Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Behavior-Based Transportation Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Under the Clean Development Mechanism Transport-Efficient Development in Nanchang, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a methodology, consistent with the Kyoto Protocol?s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), to quantify the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction benefits of transport efficient development (TED). TED aims to reduce ...

Zegras, P. Christopher

3

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

5

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development Toolkit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpen EnergyBoard" form. ToGestionSolar Inc GTSGreenhouse Gas

6

REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mitigation effort post-2012. Reducing GHG emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)2 in developing of Environment of Mexico1 Esteve Corbera and Katrina Brown Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UK School of Mexico or the Mexican Government. #12;ABSTRACT This paper provides a critical perspective to the debate

Watson, Andrew

7

Greenhouse Gas Basics  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect."

8

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a multiplicity of development pathways in which low energy sector emissions are not necessarily associated with low economic growth. However, changes in development pathways can rarely be imposed from the top. On this basis, examples of energy efficiency opportunities to change development pathways toward lower emissions are presented in this paper. We review opportunities at the sectoral and macro level. The potential for action on nonclimate policies that influence energy use and emissions are presented. Examples are drawn from policies already adopted and implemented in the energy sector. The paper discusses relationships between energy efficiency policies and their synergies and tradeoffs with sustainable development and greenhouse gas emissions. It points to ways that energy efficiency could be mainstreamed into devel?opment choices.

Alterra, Swart; Masanet, Eric; Lecocq, Franck; Najam, Adil; Schaeffer, Robert; Winkler, Harald; Sathaye, Jayant

2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

9

Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

10

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Guidance on measuring and reporting Greenhouse Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidance on measuring and reporting Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from freight transport This guidance provides clear instructions on calculating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight and report your greenhouse gas emissions', by providing more specific information and examples relating

12

Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With Climate Change legislation on the horizon, the need to integrate energy reduction initiatives with greenhouse gas reduction efforts is critical to manufactures competitiveness and financial strength going forward. MPC has developed...

Spates, C. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Resources on Greenhouse Gas | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

resources for reporting annual greenhouse gas activities. FedCenter Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporting Website: Features additional information, training, and tools to assist...

14

Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Federal Agency Progress Toward Reduction Targets Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals FY 2011 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals FY 2010...

15

Graduate Opportunities in Atmospheric Modeling to Understand Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graduate Opportunities in Atmospheric Modeling to Understand Greenhouse Gas Emissions University://www.atmos.utah.edu/) seeks multiple graduate students to study greenhouse gas emissions associated with urban development greenhouse gas emissions. Samples of guiding questions as part of the projects include: · What can explain

Lin, John Chun-Han

16

Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

Anderson, Diana

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

17

Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program provides performance data illustrating federal agency progress in meeting the greenhouse gas reduction targets established under Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, as well as the comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories as reported by federal agencies.

18

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires...

19

Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

greenhouse gas emissions - the technology component of a comprehensive U.S. approach to climate change. The technologies developed under the Climate Change Technology program...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Greenhouse Gas Program Overview (Revised) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Greenhouse Gas program, including Federal requirements, FEMP services, and contacts.

Not Available

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Protection Agency, Danish Energy Authority and Danish Ministry of Finance. The consultancy reportDanish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020 and 2050 February 2008 Prepared by Ea Energy 54 2.9 ENERGY RESOURCES 55 3 DANISH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION 58 3.1 GREENHOUSE GAS SOURCES 58 4

23

RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY METHODS Prepared For: California Energy Commission Consulting · Riitta Pipatti, IPCC Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories · Dennis Rolston Agency · Fabian Wagner, IPCC Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories · Wilfried Winiwarter

24

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Augustin J et al. Automated gas chromatographic system forof the atmospheric trace gases methane, carbon dioxide, andfuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Article Correction to Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. (2007) Agriculture. Climate Change 2007: Mitigationagricultures future contributions to climate change,agriculture greenhouse gas emissions mitigation carbon price | land use change | climate

Burney, J. A; Davis, S. J; Lobell, D. B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section sets state goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 10 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.

29

Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas...

30

Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

Not Available

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

33

Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to assemble and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models.

Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

34

Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and...

35

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol...

36

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

OSullivan, Francis Martin

37

A Novel Paradigm in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emission [1, 2]. Moreover, water vapor is also a naturally occurring greenhouse gas and accounts for the largest percent- age of the greenhouse effect, between 36% and 66% in terms of radiation absorbance. Water). Yet the radiative importance of water vapor is less than that of CO2, CH4, and N2O, because

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

38

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development (economic, local environmental, and social) considerations: synergies and tradeoffs Sector and mitigation options Energylocal environmental, and social sustainable development goals. In the case of energy

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Business Travel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Business travel is among the largest sources of Scope 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounted for by Federal agencies. For some agencies, business travel can represent up to 60% of Scope 3...

40

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development of hydroelectric power. Energy, 20(10), 977981.plants in place of hydroelectric power for instance, but

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sustainable development of hydroelectric power. Energy, 20(power plants in place of hydroelectric power for instance,example, although hydroelectric plants have the potential of

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005). Assessment of small hydropower potential using remoteSustainable development of hydropower and biomass energy inface reduced exports Hydropower plants may displace local

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R. (1998). Using solar cookers and gardens to improve healththat the availability of cleaner burning cookers andsolar cookers in developing countries not only has important

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas) · Simple, somewhat inflexible · Do not price emissions directly Carbon taxes · Use market forces Council June 4, 2013 Portland, OR 1 CO2 Chemistry 1 molecule of CO 1 atom carbon1 molecule of CO2 = 1 atom

46

Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Fiscal Year 2010 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiscal Year 2010 Greenhouse Gas Inventory OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY #12;OREGON STATE UNIVERSITYGHG UNIVERSITYGHG Report - FY10 3 Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people Oil: Amber Sams · Enterprise Rent-A-Car: Davion Reese · First Student: Brian Maxwell · Good Company

Escher, Christine

49

Fiscal Year 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiscal Year 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Oregon State University Greg Smith Sustainability Program #12;Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people from many - First Student: Brian Maxwell - Carson Oil: Gena Conner Government Organizations - Baker County: Jason

