alternative, reduced order models (ROMs) can be used as highlymore »efficient surrogates for the complex process-based numerical models. In this study, we represent the complex hydrogeological and geochemical conditions in a heterogeneous aquifer and subsequent risk by developing and using two separate ROMs. The first ROM is derived from a model that accounts for the heterogeneous flow and transport conditions in the presence of complex leakage functions for CO? and brine. The second ROM is obtained from models that feature similar, but simplified flow and transport conditions, and allow for a more complex representation of all relevant geochemical reactions. To quantify possible impacts to groundwater aquifers, the basic risk metric is taken as the aquifer volume in which the water quality of the aquifer may be affected by an underlying CO? storage project. The integration of the two ROMs provides an estimate of the impacted aquifer volume taking into account uncertainties in flow, transport and chemical conditions. These two ROMs can be linked in a comprehensive system level model for quantitative risk assessment of the deep storage reservoir, wellbore leakage, and shallow aquifer impacts to assess the collective risk of CO? storage projects.« less

  6. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study: South Africa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development (USAID) and Department of State with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and U.S. Forest...

  7. Visual Impact Assessment in British Oil and Gas Developments1 Dennis F. Gillespie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visual Impact Assessment in British Oil and Gas Developments1 2/ Dennis F. Gillespie 3/ Brian D Unit, Department of Geography, University of Aberdeen, Scotland. Abstract: Development of oil and gas these effects into account. Since 1970, the offshore discovery and development of oil and gas resources

  8. Modeling the vehicle cycle impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.; Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

    1997-03-13

    Pure and hybrid electric vehicles, considered environmentally benign, are being developed to reduce urban air pollutant emissions. The obvious emissions benefit of pure electric vehicles is that they produce no tailpipe emissions. Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. However, both electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) do have their own environmental impacts. In order to quantify the potential benefits from introducing such vehicles, it is necessary to compare their impacts with those from the conventional vehicles they would replace. These impacts include energy use and emissions from the entire energy cycle, including fuel production, vehicle and battery production and recycling, and vehicle operation. Argonne`s previous work in collaboration with other national laboratories analyzed the total energy cycle of electric vehicles; this paper compares energy use and emissions for the total energy cycles of several HEV designs with those from modern conventional vehicles. The estimates presented indicate that use of HEVs can reduce energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases, volatile organic gases, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 micrometers. HEVs may, in some cases, increase emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. Although some of the HEV designs illustrated in this paper could run a significant proportion of annual miles in all electric operation, no calculation of the emission reductions that result from using electricity from the utility grid is presented in this paper.

  9. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Xu, Ke; Suter, Jonathan D.; McCloy, John S.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2014-12-15

    This interim report presents progress towards the development of meso-scale models of magnetic behavior that incorporate microstructural information. Modeling magnetic signatures in irradiated materials with complex microstructures (such as structural steels) is a significant challenge. The complexity is addressed incrementally, using the monocrystalline Fe (i.e., ferrite) film as model systems to develop and validate initial models, followed by polycrystalline Fe films, and by more complicated and representative alloys. In addition, the modeling incrementally addresses inclusion of other major phases (e.g., martensite, austenite), minor magnetic phases (e.g., carbides, FeCr precipitates), and minor nonmagnetic phases (e.g., Cu precipitates, voids). The focus of the magnetic modeling is on phase-field models. The models are based on the numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. From the computational standpoint, phase-field modeling allows the simulation of large enough systems that relevant defect structures and their effects on functional properties like magnetism can be simulated. To date, two phase-field models have been generated in support of this work. First, a bulk iron model with periodic boundary conditions was generated as a proof-of-concept to investigate major loop effects of single versus polycrystalline bulk iron and effects of single non-magnetic defects. More recently, to support the experimental program herein using iron thin films, a new model was generated that uses finite boundary conditions representing surfaces and edges. This model has provided key insights into the domain structures observed in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Simulation results for single crystal thin-film iron indicate the feasibility of the model for determining magnetic domain wall thickness and mobility in an externally applied field. Because the phase-field model dimensions are limited relative to the size of most specimens used in experiments, special experimental methods were devised to create similar boundary conditions in the iron films. Preliminary MFM studies conducted on single and polycrystalline iron films with small sub-areas created with focused ion beam have correlated quite well qualitatively with phase-field simulations. However, phase-field model dimensions are still small relative to experiments thus far. We are in the process of increasing the size of the models and decreasing specimen size so both have identical dimensions. Ongoing research is focused on validation of the phase-field model. Validation is being accomplished through comparison with experimentally obtained MFM images (in progress), and planned measurements of major hysteresis loops and first order reversal curves. Extrapolation of simulation sizes to represent a more stochastic bulk-like system will require sampling of various simulations (i.e., with single non-magnetic defect, single magnetic defect, single grain boundary, single dislocation, etc.) with distributions of input parameters. These outputs can then be compared to laboratory magnetic measurements and ultimately to simulate magnetic Barkhausen noise signals.

  10. Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2006-05-01

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.

  11. ImSET 3.1: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies Model Description and User's Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Livingston, Olga V.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2009-05-22

    This 3.1 version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the next generation of the previously-built ImSET model (ImSET 2.0) that was developed in 2005 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. In particular, a special-purpose version of the Benchmark National Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)–developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version features the use of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 2002 national input-output table and the central processing code has been moved from the FORTRAN legacy operating environment to a modern C++ code. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act. While it does not include the ability to model certain dynamic features of markets for labor and other factors of production featured in the more complex models, for most purposes these excluded features are not critical. The analysis is credible as long as the assumption is made that relative prices in the economy would not be substantially affected by energy efficiency investments. In most cases, the expected scale of these investments is small enough that neither labor markets nor production cost relationships should seriously affect national prices as the investments are made. The exact timing of impacts on gross product, employment, and national wage income from energy efficiency investments is not well-enough understood that much special insight can be gained from the additional dynamic sophistication of a macroeconomic simulation model. Thus, we believe that this version of ImSET is a cost-effective solution to estimating the economic impacts of the development of energy-efficient technologies.

  12. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of demands to river basins to create hydro-economic zones that respect as much as possible both political and hydrologic integrity in different models. - To minimize pre-processing of data and add increased flexibility to modeling water resources and uses, it is recommended that water withdrawal demands be modeled, not consumptive requirements even though this makes the IAM more complex. - IAMs must consider changes in water availability for irrigation under climate change; ignoring them is more inaccurate than ignoring yield changes in crops under climate change. - Determining water availability and cost in river basins must include modeling streamflows, reservoirs and their operations, and ground water and its interaction with surface water. - Scale issues are important. The results from condensing demands and supplies in a large complex river basin to one node can be misleading for all uses under low flow conditions and instream flow uses under all conditions. Monthly is generally the most accurate scale for modeling river flows and demands. Challenges remain in integrating hydrologic units with political boundaries but the gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with political boundaries. - Using minimal reservoir cost data, it is possible to use basin topography to estimate reservoir storage costs. - Reservoir evaporation must be considered when assessing the usable water in a watershed. Several methods are available to estimate the relationship between aggregated storage surface area and storage volume. - For existing or future IAMs that can not use the appropriate aggregation for water, a water preprocessor may be required due the finer scale of hydrologic impacts.

  13. Computing for Development A New High-Impact Research Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a potential enabling factor to empower rural markets" #12;The Untapped Rural Market Dharavi: Largest Slum that enable global social and economic development First world technology - a bad fit! Hardest Challenge for communications, information access and business transactions All devices are solar-powered Network management

  14. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  15. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies.

  16. Sandia Energy - Developing a Fast-Running Turbine Wake Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developing a Fast-Running Turbine Wake Model Home Renewable Energy Energy Water Power News News & Events Developing a Fast-Running Turbine Wake Model Previous Next Developing a...

  17. Models for Assessment of the environmental impact of Radioactive releases from CERN facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vojtyla, P

    2002-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessment of radioactive releases from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the TIS Division, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calcu¬lations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the TIS Division.

  18. Models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the Safety Commission, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calculations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the Safety Commission.

  19. Summary of Oil and Natural Gas Development Impacts on Prairie Grouse September 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    Summary of Oil and Natural Gas Development Impacts on Prairie Grouse September 2006 Jeffrey L. Beck Independent Avenue Grand Junction, CO 81505 Please cite as: Beck, J. L. 2006. Summary of oil and natural gas). These statistics suggest oil and gas development is rapidly increasing in the West, propelled by national

  20. Forming chondrules in impact splashes. I. Radiative cooling model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dullemond, Cornelis Petrus; Stammler, Sebastian Markus; Johansen, Anders

    2014-10-10

    The formation of chondrules is one of the oldest unsolved mysteries in meteoritics and planet formation. Recently an old idea has been revived: the idea that chondrules form as a result of collisions between planetesimals in which the ejected molten material forms small droplets that solidify to become chondrules. Pre-melting of the planetesimals by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al would help produce sprays of melt even at relatively low impact velocity. In this paper we study the radiative cooling of a ballistically expanding spherical cloud of chondrule droplets ejected from the impact site. We present results from numerical radiative transfer models as well as analytic approximate solutions. We find that the temperature after the start of the expansion of the cloud remains constant for a time t {sub cool} and then drops with time t approximately as T ? T {sub 0}[(3/5)t/t {sub cool} + 2/5]{sup –5/3} for t > t {sub cool}. The time at which this temperature drop starts t {sub cool} depends via an analytical formula on the mass of the cloud, the expansion velocity, and the size of the chondrule. During the early isothermal expansion phase the density is still so high that we expect the vapor of volatile elements to saturate so that no large volatile losses are expected.

  1. Forming chondrules in impact splashes. I. Radiative cooling model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dullemond, Cornelis Petrus; Johansen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The formation of chondrules is one of the oldest unsolved mysteries in meteoritics and planet formation. Recently an old idea has been revived: the idea that chondrules form as a result of collisions between planetesimals in which the ejected molten material forms small droplets which solidify to become chondrules. Pre-melting of the planetesimals by radioactive decay of 26Al would help producing sprays of melt even at relatively low impact velocity. In this paper we study the radiative cooling of a ballistically expanding spherical cloud of chondrule droplets ejected from the impact site. We present results from a numerical radiative transfer models as well as analytic approximate solutions. We find that the temperature after the start of the expansion of the cloud remains constant for a time t_cool and then drops with time t approximately as T ~ T_0[(3/5)t/t_cool+ 2/5]^(-5/3) for t>t_cool. The time at which this temperature drop starts t_cool depends via an analytical formula on the mass of the cloud, the e...

  2. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or incorporation into existing software tools would improve the efficiency of the process. Retrofit activity appears to be gaining market share, and this would be a potentially valuable capability with relevance to marketing, program management, and retrofit success metrics.

  3. Modeling of Wave Impact Using a Pendulum System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nie, Chunyong

    2011-08-08

    For high speed vessels and offshore structures, wave impact, a main source of environmental loads, causes high local stresses and structural failure. However, the prediction of wave impact loads presents numerous challenges due to the complex nature...

  4. Algorithms for Software Model Checking: Predicate Abstraction vs. IMPACT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beyer, Dirk

    - polants [20] is another approach, which is implemented in the tools IMPACT, WOLVERINE [24], and UFO [3

  5. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Citation Details...

  6. Webinar: DOE Launches JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC) Analysis Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, DOE Launches JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC) Analysis Model, originally presented on May 22, 2012.

  7. Development of a Dynamic DOE Calibration Model | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    model was developed. The model can be applied for calibration and control system optimization. p-22anderson.pdf More Documents & Publications Reducing the Particulate Emission...

  8. Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake:...

  9. Assessing the prospective environmental impacts of photovoltaic systems based on a simplified LCA model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Assessing the prospective environmental impacts of photovoltaic systems based on a simplified LCA model. The latter generates the environmental impacts distribution, representative of the potential the environmental impacts of PV systems are small during their operating phase, they are more significant during

  10. Two objectives are included in the model: A cost minimization and an environmental impact minimization.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Method Two objectives are included in the model: A cost minimization and an environmental impact minimization. The environmental impact is evaluated using the Eco- indicator 99 method. A set of Pareto optimal solutions is generated using the -constraint method. Conclusions · Environmental impact can be reduced by up

  11. NUMERICAL MODELING OF COASTAL TSUNAMI IMPACT DISSIPATION Stphan T. Grilli1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    1 NUMERICAL MODELING OF COASTAL TSUNAMI IMPACT DISSIPATION AND IMPACT Stéphan T. Grilli1 , Jeffrey Tehranirad2 Recent observations of the coastal impact of large tsunamis (e.g., Indian Ocean 2004; Tohoku 2011) and related numerical and theoretical works have made it increasingly clear that tsunami waves arrive

  12. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-15

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  13. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2012-06-01

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are presented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices. Capsule: "Combining dynamical modeling of high-impact weather using traditional regional climate models with statistical techniques allows for comprehensive sampling of the full distribution, uncertainty estimation, direct assessment of impacts, and increased confidence in future changes."

  14. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model, National Renewable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable...

  15. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Models - Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial Toolkit is

  16. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Models - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial Toolkit isPublications The following

  17. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Models - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial Toolkit isPublications The

  18. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Models - About JEDI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The Geospatial Toolkit isPublications TheMarine

  19. New Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution |of Energy NewWins R&D 100 Award

  20. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _ _1 - 67006++,

  1. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _ _1 - 67006++,(Journal

  2. Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed Countries

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to: navigation, searchsource History View NewOpenEnergy(Wilt & Haar,|

  3. Job and Economic Development Impact Models (JEDI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgency (IRENA) Jump to: navigation,Wind JumpSanyuan WindWindJob

  4. NREL: Energy Analysis - Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12 NationalNOHydrogenWebmaster ToEnergyBSM -AJEDI

  5. No-Impact Threshold Values for NRAP’s Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, George V.; Murray, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jordan, Preston D.; Sharma, Maneesh

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methodologies for establishing baseline datasets and statistical protocols for determining statistically significant changes between background concentrations and predicted concentrations that would be used to represent a contamination plume in the Gen II models being developed by NRAP’s Groundwater Protection team. The initial effort examined selected portions of two aquifer systems; the urban shallow-unconfined aquifer system of the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer System (being used to develop the ROM for carbon-rock aquifers, and the a portion of the High Plains Aquifer (an unconsolidated and semi-consolidated sand and gravel aquifer, being used to development the ROM for sandstone aquifers). Threshold values were determined for Cd, Pb, As, pH, and TDS that could be used to identify contamination due to predicted impacts from carbon sequestration storage reservoirs, based on recommendations found in the EPA’s “Unified Guidance for Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Monitoring Data at RCRA Facilities” (US Environmental Protection Agency 2009). Results from this effort can be used to inform a “no change” scenario with respect to groundwater impacts, rather than the use of an MCL that could be significantly higher than existing concentrations in the aquifer.

  6. Appropriate Methodology for Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NWCC Economic Development Work Group

    2003-12-17

    OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance. It may also support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. However, there is a need for a theoretically sound method for assessing the economic impacts of wind power development. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. Northwest Economic Associates (NEA), under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), investigated three case study areas in the United States where wind power projects were recently developed. The full report, ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power,'' is available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. The methodology used for that study is summarized here in order to provide guidance for future studies of the economic impacts of other wind power developments. The methodology used in the NEA study was specifically designed for these particular case study areas; however, it can be generally applied to other areas. Significant differences in local economic conditions and the amount of goods and services that are purchased locally as opposed to imported from outside the will strongly influence results obtained. Listed below are some of the key tasks that interested parties should undertake to develop a reasonable picture of local economic impacts that may accrue from existing or future wind development.

  7. Development of an optimal impact energy absorber for highway crash cushions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalec, Christopher Ryan

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a new and efficient method of absorbing a vehicle??s kinetic energy for highway safety crash cushions. A vehicle that makes a direct impact with a rigid highway structure traveling at highway speeds can...

  8. Taiwan High Speed Rail & Its Impact to Regional Development T. C. Kao, C. K. Lin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Taiwan High Speed Rail & Its Impact to Regional Development T. C. Kaoą, C. K. Lin˛ ąTaiwan High Speed Rail Vice President Ph.D., P.E. ˛Taiwan High Speed Rail Project Engineer Abstract: Taiwan High.1 Project outline The Taiwan High Speed Rail Project was constructed and is now being operated by Taiwan

  9. Spatial and Temporal Impacts on Water Consumption in Texas from Shale Gas Development and Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in water consumption if the increased natural gas production is used at natural gas combined cycle power water consumption in natural gas production have focused on quantifying the total water used4Spatial and Temporal Impacts on Water Consumption in Texas from Shale Gas Development and Use Adam

  10. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish John P November 6, 2013) The Deepwater Horizon disaster released more than 636 million L of crude oil and larvae) of tunas, swordfish, and other large predators were potentially exposed to crude oil

  11. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Project Title: Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, karin_sinclair@nrel.gov, 303-384-6946 DOE Project Team: DOEi FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Project Title: Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Energy. Proprietary Data Notice: This project report does

  12. Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacks, Rafael

    Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering Rafael (IT); Concrete, precast; Economic factors; Three-dimensional models. Introduction "The application to this; but the funda- mental reason undoubtedly was economic." (Mitchell 1977). Intuitive assessments

  13. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01

    strategies impact on energy consumption in residentialBEHAVIOUR ON HEAT ENERGY CONSUMPTION Nicola Combe 1 ,2 ,nearly 60% of domestic energy consumption and 27% of total

  14. Development and application of a photovoltaic financial model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Due to the relative immaturity of the solar farm industry, there are very few comprehensive financial models in use. I address this by developing a photovoltaic NPV financial model and apply the model to various base cases ...

  15. Developing a Conceptual Model of Virtual Organizations for Citizen Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowston, Kevin

    Developing a Conceptual Model of Virtual Organizations for Citizen Science Andrea Wiggins Syracuse-oriented conceptual model of scientific knowledge production through citizen science virtual organizations. Citizen: conceptual models, virtual organizations, citizen science, cyberinfrastructure, massive virtual

  16. Analyzing the private development model for university real estate development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerrity, James F., IV (James Francis)

    2009-01-01

    Universities within the Unites States have long been active in the real estate development market surrounding their respective campuses. However, beginning with the baby boom in the late 1950s, colleges have begun expanding ...

  17. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, S.J.

    2000-05-28

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide is a good start for providing the geothermal community a standard EIA format. As decision makers may only read the Executive Summary of the EIA, this summary should be well written and present the significant impacts (in order of importance), clarifying which are unavoidable and which are irreversible; the measures which can be taken to mitigate them; the cumulative effects of impacts; and the requirements for monitoring and supervision. Quality plans and Public Participation plans should also be included as part of the environmental analysis process.

  18. Modeling the Impact of Agricultural Terrace Walls on Spatial Patterns of Erosion and Landscape Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaubius, Jennifer

    2014-11-19

    Modeling the Impact of Agricultural Terrace Walls on Spatial Patterns of Erosion and Landscape Evolution Jennifer Glaubius Department of Geography University of Kansas Research Objectives 2 1. Implement terrace walls within a landscape evolution... model 2. Test the impact of human intervention with the terrace walls a. Interval between checking the wall for maintenance b. Time since abandonment of terraced land Model 3 Landscape evolution model from Chen et al. (2014); implemented in Python...

  19. Health impact assessment in planning: Development of the design for health HIA tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsyth, Ann; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Krizek, Kevin J.

    2010-01-15

    How can planners more systematically incorporate health concerns into practical planning processes? This paper describes a suite of health impact assessment tools (HIAs) developed specifically for planning practice. Taking an evidence-based approach the tools are designed to fit into existing planning activities. The tools include: a short audit tool, the Preliminary Checklist; a structured participatory workshop, the Rapid HIA; an intermediate health impact assessment, the Threshold Analysis; and a set of Plan Review Checklists. This description provides a basis for future work including assessing tool validity, refining specific tools, and creating alternatives.