Escher, Christine

50

2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Princeton University Reports Contents 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Campus Energy was established in 2008, the University has invested $5.3 million in energy-savings projects, resulting in annual of a 5.2-megawatt solar collector field. · Audit the remaining 20 of the top 50 energy- consuming

51

Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Greg Smith Brandon Trelstad OSU Facilities Services June #12;#12;Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people from many, geothermal, tidal or sea currents etc. (7) "OUS Method" refers to the inventory for FY07 that is similar

Escher, Christine

52

[Page Intentionally Left Blank] Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..........................................................................11 4.2 Conventional Jet Fuel from Crude Oil2 June #12;[Page Intentionally Left Blank] #12;Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Alternative .......................................5 3.1 Life cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Reuter, Martin

53

Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

54

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623Primary MetalsOrigin State Glossary

55

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

56

greenhouse gas inve green developmen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extension faculty members develop and provide education to the public on energy and environmental issues. Through our research on renewable energy sources, sustainable agricultural practices and the effects the education and research carried out in our Institute for Sustainable Design and our Center for Sustaining

Collins, Gary S.

57

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2729 in T. Wirth, editor. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gasfor national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume 2.National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme Task Force

Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the worlds roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the worlds roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the worlds roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gases in the Earths atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and ...

Howie, James Edward

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Allocation of Emissions from a Combined Heat and Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of...

62

Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name: Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy AgencyCompany Organization: World Resources Institute Sector: Energy, Land Topics:...

63

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements AgencyCompany Organization: Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Sector: Energy, Land...

64

Energy Department Assisting Launch of Low Greenhouse Gas-Emitting...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Launch of Low Greenhouse Gas-Emitting Jet Fuels Crow Nation Students Participate in Algae Biomass Research Project Secretary Chu Announces 100 Million for Advanced Research...

65

Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Federal Guidance Read the White House Council on Environmental Quality's...

66

Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in High Conservation Value Areas Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas...

67

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization...

68

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Purchased Electricity Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity AgencyCompany...

69

Analysis of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Tax Proposals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The U.S. Congress is considering a set of bills designed to limit the nations greenhouse gas (GHG)

Metcalf, Gilbert E.

70

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmenta...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods AgencyCompany...

71

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Policies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potentials and Policies...

72

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

- Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle...

73

Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile for employee commuting, data on behavior and attitudes are best collected through an agency-wide survey.

74

Federal Agency Progress Toward Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel spreadsheet shows overall government and federal agency reductions in scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and in indirect scope 3 GHG emissions categories.

75

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency...

76

Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

Schlesinger, M. E.

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

PG&E's Renewable Portfolio Standard & Greenhouse Gas Compliance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PG&E's Renewable Portfolio Standard & Greenhouse Gas Compliance Fong Wan Senior Vice President, Energy Procurement 9/5/13 California Power Markets Symposium #12;1. PG&E Renewable Portfolio Standard 2. AB32 and Greenhouse Gas Legislation Outline #12;PG&E's Electric Generation Portfolio *Note: Other

78

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

79

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations ABSTRACT This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types

80

The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

renewable energy is greater than in industrialized of these technologies in developing countriesin developing countries. such as renewable energydeveloping encourage development investments countries. in Appropriate energy mitigation renewable

La Rovere, Emilio Lebre

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcings Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geosciences ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 12 European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A System in Transition* Summary: European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A...

82

U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012 U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012 The report ranks...

83

U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis thumbenergyuselossemissionslg.gif How...

84

Greenhouse Gas Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked...

85

The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

La Rovere, E.L.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

Case, Sean Daniel Charles

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Greenhouse Gas Programs, Energy Efficiency, and the Industrial Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The United States has made significant progress in reducing total energy use through energy efficiency improvements over the past decade, yet the United States still ranks as the highest absolute greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter in the world with 23...

Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

89

Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

to a low-carbon economy. We must also lead by example in reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with our own operations and facilities. On October 5,2009, the...

90

Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of ...

Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Fiscal Year 2012 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel spreadsheet shows scope 1, 2, and 3 greenhouse gas inventories reported by federal agencies in fiscal year 2012. It includes emissions from sources not subject to the reduction targets.

92

Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers Director, Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Australian National University Ph 61 2 6125 5905 Andrew.blakers@anu.edu.au Web: http

93

Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Registry (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Iowa Department of Natural Resources is required to establish a method for collecting emissions estimates from producers of greenhouse gases. Reporting is mandatory for some entities, and the...

94

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Over the last thirty years, moreMineLand Rehabilitation · PowerGeneration · System/PlantOperation andMaintenance · AuxiliaryNaturalGas Combustion · Coal-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation could

95

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData and Resources NREL resourceEnergy Systems IntegrationGreenhouse

98

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fearnside, P.M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions ­ Outlook June 4, 2013 Steven Simmons CO2 Emission Outlook for the Pacific NW (ID-MT- OR-WA) Key Factors that determine Emissions Levels 1 Demand & Conservation 50 60 70 2 1. Demand

100

II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective and Research Associate, respectively, Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University. Seniority of Authorship is shared. This research was supported by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station through

McCarl, Bruce A.

102

Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production (crude refineryLand Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil Production and Oil Sands S O N I A Y E H and Alberta as examples for conventional oil production as well as oil sands production in Alberta

Turetsky, Merritt

103

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics Over the last thirty years, hundreds and utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. ~40 g CO2

104

An Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic Analysis ­ Greenhouse Gas Emissions Prepared by Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawai`i And University of Hawai`i Economic Research, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned

105

California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: How Do They Add Up?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regulations, aimed, for instance, at altering electricity fuel choice, household energy use, and automotive California is implementing a broad portfolio of regulations aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, many of these policies, if undertaken without the cooperation of neighboring states may result

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

106

The Agricultural Sector and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Model (ASMGHG)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

...................................................................................37 3.5.1.1 Direct Carbon Emissions Through Fossil Fuel Use.....................38 3.5.1.2 Indirect.5.2.2 Production of Fossil Fuel Substitutes...........................................49 3.5.2.3 Conversion Taxes and Sequestration Subsidies...............................66 3.8.2.4 Special Greenhouse Gas

McCarl, Bruce A.

107

Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen

Dabdub, Donald

108

ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(CO2) emission reduction estimates were obtained for each of the measures. The package of measures the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian transportation sector. Reductions-makers will require estimates of both the potential emission reductions and the costs or benefits associated

109

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Wang, M. (2001) "Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Fuels and MotorLifecycle Analysis of Biofuels." Report UCD-ITS-RR-06-08.

Kammen, Daniel M.; Farrell, Alexander E; Plevin, Richard J; Jones, Andrew; Nemet, Gregory F; Delucchi, Mark

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric...

111

Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...

112

The Essential Role of State Enforcement in the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

greenhouse gas emissions trading market, the Regionalwith respect to emissions trading markets. 23 We must have a

Bogoshian, Matt; Alex, Ken

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Proposals: Application of a Forward-Looking Computable General Equilibrium Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

Gurgel, Angelo C.

115

Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment Katta G. Murty Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering University of Michigan, Ann to tremendous increases in the construction of huge airport facilities, the development of large jumbo

Murty, Katta G.

116

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information 1. GHG Emissions Estimation for Production of Marcellus Shale Gas 1.1 Preparation of Well Pad estimate from Columbia University shows the size of a multi-well pad of Marcellus Shale averages 20

Jaramillo, Paulina

119

Using Coupled Harmonic Oscillators to Model Some Greenhouse Gas Molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Common greenhouse gas molecules SF{sub 6}, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} are modeled as harmonic oscillators whose potential and kinetic energies are derived. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation, their equations of motion are derived and their phase portraits are plotted. The authors use these data to attempt to explain the lifespan of these gases in the atmosphere.

Go, Clark Kendrick C.; Maquiling, Joel T. [Department of Physics, Ateneo de Manila University, Katipunan Avenue, Quezon City (Philippines)

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

120

Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

Kimberly Frerichs

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

Kimberly Frerichs

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies for Employee Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section will help agencies to determine the most visible alternatives to single occupancy vehicle (SOV) commuting at the agencies major worksites establish the number of employees that may reasonably switch to non-SOV methods and estimate the resulting impact greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at their worksites. Learn how to: Identify relevant alternatives and supporting strategies Evaluate potential adoption of alternatives Estimate the GHG emission impact

123

Sandia National Laboratories: greenhouse gas emission reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia,evaluatingfull module

124

Climate change : enhanced : recent reductions in China's greenhouse gas emissions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using the most recent energy and other statistical data, we have estimated the annual trends in China's greenhouse gas emissions for the period 1990 to 2000. The authors of this Policy Forum calculate that CO2 emissions declined by 7.3% between 1996 and 2000, while CH4 emissions declined by 2.2% between 1997 and 2000. These reductions were due to a combination of energy reforms, economic restructuring, forestry policies, and economic slowdown. The effects of these emission changes on global mean temperatures are estimated and compared with the effects of concurrent changes in two aerosol species, sulfate and black carbon.

Streets, D. G.; Jiang, K.; Hu, X.; Sinton, J. E.; Zhang, X.-Q.; Xu, D.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Hansen, J. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Energy Research Inst.; LBNL; Chinese Academy of Forestry; Stanford Univ.; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

Not Available

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, 1 December 1991--30 June 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aims of the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

The best use of biomass? Greenhouse gas lifecycle analysis of predicted pyrolysis biochar systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Life cycle analysis is carried out for 11 predicted configurations of pyrolysis biochar systems to determine greenhouse gas balance, using an original spreadsheet model. System (more)

Hammond, James A R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Vehicle Investment and Operating Costs and Savings for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To help estimate costs of implementing greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies for vehicles, the table below provides the initial investment, operating costs, and operating savings for each strategy.

131

Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies by industries : an enterprise systems architecting approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis explores an enterprise systems architecting approach to investigate the greenhouse gas reduction strategies followed by industries, especially for automotive industry and Information Technology industry. The ...

Tanthullu Athmaram, Kumaresh Babu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

2005 Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ascribable to the University of Washington  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005 Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ascribable to the University of Washington October 2007....................................................................................................................4 Corporate vs. Geographic Inventories...........................................................................4 Inventory Protocol

Kaminsky, Werner

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - agroecosystem greenhouse gas Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Research and Demonstration Project Summary: rates of energy return, greater soil carbon sequestration, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions... and belowground pools and...

134

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034014 Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas Mohan Jiang1 , W Michael Griffin2,3 , Chris greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of Marcellus shale natural gas and compares its emissions

Jaramillo, Paulina

135

California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inherently, natural gas combustion produces significantlygas turbines were fuel gas combustion devices and that theyof greenhouse gas emissions released during combustion. 5 0

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyses involving coal. Greenhouse gas emissions from fuel use and methane releases at coal mines, fuel.5 million metric tons of methane emissions. Close to 95% of domestic coal was consumed by the electricityUncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal Aranya Venkatesh

Jaramillo, Paulina

140

enhancing greenhouse gas "sinks," such as forests). The report identifies strategies that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to limit greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., through energy efficiency and low carbon energy sources). At the current rate of U.S. emissions (roughly 7 Gt CO2-eq per year), the proposed budget would be "spent" well and natural ecosys- tems around the world. The largest overall source of greenhouse gas emissions

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Words): Use of biofuels diminishes fossil fuel combustion thereby also reducing net greenhouse gasEconomic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Uwe A. Schneider emissions. However, subsidies are needed to make agricultural biofuel production economically feasible

McCarl, Bruce A.

142

Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate

143

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB1007, doi:10.1029/2008GB003180. 1. Introduction [2] Carbon (C) sequestration has

144

Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop 4493 g CO2 eq?m22 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72019. doi

DeLucia, Evan H.