  20. Automating Threat Modeling through the Software Development Life-Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Barton P.

    in the development life-cycle reduces its cost dramati- cally. Companies doing software development know this realityAutomating Threat Modeling through the Software Development Life-Cycle Guifr´e Ruiz1 , Elisa process through the development life-cycle. It does not require developers to have any security training

  1. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.

    2010-06-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

  2. Impact fracture behavior of model system modified polypropylene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estrada, Albert Jesse

    2000-01-01

    include rubber particle cavitation, crazing, and shear yielding. A further increase in impact strength, with an additional increase in stiffness upon addition of talc is also found. The additional filler particle-matrix debonding dilatational mechanism...

  3. Modeling landslide occurrence and impacts in a changing climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leidy, Erin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    In the coming years and decades, shifts in weather, population, land use, and other human factors are expected to have an impact on the occurrence and severity of landslides. A landslide inventory database from Switzerland ...

  4. Tuesday, March 14, 2006 IMPACT CRATERING: MODELING AND EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    R. M. Swift W. R. A Probable Taurid Impact on the Moon [#1731] On November 7, 2005, at 23:41:52 UT, observers located at the Marshall Space Flight Center captured the flash produced by a kilogram

  5. Valuing Climate Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models: The MIT IGSM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John

    2012-05-22

    We discuss a strategy for investigating the impacts of climate change on Earth’s physical, biological and human resources and links to their socio-economic consequences. The features of the integrated global system framework ...

  6. Development of a cell-based stream flow routing model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Rajeev

    2005-08-29

    This study presents the development of a cell-based routing model. The model developed is a two parameter hydrological routing model that uses a coarse resolution stream network to route runoff from each cell in the watershed to the outlet...

  7. Modelling PV Deployment: A Tool Developed at CEEP to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    Modelling PV Deployment: A Tool Developed at CEEP to Explore the Delaware Market Energy-3098 Website: http://ceep.udel.edu #12;Modeling PV Deployment: A Tool Developed at CEEP to Explore the Delaware..............................................................................................................................2 3. CEEP's Solar PV Diffusion Model Overview

  8. Multimedia-modeling integration development environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2002-09-02

    There are many framework systems available; however, the purpose of the framework presented here is to capitalize on the successes of the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) and Multi-media Multi-pathway Multi-receptor Risk Assessment (3MRA) methodology as applied to the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR) while focusing on the development of software tools to simplify the module developer?s effort of integrating a module into the framework.

  9. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: II. Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Liange; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Wang, Guohui; Shao, Hongbo; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-08-04

    Large scale deployment of CO2 geological sequestration requires the assessment of the risks. One of the potential risks is the impact of CO2 leakage on shallow groundwater overlying the sequestration site.The understanding of the key chemical processes and parameters are critical for building numerical models for risk assessment. Model interpretation of laboratory and field tests is an effective way to enhance such understanding. Column experiments in which CO2 charged synthetic groundwater flowed through a column packed with material from High Plains aquifer was conducted and concentration of several constituents in the effluent water was analyzed. In this paper, reactive transport model was developed to interpret the observed concentration changes, attempting to shed light on the chemical reactions and key parameters that control the concentration changes of these constituents. The reactive transport model catches the concentration changes of pH, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cs, As and Pb fairly well. Calcite dissolution and Ca-driven cation exchange reactions are the major drivers for the concentration changes of Ca, Ba, Sr, and Cs. The pH-driven adsorption/desorption reactions lead to a concentration increase of As and Pb. The volume fraction and reactive surface area of calcite, CEC and sorption capacity are key parameters in determining the magnitude of concentration increase. Model results also show that the dissolution of calcite with Ba impurity could be an alternative explanation of the increase in Ba concentration.

  10. Aerosol cluster impact and break-up : II. Atomic and Cluster Scale Models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lechman, Jeremy B.; Takato, Yoichi

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the interaction of aerosol particle clusters/flocs with surfaces is an area of interest for a number of processes in chemical, pharmaceutical, and powder manufacturing as well as in steam-tube rupture in nuclear power plants. Developing predictive capabilities for these applications involves coupled phenomena on multiple length and timescales from the process macroscopic scale ({approx}1m) to the multi-cluster interaction scale (1mm-0.1m) to the single cluster scale ({approx}1000 - 10000 particles) to the particle scale (10nm-10{micro}m) interactions, and on down to the sub-particle, atomic scale interactions. The focus of this report is on the single cluster scale; although work directed toward developing better models of particle-particle interactions by considering sub-particle scale interactions and phenomena is also described. In particular, results of mesoscale (i.e., particle to single cluster scale) discrete element method (DEM) simulations for aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls are presented. The particle-particle interaction model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular package in the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Additionally, as mentioned, results from atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations are also described as a means of developing higher fidelity models of particle-particle interactions. Ultimately, the results from these and other studies at various scales must be collated to provide systems level models with accurate 'sub-grid' information for design, analysis and control of the underlying systems processes.

  11. Effects of hazardous wastes on housing and urban development and mitigation of impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, K.R.; Conrad, E.T.; Kane, P.F.; McLaughlin, M.W.; Morgan, J.T.

    1980-10-10

    This report determines the nature and scope of the hazardous waste problem affecting HUD programs and community development and redevelopment activities. It defines the problem and develops categories of hazardous wastes most applicable to HUD. The report identifies sources of hazardous waste and gives examples of their impacts. The role of HUD and other agencies in controlling hazardous waste is reviewed, and recommendations are made for mitigating known and potential impacts. Three case studies -- in Dover Township and Elizabeth, N.J., and in Richmond, Va., illustrate the wide range of impacts made possible because of improper handling of or lack of appreciation for hazardous substances. The report suggests that a Hazard Identification Guidebook be developed, similar to others addressing housing safety and noise assessment, that would require HUD personnel to carry out a number of investigations on and around a site. This process is briefly described here and could serve as a basis for a guidebook. Flow charts illustrate this process. Tables and 23 references are supplied.

  12. Selection of Model in Developing Information Security Criteria for Smart Grid Security System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Amy Poh Ai

    2011-01-01

    At present, the "Smart Grid" has emerged as one of the best advanced energy supply chains. This paper looks into the security system of smart grid via the smart planet system. The scope focused on information security criteria that impact on consumer trust and satisfaction. The importance of information security criteria is perceived as the main aspect to impact on customer trust throughout the entire smart grid system. On one hand, this paper also focuses on the selection of the model for developing information security criteria on a smart grid.

  13. A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole M; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine L

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  14. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Charley; Kamboj, Sunita; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Jing-Jy

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  15. Curriculum and Program Development 177 Modeling and Problem Solving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peszynska, Malgorzata

    Curriculum and Program Development 177 Modeling and Problem Solving: Curriculum and Program of curriculum and program devel- opment that can promote the students' interest and growing experience" constrain inclusion of interdisciplinary mathematical modeling in curriculum and programs and require

  16. Energy Integration for 2050 - A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Collins

    2011-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economic in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This report discusses the Draft Strategic Impact Model (SIM), an initial version of which was created during the later part of FY-2010. SIM was developed to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand and to provide an overall system understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This report also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rationale for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing the SIM.

  17. A Look at the U.S. Energy System – A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne Pincock; John W. Collins

    2011-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economical in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This paper discusses the systematic approach used to develop the 2050 Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), which allows the user to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand. It also provides an overall systems understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This paper also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rational for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing 2050 SIM.

  18. Energy Integration for 2050 - A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economic in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This report discusses the Draft Strategic Impact Model (SIM), an initial version of which was created during the later part of FY-2010. SIM was developed to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand and to provide an overall system understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This report also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rationale for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing the SIM.

  19. A streamlined real options model for Real Estate Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barman, Baabak

    2007-01-01

    This thesis introduces a streamlined model that incorporates the value of the real options that exist in real estate development projects. Real options add value to a project by providing developers with flexibility to ...

  20. Development and Application of Earth System Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. ...

  1. Approaches and Financial Models for Scaling up Norwegian Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Financial Models for Scaling up Norwegian Development Assistance to Clean Energy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Approaches and Financial...

  2. Developing fundamentally based models for autoignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijaya, Catherina D. (Catherina Dewi)

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in autoignition, especially due to the recent development of the homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, highly promising with its low Nox and particulate emissions and high efficiency. ...

  3. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THE DEEP IMPACT MISSION EXPERIMENT K. Wnnemann1 , and H. J. Melosh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gareth

    NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THE DEEP IMPACT MISSION EXPERIMENT K. Wünnemann1 , G. S. Collins2 , and H. J@lpl.arizona.edu, 2 Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK, g.collins@imperial.ac.uk . Introduction: NASA's Deep Impact Mission (launched January 2005) will provide, for the first time ever

  4. The Impact of the Topology on Cascading Failures in a Power Grid Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Mieghem, Piet

    The Impact of the Topology on Cascading Failures in a Power Grid Model Yakup Koça,1 Martijn scale blackouts in power trans- mission grids. Secure electrical power supply requires, together with careful operation, a robust design of the electrical power grid topology. Currently, the impact

  5. Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed

  6. 2 Int. J. Security and Networks, Vol. Towards modelling the impact of cyber attacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundur, Deepa

    2 Int. J. Security and Networks, Vol. Towards modelling the impact of cyber attacks on a smart grid. Keywords: smart grid cyber security; cyber attack impact analysis; graph-based dynamical systems; smart and Computer Engineering at Texas A&M University. Her research interests include cyber security of the smart

  7. Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts* Tammy M interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended

  8. Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Scott

    Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat ř h''i (¸ 0:05Żm), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because

  9. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2013-10-19

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are resented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices.

  10. Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies Rula A. Deeb1 ; Jonathan with Federal Clean Air Act requirements for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment, ethanol is being considered as a replacement for MTBE. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of ethanol on benzene

  11. Experimental and modelling approaches for the assessment of chemical impacts of leachate migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Experimental and modelling approaches for the assessment of chemical impacts of leachate migration of landfill leachate migration on groundwater resources are conservative and generalised. Cost are evaluated as a combined approach for assessing the chem'ical impact of leachate migration in the Triassic

  12. Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration nonnegligible roles in mitigation in comparison with carbon sequestration. Forests are recognized for having

  13. Impact Assessment of Satellite-Derived Leaf Area Index Datasets Using a General Circulation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Yongkang

    Impact Assessment of Satellite-Derived Leaf Area Index Datasets Using a General Circulation Model the impact of two different remote sensing­derived leaf area index (RSLAI) datasets retrieved from the same using the RSLAI and other satellite-derived land surface products showed sub- stantial improvements

  14. The environmental impacts of windpower development in Vermont: A policy analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, N. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the spring of 1996, construction of a six-megawatt wind power facility commenced on a mountain ridge in the town of Searsburgh in southern Vermont. While this process marked the beginning of physical development on the ridge, Green Mountain Power Corporation (GMP) had been planning the process for over 25 years. From wind speed data collection in 1971, to site selection, and environmental studies still ongoing, GMP has sought to increase their renewable energy portfolio by bringing wind power to the state of Vermont. While on the surface, wind power appears to be relatively pollution free, producing no emissions, it should be noted that there are environmental impacts associated with wind power and these would have to be addressed before any substantial development could occur. But how would this happen in Vermont? Power generating facilities are not subject to the Act 250 process; rather they require certification from the Public Service Board (P.S.B.). As the project progressed, questions arose over just how the process would adequately address the environmental impacts associated with developing a remote ridge in southern Vermont. In preparing for and participating in the certification process, GMP identified several environmental impact issues in need of investigation. GMP initiated studies in several fields and hired consultants to investigate these issues with the hope that they would not serve as an impediment to their project. Preliminary analysis revealed the need for in-depth studies in four specific impact areas, including aesthetics, critical wildlife habitat, noise and avian studies. While all participants in the process do not share the same concerns, different stakeholders have raised enough questions to justify a critical look at the certification process.

  15. Valuing climate impacts in integrated assessment models: the MIT IGSM*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended to their daily lives--crop yield, food prices, premature death, flooding or drought events, land use change

  16. Impact of aerothermal modeling on the estimation of turbine blade life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collin, Jean E., 1978-

    2004-01-01

    The impact of aerothermal modeling on estimates of turbine blade heat transfer and life was assessed for three high pressure turbine blades. The work was conducted as part of a project aimed at the evaluation of the effect ...

  17. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Bacon, Diana H. carbon...

  18. Climate change uncertainty evaluation, impacts modelling and resilience of farm scale dynamics in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivington, Michael

    2011-06-28

    This Thesis explored a range of approaches to study the uncertainty and impacts associated with climate change at the farm scale in Scotland. The research objective was to use a process of uncertainty evaluation and simulation modelling to provide...

  19. Modeling the impact of atmospheric moisture transport on global ice volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nisancioglu, Kerim Hestnes, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Following Milankovitch's original hypothesis most model studies of changes in global ice volume on orbital time scales have focused on the impact of ablation on ice sheet mass balance. In most cases, poleward moisture flux ...

  20. Webinar: DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model, originally presented on December 11, 2012.

  1. 11.482J / 1.285J / ESD.193J Regional Socioeconomic Impact Analysis and Modeling, Fall 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polenske, Karen R.

    Reviews regional economic theories and models and provides students with experience in using alternative economic impact assessment models on microcomputers. Problem sets are oriented around infrastructure, housing, energy, ...

  2. 11.482J / 1.285J / ESD.193J Regional Socioeconomic Impact Analysis and Modeling, Fall 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polenske, Karen R.

    Reviews regional economic theories and models and provides students with experience in using alternative economic impact assessment models on microcomputers. Problem sets are oriented around infrastructure, housing, energy, ...

  3. 11.482J / 1.285J / ESD.193J Regional Socioeconomic Impact Analysis and Modeling, Fall 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polenske, Karen

    Reviews regional economic theories and models and provides students with experience in using alternative economic impact assessment models on microcomputers. Problem sets are oriented around infrastructure, housing, energy, ...

  4. Development of a room air conditioner design model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penson, Steven Brad

    1988-01-01

    AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Page . 12 . 12 . 20 . 33 . 38 . 48 . 50 . 56 Conclusions. Recommendations. REFERENCES APPENDIX A . 57 . 57 . 59 . 61 VITA . 66 LZST OP TABLES Table Page 2. 1 Major output parameters from the ORNL model 3. 1 Effect of tube.... Efficiency improvements are evaluated with the aid of a computer model. The model chosen for this analysis was the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) heat pump model [5] . The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN computer program developed...

  5. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model developmen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A first-order, lumped capacitance model is used to describe the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is...

  6. Temperature Modeling for Reaction Development in Microwave-Assisted Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    by measurements) is proposed to verify the effect of convection observed in the reactor. The developed principles-scale resonator-type reactor in a 3D model capable of monitoring electromagnetic and thermal processes can be used in the models of other reactors to help with key developments in microwave

  7. Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions Karen of modeling practice in the field of integrated assessment of climate change and ways forward. Past efforts assessments of climate change have concentrated on developing baseline emissions scenarios and analyzing

  8. Modelling and control strategy development for fuel cell electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Modelling and control strategy development for fuel cell electric vehicles Andreas Schell b , Huei applicable to the development of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs reserved. Keywords: Fuel cell electric vehicle; Hybrid vehicles; Modelling 1. Introduction Advanced

  9. 730 Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 15, 2005) 730-750 Responsible Risk Analysis for Software Development: Creating the Software Development Impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Montfort University

    Risk Analysis for Software Development: Creating the Software Development Impact Statement by D. Gotterbarn and S. Rogerson RESPONSIBLE RISK ANALYSIS FOR SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT: CREATING THE SOFTWARE University ABSTRACT Limiting the focus of risk analysis to quantifiable factors and using a narrow

  10. Experiments for foam model development and validation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Mahoney, James F.; Russick, Edward Mark; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Kraynik, Andrew Michael; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Gorby, Allen D.

    2008-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to allow observation of the foaming process and the collection of temperature, rise rate, and microstructural data. Microfocus video is used in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) to elucidate the boundary condition at the wall. Rheology, reaction kinetics and density measurements complement the flow visualization. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to examine the cured foams to determine density gradients. These data provide input to a continuum level finite element model of the blowing process.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN FDTD TOOL FOR MODELING OF DISPERSIVE MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    .122; =2.91E-11 s; e = 2.257E-3 S/m. Copper planes were modeled as PEC plates. The excitation sourceDEVELOPMENT OF AN FDTD TOOL FOR MODELING OF DISPERSIVE MEDIA Part II. Examples of the EZ-FDTD modeling and measurements. Jianmin Zhang, Jing Wu, Marina Y. Koledintseva, James L. Drewniak, University

  12. Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Elliott, Scott; Turner, Adrian

    2012-06-18

    Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

  13. MODELING THE IMPACT OF DROUGHT ON SOUTH CAROLINA BLUE CRABS USING A SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT INDIVIDUAL-BASED POPULATION MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childress, Michael J.

    MODELING THE IMPACT OF DROUGHT ON SOUTH CAROLINA BLUE CRABS USING A SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT INDIVIDUAL University, Clemson, SC, 29634-0314, USA REFERENCE: Proceedings of the 2010 South Carolina Water Resources called the South Carolina Blue Crab Regional Abundance Biotic Simulation (SCBCRABS). The SCBCRABS model

  14. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  15. Low-impact development in the Assabet River Watershed : site hydrologic design and watershed-scal implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedlich, Brian J. (Brian Joseph), 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Low-Impact Development (LID) is a relatively new approach to stormwater management. It aims to mimic natural hydrology through increased recharge and decreased runoff. LID technologies focus on distributed treatment of ...

  16. The Impact of Science Notebook Writing on ELL and Low-SES Students' Science Language Development and Conceptual Understanding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huerta, Margarita

    2013-04-05

    This quantitative study explored the impact of literacy integration in a science inquiry classroom involving the use of science notebooks on the academic language development and conceptual understanding of students from ...

  17. Social impact management through planning and development : Hedonic Psychology and a new approach to tourism in Zanzibar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, A. Tell (Adam Tell), 1974-

    2004-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to tourism planning and development based on three threads in the literature on social impact management: (1) the current approach to tourism studies; (2) the writings and activities of ...

  18. The urban economic development impacts of ethnic entrepreneurship : a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in Lawrence, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheigh, Brian Chaneung

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines the process through which ethnic entrepreneurship impacts urban economic development. In many urban places across the United States, demographic change has led to the rise of ethnic communities and the ...

  19. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Impact of the Switch to Liquid Sugar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 SOCIAL IMPACTUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Impact of the Switch to Liquid Sugar Kristian Plakaris, Dhruv Raturi, Anuj Mehta University of British

  20. Regional Variation in Water-Related Impacts of Shale Gas Development and Implications for Emerging International Plays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Regional Variation in Water-Related Impacts of Shale Gas Development and Implications for Emerging understanding of the unique regional issues that shale gas development poses. This manuscript highlights the variation in regional water issues associated with shale gas development in the U.S. and the approaches

  1. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, John J.; Greer, Christopher B.; Carr, Adrianne E.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  2. The Impact of Experimental Setup on Prepaid Churn Modeling: Data, Population and Outcome Definition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putten, Peter van der

    The Impact of Experimental Setup on Prepaid Churn Modeling: Data, Population and Outcome Definition.larsen@t-mobile.nl Abstract. Prepaid customers in mobile telecommunications are not bound by a contract and can therefore study of prepaid churn modeling by varying on three dimensions: data, outcome definition and population

  3. Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, Colette L.

    Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using use of inverse modeling to better quantify regional surface emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), which to or larger than the combustion source, optimizing the CO from NMVOC emissions on larger spatial scales than

  4. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  5. Modeling Weather Impact on a Secondary Electrical Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dingquan

    Weather can cause problems for underground electrical grids by increasing the probability of serious “manhole events” such as fires and explosions. In this work, we compare a model that incorporates weather features ...