145

Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, July 1, 1994--July 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to assembly and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and validation of General Circulation Models. In addition to changes due to variations in anthropogenic forcing, including greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes, the global climate system exhibits a high degree of internally-generated and externally-forced natural variability. To detect the anthropogenic effect, its signal must be isolated from the ``noise`` of this natural climatic variability. A high quality, spatially extensive data base is required to define the noise and its spatial characteristics. To facilitate this, available land and marine data bases will be updated and expanded. The data will be analyzed to determine the potential effects on climate of greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes and other factors. Analyses will be guided by a variety of models, from simple energy balance climate models to coupled atmosphere ocean General Circulation Models. These analyses are oriented towards obtaining early evidence of anthropogenic climatic change that would lead either to confirmation, rejection or modification of model projections, and towards the statistical validation of General Circulation Model control runs and perturbation experiments.

Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

1995-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

146

Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and not only by PV during sunny on-peak hours.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

149

Spatial and temporal variability of annual greenhouse gas fluxes from a constructed wetland in an arid region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(CO2). - Many constructed treatment wetland systems (CWS) have been developed to remove nutrients fromSpatial and temporal variability of annual greenhouse gas fluxes from a constructed wetland of Sustainability, 3Wetland Ecosystem Ecology Lab, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA. - Wetlands support

Hall, Sharon J.

150

Federal, state and utility roles in reducing new building greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper will explore the role of implementation of building energy codes and standards in reducing US greenhouse gas emissions. It will discuss the role of utilities in supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency in improving the efficiency of new buildings. The paper will summarize Federal policies and programs that improve code compliance and increase overall greenhouse gas emission reductions. Finally, the paper will discuss the role of code compliance and the energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions that have been realized from various Federal, State and utility programs that enhance compliance.

Johnson, J.A.; Shankle, D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Boulin, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Estimating the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation in Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the studies related to the obligations of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Republic of Kazakhstan started activities to inventory greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and assess of GHG mitigation options, The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the possibility of mitigating GHG emissions and determine the mitigation priorities. It presents a compilation of the possible options and their assessment in terms of major criteria and implementation feasibility. Taking into account the structure of GHG emissions in Kazakhstan in 1990, preliminary estimates of the potential for mitigation are presented for eight options for the energy sector and agriculture and forestry sector. The reference scenario prepared by expert assessments assumes a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in 1996-1998 by about 26% from the 1990 level due to general economic decline, but then emissions increase. It is estimated that the total potential for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions for the year 2000 is 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the reference scenario. The annual reduction in methane emissions due to the estimated options can amount to 5%-6% of the 1990 level. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Monacrovich, E.; Pilifosova, O.; Danchuck, D. [Kazakh Scientific-Research Hydrometeorlogical Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan)] [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Idaho National Laboratory's FY13 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. This report details the methods behind quantifying INLs GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only the large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

Kimberly Frerichs

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

Montes-Hernandez, German

154

Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

156

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Once a Federal agency identifies the various strategic opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for vehicles and mobile equipment, it is necessary to evaluate the associated costs of adopting each strategy.

157

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research fuels more carbonintensive than conventional biofuels. Critics of this study argue that alternative

158

Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transportation sector accounts for nearly one third of the United States' greenhouse gas emissions. While over the past number of decades, policy makers have avoided directly pricing the externalities from vehicles, ...

Knittel, Christopher Roland

159

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation as a Structural Change and Policies that Offset Its Depressing Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The current economic modeling of emissions limitations does not embody economic features that are likely to be particularly important in the short term, yet the politics of limiting greenhouse gas emissions are often ...

Babiker, Mustafa H.M.

160

Title: Net Energy Ratio and Greenhouse Gas Analysis of a Biogas Power Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Biogas Power Plant Author: W. Bauer Author Affiliation: Department and greenhouse gas analysis for a 1.45 MW (0.71 MW electrical) biogas power plant

Bauer, Wolfgang

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Employee Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, once a Federal agency identifies the employee commute alternatives and supporting strategies that will most effectively reduce trips to the worksite, costs of encouraging adoption of those methods can be estimated.

162

Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing depots, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

Kara G. Cafferty; Erin M. Searcy; Long Nguyen; Sabrina Spatari

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Greenhouse gas emissions from contrasting beef production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agriculture has been reported to contribute a significant amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere among other anthropogenic activities. With still more than 870 million people in the world suffering from under-nutrition ...

Ricci, Patricia

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

164

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced. Primary energy associated with coal products wasUse EJ China Residential Energy Use Gas Coal Oil Biomass GasUse EJ China Residential Energy Use Gas Coal Oil Gas Biomass

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Emission MitigationGreenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Afforestation, Forest management, Biofuels, Ag soil, Animals, Fertilization, Rice, Grassland expansion, Manure of Biofuel strategies Examine the dynamics of mitigation strategies #12;PolicyPolicy ContextContext U

McCarl, Bruce A.

167

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

all fuels including electricity and syngas will be used forGas Electricity Biomass Syngas Space Heating Coal Oil Gas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

gas (GHG) perspective? *How do those results compare with natural gas sourced from Russia and delivered to the same European and Asian markets via pipeline? Life Cycle GHG...

170

Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

utility electricity and natural gas purchases, amortized capital and maintenance costs for distributed generation (

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Idaho National Laboratorys Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

Jennifer D. Morton

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Chapter Four Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many states and localities are exploring or implementing clean energy policies to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria air pollutant1 emission reductions. Document map Chapter one

unknown authors

173

Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009. Stephen P Holland. Emissions taxes versus intensityindustrys greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Research2008. John CV Pezzey. Emission taxes and tradeable permits a

Rajagopal, Deepak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Carbon Geography: The Political Economy of Congressional Support for Legislation Intended to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last five years, the U.S Congress has voted on several pieces of legislation intended to sharply reduce the nations greenhouse gas emissions. Given that climate change is a world public bad, standard economic logic would predict that the United States would ?free ride? and wait for other nations to reduce their emissions. Within the Congress, there are clear patterns to who votes in favor of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a political economy analysis of the determinants of ?pro-green? votes on such legislation. Conservatives consistently vote against such legislation. Controlling for a Representatives ideology, representatives from richer districts and districts with a lower per-capita carbon dioxide footprint are more likely to vote in favor of climate change mitigation legislation. Representatives from districts where industrial emissions represent a larger share of greenhouse gas emissions are more likely to vote no.