  6. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.

  7. Fuel Efficient Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Modeling and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Mark L.; Gallant, Thomas R.; Kim, Do Heui; Maupin, Gary D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2010-08-01

    The project described in this report seeks to promote effective diesel particulate filter technology with minimum fuel penalty by enhancing fundamental understanding of filtration mechanisms through targeted experiments and computer simulations. The overall backpressure of a filtration system depends upon complex interactions of particulate matter and ash with the microscopic pores in filter media. Better characterization of these phenomena is essential for exhaust system optimization. The acicular mullite (ACM) diesel particulate filter substrate is under continuing development by Dow Automotive. ACM is made up of long mullite crystals which intersect to form filter wall framework and protrude from the wall surface into the DPF channels. ACM filters have been demonstrated to effectively remove diesel exhaust particles while maintaining relatively low backpressure. Modeling approaches developed for more conventional ceramic filter materials, such as silicon carbide and cordierite, have been difficult to apply to ACM because of properties arising from its unique microstructure. Penetration of soot into the high-porosity region of projecting crystal structures leads to a somewhat extended depth filtration mode, but with less dramatic increases in pressure drop than are normally observed during depth filtration in cordierite or silicon carbide filters. Another consequence is greater contact between the soot and solid surfaces, which may enhance the action of some catalyst coatings in filter regeneration. The projecting crystals appear to provide a two-fold benefit for maintaining low backpressures during filter loading: they help prevent soot from being forced into the throats of pores in the lower porosity region of the filter wall, and they also tend to support the forming filter cake, resulting in lower average cake density and higher permeability. Other simulations suggest that soot deposits may also tend to form at the tips of projecting crystals due to the axial velocity component of exhaust moving down the filter inlet channel. Soot mass collected in this way would have a smaller impact on backpressure than soot forced into the flow restrictions deeper in the porous wall structure. This project has focused on the development of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques that are generally applicable to a wide variety of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. By helping to develop improved fundamental understanding pore-scale phenomena affecting filtration, soot oxidation, and NOX abatement, this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has also assisted Dow Automotive in continuing development and commercialization of the ACM filter substrate. Over the course of this research project, ACM filters were successfully deployed on the Audi R10 TDI racecar which won the 24 Hours of LeMans endurance race in 2006, 2007, and 2008; and the 12 Hours of Sebring endurance race in 2006 and 2007. It would not have been possible for the R10 to compete in these traditionally gasoline-dominated events without reliable and effective exhaust particulate filtration. These successes demonstrated not only the performance of automotive diesel engines, but the efficacy of DPF technology as it was being deployed around the world to meet new emissions standards on consumer vehicles. During the course of this CRADA project, Dow Automotive commercialized their ACM DPF technology under the AERIFYTM DPF brand.

  8. A Sensitivity Model (SM) approach to analyze urban development in Taiwan based on sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Shuli Yeh Chiatsung Budd, William W. Chen Liling

    2009-02-15

    Sustainability indicators have been widely developed to monitor and assess sustainable development. They are expected to guide political decision-making based on their capability to represent states and trends of development. However, using indicators to assess the sustainability of urban strategies and policies has limitations - as they neither reflect the systemic interactions among them, nor provide normative indications in what direction they should be developed. This paper uses a semi-quantitative systematic model tool (Sensitivity Model Tools, SM) to analyze the role of urban development in Taiwan's sustainability. The results indicate that the natural environment in urban area is one of the most critical components and the urban economic production plays a highly active role in affecting Taiwan's sustainable development. The semi-quantitative simulation model integrates sustainability indicators and urban development policy to provide decision-makers with information about the impacts of their decisions on urban development. The system approach incorporated by this paper can be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a sustainability assessment. The participatory process of expert participants for providing judgments on the relations between indicator variables is also discussed.

  9. Status of Safeguards and Separations Model Development at Plant and Molecular Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL

    2009-10-01

    A primary goal of the Safeguards and Separations IPSC effort is the development of process modeling tools that allow dynamic simulations of separations plant operations under various configurations and conditions, and integration of relevant safeguards analyses. A requirement of the effort is to develop codes on modern, expandable architectures, with flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options. During FY09, efforts at ORNL have been focused on two priority tasks toward achieving the IPSC goal: (1) a top-down exploration of architecture - Subtask 1: Explore framework for code development and integration for plant-level simulation; and (2) a bottom-up fundamental modeling effort - Subtask 2: Development of molecular-level agent design code. Subtask 1 is important because definition and development of architecture is a key issue for the overall effort, as selection of an overall approach and code/data requirements is a necessary first step in the organization, design and development of separations and safeguards codes that will be incorporated. The agent design effort of Subtask 2 is a molecular-level modeling effort that has a direct impact on a near-term issue of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. A current focus of experimental efforts is the development of robust agents and processes for separation of Am/Cm. Development of enhanced agent-design codes will greatly accelerate discovery and experimental testing.

  10. A tutorial introduction to Bayesian models of cognitive development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfors, Amy

    We present an introduction to Bayesian inference as it is used in probabilistic models of cognitive development. Our goal is to provide an intuitive and accessible guide to the what, the how, and the why of the Bayesian ...

  11. Developing In Vitro Tools and Models for Understanding Nanotoxicology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Developing In Vitro Tools and Models for Understanding Nanotoxicology Life Science Division, surface coating modifications · Long-term persistence/structure stability · Fast in vivo transportation, extracellular matrix, inflammation, DNA damage) #12;Cross-cutting issue: Size and Translocation Dogma

  12. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

  13. Ionosphere Threat to LAAS: Updated Model, User Impact, and Mitigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    " (post-processed, bias-corrected) data during ionosphere storm events at the time of the last solar-4], a "linear spatial gradient front" model was established and a threat space was extrapolated based on data, the cost and complexity of LBM deployment would be severe. Although the worst-case ionosphere anomaly poses

  14. Modeling and Optimizing Ergonomic Activities in Automobile Product Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

    Modeling and Optimizing Ergonomic Activities in Automobile Product Development Joăo Ferreira Anna.silva@acm.org Abstract We collect ergonomic rules and normative rules considerations for automobile business and modeled as use of past experience. Also we intend to define ergonomic associated templates, which reflect

  15. EUROfusion effort in code development for integrated modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    of electric power by DEMO by 2050: importance of IM EUROfusion (29 EU Research Units (RUs)): - ITER Physics, ...) Mission 2: Heat Exhaust System (detachment control, PFC, divertor/SOL modelling, ...) Mission 8EUROfusion effort in code development for integrated modelling Presented by Irina Voitsekhovitch

  16. CUSP Kinematic Model Development Lucia Martinez M. John D. Hayes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, John

    CUSP Kinematic Model Development Lucia Martinez M. John D. Hayes Department of Mechanical pose kinematics is quite trivial but solving the forward pose kinematics requires in depth analysis platform is one of the essential components of the facility. Kinematic modeling is crucial for motion

  17. Modeling and Computational Strategies for Optimal Development Planning of Offshore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Modeling and Computational Strategies for Optimal Development Planning of Offshore Oilfields for offshore oil and gas fields as a basis to include the generic fiscal rules with ringfencing provisions-integer programming. 1 Introduction Offshore oil and gas field development planning has received significant attention

  18. Seventh International Symposium on Technology and Mine Problem, NPS, Monterey, California, USA, 2-4 May, 2006 1 Abstract -The Navy's Impact Burial Model (IMPACT35)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Peter C.

    -4 May, 2006 1 1 Abstract - The Navy's Impact Burial Model (IMPACT35) predicts the cylindrical mine.S. Navy from "blue" water, anti-Soviet focus, towards a concentration on the regional littoral threats of the world. With the increasing number of regional and asymmetric threats, the Navy must operate effectively

  19. Digestion Modelling in the Small Intestine : Impact of Dietary Fibre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taghipoor, Masoomeh; Georgelin, Christine; Licois, Jean-René; Lescoat, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we continue the modelling of the digestion in the small intestine, started in a previous article, by investigating the effects of dietary fibre. We recall that this model aims at taking into account the three main phenomena of the digestion, namely the transit of the bolus, the degradation of feedstuffs and the absorption through the intestinal wall. In order to study the role of dietary fibre on digestion, we model their two principal physiochemical characteristics which interact with the function of the small intestine, i.e. viscosity and water holding capacity. This leads us to consider some features of digestion which have not been taken into account previously, in particular the interrelationship between the evolution of dry matter and water in the bolus. The numerical results are in agreement with the positive effect of insoluble dietary fibre on the velocity of bolus along the small intestine and on its degradation. These results highlight the negative effect of soluble dietary fibre on d...

  20. Migrant Remittances and the Mexican State: An emergent transnational development model?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Sarah Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Mexico. This distance has social and psychological impactsand social development for rural communities in Mexico. However, 3x1’s impactMexico. Social and political relationships that are spatially situated in the Mexican landscape impact

  1. 1 Copyright 2004 by ASME ANALYTICAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND MODEL REDUCTION FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    1 Copyright © 2004 by ASME ANALYTICAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND MODEL REDUCTION FOR ELECTROMECHANICAL becomes largely a matter of computer code, not of complex layers of addition hardware. However, the BBW

  2. DOE Announces Webinars on an Offshore Wind Economic Impacts Model,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pState Efficiency, RenewablesLiteracyDevelopingResources for Tribal

  3. Development of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical model in discontinuous media for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Xu, Zhijie; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2013-09-12

    Geomechanical alteration of porous media is generally ignored for most shallow subsurface applications, whereas CO2 injection, migration, and trapping in deep saline aquifers will be controlled by coupled multifluid flow, energy transfer, and geomechanical processes. The accurate assessment of the risks associated with potential leakage of injected CO2 and the design of effective injection systems requires that we represent these coupled processes within numerical simulators. The objectives of this study were to develop a coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model into a single software, and to examine the coupling of thermal, hydrological, and geomechanical processes for simulation of CO2 injection into the subsurface for carbon sequestration. A numerical model is developed to couple nonisothermal multiphase hydrological and geomechanical processes for prediction of multiple interconnected processes for carbon sequestration in deep saline aquifers. The geomechanics model was based on Rigid Body-Spring Model (RBSM), one of the discrete methods to model discontinuous rock system. Poisson’s effect that was often ignored by RBSM was considered in the model. The simulation of large-scale and long-term coupled processes in carbon capture and storage projects requires large memory and computational performance. Global Array Toolkit was used to build the model to permit the high performance simulations of the coupled processes. The model was used to simulate a case study with several scenarios to demonstrate the impacts of considering coupled processes and Poisson’s effect for the prediction of CO2 sequestration.

  4. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  5. Development of a natural gas systems analysis model (GSAM). Annual report, January 1994--January 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The objective of GSAM development is to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas system. GSAM explicitly evaluates the key components of the system, including the resource base, exploration and development practices, extraction technology performance and costs, project economics, transportation costs and restrictions, storage, and end-use. The primary focus is the detailed characterization of the resource base at the reservoir and sub-reservoir level. This disaggregation allows direct evaluation of alternative extraction technologies based on discretely estimated, individual well productivity, required investments, and associated operating costs. GSAM`s design allows users to evaluate complex interactions of current and alternative future technology and policy initiatives as they directly impact the gas market. Key activities completed during the past year include: conducted a comparative analysis of commercial reservoir databases; licensed and screened NRG Associates Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the US reservoir database; developed and tested reduced form reservoir model production type curves; fully developed database structures for use in GSAM and linkage to other systems; developed a methodology for the exploration module; collected and updated upstream capital and operating cost parameters; completed initial integration of downstream/demand models; presented research results at METC Contractor Review Meeting; conducted other briefings for METC managers, including initiation of the GSAM Environmental Module; and delivered draft topical reports on technology review, model review, and GSAM methodology.

  6. Great Plains ASPEN model development: Phosam section. Final topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, S.S.; Kirman, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    An ASPEN model has been developed of the PHOSAM Section, Section 4600, of the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The bases for this model are the process description given in Section 6.18 of the Great Plains Project Management Plan and the Lummus Phosam Schematic Process Flow Diagram, Dwg. No. SKD-7102-IM-O. The ASPEN model that has been developed contains the complete set of components that are assumed to be in the gasifier effluent. The model is primarily a flowsheet simulation that will give the material and energy balance and equipment duties for a given set of process conditions. The model is unable to predict fully changes in process conditions that would result from load changes on equipment of fixed sizes, such as a rating model would predict. The model can be used to simulate the steady-state operation of the plant at or near design conditions or to design other PHOSAM units. Because of the limited amount of process information that was available, several major process assumptions had to be made in the development of the flowsheet model. Patent literature was consulted to establish the ammonia concentration in the circulating fluid. Case studies were made with the ammonia content of the feed 25% higher and 25% lower than the base feed. Results of these runs show slightly lower recoveries of ammonia with less ammonia in the feed. As expected, the duties of the Stripper and Fractionator reboilers were higher with more ammonia in the feed. 63 references.

  7. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  8. Modelling Bulk Density According to Structure Development: Toward an Indicator of Microstructure Development in Ferralsols.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling Bulk Density According to Structure Development: Toward an Indicator of Microstructure the microaggregates with a small contribution of large pores resulting from root development and macrofaunal activity.25 g cm-3 among the 108 samples studied. Visual assessment of BESI showed that soil material

  9. Development of a Pilot Study Simulation to Investigate the Impact of Target Costing on Team Dynamics and Design Aesthetics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gottipati, Udaya Naidu

    2011-10-21

    OF A PILOT STUDY SIMULATION TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF TARGET COSTING ON TEAM DYNAMICS AND DESIGN AESTHETICS A Thesis by UDAYA NAIDU GOTTIPATI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Construction Management Development of a Pilot Study Simulation to Investigate the Impact of Target Costing on Team Dynamics...

  10. Modeling the Impact of Product Portfolio on the Economic and Environmental Performance of Recycling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahmus, Jeffrey B.

    hrough the development of a general model of electronics recycling systems, the effect of product portfolio choices on economic and environmental system performance is explored. The general model encompasses the three main ...

  11. Modeling to discern nitrogen fertilization impacts on carbon sequestration in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling to discern nitrogen fertilization impacts on carbon sequestration in a Pacific Northwest A R K J O H N S O N } *LREIS Institute of Geographic Sciences & Nature Resources Research, Chinese of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4, zBiometeorology and Soil Physics

  12. Impact of realistic hourly emissions profiles on air pollutants concentrations modelled with CHIMERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Impact of realistic hourly emissions profiles on air pollutants concentrations modelled Keywords: Atmospheric composition European air quality Anthropogenic emissions a b s t r a c t Regional inputs data like anthropogenic surface emissions of NOx, VOCs and particulate matter. These emissions

  13. Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models Accepted 13 March 2013 Available online 26 March 2013 Keywords: Snow Energy-balance Temperature that both the Isnobal energy-balance and calibrated temperature-index methods adequately reproduce snow

  14. RAMP: Impact of Rule Based Aggregator Business Model for Residential Microgrid of Prosumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    RAMP: Impact of Rule Based Aggregator Business Model for Residential Microgrid of Prosumers}@uci.edu Abstract --This paper discusses an economically profitable way to deploy a residential microgrid. In this residential microgrid, the residential aggregators will have better negotiating capabilities (e.g. in the DR

  15. Freshwater Discharge, Sediment Transport, and Modeled Climate Impacts of the Final Drainage of Glacial Lake Agassiz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W.M.

    Freshwater Discharge, Sediment Transport, and Modeled Climate Impacts of the Final Drainage, whereas the postflood outflow through Hudson Strait had a lower load of suspended sediment and was buoyant hemispheric extent. This claim was bolstered by analyses of marine sediments in the tropical and North

  16. MODELING/GIS, RISK ASSESSMENT, ECONOMIC IMPACT A Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Deployed Military Personnel After

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    MODELING/GIS, RISK ASSESSMENT, ECONOMIC IMPACT A Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Deployed a retrospective probabilistic risk assessment for military personnel potentially exposed to insecticides during, and cypermethrin used for residual sprays. We used the risk quotient (RQ) method for our risk assessment (estimated

  17. Evolution of a Visual Impact Model to Evaluate Nuclear Plant Siting and Design Option1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolution of a Visual Impact Model to Evaluate Nuclear Plant Siting and Design Option1 2/ Brian A/ The method can be used to train evaluators to use explicit criteria (vividness, intactness and unity) to assess change in a setting's visual quality as the result of construction of a nuclear facility, or any

  18. Exploring the Impact of Socio-Technical Core-Periphery Structures in Open Source Software Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amrit, Chintan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we apply the social network concept of core-periphery structure to the sociotechnical structure of a software development team. We propose a socio-technical pattern that can be used to locate emerging coordination problems in Open Source projects. With the help of our tool and method called TESNA, we demonstrate a method to monitor the socio-technical core-periphery movement in Open Source projects. We then study the impact of different core-periphery movements on Open Source projects. We conclude that a steady core-periphery shift towards the core is beneficial to the project, whereas shifts away from the core are clearly not good. Furthermore, oscillatory shifts towards and away from the core can be considered as an indication of the instability of the project. Such an analysis can provide developers with a good insight into the health of an Open Source project. Researchers can gain from the pattern theory, and from the method we use to study the core-periphery movements.

  19. Deterministic and Probabilistic Simple Model for Single Pile Behavior under Lateral Truck Impact 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirdamadi, Alireza

    2014-06-03

    In this study a simple and fast method and computational code to analyze the behavior of a single post under a vehicle impact for any soil type, any vehicle mass, any truck velocity and any post size is developed. The final ...

  20. SpaceWire model development technology for satellite architecture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldridge, John M.; Leemaster, Jacob Edward; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2011-09-01

    Packet switched data communications networks that use distributed processing architectures have the potential to simplify the design and development of new, increasingly more sophisticated satellite payloads. In addition, the use of reconfigurable logic may reduce the amount of redundant hardware required in space-based applications without sacrificing reliability. These concepts were studied using software modeling and simulation, and the results are presented in this report. Models of the commercially available, packet switched data interconnect SpaceWire protocol were developed and used to create network simulations of data networks containing reconfigurable logic with traffic flows for timing system distribution.

  1. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  2. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Brozyna

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  3. The development of a cognitive process-oriented correlation model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kneuven, Richard James

    1988-01-01

    Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Patricia A. Alexander This study was undertaken to discover what underlying cognitive processes could provide a basis for a cognitive process-oriented correlation model and to examine how this cognitive information... examined interpretations of information-processing as articulated by selected cognitive theorists, assorted approaches to interdisciplinary instruction, as well as various approaches to curriculum design. Ultimately, a curricular model was developed...

  4. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Gefei; Hadley, Stanton W; Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  5. Further Developments on the Geothermal System Scoping Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antkowiak, M.; Sargent, R.; Geiger, J. W.

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses further developments and refinements for the uses of the Geothermal System Scoping Model in an effort to provide a means for performing a variety of trade-off analyses of surface and subsurface parameters, sensitivity analyses, and other systems engineering studies in order to better inform R&D direction and investment for the development of geothermal power into a major contributor to the U.S. energy supply.