Cragg, Michael; Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin R.; Kahn, Matthew

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6 | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor'sshortGeothermalGoGreen Engineering andGreenGreenhouse

176

Estimating the benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction from agricultural policy reform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Land use and agricultural activities contribute directly to the increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Economic support in industrialized countries generally increases agriculture's contribution to global greenhouse gas concentrations through fluxes associated with land use change and other sources. Changes in economic support offers opportunities to reduce net emissions, through this so far has gone unaccounted. Estimates are presented here of emissions of methane from livestock in the UK and show that, in monetary terms, when compared to the costs of reducing support, greenhouse gases are a significant factor. As signatory parties to the Climate Change Convection are required to stabilize emissions of all greenhouse gases, options for reduction of emissions of methane and other trace gases from the agricultural sector should form part of these strategies.

Adger, W.N. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment); Moran, D.C. (Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

holidays ICE: Internal combustion engine, GT: Gas turbine,indicate that internal combustion engines (ICE) with heatdominance of internal combustion engines with heat exchanger

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

natural gas plants to follow load as the more nimble,that annual load-growth in the five states follows the 10

Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Large Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Temperate Peatland Pasture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a by product of the conversion of organic sediment into oil, so natural gas deposits usually are found is CO2. There are important other drivers: · methane (contributes to warming, one molecule of CH4 fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) to produce energy. Almost all energy on earth ultimately comes from

Kelly, Maggi

180

Incentive-based approaches for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions : issues and prospects for India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As a consequence of the flexibility mechanisms incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol, incentive-based policies such as emissions trading and the clean development mechanism are being widely discussed in the context of greenhouse ...

Gupta, Shreekant.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

TECHNICAL REPORTS The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECHNICAL REPORTS 1396 The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential by composting and GHG emissions during composting. The primary carbon credits associated with composting are through CH4 avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid waste

Brown, Sally

182

2007-No54-BoilingPoint Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007-No54-BoilingPoint Theme Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy of fossil-fuel energy systems. These scenarios are analysed for various environmental and health impacts from fossil fuels and other energy sources reported by IEA []. In all of these countries except Kenya

Kammen, Daniel M.

183

Bioenergy crop greenhouse gas mitigation potential under a range of management practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioenergy crop greenhouse gas mitigation potential under a range of management practices T A R A W been proposed as viable bioenergy crops because of their potential to yield harvest- able biomass-senescence harvests are a more effective means than maximizing yield potential. Keywords: bioenergy, feedstocks, GHG

DeLucia, Evan H.

184

IMproved Assessment of the Greenhouse gas balance of bioeNErgy pathways (IMAGINE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMproved Assessment of the Greenhouse gas balance of bioeNErgy pathways (IMAGINE) Evaluation - ENERBIO Livrable D4.1 : GHG balances of bioenergy pathways Mars 2012 Nathalie GAGNAIRE, Benoît GABRIELLE sources by bioenergy mostly hinges on the uncertainty on the magnitude of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Response to Comment on "Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response to Comment on "Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical, and properly (sustain- ably) designed biomass energy (e.g., see ref 3). This is rooted in the fact that wind production by 2022 following Japan's Fukushima nuclear accident. Despite a major, laudable expansion of wind

186

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Scaling Behavior of the Life Cycle Energy of Residential Buildings and Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling Behavior of the Life Cycle Energy of Residential Buildings and Impacts on Greenhouse Gas the single-family detached homes ana- lyzed. Figure A shows that the energy used on-site during the construction phase of a single story 1,500 ft2 home corresponds to 5.10% the total energy used in the life

Hall, Sharon J.

188

ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHICS AND AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGIES ON GREENHOUSE GAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

McNally, MASc Candidate Bruce Hellinga, PhD, PEng Department of Civil Engineering University of Transportation Engineers to be held May 12-15, 2002 in Ottawa Ontario #12;1 Estimating the Impact of Demographics and Automotive Technologies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ryan McNally, MASc Candidate Bruce Hellinga, PhD, PEng

Hellinga, Bruce

189

Determine Vehicle Usage and Refueling Trends to Minimize Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Once a Federal agency has identified its most important mobile greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources overall, it can work with individual sites to determine vehicle usage and refueling trends. Agencies can compare the results of this analysis to internal standards and requirements to identify GHG mitigation opportunities for assets that are underperforming or underutilized.

190

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions and global  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions) from bioenergy ecosystems with a biogeochemical model AgTEM, assuming maize (Zea mays L.), switchgrass ha?1 yr?1 . Among all three bioenergy crops, Miscanthus is the most biofuel productive and the least

Zhuang, Qianlai

191

Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement Final abatement, using the first multi-party model to include both tax-versus-trading under uncertainties of an emissions tax over emissions (permit) trading in handling abatement-cost uncertainties, from that shown

Pezzey, Jack

192

Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C Malte Meinshausen1. Frame6,7 & Myles R. Allen7 More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 6C or below levels in 2050 are robust indicators of the probability that twenty-first century warming will not exceed

Imamoglu, Atac

193

The hydrogen energy economy: its long-term role in greenhouse gas reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hydrogen energy economy: its long-term role in greenhouse gas reduction Geoff Dutton, Abigail for Climate Change Research Technical Report 18 #12;The Hydrogen Energy Economy: its long term role 2005 This is the final report from Tyndall research project IT1.26 (The Hydrogen energy economy: its

Watson, Andrew

194

Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of green

Vermont, University of

195

Quantitative analysis of factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions at institutions of higher education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States, emissions from buildings comprise 40% of energy consumption and carbon emissions, not including to have 10 times more effect on emissions per square meter than space such as classroom and office, while to the institution's own greenhouse gas emission reductions, energy and water conservation, and other sustainability

Illinois at Chicago, University of

196

Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

Nishimura, Eriko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Future of Coal in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained World Howard Herzog1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technologies. · Coal Conversion Technologies. Coal-based power generation technologies were analyzed in detail1 The Future of Coal in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained World Howard Herzog1 , James Katzer1 1 M coal can make to the growing world energy demand during a period of increasing concern about global

198

Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential By Bruce biofuel usage. Biofuel feedstocks are a source of raw material that can be transformed into petroleum for coal. In the USA, liquid fuel biofuel production has not proven to be broadly economically feasible

McCarl, Bruce A.

199

Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement to an increase of AF use from 8.7% to 20.9% of the total energy consumption. 2. One of the alternative fuels used cement industry produces about 3.3 billion tonnes of cement annually. Cement production is energy

Columbia University

200

Economic Implications of International Participation Alternatives for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of International Participation Alternatives for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Abstract The world of biofuels. However, such options can be competitive with domestic food production. In a free trade arena of effects that would be observed due to the simplifying cost assumptions, indicate compliance causes supply

McCarl, Bruce A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application to Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

implemented in Canada, what would be the response of the industrial sector in terms of energy consumptionHybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application for modeling industrial energy consumption, among them a series of environmental and security externalities

202

8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

203

A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ERG/200806 A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and the differences between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a graphical technique. This paper presents a graphical technique for illustrating the relationship between energy security

Hughes, Larry

204

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

205

California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RPS programs of states in the WECC is from The Database forRenewables Natural Gas Oil Coal AZ-NM OR-WA Rest of WECCTotal WECC % Total WECC Source: Platts Powerdat database.

Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(milliontonsCO2) Petroleum + Pet Coke Natural Gas Coal 8 0.0 10.0 20.0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 and ½ Valmy coal plants) 2 #12;6/5/2013 2 GHG Emissions by Economic Sector in the Pacific Northwest (2010 Renewables 7 6%In 2011, the region 0.2% 6.4% Coal, 15.7% Nuclear, 2.0% 7.6%, g generated ~27,000 MWa ­ 68

207

Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and1 SpecialMaximizingResidential Buildings »CoilGas Reductions

208

A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

Jonietz, Karl K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E. [JPL/CAL Tech; Rotman, Douglas A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Walker, Bruce C. [Sandia National Laboratory

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

209

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate...

210

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse reliance on fossil fuels. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and wind power represent two practical Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canada by Brett Kerrigan B.Eng., Carleton University

Victoria, University of

212

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

213

Economics of Lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the promise of second-generation biofuels, namely, biofuelsdepends on the second generation biofuels from cel- lulosicsecond generation feedstock such as cellulosic biomass will weaken the linkage that has developed because of biofuels

Rajagopal, Deepak

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Energy Efficiency and Emerging Markets for Greenhouse Gas Trading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy industry is evolving into a competitive and globally integrated commodity market. The development of the Ozone Transport Commission NOx market has closely followed that of the SO2 market. The cost of these commodities has become...

Ferguson, M.

215

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Once Federal sites have been screened for viability of different renewable energy resources to evaluate emissions profile, the next step is to establish what renewable energy resources developed at...

216

Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, 1 December 1992--30 June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aims of the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. The main research areas covered by this proposal are (b), First Detection and (c) Supporting Data. The project will also include work under area (a), Modeling: specifically, analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulating Models (GCMs).

Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

1993-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

217

Renewable portfolio standards, Greenhouse gas reduction, and Long-Line transmission investments in the WECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New, long-distance transmission lines to remote areas with concentrations of high-quality renewable resources can help western states meet the challenges of increasing renewable energy procurement and reducing greenhouse gas emissions more cost-effectively than reliance on local resources alone. The approach applied here to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council is useful for an initial determination of the net benefits of long-line transmission between regions with heterogeneous resource quality. (author)

Olson, Arne; Orans, Ren; Allen, Doug; Moore, Jack; Woo, C.K.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

Not Available

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Uncertainty Analysis of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(EIA) reports that the U.S. transportation sector consumes about 30% of all primary energy, of which 95 Engineering Department, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, and Tepper School of Business, Carnegie change impacts of U.S. petroleum-based fuels consumption have contributed to the development

Jaramillo, Paulina

220

Plant power : the cost of using biomass for power generation and potential for decreased greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To date, biomass has not been a large source of power generation in the United States, despite the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from displacing coal with carbon neutral biomass. In this thesis, the fuel cycle ...

Cuellar, Amanda Dulcinea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

Stratton, Russell William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

223

Cogeneration Leads to Major Aquaculture and Greenhouse Development in Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilizing waste heat from thermal electric or hydro-electric power stations offers substantial energy and cost savings to both the salmon aquaculture and greenhouse industries in Canada. Projects successfully demonstrating this technology have led...

Mercer, J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Post Doctoral Research Fellowship Simulating the greenhouse gas emission from boreal region reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of greenhouse gases from northern boreal reservoirs as part of a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research modified the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the exchange of CO2 between boreal by the creation of reservoirs for the production of hydro-electricity. We have recently developed a water column

225

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to 262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of 117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 10-6 and 5.6 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reachand CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations, ranging from 10.5 to 1039 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with mean fluxes of 324 mg CH4 m-2 d-1in Lower Monumental Dam reservoir and 482 mg CH4 m-2d-1 in the Priest Rapids Dam reservoir. The magnitude of methane flux due to ebullition was unexpectedly high, and falls within the range recently reported for other temperate reservoirs around the world, further suggesting that this methane source should be considered in estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane flux from sediment pore-water within littoral embayments averaged 4.2 mg m-2 d-1 during winter and 8.1 mg m-2 d-1 during summer, with a peak flux of 19.8 mg m-2d-1 (at the same location where CH4 ebullition was also the greatest). Carbon dioxide flux from sediment pore-water averaged approximately 80 mg m-2d-1 with little difference between winter and summer. Similar to emissions from ebullition, flux from sediment pore-water was higher in reservoirs than in the free flowing reach.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

Wang, M.Q.