  6. Developing a Dynamic Pharmacophore Model for HIV-1 Integrase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Heather A.; Masukawa, Keven M.; Rubins, Kathleen; Bushman, Frederic; Jorgensen, William L.; Lins, Roberto; Briggs, James; Mccammon, Andy

    2000-05-11

    We present the first receptor-based pharmacophore model for HIV-1 integrase. The development of ''dynamic'' pharmacophore models is a new method that accounts for the inherent flexibility of the active site and aims to reduce the entropic penalties associated with binding a ligand. Furthermore, this new drug discovery method overcomes the limitation of an incomplete crystal structure of the target protein. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation describes the flexibility of the uncomplexed protein. Many conformational models of the protein are saved from the MD simulations and used in a series of multi-unit search for interacting conformers (MUSIC) simulations. MUSIC is a multiple-copy minimization method, available in the BOSS program; it is used to determine binding regions for probe molecules containing functional groups that complement the active site. All protein conformations from the MD are overlaid, and conserved binding regions for the probe molecules are identified. Those conserved binding regions define the dynamic pharmacophore model. Here, the dynamic model is compared to known inhibitors of the integrase as well as a three-point, ligand-based pharmacophore model from the literature. Also, a ''static'' pharmacophore model was determined in the standard fashion, using a single crystal structure. Inhibitors thought to bind in the active site of HIV-1 integrase fit the dynamic model but not the static model. Finally, we have identified a set of compounds from the Available Chemicals Directory that fit the dynamic pharmacophore model, and experimental testing of the compounds has confirmed several new inhibitors.

  7. Development of a natural gas systems analysis model (GSAM). Annual report, July 1996--July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The objective of GSAM development is to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas system. GSAM explicitly evaluates the key components of the system, including the resource base, exploration and development practices, extraction technology performance and costs, project economics, transportation costs and restrictions, storage, and end-use. The primary focus is the detailed characterization of the resource base at the reservoir and subreservoir level. This disaggregation allows direct evaluation of alternative extraction technologies based on discretely estimated, individual well productivity, required investments, and associated operating costs. GSAM`s design allows users to evaluate complex interactions of current and alternative future technology and policy initiatives as they directly impact the gas market. GSAM development has been ongoing for the past five years. Key activities completed during the past year are described.

  8. A measure of the impact of future dark energy experiments based on discriminating power among quintessence models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Barnard; Augusta Abrahamse; Andreas Albrecht; Brandon Bozek; Mark Yashar

    2009-05-18

    We evaluate the ability of future data sets to discriminate among different quintessence dark energy models. This approach gives an alternative measure for assessing the impact of future experiments, as compared with the large body of literature that compares experiments in abstract parameter spaces and more recent work that evaluates the constraining power of experiments on individual parameter spaces of specific quintessence models. We use the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) models of future data sets, and compare the discriminative power of experiments designated by the DETF as Stages 2, 3, and 4. Our work reveals a minimal increase in discriminating power when comparing Stage 3 to Stage 2, but a very striking increase in discriminating power when going to Stage 4. We also see evidence that even modest improvements over DETF Stage 4 could result in even more dramatic discriminating power among quintessence dark energy models. We develop and demonstrate the technique of using the independently measured modes of the equation of state as a common parameter space in which to compare the different quintessence models, and we argue that this technique is a powerful one. We use the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis, and Inverse Tracker (or Inverse Power Law) quintessence models for this work. One of our main results is that the goal of discriminating among these models sets a concrete measure on the capabilities of future dark energy experiments. Experiments have to be somewhat better than DETF Stage 4 simulated experiments to fully meet this goal.

  9. Draft Report Development of Model Curriculum in Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    Draft Report On Development of Model Curriculum in Renewable Energy Energy Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Powai, Mumbai ­ 400 076 August 2003 #12;Draft Renewable Energy energy systems for the future, it is necessary to incorporate renewable energy in the traditional

  10. Development of the Global Earthquake Model's neotectonic fault database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Development of the Global Earthquake Model's neotectonic fault database Annemarie Christophersen1 database and a unique graphical interface for the compilation of new fault data. A key design principle is that of an electronic field notebook for capturing observations a geologist would make about a fault. The database

  11. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haberman, Ben; Martinez-Baca, Carlos; Rush, Greg

    2013-03-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (?LGFCS?) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  12. Impact of parental multiple sclerosis on early childhood development: A retrospective cohort study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Razaz, H Tremlett MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS MSJ JOURNAL OriginalImpact of parental multiple sclerosis on early childhoodA retrospective cohort study Multiple Sclerosis Journal DOI:

  13. THE IMPACT OF CITY-LEVEL PERMITTING PROCESSES ON RESIDENTIAL PV INSTALLATION PRICES AND DEVELOPMENT TIMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Changgui

    2014-01-01

    Renewable Energy Council (13) Sunrun. 2011. The Impact ofSan Francisco, CA: Sunrun (14) Tong, J. 2012. NationwideTong, 2012); earlier, Sunrun (2011) reported PV installation

  14. Life of Sugar: Developing Lifecycle Methods to Evaluate the Energy and Environmental Impacts of Sugarcane Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopal, Anand Raja

    2011-01-01

    Criteria for Sustainable Biofuel Production. RSB, pages 1–and Tyner, W. (2008b). Impact of Biofuel Production on WorldClifford, P. (2009). Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A

  15. Life of Sugar: Developing Lifecycle Methods to Evaluate the Energy and Environmental Impacts of Sugarcane Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopal, Anand Raja

    2011-01-01

    for Sustainable Biofuel Production. RSB, pages 1–29. [Birur2008b). Impact of Biofuel Production on World AgriculturalPolicies for Biofuel Production. Conservation Biology, 22(

  16. Economic Development Impacts of Community Wind Projects. A Review and Empirical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-04-01

    "Community wind" refers to a class of wind energy ownership structures. The extent of local ownership may range from a small minority share to full ownership by persons in the immediate area surrounding the wind project site. Potential project owners include local farmers, businesses, Native American tribes, universities, cooperatives, or any other local entity seeking to invest in wind energy. The opposite of community wind is an "absentee" project, in which ownership is completely removed from the state and community surrounding the facility. Thus, there is little or no ongoing direct financial benefit to state and local populations aside from salaries for local repair technicians, local property tax payments, and land lease payments. In recent years, the community wind sector has been inhibited by manufacturers' preference for larger turbine orders. This often puts smaller community wind developers and projects at a competitive disadvantage. However, state policies specifically supporting community wind may become a more influential market factor as turbines are now more readily available given manufacturer ramp-ups and the slow-down in the industry that has accompanied the recent economic and financial crises. This report examines existing literature to provide an overview of economic impacts resulting from community wind projects, compares results, and explains variability.

  17. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese Dallbauman

    2004-06-30

    During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

  18. A MULTISCALE, CELL-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR MODELING CANCER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JIANG, YI

    2007-01-16

    Cancer remains to be one of the leading causes of death due to diseases. We use a systems approach that combines mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, in vivo and in vitro experiments, to develop a predictive model that medical researchers can use to study and treat cancerous tumors. The multiscale, cell-based model includes intracellular regulations, cellular level dynamics and intercellular interactions, and extracellular level chemical dynamics. The intracellular level protein regulations and signaling pathways are described by Boolean networks. The cellular level growth and division dynamics, cellular adhesion and interaction with the extracellular matrix is described by a lattice Monte Carlo model (the Cellular Potts Model). The extracellular dynamics of the signaling molecules and metabolites are described by a system of reaction-diffusion equations. All three levels of the model are integrated through a hybrid parallel scheme into a high-performance simulation tool. The simulation results reproduce experimental data in both avasular tumors and tumor angiogenesis. By combining the model with experimental data to construct biologically accurate simulations of tumors and their vascular systems, this model will enable medical researchers to gain a deeper understanding of the cellular and molecular interactions associated with cancer progression and treatment.

  19. Towards improved 1-D settler modelling: impact on control strategies using the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bürger, Raimund

    model recommended for controller design and evaluation of control strategies Bürger-Diehl model A new 1-D SST model was developed by Bürger et al. (2011, 2013). Features ·Settling fl ux calculated. Manipulation in underflow rate (left) and MLSS concentration in the first activated sludge tank (right) under

  20. A Modeling Study of the Potential Water Quality Impacts from In-Stream Tidal Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-09

    To assess the effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality in a simplified estuarine system, which consists of a tidal bay connected to the coastal ocean through a narrow channel where energy is extracted using in-stream tidal turbines, a three-dimensional coastal ocean model with built-in tidal turbine and water quality modules was applied. The effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality were examined for two energy extraction scenarios as compared with the baseline condition. It was found, in general, that the environmental impacts associated with energy extraction depend highly on the amount of power extracted from the system. Model results indicate that, as a result of energy extraction from the channel, the competition between decreased flushing rates in the bay and increased vertical mixing in the channel directly affects water quality responses in the bay. The decreased flushing rates tend to cause a stronger but negative impact on water quality. On the other hand, the increase of vertical mixing could lead to higher bottom dissolved oxygen at times. As the first modeling effort directly aimed at examining the impacts of tidal energy extraction on estuarine water quality, this study demonstrates that numerical models can serve as a very useful tool for this purpose. However, more careful efforts are warranted to address system-specific environmental issues in real-world, complex estuarine systems.

  1. Modeling Climate-Water Impacts on Electricity Sector Capacity Expansion: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to exacerbate water availability concerns for thermal power plant cooling, which is responsible for 41% of U.S. water withdrawals. This analysis describes an initial link between climate, water, and electricity systems using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity system capacity expansion model. Average surface water projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) data are applied to surface water rights available to new generating capacity in ReEDS, and electric sector growth is compared with and without climate-influenced water rights. The mean climate projection has only a small impact on national or regional capacity growth and water use because most regions have sufficient unappropriated or previously retired water rights to offset climate impacts. Climate impacts are notable in southwestern states that purchase fewer water rights and obtain a greater share from wastewater and other higher-cost water resources. The electric sector climate impacts demonstrated herein establish a methodology to be later exercised with more extreme climate scenarios and a more rigorous representation of legal and physical water availability.

  2. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-02-21

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th meeting that the fundamental research being performed on surface to cloud heat transfer and low wind speed issues will be relevant to the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent Model. In general, it was decided that all research to be performed from December 9th through the remainder of the contract is to be focused on the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent model. In addition, all GTI activities for dissemination and transfer of FEM3A will cease and dissemination activities will focus on the new DOE LNG/Fluent model. The proposed new scope of work is presented in section 4 of this report. The work reported in the present document relates to the original scope of work which was in effect during the reporting period. The future work will be re-scoped to meet the requirements of the new scope of work. During the report period work was underway to address numerical problems present during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, the University of Arkansas has been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A.

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Triple Bottom Line Impact of Local vs. Non-local Procurement Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Triple Bottom Line Impact.4 Conclusion 5. Final assessment of environmental and social impact on local sourcing 17 17 19 24 25 26 #12;3 1, functionality) but also the environmental, social, and ethical impacts of these goods and services - at local

  4. An Improved Procedure for Developing Calibrated Hourly Simulation Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Saada, T. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    . REFERENCES Abbas, M. 1993. Development of graphical indices for building energy data, M.S. Thesis, Energy Systems Rpt No. ESL-TH-93/12-02, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. ASHRAE. 1991. ASHRAE handbook: 1991 HVAC applications volume. American... Support Office, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Bou-Saada, T.E. 1994a. An improved procedure for developing a calibrated hourly simulation model of an electrically heated and cooled commercial building, M.S. Thesis, Energy Systems Rpt No. ESL- TH...

  5. The NRC's SPAR Models: Current Status, Future Development, and Modeling Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Buell

    2008-09-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) play an increasingly important role in the regulatory framework of the U.S. nuclear power industry. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) relies on a set of plant-specific Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models to provide critical risk-based input to the regulatory process. The Significance Determination Process (SDP), Management Directive 8.3 - NRC Incident Investigation Program, Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) and Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) programs are among the regulatory initiatives that receive significant input from the SPAR models. Other uses of the SPAR models include: Screening & Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, License Amendment reviews and Notice of Enforcement Discretion (NOEDs). This paper presents the current status of SPAR model development activities, future development objectives, and issues related to the development, verification and maintenance of the SPAR models.

  6. Summary Impacts of Modeled Provisions of the 2003 Conference Energy Bill

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    This service report was undertaken at the February 2, 2004, request of Senator John Sununu to perform an assessment of the Conference Energy Bill of 2003. This report summarizes the CEB provisions that can be analyzed using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and have the potential to affect energy consumption, supply, and prices. The impacts are estimated by comparing the projections with the CEB provisions to the AEO2004 Reference Case.

  7. The Impact of Wind Development on County-Level Income and Employment: A Review of Methods and an Empirical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Lantz

    2012-09-21

    To gain an understanding of the long-term county-level impacts from a large sample of wind power projects and to understand the potential significance of methodological criticisms, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently joined efforts to complete a first-of-its-kind study that quantifies the annual impact on county-level personal income resulting from wind power installations in nearly 130 counties across 12 states. The results of this study as well as a comparison with the prior county-level estimates generated from input-output models, are summarized in the fact sheet.

  8. Development of a probabilistic timing model for the ingestion of tap water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-01-01

    A contamination event in a water distribution system can result in adverse health impacts to individuals consuming contaminated water from the system. Assessing impacts to such consumers requires accounting for the timing of exposures of individuals to tap-water contaminants that have time-varying concentrations. Here we present a probabilistic model for the timing of ingestion of tap water that we developed for use in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Threat Ensemble Vulnerability Assessment and Sensor Placement Tool, which is designed to perform consequence assessments for contamination events in water distribution systems. We also present a statistical analysis of the timing of ingestion activity using data collected by the American Time Use Survey. The results of the analysis provide the basis for our model, which accounts for individual variability in ingestion timing and provides a series of potential ingestion times for tap water. It can be combined with a model for ingestion volume to perform exposure assessments and applied in cases for which the use of characteristics typical of the United States is appropriate.

  9. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNL's mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  10. Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Barry H. Rabin

    2014-07-01

    12. Other advances in QNDE and related topics: Preferred Session Laser-ultrasonics Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces 41st Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference QNDE Conference July 20-25, 2014 Boise Centre 850 West Front Street Boise, Idaho 83702 James A. Smith, Jeffrey M. Lacy, Barry H. Rabin, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID ABSTRACT: The US National Nuclear Security Agency has a Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) which is assigned with reducing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium (HEU). A salient component of that initiative is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. An innovative fuel is being developed to replace HEU. The new LEU fuel is based on a monolithic fuel made from a U-Mo alloy foil encapsulated in Al-6061 cladding. In order to complete the fuel qualification process, the laser shock technique is being developed to characterize the clad-clad and fuel-clad interface strengths in fresh and irradiated fuel plates. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is being investigated to characterize interface strength in fuel plates. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves to characterize interfaces in nuclear fuel plates. However the deposition of laser energy into the containment layer on specimen’s surface is intractably complex. The shock wave energy is inferred from the velocity on the backside and the depth of the impression left on the surface from the high pressure plasma pulse created by the shock laser. To help quantify the stresses and strengths at the interface, a finite element model is being developed and validated by comparing numerical and experimental results for back face velocities and front face depressions with experimental results. This paper will report on initial efforts to develop a finite element model for laser shock.

  11. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions.

  12. World oil model development. Progress report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gately, D.

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed model of the world oil market is described in this report. This model has the following features: (1) energy is disaggregated into oil and non-oil; (2) the world is disaggregated as follows: the US, the rest of the OECD, OPEC, and the rest of WOCA; and (3) an energy-economy feedback is included. This satisfies some of the tasks in the Contract's Statement of Work. The model is described in Section II. Illustrative results are presented in Section III, for a single price-path: actual OPEC prices from 1973 to 1981, then constant real price thru 1990. These results are also compared with actual historical data for 1973 to 1980.

  13. Development of one-equation transition/turbulence models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, J.R.; Roy, C.J.; Blottner, F.G.; Hassan, H.A.

    2000-01-14

    This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity--transport equation for nonturbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittency function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha. The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the grid-dependence of selected predictions is analyzed.

  14. Development of a system model for advanced small modular reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a system model that can be used to analyze three advance small modular reactor (SMR) designs through their lifetime. Neutronics of these reactor designs were evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX/6). The system models were developed in Matlab and Simulink. A major thrust of this research was the initial scoping analysis of Sandia's concept of a long-life fast reactor (LLFR). The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional light water reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs (e.g. high temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). The system model has subroutines for lifetime reactor feedback and operation calculations, thermal hydraulic effects, load demand changes and a simplified SCO2 Brayton cycle for power conversion.

  15. Ex Post Analysis of Economic Impacts from Wind Power Development in U.S. Counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    use requirements of modern wind power plants in the United2002. Economic impacts of wind power in Kittitas County:Renewable energy: Wind power’s contribution to electric

  16. Ex Post Analysis of Economic Impacts from Wind Power Development in U.S. Counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    use requirements of modern wind power plants in the United2002. Economic impacts of wind power in Kittitas County:Office, 2004. Renewable energy: Wind power’s contribution to

  17. Assessing the future : the impacts of development on Steamboat Springs, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gooding, Gates

    2010-01-01

    The residents of Steamboat Springs, Colorado are continually faced with new propositions for accommodating population growth, but do not possess the proper tools for comparing the potential impacts of different options. ...

  18. The impact of manufacturing offshore on technology development paths in the automotive and optoelectronics industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Erica R. H. (Erica Renee H.), 1977-

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents a two-case study of the impact of manufacturing offshore on the technology trajectory of the firm and the industry. It looks in particular at the automotive and optoelectronics industries. The ...

  19. Economic Impacts of Wind Turbine Development in U.S. Counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J., Brown

    2012-01-01

    Renewable Energy: Wind Power’s Contribution to Electricestimate per W capita MW of wind power installed from 2000-impacts on U.S. counties of wind power projects, as defined

  20. GIM3E: Condition-specific Models of Cellular Metabolism Developed from Metabolomics and Expression Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Brian; Ebrahim, Ali; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Palsson, Bernard O.; Hyduke, Daniel R.

    2013-11-15

    Motivation: Genome-scale metabolic models have been used extensively to investigate alterations in cellular metabolism. The accuracy of these models to represent cellular metabolism in specific conditions has been improved by constraining the model with omics data sources. However, few practical methods for integrating metabolomics data with other omics data sources into genome-scale models of metabolism have been reported. Results: GIMMME (Gene Inactivation Moderated by Metabolism, Metabolomics, and Expression) is an algorithm that enables the development of condition-specific models based on an objective function, transcriptomics, and intracellular metabolomics data. GIMMME establishes metabolite utilization requirements with metabolomics data, uses model-paired transcriptomics data to find experimentally supported solutions, and also provides calculations of the turnover (production / consumption) flux of metabolites. GIMMME was employed to investigate the effects of integrating additional omics datasets to create increasingly constrained solution spaces of Salmonella Typhimurium metabolism during growth in both rich and virulence media. This integration proved to be informative and resulted in a requirement of additional active reactions (12 in each case) or metabolites (26 or 29, respectively). The addition of constraints from transcriptomics also impacted the allowed solution space, and the cellular metabolites with turnover fluxes that were necessarily altered by the change in conditions increased from 118 to 271 of 1397. Availability: GIMMME has been implemented in Python and requires a COBRApy 0.2.x. The algorithm and sample data described here are freely available at: http://opencobra.sourceforge.net/

  1. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: (1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, (2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and (3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL's FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI's technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  2. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  3. Modeling and analysis of phosphorus reduction by rain gardens and other BMPs in stormwater runoff from small urban developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obeid, Najwa, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    As part of The Discovery Museums (TDM) Low Impact Development (LID) Design and Monitoring report (Master of Engineering Group Project) for the town of Acton, , the effectiveness of low impact development technologies at ...

  4. Improved Modeling Tools Development for High Penetration Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washom, Byron

    2014-12-11

    One of the significant objectives of the High Penetration solar research is to help the DOE understand, anticipate, and minimize grid operation impacts as more solar resources are added to the electric power system. For Task 2.2, an effective, reliable approach to predicting solar energy availability for energy generation forecasts using the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager technology has been demonstrated. Granular cloud and ramp forecasts for the next 5 to 20 minutes over an area of 10 square miles were developed. Sky images taken every 30 seconds are processed to determine cloud locations and cloud motion vectors yielding future cloud shadow locations respective to distributed generation or utility solar power plants in the area. The performance of the method depends on cloud characteristics. On days with more advective cloud conditions, the developed method outperforms persistence forecasts by up to 30% (based on mean absolute error). On days with dynamic conditions, the method performs worse than persistence. Sky Imagers hold promise for ramp forecasting and ramp mitigation in conjunction with inverter controls and energy storage. The pre-commercial Sky Imager solar forecasting algorithm was documented with licensing information and was a Sunshot website highlight

  5. A Model of Global Learning: How Students Change Through International High-Impact Experiences 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redwine, Tobin Dean

    2014-12-12

    is warranted. The purpose of this study was to develop a model to explain the viewpoints of student changes by students who participate in a study abroad experience. To meet that purpose, three objectives were utilized. First, a qualitative phenomenology...