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

227

CO{sub 2} allowance allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the effect on electricity investors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the initial allocation of carbon dioxide allowances, the composition of generating assets owned by the firm, and the locations of those assets. Changes in asset values inside the RGGI region may be positive or negative, whereas changes outside of the RGGI region are almost always positive but nonetheless vary greatly. Viewing changes at the firm level aggregates and moderates both positive and negative effects on market value compared with what would be observed by looking at changes at individual facilities. Nonetheless, a particular firm's portfolio of assets is unlikely to reflect the overall composition of assets in the industry as a whole, and some firms are likely to do substantially better or worse than the industry average. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Dallas Burtraw; Danny Kahn; Karen Palmerook

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse GasAbatement Potential for California in 2020  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this scoping project is to help the California Energy Commission's (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program determine where it should make investments in research to support combined heat and power (CHP) deployment. Specifically, this project will: {sm_bullet} Determine what impact CHP might have in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, {sm_bullet} Determine which CHP strategies might encourage the most attractive early adoption, {sm_bullet} Identify the regulatory and technological barriers to the most attractive CHP strategies, and {sm_bullet} Make recommendations to the PIER program as to research that is needed to support the most attractive CHP strategies.

Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare,Kristina

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Assess Site Factors That Affect Employee Commuting Options for Greenhouse Gas Profile  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

After establishing an employee commuting behavior baseline for evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile, analyze the specific characteristics of the agency's major worksites to help determine which alternative commute methods and work arrangements are viable and what types of strategies may be most effective for promoting those alternatives. It is recommended that worksite-level data collection focus on worksites with the: Largest number of employees, or clusters of worksites with large employee populations in an area with diverse commuting infrastructure options (e.g., Washington, DC, metropolitan area) Greatest proportion of total commute emissions Highest commuting emissions per person than agency average.

232

The RCP Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and their Extensions from 1765 to 2300  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the greenhouse gas concentrations for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and their extensions beyond 2100, the Extended Concentration Pathways (ECPs). These projections include all major anthropogenic greenhouse gases and are a result of a multi-year effort to produce new scenarios for climate change research. We first compiled a suite of observations and emissions estimates for greenhouse gases (GHGs) through the historical period (1750-2005). For the 21st century, we start from emissions projected by four different Integrated Assessment Models for 2005-2100. We harmonize these emissions to allow inter-comparability of scenarios and to achieve a smooth transition from historical data. These harmonized emissions are then used to derive future GHG concentrations. We also present the GHG concentrations for one supplementary extension, which illustrates the emissions implications of attempting to go back to ECP4.5 concentration levels after emissions in the 21st century followed RCP6. Corresponding radiative forcing values are also presented for the RCP and ECPs.

Meinshausen, Malte; Smith, Steven J.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Daniel, John S.; Kainuma, M.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Matsumoto, Ken ichi; Montzka, S.; Raper, S.; Riahi, Keywan; Thomson, Allison M.; Velders, G.J.M; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ? Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ? Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ? Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ? Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

Xu, Shanwei [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Reuter, Tim [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Tymensen, Lisa [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Belosevic, Miodrag [Department of Biological Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Leonard, Jerry J. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); McAllister, Tim A., E-mail: tim.mcallister@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program, initiated by President Bush, and subsequently authorized in EPAct2005, is responsible for preparing this report on behalf CCCSTI. This report systematically examines the market readiness of key technologies important to meeting climate change mitigation goals. It assesses the barriers and business risks impeding their progress and greater market application. Importantly, by documenting the hundreds of Federal policies, programs, regulations, incentives, and other activities that are in effect and operating today to address these barriers, it provides a broad context for evaluating the adequacy of current policy and the potential need, if any, for additional measures that might be undertaken by government or industry. Finally, it draws conclusions about the current situation, identifies gaps and opportunities, and suggests analytical principles that should be applied to assess and formulate policies and measures to accelerate the commercialization and deployment of these technologies.

Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Reliable Muddle: Transportation Scenarios for the 80% Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goal for 2050 (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation describing transportation scenarios for meeting the 2050 DOE goal of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%.

Melaina, M.; Webster, K.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

237

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

240

Measuring Abatement Potentials When Multiple Change is Present: The Case of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in U.S. Agriculture and Forestry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring Abatement Potentials When Multiple Change is Present: The Case of Greenhouse Gas;Measuring Abatement Potentials When Multiple Change is Present: The Case of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Uwe A. Schneider and Bruce A. McCarl Keywords Abatement Function, Agricultural Sector

McCarl, Bruce A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Water Quality Co-effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in US Agriculture Subhrendu K. Pattanayak, Bruce A. McCarl, Allan J. Sommer, Brian C. Murray, Timothy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

greenhouse gas (GHG) emission offset strategies in U.S. agriculture by linking a national level agriculturalWater Quality Co-effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in US Agriculture Subhrendu K. Pattanayak sector model (ASMGHG) to a national level water quality model (NWPCAM). The simulated policy scenario

McCarl, Bruce A.

242

Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis

Kammen, Daniel M.

243

Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

Zhou, Yaoqi

245

State and Regional Comprehensive Carbon Pricing and Greenhouse Gas Regulation in the Power Sector under the EPA's Clean Power Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 State and Regional Comprehensive Carbon Pricing and Greenhouse Gas Regulation in the Power Sector goal of comprehensive carbon pricing along with various other policies (LCFS) · Into this setting drops rate" and the role of renewable energy and energy efficiency in the rate targets and in compliance

California at Davis, University of

246

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Through Energy Crops in the U.S. With Implications for Asian-Pacific Countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into energy crop production will most likely carry this price through increased purchasing cost and all energy the production of energy crops and other agricultural mitigation strategies. This analysis estimates the economicGreenhouse Gas Mitigation Through Energy Crops in the U.S. With Implications for Asian

McCarl, Bruce A.

247

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Note: PSAT included after-treatment thermal efficiency penalty to the diesel fuel economy · CD ElectricWell-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Amgad engine vehicles (ICEVs) Regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs

248

Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

Paltsev, Sergey.