  6. Water Body Temperature Model for Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Thermal Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strzepek, K.

    We develop and test a physically based semi-Lagrangian water body temperature model to apply climatological data and thermal pollution from river-based power plants to historical river flow data in order to better understand ...

  7. ForCent model development and testing using the Enriched Background Isotope Study experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parton, W.J.; Hanson, P. J.; Swanston, C.; Torn, M.; Trumbore, S. E.; Riley, W.; Kelly, R.

    2010-10-01

    The ForCent forest ecosystem model was developed by making major revisions to the DayCent model including: (1) adding a humus organic pool, (2) incorporating a detailed root growth model, and (3) including plant phenological growth patterns. Observed plant production and soil respiration data from 1993 to 2000 were used to demonstrate that the ForCent model could accurately simulate ecosystem carbon dynamics for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory deciduous forest. A comparison of ForCent versus observed soil pool {sup 14}C signature ({Delta} {sup 14}C) data from the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experiment (1999-2006) shows that the model correctly simulates the temporal dynamics of the {sup 14}C label as it moved from the surface litter and roots into the mineral soil organic matter pools. ForCent model validation was performed by comparing the observed Enriched Background Isotope Study experimental data with simulated live and dead root biomass {Delta} {sup 14}C data, and with soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C (mineral soil, humus layer, leaf litter layer, and total soil respiration) data. Results show that the model correctly simulates the impact of the Enriched Background Isotope Study {sup 14}C experimental treatments on soil respiration {Delta} {sup 14}C values for the different soil organic matter pools. Model results suggest that a two-pool root growth model correctly represents root carbon dynamics and inputs to the soil. The model fitting process and sensitivity analysis exposed uncertainty in our estimates of the fraction of mineral soil in the slow and passive pools, dissolved organic carbon flux out of the litter layer into the mineral soil, and mixing of the humus layer into the mineral soil layer.

  8. Importance of exposure model in estimating impacts when a water distribution system is contaminated.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Environmental Science Division; USEPA

    2008-09-01

    The quantity of a contaminant ingested by individuals using tap water drawn from a water distribution system during a contamination event depends on the concentration of the contaminant in the water and the volume of water ingested. If the concentration varies with time, the actual time of exposure affects the quantity ingested. The influence of the timing of exposure and of individual variability in the volume of water ingested on estimated impacts for a contamination event has received limited attention. We examine the significance of ingestion timing and variability in the volume of water ingested by using a number of models for ingestion timing and volume. Contaminant concentrations were obtained from simulations of an actual distribution system for cases involving contaminant injections lasting from 1 to 24 h. We find that assumptions about exposure can significantly influence estimated impacts, especially when injection durations are short and impact thresholds are high. The influence of ingestion timing and volume should be considered when assessing impacts for contamination events.

  9. NEAMS FPL M2 Milestone Report: Development of a UO? Grain Size Model using Multicale Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R Tonks; Yongfeng Zhang; Xianming Bai

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes development work funded by the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation program's Fuels Product Line (FPL) to develop a mechanistic model for the average grain size in UO? fuel. The model is developed using a multiscale modeling and simulation approach involving atomistic simulations, as well as mesoscale simulations using INL's MARMOT code.

  10. Development of Metric for Measuring the Impact of RD&D Funding on GTO's Geothermal Exploration Goals (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, S.; Young, K. R.; Thorsteinsson, H.

    2013-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. In 2012, NREL was tasked with developing a metric to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration and cost and time improvements could be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Geothermal). The conference paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open EI website for public access (http://en.openei.org).

  11. Fractal Potential Flows: An Idealized Model for Fully Developed Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    József Vass

    2014-09-22

    Fully Developed Turbulence (FDT) is a theoretical asymptotic phenomenon which can only be approximated experimentally or computationally, so its defining characteristics are hypothetical. It is considered to be a chaotic stationary flow field, with self-similar fractalline features. A number of approximate models exist, often exploiting this self-similarity. The idealized mathematical model of Fractal Potential Flows is hereby presented, and linked philosophically to the phenomenon of FDT on a free surface, based on its experimental characteristics. The model hinges on the recursive iteration of a fluid dynamical transfer operator. The existence of its unique attractor - called the invariant flow - is shown in an appropriate function space, which will serve as our suggested model for the FDT flow field. Its sink singularities are shown to form an IFS fractal, explicitly resolving Mandelbrot's Conjecture. Meanwhile an isometric isomorphism is defined between flows and probability measures, hinting at a wealth of future research. The inverse problem of representing turbulent flow fields with this model is discussed in closing, along with explicit practical considerations for experimental verification and visualization.

  12. Wind stress measurements from the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds scatterometer tandem mission and the impact on an ocean model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    Wind stress measurements from the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds scatterometer tandem mission and the impact by the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds scatterometer tandem mission (April­October 2003) and their impact on ocean model simulation. The diurnal variability captured by twice-daily scatterometer wind from the tandem mission

  13. Development of Ensemble Neural Network Convection Parameterizations for Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M. S.; Krasnopolsky, V. M.

    2012-05-02

    The novel neural network (NN) approach has been formulated and used for development of a NN ensemble stochastic convection parametrization for climate models. This fast parametrization is built based on data from Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations initialized with and forced by TOGA-COARE data. The SAM (System for Atmospheric Modeling), developed by D. Randall, M. Khairoutdinov, and their collaborators, has been used for CRM simulations. The observational data are also used for validation of model simulations. The SAM-simulated data have been averaged and projected onto the GCM space of atmospheric states to implicitly define a stochastic convection parametrization. This parametrization is emulated using an ensemble of NNs. An ensemble of NNs with different NN parameters has been trained and tested. The inherent uncertainty of the stochastic convection parametrization derived in such a way is estimated. Due to these inherent uncertainties, NN ensemble is used to constitute a stochastic NN convection parametrization. The developed NN convection parametrization have been validated in a diagnostic CAM (CAM-NN) run vs. the control CAM run. Actually, CAM inputs have been used, at every time step of the control/original CAM integration, for parallel calculations of the NN convection parametrization (CAM-NN) to produce its outputs as a diagnostic byproduct. Total precipitation (P) and cloudiness (CLD) time series, diurnal cycles, and P and CLD distributions for the large Tropical Pacific Ocean for the parallel CAM-NN and CAM runs show similarity and consistency with the NCEP reanalysis. The P and CLD distributions for the tropical area for the parallel runs have been analyzed first for the TOGA-COARE boreal winter season (November 1992 through February 1993) and then for the winter seasons of the follow-up parallel decadal simulations. The obtained results are encouraging and practically meaningful. They show the validity of the NN approach. This constitutes an important practical conclusion of the study: the obtained results on NN ensembles as a stochastic physics parametrization show a realistic possibility of development of NN convection parametrization for climate (and NWP) models based on learning cloud physics from CRM/SAM simulated data.

  14. Progress in Developing Finite Element Models Replicating Flexural Graphite Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Bratton

    2010-06-01

    This report documents the status of flexural strength evaluations from current ASTM procedures and of developing finite element models predicting the probability of failure. This work is covered under QLD REC-00030. Flexural testing procedures of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) assume a linear elastic material that has the same moduli for tension and compression. Contrary to this assumption, graphite is known to have different moduli for tension and compression. A finite element model was developed and demonstrated that accounts for the difference in moduli tension and compression. Brittle materials such as graphite exhibit significant scatter in tensile strength, so probabilistic design approaches must be used when designing components fabricated from brittle materials. ASTM procedures predicting probability of failure in ceramics were compared to methods from the current version of the ASME graphite core components rules predicting probability of failure. Using the ASTM procedures yields failure curves at lower applied forces than the ASME rules. A journal paper was published in the Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Design exploring the statistical models of fracture in graphite.

  15. Development of an analytical model for organic-fluid fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Watkinson, A.P.

    1994-10-01

    The research goal of this project is to determine ways to effectively mitigate fouling in organic fluids: hydrocarbons and derived fluids. The fouling research focuses on the development of methodology for determining threshold conditions for fouling. Initially, fluid containing chemicals known to produce foulant is analyzed; subsequently, fouling of industrial fluids is investigated. The fouling model developed for determining the effects of physical parameters is the subject of this report. The fouling model is developed on the premise that the chemical reaction for generation of precursor can take place in the bulk fluid, in the thermal-boundary layer, or at the fluid/wall interface, depending upon the interactive effects of fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and the controlling chemical reaction. In the analysis, the experimental data are examined for fouling deposition of polyperoxide produced by autoxidation of indene in kerosene. The effects of fluid and wall temperatures for two flow geometries are analyzed. The results show that the relative effects of physical parameters on the fouling rate differ for the three fouling mechanisms. Therefore, to apply the closed-flow-loop data to industrial conditions, the controlling mechanism must be identified.

  16. Life of Sugar: Developing Lifecycle Methods to Evaluate the Energy and Environmental Impacts of Sugarcane Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopal, Anand Raja

    2011-01-01

    excluded from the GTAP model and Data Base. In any CLCA, theAll model results use the base year of the GTAP Data Base inof the GTAP model is the GTAP Data Base. The GTAP Data Base

  17. How noise statistics impact models of enzyme cycles Aryeh Warmflash, David N. Adamson, and Aaron R. Dinnera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinner, Aaron

    How noise statistics impact models of enzyme cycles Aryeh Warmflash, David N. Adamson, and Aaron R that it is justified in each situation. Here, we examine a model of an enzyme cycle for which noise qualitatively that the fluctuations are uncorrelated in time "white" noise ,2,14 although models with finite correlation times

  18. Toward Developing Genetic Algorithms to Aid in Critical Infrastructure Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    Today’s society relies upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, telecommunication, financial and energy. Understanding these interdependencies is necessary in order to protect our critical infrastructure. The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System, CIMS©, examines the interrelationships between infrastructure networks. CIMS© development is sponsored by the National Security Division at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in its ongoing mission for providing critical infrastructure protection and preparedness. A genetic algorithm (GA) is an optimization technique based on Darwin’s theory of evolution. A GA can be coupled with CIMS© to search for optimum ways to protect infrastructure assets. This includes identifying optimum assets to enforce or protect, testing the addition of or change to infrastructure before implementation, or finding the optimum response to an emergency for response planning. This paper describes the addition of a GA to infrastructure modeling for infrastructure planning. It first introduces the CIMS© infrastructure modeling software used as the modeling engine to support the GA. Next, the GA techniques and parameters are defined. Then a test scenario illustrates the integration with CIMS© and the preliminary results.

  19. Developing the PAGE2002 Model with Endogenous Technical Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberth, Stephan; Hope, Chris

    region and type of calculation made. The rates of mature technologies, on the other hand, such as coal and CCGT were found to be around 4% to 10% according to IEA (2000) and FGD and SCR scrubbers9 have also been found to have learning rates of 11... stream_source_info eprg0613.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 70866 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name eprg0613.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Developing the PAGE2002 model with Endogenous...

  20. PHEV Parcel Delivery Truck Model - Development and Preliminary Results (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R

    2009-10-28

    Describes results of a study to determine the impact of drive cycles on the energy- and cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric delivery vans.

  1. Impacts of WRF Physics and Measurement Uncertainty on California Wintertime Model Wet Bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, H S; Caldwell, P M; Bader, D C

    2009-07-22

    The Weather and Research Forecast (WRF) model version 3.0.1 is used to explore California wintertime model wet bias. In this study, two wintertime storms are selected from each of four major types of large-scale conditions; Pineapple Express, El Nino, La Nina, and synoptic cyclones. We test the impacts of several model configurations on precipitation bias through comparison with three sets of gridded surface observations; one from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, and two variations from the University of Washington (without and with long-term trend adjustment; UW1 and UW2, respectively). To simplify validation, California is divided into 4 regions (Coast, Central Valley, Mountains, and Southern California). Simulations are driven by North American Regional Reanalysis data to minimize large-scale forcing error. Control simulations are conducted with 12-km grid spacing (low resolution) but additional experiments are performed at 2-km (high) resolution to evaluate the robustness of microphysics and cumulus parameterizations to resolution changes. We find that the choice of validation dataset has a significant impact on the model wet bias, and the forecast skill of model precipitation depends strongly on geographic location and storm type. Simulations with right physics options agree better with UW1 observations. In 12-km resolution simulations, the Lin microphysics and the Kain-Fritsch cumulus scheme have better forecast skill in the coastal region while Goddard, Thompson, and Morrison microphysics, and the Grell-Devenyi cumulus scheme perform better in the rest of California. The effect of planetary boundary layer, soil-layer, and radiation physics on model precipitation is weaker than that of microphysics and cumulus processes for short- to medium-range low-resolution simulations. Comparison of 2-km and 12-km resolution runs suggests a need for improvement of cumulus schemes, and supports the use of microphysics schemes in coarser-grid applications.

  2. Economic Development Impacts from Wind Power in the Western Governors' Association States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2007-06-01

    The Western Governors' Association created the Clean and Diversified Energy Advisory Committee (CDEAC) "to utilize the region's diverse resources to produce affordable, sustainable, and environmentally reponsible energy." This conference poster, prepared for WINDPOWER 2007 in Los Angeles, outlines the economic impact to the Western United States from new wind energy projects.

  3. THE IMPACT OF CITY-LEVEL PERMITTING PROCESSES ON RESIDENTIAL PV INSTALLATION PRICES AND DEVELOPMENT TIMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Changgui

    2014-01-01

    The installed price of photovoltaic (PV) systems hasprice and development time of residential photovoltaic (PV)

  4. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Xubin; Troch, Peter; Pelletier, Jon; Niu, Guo-Yue; Gochis, David

    2015-11-15

    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM).

  5. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Lacking a detailed characterization of the resource base and a comprehensive borehole-to-burnertip evaluation model of the North American natural gas system, past R&D, tax and regulatory policies have been formulated without a full understanding of their likely direct and indirect impacts on future gas supply and demand. The recent disappearance of the deliverability surplus, pipeline deregulation, and current policy debates about regulatory initiatives in taxation, environmental compliance and leasing make the need for a comprehensive gas evaluation system critical. Traditional econometric or highly aggregated energy models are increasingly regarded as unable to incorporate available geologic detail and explicit technology performance and costing algorithms necessary to evaluate resource-technology-economic interactions in a market context. The objective of this research is to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas system. GSAM explicitly evaluates the key components of the natural gas system, including resource base, exploration and development, extraction technology performance and costs, transportation and storage and end use. The primary focus is the detailed characterization of the resource base at the reservoir and sub-reservoir level and the impact of alternative extraction technologies on well productivity and economics. GSAM evaluates the complex interactions of current and alternative future technology and policy initiatives in the context of the evolving gas markets. Scheduled for completion in 1995, a prototype is planned for early 1994. ICF Resources reviewed relevant natural gas upstream, downstream and market models to identify appropriate analytic capabilities to incorporate into GSAM. We have reviewed extraction technologies to better characterize performance and costs in terms of GSAM parameters.

  6. The Impact of PM and HC on EGR Cooler Fouling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Data were used to correlate an EGR cooling fouling model developed to test the impact of PM and HC on fouling

  7. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-05-10

    The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to application for dispersion over smooth, level terrain free of obstacles (such as buildings, tanks, or dikes). There is a need for a dispersion model that allows consideration of the effects of terrain features and obstacles on the dispersion of LNG vapor clouds. Project milestones are: (1) Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Milestones Conditions; (2) Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces, With And Without Obstacles; and (3) Adapting the FEM3A Model for General Application. Results for this quarter are work continues to underway to address numerical problems during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, we have been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A. The present effort is directed to describing the ground surface temperature decrease as a function of time.

  8. Development of a One-Equation Transition/Turbulence Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EDWARDS,JACK R.; ROY,CHRISTOPHER J.; BLOTTNER,FREDERICK G.; HASSAN,HASSAN A.

    2000-09-26

    This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity - transport equation for non-turbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan (Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 35, No. 5) is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittence function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, No. 4). The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the spatial accuracy of selected predictions is analyzed.

  9. AutoMoDe Notations, Methods, and Tools for Model-Based Development of Automotive Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Peter

    05AE-268 AutoMoDe ­ Notations, Methods, and Tools for Model-Based Development of Automotive describes the first results from the AutoMoDe project (Automotive Model-based Development), where an integrated methodology for model-based development of automotive control software is being developed

  10. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  11. Development of a simple groundwater model for use in climate models and evaluation with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Development of a simple groundwater model for use in climate models and evaluation with Gravity 7 April 2007. [1] Groundwater interacts with soil moisture through the exchanges of water between, groundwater is not explicitly represented in climate models. This paper developed a simple groundwater model

  12. Local content requirements and industrial development : economic analysis and cost modeling of the automotive supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veloso, Francisco, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the issue of performance standards in developing nations, focusing on the role of local content requirements. It proposes a theoretical framework to understand the impact of this policy on the ...

  13. Junior Master Gardener® Programs in Rural Guatemala: A Model for International Youth Development Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcgucken, Anna Mae

    2014-01-13

    This study examined the impact of selected Junior Master Gardeners (JMG) lessons on students’ science knowledge gain, science attitudes, and life skill development. During summer 2013, sixth grade students (N = 84) and teachers (N = 11) from two...

  14. Predictive models of safety based on audit findings: Part 1: Model development and reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Changxu (Sean)

    tools to carry out an ergonomic evaluation of maintenance and inspection operations. It was validated, we developed a Human Factors/Ergonomics classifi- cation framework based on HFACS model (Shappell to proceed with prediction validity testing in Part 2. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All

  15. The impact of global nuclear mass model uncertainties on $r$-process abundance predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mumpower; R. Surman; A. Aprahamian

    2014-11-14

    Rapid neutron capture or `$r$-process' nucleosynthesis may be responsible for half the production of heavy elements above iron on the periodic table. Masses are one of the most important nuclear physics ingredients that go into calculations of $r$-process nucleosynthesis as they enter into the calculations of reaction rates, decay rates, branching ratios and Q-values. We explore the impact of uncertainties in three nuclear mass models on $r$-process abundances by performing global monte carlo simulations. We show that root-mean-square (rms) errors of current mass models are large so that current $r$-process predictions are insufficient in predicting features found in solar residuals and in $r$-process enhanced metal poor stars. We conclude that the reduction of global rms errors below $100$ keV will allow for more robust $r$-process predictions.

  16. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyImpacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyFigure 3: Commercial electricity demand with and without the

  17. LARGE REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENTS, SPATIAL UNCERTAINTY, AND INTEGRATED LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clay, Michael J; Johnston, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    LARGE REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENTS, SPATIAL UNCERTAINTY, ANDfor than others)? Large real estate construction projectsneed to model large real estate developments, several types

  18. SDU 6 MODELING STUDY TO SUPPORT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.

    2012-05-02

    In response to Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0017 (1), SRNL performed modeling studies to evaluate alternative design features for the 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) referred to as SDU 6. This initial modeling study was intended to assess the performance of major components of the structure that are most significant to the PA. Information provided by the modeling will support the development of a SDU 6 Preliminary Design Model and Recommendation Report to be written by SRR Closure and Waste Disposal Authority. Key inputs and assumptions for the modeling were provided to SRNL in SRR-SPT-2011-00113 (2). A table reiterates the base case and four sensitivity case studies requested in this reference. In general, as shown in Table 4, when compared to Vault 2 Case A, the Base Case SDU 6 design produced higher peak fluxes to the water table during the 10,000 year period of analysis but lower peak fluxes within a 15,000 to 20,000 time frame. SDU 6 will contain approximately ten times the inventory of a single Vault 2 and the SDU 6 footprint is comparable to that of a group of four Vault 2 disposal units. Therefore, the radionuclide flux from SDU 6 and that from a single Vault 2 are not directly comparable. A more direct comparison would be to compare the maximum dose obtained at the 100 m boundary from the seven SDU's that will replace the 64 FDC's analyzed in the 2009 PA. This analysis will be performed in the next set of calculations planned for SDU design evaluation. Aquifer transport and dose calculations were not intended to be part of this initial scoping study. However, results from this study do indicate that replacement of the FDC design with SDU would not yield significantly higher peak doses. If the thickness of the SDU 6 floor is increased, peak doses would not occur during the 10,000 year period of analysis.

  19. Advanced High-Temperature Reactor Dynamic System Model Development: April 2012 Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qualls, A.L.; Cetiner, M.S.; Wilson, T.L., Jr.

    2012-04-30

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a large-output fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). An early-phase preconceptual design of a 1500 MW(e) power plant was developed in 2011 [Refs. 1 and 2]. An updated version of this plant is shown as Fig. 1. FHRs feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR is designed to be a “walk away” reactor that requires no action to prevent large off-site releases following even severe reactor accidents. This report describes the development of dynamic system models used to further the AHTR design toward that goal. These models predict system response during warmup, startup, normal operation, and limited off-normal operating conditions. Severe accidents that include a loss-of-fluid inventory are not currently modeled. The scope of the models is limited to the plant power system, including the reactor, the primary and intermediate heat transport systems, the power conversion system, and safety-related or auxiliary heat removal systems. The primary coolant system, the intermediate heat transport system and the reactor building structure surrounding them are shown in Fig. 2. These systems are modeled in the most detail because the passive interaction of the primary system with the surrounding structure and heat removal systems, and ultimately the environment, protects the reactor fuel and the vessel from damage during severe reactor transients. The reactor silo also plays an important role during system warmup. The dynamic system modeling tools predict system performance and response. The goal is to accurately predict temperatures and pressures within the primary, intermediate, and power conversion systems and to study the impacts of design changes on those responses. The models are design tools and are not intended to be used in reactor qualification. The important details to capture in the primary system relate to flows within the reactor vessel during severe events and the resulting temperature profiles (temperature and duration) for major components. Critical components include the fuel, reactor vessel, primary piping, and the primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers (P-IHXs). The major AHTR power system loops are shown in Fig. 3. The intermediate heat transfer system is a group of three pumped salt loops that transports the energy produced in the primary system to the power conversion system. Two dynamic system models are used to analyze the AHTR. A Matlab/Simulink?-based model initiated in 2011 has been updated to reflect the evolving design parameters related to the heat flows associated with the reactor vessel. The Matlab model utilizes simplified flow assumptions within the vessel and incorporates an empirical representation of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS). A Dymola/Modelica? model incorporates a more sophisticated representation of primary coolant flow and a physics-based representation of the three-loop DRACS thermal hydraulics. This model is not currently operating in a fully integrated mode. The Matlab model serves as a prototype and provides verification for the Dymola model, and its use will be phased out as the Dymola model nears completion. The heat exchangers in the system are sized using spreadsheet-based, steady-state calculations. The detail features of the heat exchangers are programmed into the dynamic models, and the overall dimensions are used to generate realistic plant designs. For the modeling cases where the emphasis is on understanding responses within the intermediate and primary systems, the power conversion system may be modeled as a simple boundary condition at the intermediate-to-power conversion system heat exchangers.

  20. Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Indirect Gasification: The Impact of NREL Process Development Unit Gasifier Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinchin, C. M.; Bain, R. L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes a set of updated gasifier correlations developed by NREL to predict biomass gasification products and Minimum Hydrogen Selling Price.

  1. Economic Impacts of Wind Turbine Development in U.S. Counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J., Brown

    2012-01-01

    15 percent)). Cumulative wind turbine capacity installed inper capita income of wind turbine development (measured inour sample, cumulative wind turbine capacity on a per person

  2. Recent developments in no-core shell-model calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Navratil; Sofia Quaglioni; Ionel Stetcu; Bruce R. Barrett

    2009-04-02

    We present an overview of recent results and developments of the no-core shell model (NCSM), an ab initio approach to the nuclear many-body problem for light nuclei. In this approach, we start from realistic two-nucleon or two- plus three-nucleon interactions. Many-body calculations are performed using a finite harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis. To facilitate convergence for realistic inter-nucleon interactions that generate strong short-range correlations, we derive effective interactions by unitary transformations that are tailored to the HO basis truncation. For soft realistic interactions this might not be necessary. If that is the case, the NCSM calculations are variational. In either case, the ab initio NCSM preserves translational invariance of the nuclear many-body problem. In this review, we, in particular, highlight results obtained with the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions. We discuss efforts to extend the applicability of the NCSM to heavier nuclei and larger model spaces using importance-truncation schemes and/or use of effective interactions with a core. We outline an extension of the ab initio NCSM to the description of nuclear reactions by the resonating group method technique. A future direction of the approach, the ab initio NCSM with continuum, which will provide a complete description of nuclei as open systems with coupling of bound and continuum states, is given in the concluding part of the review.

  3. Recent Developments in No-Core Shell-Model Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Stetcu, I; Barrett, B R

    2009-03-20

    We present an overview of recent results and developments of the no-core shell model (NCSM), an ab initio approach to the nuclear many-body problem for light nuclei. In this aproach, we start from realistic two-nucleon or two- plus three-nucleon interactions. Many-body calculations are performed using a finite harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis. To facilitate convergence for realistic inter-nucleon interactions that generate strong short-range correlations, we derive effective interactions by unitary transformations that are tailored to the HO basis truncation. For soft realistic interactions this might not be necessary. If that is the case, the NCSM calculations are variational. In either case, the ab initio NCSM preserves translational invariance of the nuclear many-body problem. In this review, we, in particular, highlight results obtained with the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions. We discuss efforts to extend the applicability of the NCSM to heavier nuclei and larger model spaces using importance-truncation schemes and/or use of effective interactions with a core. We outline an extension of the ab initio NCSM to the description of nuclear reactions by the resonating group method technique. A future direction of the approach, the ab initio NCSM with continuum, which will provide a complete description of nuclei as open systems with coupling of bound and continuum states is given in the concluding part of the review.

  4. A Formal Model for Verifying the Impact of Stealthy Attacks on Optimal Power Flow in Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongge

    - mal Power Flow; Formal Model 1. INTRODUCTION Power system control centers employ a numberA Formal Model for Verifying the Impact of Stealthy Attacks on Optimal Power Flow in Power Grids the integrity of OPF and undermine the economic and secure system operation. We present a formal verification

  5. Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

  6. Moore et al. 1 Modeling the Impact of Traffic Conditions on the Variability of Mid-block Roadside Fine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    variables; additionally, the effects of vehicle types and wind direction were quantified. Modeling resultsMoore et al. 1 Modeling the Impact of Traffic Conditions on the Variability of Mid-block Roadside Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations on an Urban Arterial Adam Moore, adam.moore@pdx.edu* Miguel

  7. Modeling the resuspension of radionuclides in Ukranian regions impacted by Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, S.K.; Thiessen, K.M.; Hoffman, F.O. [SENES Oak Ridge Inc., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl event, large amounts of radioactive materials were deposited in nearby areas. Concentrations of various radionuclides were measured in air and surface soil. To study the resuspension of radioactive particulate, three different exposure situations were developed on the basis of the collected data under the auspices of the international BIOMOVS II (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) project. Modelers were asked to predict seasonal air concentrations and resuspension factors at several locations at different distances from Chernobyl for six successive years following the accident. Measurements of radionuclide deposition on topsoil were provided for each site along with information on soil, vegetation, land use, surface roughness, meteorology, and climate. In this paper, the three exposure situations are described, along with the initial data set provided to the modelers; two modeling approaches used to make the endpoint predictions are also presented. After the model predictions were submitted, the measured air concentrations and resuspension factors were released to the modelers. Generally, the predictions were well within an order of magnitude of the measured values. Time-dependent trends in predictions and measurements were in good agreement with one of the models, which (a) explicitly accounted for loss processes in soil and (b) used calibration to improve its predictive capabilities. Reasons for variations between predictions and measurements, suggestions for the improvement of models, and conclusions from the model validation study are presented. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Impact of outages on GPRS service availability General Packet Radio Service has been developed to enhance the GSM telecommunication system with the addition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firenze, Universitŕ degli Studi di

    Impact of outages on GPRS service availability General Packet Radio Service has been developed to those of outage is not a satisfactory measure to know. During outages, there is an accumulation of users to the users. A study on the impact of outages on GPRS service availability is being conducted in the framework

  9. Modelling estimation on the impacts of global warming on rice production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Futang

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, based on the validation and sensitivity analyses of two rice growth models (ORYZA1 and DRISIC--Double Rice Cropping Simulation Model for China), and their joining with global warming scenarios projected by GCMs (GFDL, UKMO-H, MPI and DKRZ OPYC, DKRZ LSG, respectively), the modelling experiments were carried out on the potential impacts of global warming on rice production in China. The results show that although there are the some features for each rice cropping patterns because of different models and estimated methods, the rice production for all cropping patterns in China will trend to decrease with different degrees. In average, early, middle and later rice production, as well as, double-early and double-later rice production in different areas of China will decrease 3.7%, 10.5% and 10.4%, as well as, 15.9% and 14.4%, respectively. It do illustrates that the advantage effects induced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis does not compensate the adverse effects of temperature increase. Thus, it is necessary to adjusting rice cropping patterns, cultivars and farming techniques to the global warming timely.

  10. Using system simulation to model the impact of human error in a maritime system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dorp, Johan René

    the modeling of human error related accident event sequences in a risk assessment of maritime oil framwork was developed for the Prince William Sound Risk Assessment based on interviews with maritime William Sound; Human error; Maritime accidents; Expert judgement; Risk assessment; Risk management 1

  11. Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhanqing; Niu, F.; Fan, Jiwen; Liu, Yangang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol has complex effects on clouds and precipitation that may augment or offset each other contingent upon a variety of variables. As a result, its long-term impact on climate is largely unknown. Using 10 years of the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) measurements, strong aerosol effects of climatologically significance are detected. With increasing total aerosol number concentration (condensation nucleus, CN) measured near the ground, both cloud top height and precipitation change systematically for mix-phase clouds of warm-base (cloud base <1km) and cold-top (above the freezing level), but not for pure liquid and ice clouds. Cloud thickness can increase systematically with the CN concentration by up to a factor of 2. The response of precipitation to CN depends on cloud liquid water path (LWP). As CN increases, rain occurs more frequently for high LWP but less frequently for low LWP. Such strong signals of aerosol long-term impact on cloud and precipitation have not been reported and have significant implications for climate change studies, especially concerning regional and global climate change induced by pollution.

  12. Development of a bioengineered tissue model and its application in the investigation of the depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Development of a bioengineered tissue model and its application in the investigation of the depth the development of a bioengineered connective tissue model fabricated by the combination of scaffolding and cross

  13. ePLAS Development for Jet Modeling and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Rodney J. Mason

    2011-09-07

    Plasma jets provide an alternate approach to the creation of high energy density laboratory plasmas (HEDLP). For the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX), typically 30 partially ionized argon jets, produced with mini-rail guns, will be focused into a central volume for subsequent magnetic compression into high density plasma liners that can reach high (0.1 Mbar) peak pressures upon stagnation. The jets are typically 2.5 cm in radius traveling at Mach number 30. Ultimate success will require optimized tuning of the rail configurations, the nozzles injecting the gases, and the careful implementation of pre-ionization. The modeling of plasma jet transport is particularly challenging, due the large space (100 sq cm) and time scales (microseconds) involved. Even traditional implicit methods are insufficient, due to the usual need to track electrons explicitly on the mesh. Wall emission and chemistry must be managed, as must ionization of the jet plasma. Ions in the jets are best followed as particles to account properly for collisions upon jet merger. This Phase I Project developed the code ePLAS to attack and successfully surmount many of these challenges. It invented a new 'super implicit' electromagnetic scheme, using implicit electron moment currents that allowed for modeling of jets over multi-cm and multi-picoseconds on standard, single processor 2 GHz PCs. It enabled merger studies of two jets, in preparation for the multi-jet merger problem. The Project explored particle modeling for the ions, and prepared for the future addition of a grid-base jet ion collision model. Access was added to tabular equations of state for the study of ionization effects in merging jets. The improved code was discussed at the primary plasma meetings (IEEE and APS) during the Project period. Collaborations with National Laboratory and industrial partners were nurtured. Code improvements were made to facilitate code use. See: http://www.researchapplicationscorp.com. The ePLAS code enjoys EAR99 export control treatment, permitting distribution to most foreign countries without a license.

  14. Evaluation of PV performance models and their impact on project risk.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2010-12-01

    Photovoltaic systems are often priced in $/W{sub p}, where Wp refers to the DC power rating of the modules at Standard Test Conditions (1000 W/m{sup 2}, 25 C cell temperature) and $ refers to the installed cost of the system. However, the true value of the system is in the energy it will produce in kWhs, not the power rating. System energy production is a function of the system design and location, the mounting configuration, the power conversion system, and the module technology, as well as the solar resource. Even if all other variables are held constant, the annual energy yield (kWh/kW{sup p}) will vary among module technologies because of differences in response to low-light levels and temperature. Understanding energy yield is a key part of understanding system value. System performance models are used during project development to estimate the expected output of PV systems for a given design and location. Performance modeling is normally done by the system designer/system integrator. Often, an independent engineer will also model system output during a due diligence review of a project. A variety of system performance models are available. The most commonly used modeling tool for project development and due diligence in the United States is probably PVsyst, while those seeking a quick answer to expected energy production may use PVWatts. In this paper, we examine the variation in predicted energy output among modeling tools and users and compare that to measured output.

  15. TheImpact of Corporate Restructuring On Industrial Research and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Bronwyn H.

    1989-01-01

    events: leveraged buyouts and other "going private"first, that leveraged buyouts do not occur in R&D-intensivecash flow-driven model of buyouts. Second, major increases

  16. Rice Urban Laboratory for the Environment (RULE): A Summary of the New Low Impact Development Laboratory on the Rice University Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the New Low Impact Development Laboratory on the Rice University Campus Civil and Energy Management (ACSEM) and Facilities Engineering and Planning (FE&P), has and effectiveness has been well documented in the Northeast and East Coast regions, little

  17. The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, X.

    China’s recently-adopted targets for developing renewable electricity—wind, solar, and biomass—would require expansion on an unprecedented scale in China and relative to existing global installations. An important question ...

  18. Ex post analysis of economic impacts from wind power development in U.S. counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jason P

    2014-01-01

    2011) Figure 1. Location of Wind Power Development in theUnited States Figure 2: U.S. Wind Resource Map (Source:Resource Potential for Wind Capacity (Power Class 3-7, MW)

  19. The impact of climate change on ski resort operations and development : opportunities and threats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGill, Daniel D. D. (Daniel Dulany deButts)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis serves as a pedagogical guide to the ski resort industry, and presents a broad overview of the unique issues that accompany climate change. The paper also provides recommendations to resort developers as to ...

  20. MODDO -A TAILORED DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM FOR MODEL-DRIVEN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baader, Franz

    Software Documentation, Model-Driven Software Development 1. INTRODUCTION Delivering high-quality softwareMODDO - A TAILORED DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM FOR MODEL-DRIVEN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Matthias Heinrich SAP.knechtel@sap.com ABSTRACT In the last decade Model-Driven Software Development (MDSD) has become an established software

  1. Light-absorbing Particles in Snow and Ice: Measurement and Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Flanner, M. G.; Lau, William K.; Ming, J.; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Mo; Warren, Stephen G.; Zhang, Rudong

    2015-01-01

    Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, andclimatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.

  2. Impact of geothermal development on the state of Hawaii. Executive summary. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    Questions regarding the sociological, legal, environmental, and geological concerns associated with the development of geothermal resources in the Hawaiian Islands are addressed in this summary report. Major social changes, environmental degradation, legal and economic constraints, seismicity, subsidence, changes in volcanic activity, accidents, and ground water contamination are not major problems with the present state of development, however, the present single well does not provide sufficient data for extrapolation. (ACR)

  3. The impact of social integration on student persistence in introductory Modeling Instruction courses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwolak, Justyna P

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student retention and persistence -- in particular classes or in their major area of study -- is a challenge for universities. Students' academic and social integration into an institution seems to be vital for student retention, yet, research on the effect of interpersonal interactions is rare. Social network analysis is an approach that can be used to identify patterns of interaction that contribute to integration into the university. We analyze how students position within a social network in a Modeling Instruction (MI) course that strongly emphasizes interactive learning impacts their persistence in taking a subsequent MI course. We find that students with higher centrality at the end of the first semester of MI are more likely to enroll in a second semester of MI. While the correlation with increased persistence is an ongoing study, these findings suggest that student social integration influences persistence.

  4. The development of an image/threshold database for designing and testing human vision models.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Stanley

    The development of an image/threshold database for designing and testing human vision models. Thom for all modelers to use in HVS model development. The group may also provide a threshold database modeling, image database, psychophysics, HVS, image compression 1. INTRODUCTION Digital information

  5. Challenges and successes with economic and business development models at the local level: The Quatsino experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Challenges and successes with economic and business development models at the local level: 534 Title of Project: Challenges and successes with economic and business development models !)*+#&,+( In this case study, I examine the economic development and business development experiences of the Quatsino

  6. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreitler, J; Schloss, CA; Soong, O; Hannah, L; Davis, FW

    2015-01-01

    environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. Appliedbiological impacts. Renewable Energy. 2013; 57: 289–98. doi:of biodiversity and renewable energy in the Mojave Desert.

  7. Development and pilot testing of modular dynamic thermomechanical pulp mill model to develop energy reduction strategies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffin, D.W.

    1996-10-01

    With the development of on-line and real-time process simulations, one obtains the ability to predict and control the process; thus, the opportunity exists to improve energy efficiency, decrease materials wastes, and maintain product quality. Developing this capability was the objective of the this research program. A thermomechanical pulp mill was simulated using both a first principles model and a neural network. The models made use of actual process data and a model that calculated the mass and energy balance of the mill was successfully implemented and run at the mill on an hourly basis. The attempt to develop a model that accurately predicted the quality of the pulp was not successful. It was concluded that the key fro a successful implementation of a real-time control model, such as a neural net model, is availability of on-line sensors that sufficiently characterize the pulp.

  8. Academic Language Proficiency Development and Its Impact on Reading Comprehension: Within and Across Languages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spies, Tracy

    2012-07-16

    A path model of second language (L2; English) oral language and reading comprehension variables was tested on a sample of 100 Spanish-speaking English-language learners enrolled in a transitional bilingual program over a 3-year period. The data...

  9. Impacts of Energy Research and Development With Analyses of Price-Andersen Act & Hydro Relicensing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This report deals primarily with the Research and Development provisions of S. 1766, organized across four areas: energy efficiency, renewable energy, fossil energy, and nuclear energy. The provisions are assessed using the results from Annual Energy Outlook 2002 and other side cases, rather than a direct quantitative analysis.

  10. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canon, P.

    1980-06-01

    The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

  11. POLICIES AND TOOLS FOR EFFICIENT DESIGN OF BROADBAND DEVELOPMENT 2) IMPACT OF BROADBAND ON ECONOMY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ON ECONOMY Produced by University of Patras Co-authors: Bouras Christos, Kokkinos Vasileios, Diles Georgios) in the economy and society. Inadequacies in the telecommunication infrastructure and accessibility to services if there is a repayment and how much this is, in terms of local economy development, employment increase and other

  12. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  13. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  14. Linearization of Generator Current-State Space Model We developed a state-space current model for the synchronous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 Linearization of Generator Current-State Space Model We developed a state-space current model for the synchronous machine with the G-circuit represented (see notes on per- unitization), and it was found to be

  15. NSR&D FY14 Final Report: Friction/Impact Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Duan Zhong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ma, Xia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Giguere, Paul T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The LANL-developed CartaBlanca code uses advanced techniques, including the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method, to calculate fluid, solid motions and fluid-structure interactions. In the last year we have implemented the ViscoSCRAM material model in CartaBlanca based on Clements’ Abaqus-Explicit Finite Element implementation. In this fiscal year, we study numerical properties of this implementation. To consider coupled mechanical, thermal and chemical effects, we have implemented Henson’s HE decomposition model to couple with the thermal and mechanical packages in CartaBlanca. We have also developed porous media flow modules to consider heat convection effects of the reaction product gas inside pores of HE. The next immediate step is to perform numerical simulations to study interactions among these different mechanisms. We have started such calculation and obtained interesting initial results at the end of this fiscal year.

  16. Jack Rabbit Pretest Shadowplate Drawings For TATB IHE Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, M M; McDaniel, D W

    2009-07-10

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) series consisted of 5 focused hydrodynamic experiments 2021E PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT7. They were fired in March and April of 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. These experiments measured deadzone formation and impulse gradients created during the detonation of TATB based insensitive high explosive. When setting up computer simulations of the Jack Rabbit Pretest series, the modeler or code developer can execute simulations with increasing degrees of refinement using detail found in the shadowplate design. The easiest way to get started is by treating the shadowplate in each experiment as a monolithic homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The simulation of detonation would begin as a point initiation below the center, bottom surface of the shadowplate. The detonation running through the ultrafine TATB booster can be simulated using program burn and then switched over to a reactive flow detonation model as the detonation front crosses the boundary into the main charge LX-17 IHE. A modeler wanting to further refine the simulation and progression of shock through the shadowplate can use the more detailed shadowplate design information presented in this document. The source drawings are included in Appendix A of this document. Their titles and drawing numbers are listed. Each experiment's shadowplate consists of two major components. A 303 stainless steel shape that defines the outer dimensions of shadowplate and a cylindrical 303 stainless steel detonator housing that is located in a closely machined pocket in the shape. The SIMPLE ASSY drawing accurately represents the dimensions of the outer shape, it's machined cylindrical pocket, and detonator body which is treated as a monolithic, homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The detonator body cross section shows an accurately dimensioned void where the slapper flyer barrel, LX-16 (pressed PETN) pellet, and pellet can flyer barrel are located. The FULL ASSY drawing accurately represents the dimensions of the outer shadowplate shape and it's machined pocket. The detonator dimensions and materials are detailed in cross section and exploded view. All diameters, thicknesses, and materials are called out in the drawing. You will notice that the detonator includes a multilayer slapper assembly with two layers of electrically insulating Kapton sandwiching the copper foil bridge circuit. The Kapton insulated circuit is sandwiched between two thin stainless steel sheets. This slapper assembly is secured to the detonator body with two screws. There is a 0.25 mm gap between the slapper assembly and the outer shadowplate shape. The stainless steel detonator body contains an off-center titanium wheel. This titanium wheel is secured to the detonator body with one screw and two pins to maintain position and orientation of the pellet can assembly in the center of the detonator body. The titanium wheel contains a tantalum/tungsten washer and pellet can assembly. The pellet can assembly consists of a pressed LX-16 initiator pellet contained in an extruded aluminum foil can. It may be useful for the modeler to include some of the details of the shadowplate and detonator design to further refine simulations of the Jack Rabbit Pretest experiments. These details may be relevant to the progression of shock originating from the PETN initiation pellet and ultrafine TATB booster that propagates through the shadowplate.

  17. Modeling regional transportation demand in China and the impacts of a national carbon constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kishimoto, Paul

    2015-01-30

    Climate and energy policy in China will have important and uneven impacts on the country’s regionally heterogeneous transport system. In order to simulate these impacts, transport sector detail is added to a multi-sector, ...

  18. A response surface model of the air quality impacts of aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma?ek, Tudor

    2008-01-01

    Aviation demand is expected to double in the coming decades, and there are growing concerns about its impacts on the environment. Governments seek to mitigate the impacts of aviation on climate, air quality, and noise by ...

  19. Capturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft Operating Costs with Engineering and Econometric Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirti Ryerson, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Capturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft OperatingCapturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft Operatingsurges in the price of fuel as regional jets have lower fuel

  20. The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilmes, S.; Fasullo, John; Lamarque, J.-F.; Marsh, D.; Mills, Mike; Alterskjaer, Kari; Muri, Helene O.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Boucher, Olivier; Schulz, M.; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Jones, A.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John; Bou Karam, Diana; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rasch, Philip J.; Singh, Balwinder; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Yang, Shuting; Watanabe, Shingo

    2013-10-14

    Abstract: The hydrologic impact of enhancing Earth’s albedo due to solar radiation management (SRM) is investigated using simulations from 12 models contributing to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). An artificial experiment is investigated, where global mean temperature is preserved at pre-industrial conditions, while atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are quadrupled. The associated reduction of downwelling surface solar radiation in a high CO2 environment leads to a reduction of global evaporation of 10% and 4% and precipitation of 6.1% and 6.3% over land and ocean, respectively. An initial reduction of latent heat flux at the surface is largely driven by reduced evapotranspiration over land with instantly increasing CO2 concentrations in both experiments. A warming surface associated with the transient adjustment in the 4xCO2 experiment further generates an increase of global precipitation, with considerable regional changes, such as a significant precipitation reduction of 7% for the North American summer monsoon. Reduced global precipitation persists in the geoengineered experiment where temperatures are stabilized, with considerable regional rainfall deficits. Precipitation reductions that are consistent in sign across models are identified in the geoengineered experiment over monsoonal land regions of East Asia (6%), North America (7%), South America (6%) and South Africa (5%). In contrast to the 4xCO2 experiment, where the frequency of months with heavy precipitation intensity is increased by over 50%, it is reduced by up to 20% in the geoengineering scenario . The reduction in heavy precipitation is more pronounced over land than over the ocean, and accompanies a stronger reduction in evaporation over land. For northern mid-latitudes, maximum precipitation reduction over land ranges from 1 to 16% for individual models. For 45-65°N, the frequency of median to high intensity precipitation in summer is strongly reduced. These changes in precipitation in both total amount and frequency of extremes, point to a considerable weakening of the hydrological cycle in a geoengineered world.

  1. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  2. Development of a HEX-Z Partially Homogenized Benchmark Model for the FFTF Isothermal Physics Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2012-05-01

    A series of isothermal physics measurements were performed as part of an acceptance testing program for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). A HEX-Z partially-homogenized benchmark model of the FFTF fully-loaded core configuration was developed for evaluation of these measurements. Evaluated measurements include the critical eigenvalue of the fully-loaded core, two neutron spectra, 32 reactivity effects measurements, an isothermal temperature coefficient, and low-energy gamma and electron spectra. Dominant uncertainties in the critical configuration include the placement of radial shielding around the core, reactor core assembly pitch, composition of the stainless steel components, plutonium content in the fuel pellets, and boron content in the absorber pellets. Calculations of criticality, reactivity effects measurements, and the isothermal temperature coefficient using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 cross sections with the benchmark model are in good agreement with the benchmark experiment measurements. There is only some correlation between calculated and measured spectral measurements; homogenization of many of the core components may have impacted computational assessment of these measurements. This benchmark evaluation has been added to the IRPhEP Handbook.

  3. Development and validation of instantaneous risk model in nuclear power plant's risk monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, J.; Hu, L.

    2012-07-01

    The instantaneous risk model is the fundament of calculation and analysis in a risk monitor. This study focused on the development and validation of an instantaneous risk model. Therefore the principles converting from the baseline risk model to the instantaneous risk model were studied and separated trains' failure modes modeling method was developed. The development and validation process in an operating nuclear power plant's risk monitor were also introduced. Correctness of instantaneous risk model and rationality of converting method were demonstrated by comparison with the result of baseline risk model. (authors)

  4. Development of Design Guidelines for Soil Embedded Post Systems Using Wide-flange I-beam to Contain Truck Impact 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Seok Gyu

    2012-07-16

    /h, 65 km/h, and 50 km/h. The design guidelines presented here are based on 10 medium scale pendulum impact tests, 2 medium scale bogie impact tests, 1 full scale impact test on a single post, 1 full scale impact test on a group of 8 side by side posts...

  5. The Potential Impacts of OTEC Intakes on Aquatic Organisms at an OTEC Site under Development on Kauai, HI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oney, Stephen K.; Hogan, Timothy; Steinbeck, John

    2013-08-31

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology with the potential to contribute significantly to the baseload power needs of tropical island communities and remote U.S. military installations. As with other renewable energy technologies, however, there are potential challenges to its commercialization: technological, financial, social, and environmental. Given the large volumes of seawater required to drive the electricity-producing cycle, there is potential for the intakes to negatively impact the marine resources of the source waterbody through the impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. The goal of this project was to identify feasible warm water intake designs for a land-based OTEC facility proposed for development in Port Allen, Kauai and to characterize the populations of ichthyoplankton near the proposed warm water intake location that could be at risk of entrainment. The specific objectives of this project were to: • Complete a site-specific assessment of available and feasible warm water intake technologies to determine the best intake designs for minimizing impacts to aquatic organisms at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. • Complete a field sampling program to collect biological data to characterize the baseline populations of ichthyoplankton near the sites being considered for the warm water intake at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. Various intake design options are presented with the focus on providing adequate environmental protection to the local ichthyoplankton population while providing an economically viable intake option to the OTEC developer. Further definition by NOAA and other environmental regulators is required to further refine the designs presented to meet all US regulations for future OTEC development.

  6. Impact of water resource development on the hydrology and sedimentology of the Brazos River system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minter, Larry Lane

    1976-01-01

    . Christopher C. Mathewson Major dam and reservoir development within the Brazos River Basin is correlative with a significant decrease in the suspended sediment load of the river and with increased coastal erosion rates near the delta. A hydrologic analysis... to account for the entire increase in the coastal erosion rates in the study area since at least 1937 Future sand losses brought about by the construction oi' new reservoirs downstream of those presently on the Brazos River, or one of its major tribu...

  7. Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS Reservoir

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Better understand and model fluid injection into a tight reservoir on the edges of a hydrothermal field. Use seismic data to constrain geomechanical/hydrologic/thermal model of reservoir.

  8. Developing an alternative model for travel decision-making 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Kam

    2009-05-15

    This study proposes an alternative travel decision making model and situates its arguments in the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) theoretical construct. The MOA model suggests that motivation, opportunity, and ability ...

  9. Developing Fully Coupled Subchannel Model in RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Richard Martineau

    2014-09-01

    This is a DOE milestone report documenting the implementation of the subchannel model into the RELAP-7 code.

  10. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  11. A model-based systems engineering framework for concept development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    London, Brian (Brian N.)

    2012-01-01

    The development of increasingly complex, innovative systems under greater constraints has been the trend over the past several decades. In order to be successful, organizations must develop products that meet customer needs ...

  12. Model-Driven Development of Software Front Ends Marco Brambilla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbiano, Lorenzo

    the execution Types of models #12;CIM, PIM, PSM Modeling Levels Computation independent (CIM): describe, without any technical or technological details Platform-specific (PSM): define all the technological object description and constraints #12;Modeling levels - PSM How the functionality in the PIM is realized

  13. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2014-09-22

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore »States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  14. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2015-04-09

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore »States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  15. Key Economic Drivers Impacting Eagle Ford Development from Resource to Reserves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Busto Pinzon, Andres Mauricio

    2013-11-25

    &D Finding and development GOR Gas/oil ratio IHS Inverted hockey stick HP/HT High-pressure and high-temperature vii LOM Level of maturity Mcfe Thousand cubic feet equivalent MCMC Markov Chain Monte Carlo MLIS Mixed-Layer Illite... for the former is 10% quartz, 40 to 80% calcite, and 20 to 30% Mixed-Layer Illite/Smectite (MLIS); and for the latter 20 average values of 30% quartz, 40 to 70 % calcite, and 20 to 30 % MLIS where found (Centurion 2011). Figure 7—Mineralogy analysis...

  16. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Florian SEITZ: Atmospheric and oceanic impacts to Earth rotations numerical studies with a dynamic Earth system model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuh, Harald

    with a dynamic Earth system model (completed in October 2004) Variations of Earth rotation are caused Earth system model DyMEG has been developed. It is based on the balance of angular momentum

  18. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  19. A biomechanical model of cardinal vowel production: Muscle activations and the impact of gravity on tongue positioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payan, Yohan

    , was exploited to study the activation of the tongue and mouth floor muscles during the production of French cardinal vowels. The selection of the motor commands to control the tongue and the mouth floor musclesA biomechanical model of cardinal vowel production: Muscle activations and the impact of gravity

  20. A modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented in a watershed in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of polluted water bodies, the United States * Corresponding author. Tel.: C1 2547746000; fax: C1 2547746001. E water quality standards, allocates pollution control responsibilities among pollution sourcesA modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of water quality management plans implemented

  1. Modelling the Impact of User Mobility on the Throughput in Networks of Wireless 802.11 LANs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Mei, Rob

    Modelling the Impact of User Mobility on the Throughput in Networks of Wireless 802.11 LANs Sandjai@feweb.vu.nl Abstract-- The wireless LAN technology 802.11, also called Wi-Fi, offers high speed wireless Internet by simulation results. I. INTRODUCTION The wireless LAN (WLAN) industry is one of the fastest growing segments

  2. A DIRECT-DEMAND MODEL FOR BICYCLE COUNTS:1 THE IMPACTS OF LEVEL OF SERVICE AND OTHER FACTORS2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    1 A DIRECT-DEMAND MODEL FOR BICYCLE COUNTS:1 THE IMPACTS OF LEVEL OF SERVICE AND OTHER FACTORS2 3 Keywords: Transportation Planning, Bicycle, Cycling, Bike Lanes, Traffic Counts, Level of23 Service24 25 alone. Unfortunately, most municipalities do not conduct31 comprehensive bicycle counts to determine

  3. Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    -source simulations imply that high-ethanol blends (e.g., E85) pose a lower risk of benzene reaching a receptor via gasoline, 15 years for E10, 9 years for E50, and 3 years for E85), indicating greater natural attenuationModeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels

  4. Upgradation of nuclear medical equipment in the developing countries and its impact in Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahangir, S M; Haque, M A S; Hoq, M; Mawla, Y; Morium, T; Uddin, M R; Xie, Y

    2002-01-01

    Bangladesh has thirteen Nuclear Medical Centres and one Institute of Nuclear Medicine in the country which are being run and maintained by the physicians scientists and engineers of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The peaceful application of atomic energy was initiated through all these Centres with the use of clinical isotopes for thyroid and kidney studies. The equipment used for these purposes were the thyroid uptake system, rectilinear scanner and the multiprobe renogram system. The first gamma camera was installed in the country in 1980 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dhaka. That was the turning point for the country in the field of nuclear medicine. Presently all the nuclear medical establishments are equipped least with a gamma camera, thyroid uptake system and a renogram system. In the last two decades there has been a tremendous development in the design of nuclear medical equipment. Most of the old equipments were slow and manually operated. In the beginning of nineties of the past centur...

  5. The impact of interface/connection technology on determination of risk in a subsea development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisbie, F.R.

    1995-12-31

    Subsea production is a long time player in offshore oil and gas scenarios, particularly in relatively shallow waters and in combination with uncomplicated reservoir workover requirements and simple product chemistries. The increasing emphasis on deepwater hydrocarbon potential creates significant new opportunities for utilizing subsea production systems, if some of the risk factors can be fully quantified and mitigated. This paper will address those aspects of subsea production risk associated with the interface requirements, specifically those associated with providing override and replacement capabilities for failed subsea hardware, and with the connection technology for lowlines and umbilicals. If these areas of potential failure can be shown to be manageable, then a major area of risk associated with subsea developments can be eliminated.

  6. Simulating an Automated Approach to Discovery and Modeling of Open Source Software Development Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scacchi, Walt

    of automated process discovery and modeling mechanisms that can be applied to Web-based software development projects. Keywords: Automated Process Discovery, Process Modeling and Simulation, Open Source SoftwareSimulating an Automated Approach to Discovery and Modeling of Open Source Software Development

  7. Simulating an Automated Approach to Discovery and Modeling of Open Source Software Development Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scacchi, Walt

    Process Discovery, Process Modeling and Simulation, Open Source Software Development 1. Introduction to that can more readily facilitate process discovery and modeling. In our approach, we identify the kindsSimulating an Automated Approach to Discovery and Modeling of Open Source Software Development

  8. Development of a Data Driven Dynamic Model for a Plasma Etching Reactor Michael Nikolaoua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaou, Michael

    1 Development of a Data Driven Dynamic Model for a Plasma Etching Reactor Michael Nikolaoua for identification and validation of an empirical model for a helicon plasma reactor, on the basis of experimental manufacturing processes such as plasma etching, accurate models based on first principles may be developed

  9. Developing a Model for Planning and Controlling Production in Small Sized Building Firms Proceedings IGLC `98

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    Developing a Model for Planning and Controlling Production in Small Sized Building Firms Proceedings IGLC `98 DEVELOPING A MODEL FOR PLANNING AND CONTROLLING PRODUCTION IN SMALL SIZED BUILDING FIRMS process of a model for planning and controlling production in small sized building companies, as well

  10. Pressure-gain combustion. Part 1: Model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayanaswami, L. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States); Richards, G.A. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center

    1996-07-01

    A model for aerodynamically valved pulse combustion is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on using the model equations to identify characteristic length and time scales relevant to the design of pressure-gain combustors for gas turbine applications. The model is a control volume description of conservation laws for several regions of the pulse combustor. Combustion is modeled as a bimolecular reaction. Mixing between the fresh charge and the combustion products is modeled using a turbulent eddy time estimated from the combustor geometry and flow conditions. The model equations identify two characteristic lengths, which should be held constant during combustor scaleup, as well as certain exceptions to this approach. The effect of ambient operating pressure and inlet air temperature is also discussed.

  11. Modeling the Impacts of Solar Distributed Generation on U.S. Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda, Smith; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Jaron, Peck

    2015-01-01

    Distributed electric power generation technologies typically use little or no water per unit of electrical energy produced; in particular, renewable energy sources such as solar PV systems do not require cooling systems and present an opportunity to reduce water usage for power generation. Within the US, the fuel mix used for power generation varies regionally, and certain areas use more water for power generation than others. The need to reduce water usage for power generation is even more urgent in view of climate change uncertainties. In this paper, we present an example case within the state of Tennessee, one of the top four states in water consumption for power generation and one of the states with little or no potential for developing centralized renewable energy generations. The potential for developing PV generation within Knox County, Tennessee, is studied, along with the potential for reducing water withdrawal and consumption within the Tennessee Valley stream region. Electric power generation plants in the region are quantified for their electricity production and expected water withdrawal and consumption over one year, where electrical generation data is provided over one year and water usage is modeled based on the cooling system(s) in use. Potential solar PV electrical production is modeled based on LiDAR data and weather data for the same year. Our proposed methodology can be summarized as follows: First, the potential solar generation is compared against the local grid demand. Next, electrical generation reductions are specified that would result in a given reduction in water withdrawal and a given reduction in water consumption, and compared with the current water withdrawal and consumption rates for the existing fuel mix. The increase in solar PV development that would produce an equivalent amount of power, is determined. In this way, we consider how targeted local actions may affect the larger stream region through thoughtful energy development. This model can be applied to other regions, other types of distributed generation, and used as a framework for modeling alternative growth scenarios in power production capacity in addition to modeling adjustments to existing capacity.

  12. A new analytic-adaptive model for EGS assessment, development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (THMC) processes relevant to thermal energy extraction from an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). UNR defines the great challenges in numerical modeling as to (1) dealing...

  13. The Brief History and Future Development of Earth System Models...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    modeling * Brief discussion of computational methods * Environmental Justice connected to climate change * Behind the scenes White House origin of the U. S. Global Change Research...

  14. Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    argument. The parameter is modeled as a function of PGA and MMSF (the regression equation). In this application, the regression equation is given by 0 PGA 1 MMSF ...

  15. Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency A novel method for fabricating custom porous filtration media for emission control has been developed. Controlled pore sizes could be used to optimize...

  16. Development of Chemical Model to Predict the Interactions between...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CO2 and Fluid, Rocks in EGS Reservoirs Project Type Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and DevelopmentAnalysis Project Type Topic 2...

  17. Development and Applications of the Community Ice Sheet Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Matthew J.; Lipscomb, William H.; Price, Stephen F.; Johnson, Jesse; Sacks, William

    2012-07-23

    The initial goals of the project are: (1) create a model for land ice that includes relevant and necessary dynamics, physical processes, and couplings; and (2) apply that model to say something more substantial about SLR in Lme for IPCC AR5 (AR6?).

  18. Development of Baseline Monthly Utility Models for Fort Hood, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Saman, N. F.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.; Chalifoux, A.

    1996-01-01

    ) + f3 c * DD(r J (3) where DD (r ) are the degree-days to the base r, and the subscripts c and h stand for cooling and heating respectively. Note that eqs. (1) and (2) represent a model with three regression parameters, i.e, a 3-P model, while eq...

  19. Development of Prototype UrbanSim Models Zachary Patterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierlaire, Michel

    TRANSP-OR 080814 Transport and Mobility Laboratory School of Architecture, Civil and EnvironmentalSim model are large. Moreover, the complexity of model preparation, estimation and calibration can seem very onerous. This paper is aimed at researchers and planners considering starting an UrbanSim project, or who

  20. Model documentation natural gas transmission and distribution model (NGTDM) of the national energy modeling system. Volume II: Model developer`s report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-03

    To partially fulfill the requirements for {open_quotes}Model Acceptance{close_quotes} as stipulated in EIA Standard 91-01-01 (effective February 3, 1991), the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting has conducted tests of the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) for the specific purpose of validating the forecasting model. This volume of the model documentation presents the results of {open_quotes}one-at-a-time{close_quotes} sensitivity tests conducted in support of this validation effort. The test results are presented in the following forms: (1) Tables of important model outputs for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented with respect to change in each input from the reference case; (2) Tables of percent changes from base case results for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented for important model outputs; (3) Tables of conditional sensitivities (percent change in output/percent change in input) for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented for important model outputs; (4) Finally, graphs presenting the percent change from base case results for each year of the forecast period are presented for selected key outputs. To conduct the sensitivity tests, two main assumptions are made in order to test the performance characteristics of the model itself and facilitate the understanding of the effects of the changes in the key input variables to the model on the selected key output variables: (1) responses to the amount demanded do not occur since there are no feedbacks of inputs from other NEMS models in the stand-alone NGTDM run. (2) All the export and import quantities from and to Canada and Mexico, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and exports are held fixed (i.e., there are no changes in imports and exports between the reference case and the sensitivity cases) throughout the forecast period.

  1. Accepted biodiversity loss of peatland habitats in Environmental Impact Assessments for onshore windfarm developments in the South West of Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Iain I

    2014-11-27

    decision makers with enough information to determine whether or not a project should proceed. Within EIAs the impacts on biodiversity are covered however these impacts are often considered as insignificant at the project level. Onshore wind energy has seen...

  2. Simulating the Biogeochemical and Biogeophysical Impacts of Transient Land Cover Change and Wood Harvest in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) from 1850 to 2100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Peter J.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Meehl, Gerald A.; O’ Neill, Brian C.; Oleson, Keith W.; Levis, Samuel; Lawrence, David M.; Kluzek, Erik; Lindsay, Keith

    2012-05-01

    To assess the climate impacts of historical and projected land cover change in the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4), new time series of transient Community Land Model, version 4 (CLM4) plant functional ...

  3. Impact of Agricultural Practice on Regional Climate in a CoupledLand Surface Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, H.S.; Riley, W.J.; Torn, M.S.; He, Y.

    2004-07-01

    The land surface has been shown to form strong feedbacks with climate due to linkages between atmospheric conditions and terrestrial ecosystem exchanges of energy, momentum, water, and trace gases. Although often ignored in modeling studies, land management itself may form significant feedbacks. Because crops are harvested earlier under drier conditions, regional air temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture, for example, affect harvest timing, particularly of rain-fed crops. This removal of vegetation alters the land surface characteristics and may, in turn, affect regional climate. We applied a coupled climate(MM5) and land-surface (LSM1) model to examine the effects of early and late winter wheat harvest on regional climate in the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility in the Southern Great Plains, where winter wheat accounts for 20 percent of the land area. Within the winter wheat region, simulated 2 m air temperature was 1.3 C warmer in the Early Harvest scenario at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Soils in the harvested area were drier and warmer in the top 10 cm and wetter in the 10-20 cm layer. Midday soils were 2.5 C warmer in the harvested area at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Harvest also dramatically altered latent and sensible heat fluxes. Although differences between scenarios diminished once both scenarios were harvested, the short-term impacts of land management on climate were comparable to those from land cover change demonstrated in other studies.

  4. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

  5. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  6. Development of Baseline Monthly Utility Models for Fort Hood, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Saman, N. F.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.; Chalifoux, A.

    1996-01-01

    -available weather data for Temple, Texas covered only through May 1994. In view of the objectives of this study, it was decided to limit the present analysis at the cantonment area level from January 1989 to December 1993 data only. the effects of parameters... of the presence of functional discontinuities, called "change points". A widely adopted convention is to refer to a single variable model with, say, three parameters as a 3-P SV model. This study will limit itself to SV models only, and consequently the term...

  7. Utilizing CLASIC observations and multiscale models to study the impact of improved Land surface representation on modeling cloud- convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niyogi, Devdutta S.

    2013-06-07

    The CLASIC experiment was conducted over the US southern great plains (SGP) in June 2007 with an objective to lead an enhanced understanding of the cumulus convection particularly as it relates to land surface conditions. This project was design to help assist with understanding the overall improvement of land atmosphere convection initiation representation of which is important for global and regional models. The study helped address one of the critical documented deficiency in the models central to the ARM objectives for cumulus convection initiation and particularly under summer time conditions. This project was guided by the scientific question building on the CLASIC theme questions: What is the effect of improved land surface representation on the ability of coupled models to simulate cumulus and convection initiation? The focus was on the US Southern Great Plains region. Since the CLASIC period was anomalously wet the strategy has been to use other periods and domains to develop the comparative assessment for the CLASIC data period, and to understand the mechanisms of the anomalous wet conditions on the tropical systems and convection over land. The data periods include the IHOP 2002 field experiment that was over roughly same domain as the CLASIC in the SGP, and some of the DOE funded Ameriflux datasets.

  8. Models and Solution Approaches for Development and Installation of PEV Infrastructure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seok

    2012-02-14

    This dissertation formulates and develops models and solution approaches for plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging station installation. The models are formulated in the form of bilevel programming and stochastic programming problems, while a meta...

  9. Development of a Hydraulic Manipulator Servoactuator Model: Simulation and Experimental Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papadopoulos, Evangelos

    Development of a Hydraulic Manipulator Servoactuator Model: Simulation and Experimental Validation Abstract In this paper, modelling and identification of a hydraulic servoactuator system is presented, leakage, and load dynamics. System parameters are identified based on a high-performance hydraulic

  10. Development and Validation of a Computer Model for Energy-Efficient Shaded Fenestration Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Kie Whan

    2000-01-01

    transfer through an unshaded window at any orientation. A computerized simulation model, called the Shaded Fenestration Design (SFD) model, was developed that is capable of calculating the amount of solar radiation for a clear day as well as calculating...

  11. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Engineering Program, Project 7: Development of Field Exposure Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, T.D.; Rankin, R.F.; Wiley, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a conceptual model for estimating magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure (PE) of individuals or groups and construct a working model using existing data.

  12. Oxidation kinetics of methylphosphonic acid in supercritical water : experimental measurements and model development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Patricia A. (Patricia Ann), 1978-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) at well-defined operating conditions and to develop. both microscopic and macroscopic models, ranging from regressed global models to an elementary reaction mechanism, to quantify MPA oxidation kinetics in supercritical ...

  13. Development of models for series and parallel fan variable air volume terminal units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furr, James C., Jr

    2007-09-17

    Empirical models of airflow output and power consumption were developed for series and parallel fan powered variable air volume terminal units at typical design pressure conditions. A testing procedure and experimental setup were developed to test...

  14. Numerical modeling of hydraulic fracture initiation and development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-05-25

    Calculation scheme for modeling a hydraulic fracturing process: horizontal section of a ...... Jr., “Overview of current hydraulic fracturing design and treatment technology. .... A. A. Dobroskok, A. Ghassemi, and A. M. Linkov, “Extended structural ...

  15. Development of a simplified model for cooling and dehumidifying coils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maldonado, Eliezer

    1997-01-01

    Precise understanding of the cooling coil in air handler units is vital to assure the proper temperature and humidity in conditioned space while minimizing the associated costs of operating the air conditioning system. Several models have been...

  16. Village adoption scheme : a model for rural development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanavati, Shahid Sadruddin, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    The study describes a "Village Adoption Scheme" as a model for energising the rural economy in India and to slow down rural - urban migration which research has shown to be harmful to both; rural and urban people of India ...

  17. Development of a body force model for centrifugal compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kottapalli, Anjaney Pramod

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on modeling the internal ow in centrifugal compressors for the purpose of assessing the onset of rotating stall and surge. The current methods to determine centrifugal compressor stability limits ...

  18. Development of models for exchange of electronic documents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glavev, Victor

    2014-11-18

    The report presents a model for exchange of electronic documents between different government administrations. It defines electronic messages that are transmitted between them and the way that messages should be processed by software systems. The proposed approach is sufficiently general and allows use of the best applicable information technologies such as data presentation structures and communication protocols. Within the study, a simple implementation of the model is implemented and deployed in various government administrations in Republic of Bulgaria.

  19. Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data Elizabeth J. Kelly and Raymond N. Tell

  20. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Experimental Validation Development of CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  1. Reflections on relationships between national and world events and development of dermatology. Venezuela as a model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goihman-Yahr, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    development of dermatology. Venezuela as a model MauricioVargas School of Medicine, Central University of Venezuela,Caracas Venezuela. ABSTRACT From a personal vantage, the

  2. Designing On-Road Vehicle Test Programs for the Development of Effective Vehicle Emission Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Younglove, T; Scora, G; Barth, M

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty in Highway Vehicle Emission Factors,” EmissionPrograms for Effective Vehicle Emission Model DevelopmentU.S. EPA’s Mobile Vehicle Emission Simulator) are becoming

  3. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  4. Modeling distributed product development processes in small and medium enterprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mkrtchyan, Armen A

    2015-01-01

    Effective and efficient product development (PD) is critical to the success of many firms. The market's emphasis on getting faster and cheaper products has forced firms to shift their PD practices from sequential to ...

  5. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  6. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    Regional climate change impact (CCI) studies have widely involved downscaling and bias-correcting (BC) Global Climate Model (GCM)-projected climate for driving land surface models. However, BC may cause uncertainties in projecting hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to future climate due to the impaired spatiotemporal covariance of climate variables and a breakdown of physical conservation principles. Here we quantify the impact of BC on simulated climate-driven changes in water variables(evapotranspiration, ET; runoff; snow water equivalent, SWE; and water demand for irrigation), crop yield, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Region. We also quantify the impacts on net primary production (NPP) over a small watershed in the region (HJ Andrews). Simulation results from the coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM model with A1B emission scenario were firstly dynamically downscaled to 12 km resolutions with WRF model. Then a quantile mapping based statistical downscaling model was used to downscale them into 1/16th degree resolution daily climate data over historical and future periods. Two series climate data were generated according to the option of bias-correction (i.e. with bias-correction (BC) and without bias-correction, NBC). Impact models were then applied to estimate hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to both BC and NBC meteorological datasets. These im20 pact models include a macro-scale hydrologic model (VIC), a coupled cropping system model (VIC-CropSyst), an ecohydrologic model (RHESSys), a biogenic emissions model (MEGAN), and a nutrient export model (Global-NEWS). Results demonstrate that the BC and NBC climate data provide consistent estimates of the climate-driven changes in water fluxes (ET, runoff, and water demand), VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) and NO emissions, mean crop yield, and river DIN export over the PNW domain. However, significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews’s ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  7. Great Plains ASPEN model development: executive summary. Final topical report for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinard, I.H.; Stern, S.S.; Millman, M.C.; Schwint, K.J.; Benjamin, B.W.; Kirman, J.J.; Dweck, J.S.; Mendelson, M.A.

    1986-07-25

    The Scientific Design Company contracted with the United States Department of Energy through its Morgantown Energy Technology Center to develop a steady-state simulation model of the Great Plains Coal Gasification plant. This plant produces substitute natural gas from North Dakota lignite. The model was to be developed using the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) simulation program. The project was divided into the following tasks: (1) Development of a simplified overall model of the process to be used for a sensitivity analysis to guide the development of more rigorous section models. (2) Review and evaluation of existing rigorous moving-bed gasifier models leading to a recommendation of one to be used to model the Great Plains gasifiers. Adaption and incorporation of this model into ASPEN. (3) Review of the accuracy and completeness of the physical properties data and models provided by ASPEN that are required to characterize the Great Plains plant. Rectification of inaccurate or incomplete data. (4) Development of rigorous ASPEN models for critical unit operations and sections of the plant. (5) Evaluation of the accuracy of the ASPEN Cost Estimation and Evaluation System and upgrading where feasible. Development of a preliminary cost estimate for the Great Plains plant. (6) Validation of the simulation models developed in the course of this project. Determination of model sensitivity to variations of technical and economic parameters. (7) Documentation of all work performed in the course of this project. Essentially all of these tasks were completed successfully. 34 figs.

  8. AutoMoDe - Model-Based Development of Automotive Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegenbein, Dirk; Freund, Ulrich; Bauer, Andreas; Romberg, Jan; Schatz, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes first results from the AutoMoDe (Automotive Model-Based Development) project. The overall goal of the project is to develop an integrated methodology for model-based development of automotive control software, based on problem-specific design notations with an explicit formal foundation. Based on the existing AutoFOCUS framework, a tool prototype is being developed in order to illustrate and validate the key elements of our approach.

  9. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF PAVER SYSTEMS ON URBAN DEVELOPMENT USING A DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGICAL MODEL 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politte, Alyssa

    2011-08-08

    is to use Low Impact Development (LID) options. LIDs have been proposed in an attempt to mimic the natural flow regime by controlling storm water at the source. LID practices such as rainwater harvesting, green roofs, and permeable pavement can be used...

  10. Tuesday, March 14, 2006 POSTER SESSION I: IMPACTS: MODELING AND STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    the crater, most likely at great depth near the center. Kenkmann T. Jahn A. Wünnemann K. "Block Size-silicate mixture targets. Anderson J. L. B. Schultz P. H. Flow-Field Center Migration During Oblique Impacts oblique impacts constrain the three-dimensional migration of uprange, downrange, and lateral flow

  11. LAAS Ionosphere Spatial Gradient Threat Model and Impact of LGF and Airborne Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    delay before it impacts the airplane, there is no error. In other cases, the accumulated error depends front motion and the airplane approach direction (0 ­ 360°). The impact of potential ionosphere (TEC). The state of the ionosphere is a function of intensity of solar activity, magnetic latitude

  12. Green Water Flow Kinematics and Impact Pressure on a Three Dimensional Model Structure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyarathne, Hanchapola Appuhamilage Kusalika Suranjani

    2011-10-21

    pressure with kinetic energy. Constant impact coefficient of 1.3 was found for wall impingement wave. However, for deck impingement wave, it was not possible to find a constant impact coefficient. It was also found that there is a linear relationship...

  13. An Empirical Investigation of Price Impact: An Agent-based Modelling Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    . The first study examines the intraday behaviours of price impact and market liquidity. The data is drawn stocks from the UK markets are analysed. The intraday patterns on price volatility, bid-ask spread for understanding how financial markets function as price impact is one of the mechanisms determining price

  14. A framework for the cross-sectoral integration of multi-model impact1 projections:2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levermann, Anders

    -13 energy production. So far available studies addressing this problem relied on individual impact14 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany12 2 University of Chicago, Chicago, Germany15 5 Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands16 6 IPSL ­ LSCE, Gif sur Yvette France17 7 Centre

  15. New Model Demonstrates Offshore Wind Industry's Job Growth Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (NREL) has developed a tool to estimate jobs and other economic impacts associated with offshore wind development in the United States. The modeling tool, which illustrates the...

  16. New Model Demonstrates Offshore Wind Industry's Job Growth Potential...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    developed a tool to estimate jobs and other economic impacts associated with offshore wind development in the United States. The modeling tool, which illustrates the potential...

  17. Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Hathaway, John E.; Lansing, Carina S.; Liu, Ying; McJeon, Haewon C.; Moss, Richard H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2014-12-06

    This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

  18. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iraj A Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-05-01

    Work continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been completed successfully for the FEM3A model utilizing the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) turbulence closure model. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have solved the problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions with FEM3A using the PBL model, and are continuing our program to verify the operation of the model using an updated, verified, version of the k-epsilon turbulence closure model which has been modified to handle dense gas dispersion effects. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2006. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and the identified questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is discussed in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached.

  19. Cost Benefit Analysis Modeling Tool for Electric vs. ICE Airport Ground Support Equipment – Development and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Francfort; Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard

    2007-02-01

    This report documents efforts to develop a computer tool for modeling the economic payback for comparative airport ground support equipment (GSE) that are propelled by either electric motors or gasoline and diesel engines. The types of GSE modeled are pushback tractors, baggage tractors, and belt loaders. The GSE modeling tool includes an emissions module that estimates the amount of tailpipe emissions saved by replacing internal combustion engine GSE with electric GSE. This report contains modeling assumptions, methodology, a user’s manual, and modeling results. The model was developed based on the operations of two airlines at four United States airports.

  20. Gaseous Chemistry and Aerosol Mechanism Developments for Version 3.5.1 of the Online Regional Model, WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Lowe, Douglas; Utembe, Steve; Allan, James D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Hodnebrog, Oivind; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; McFiggans, Gordon

    2014-11-08

    We have made a number of developments in the regional coupled model WRF-Chem, with the aim of making the model more suitable for prediction of atmospheric composition and of interactions between air quality and weather. We have worked on the European domain, with a particular focus on making the model suitable for the study of night time chemistry and oxidation by the nitrate radical in the UK atmosphere. A reduced form of the Common Reactive Intermediates gas-phase chemical mechanism (CRIv2-R5) has been implemented to enable more explicit simulation of VOC degradation. N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has been added to the existing sectional MOSAIC aerosol module, and coupled to both the CRIv2-R5 and existing CBM-Z gas phase scheme. Modifications have also been made to the sea-spray aerosol emission representation, allowing the inclusion of primary organic material in sea-spray aerosol. Driven by appropriate emissions, wind fields and chemical boundary conditions, implementation of the different developments is illustrated in order to demonstrate the impact that these changes have in the North-West European domain. These developments are now part of the freely available WRF-Chem distribution.