249

Molasses for ethanol: The economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molasses for ethanol: The economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol Anand R Gopal1,4,6 and Daniel M Kammen1,2,3,5 1 Energy supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol; fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian

Kammen, Daniel M.

250

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

251

GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US SoutheastGHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly understood, but recent studies have indicated that GHG emissions

252

Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost

Michalek, Jeremy J.

253

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United Statesy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? 7 #12;Domestic Natural Gas Consumption Sectoral Trends and Projections: 2010 Total Consumption = 23 Timothy J. Skone, P.E. Office of Strategic Energy Analysis and Planning May 12 2011May 12, 2011 Presented for reducing 2 GHG emissions? #12;Question #1: Who is NETL? 3 #12;National Energy Technology Laboratory MISSION

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

254

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Learn about: Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases Federal...

255

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

256

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

257

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates indoor air quality problems

Mills, Evan

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - aggressive city greenhouse-gas Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

noted earlier, the majority of aviation emissions... a significant impact on the greenhouse effect.29 Concern regarding ... Source: George Mason University, Center for Air...

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual greenhouse gas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laboratory, bo Akademi University, Collection: Fossil Fuels ; Physics 49 THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Summary: . D. Keeling ICE CORES SIPLE STATION ANTARCTICA...

260

Transitional strategies for the reduction of "greenhouse gas" emission in the United States electric power sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental issues have become increasingly important in the political arena, particularly with growing concern over the "greenhouse effect," a potential global climatic warming caused by increases in anthropogenic ...

Monroe, Burt L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Greenhouse Gas Concerns and Power Sector Planning (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Concerns about potential climate change driven by rising atmospheric concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) have grown over the past two decades, both domestically and abroad. In the United States, potential policies to limit or reduce GHG emissions are in various stages of development at the state, regional, and federal levels. In addition to ongoing uncertainty with respect to future growth in energy demand and the costs of fuel, labor, and new plant construction, U.S. electric power companies must consider the effects of potential policy changes to limit or reduce GHG emissions that would significantly alter their planning and operating decisions. The possibility of such changes may already be affecting planning decisions for new generating capacity.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development in Asia | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio: EnergyGrasslandsGreen2V Jump506384°,

263

Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.50.2, 1.30.6, and 2.21.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

265

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MW Reciprocating Engine 3 MW Gas Turbine 1 MW ReciprocatingEngine 5 MW Gas Turbine 3MW Gas Turbine 40 MW Gas Turbine 1 MW Reciprocating Engine

Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

CO{sub 2} Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative among Northeastern states is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the region and beyond. In the RGGI region, changes in the value of electricity-generating assets may be positive or negative, while changes outside the Northeast are virtually always positive. For stakeholders in the industry, the change depends on the portfolio of assets held by affected firms. (author)

Burtraw, Dallas; Kahn, Danny; Palmer, Karen

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Putting policy in drive : coordinating measures to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. light-duty vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The challenges of energy security and climate change have prompted efforts to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions in light-duty vehicles within the United States. Failures in the market for lower rates of fuel ...

Evans, Christopher W. (Christopher William)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Insights from EMF Associated Agricultural and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment due to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern US present conditions favorable to production of fast growing, heat tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the US has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives. It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM system to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change altered temperature precipitation regimes or mitigation incentives will likely involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production. This chapter addresses AF sectoral responses in climate change mitigation analysis. Specifically, we draw upon US-based studies of AF GHGE mitigation possibilities that incorporate sub-national detail drawing largely on a body of studies done by the authors in association with EMF activities. We discuss characteristics of AF sectoral responses that could be incorporated in future IAM efforts in climate change policy.

McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian; Kim, Man-Keun; Lee, Heng-Chi; Sands, Ronald D.; Schneider, Uwe

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

273

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Modeling & learning from the design recommendations for California's Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate Change has become a Major issue beginning with our generation. Governments the world over are now recognizing that industry cannot continue to pollute in a business-as-usual manner. Emitting Greenhouse gases has a ...

Fernandes, Chester, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Agro-biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the (more)

Ambus, Per

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, 1 December 1991--30 June 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to changes due to variations in greenhouse gas concentrations, the global climate system exhibits a high degree of internally-generated and externally-forced natural variability. To detect the enhanced greenhouse effect, its signal must be isolated from the ``noise`` of this natural climatic variability. A high quality, spatially extensive data base is required to define the noise and its spatial characteristics. To facilitate this, available land and marine data bases will be updated and expanded. The data will be analyzed to determine the potential effects on climate of greenhouse gas concentration changes and other factors. Analyses will be guided by a variety of models, from simple energy balance climate models to ocean General Circulation Models. Appendices A--G contain the following seven papers: (A) Recent global warmth moderated by the effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption; (B) Recent warming in global temperature series; (C) Correlation methods in fingerprint detection studies; (D) Balancing the carbon budget. Implications for projections of future carbon dioxide concentration changes; (E) A simple model for estimating methane concentration and lifetime variations; (F) Implications for climate and sea level of revised IPCC emissions scenarios; and (G) Sulfate aerosol and climatic change.

Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Optimization of offshore natural gas field development.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this thesis the target is to find the optimal development solution of an offshore natural gas field. Natural gas is increasing in importance (more)

Johansen, Gaute Rannem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

Denholm, P.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Implementing greenhouse gas emissions caps: A case study of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our almost forty-year experience with landmark federal environmental statutes, demonstrates unequivocally that implementing grand and noble environmental goals is an arduous and difficult experience. California is now embarking on a similar project: implementing the country's most ambitious greenhouse gas emissions limitations, including rolling back the state's emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The state's leadership on climate change legislation deserves significant praise. But the hard work in actually achieving emissions limits is just beginning. In this Essay, Professor Ann Carlson provides a case study of the country's largest municipally owned utility - the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP) - and the challenges it will face in holding its emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The case study is particularly useful to anticipate challenges utilities across the country will face if the federal government also mandates greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The DWP's energy mix, with its heavy reliance on coal, looks quite similar to the energy mix of the country as a whole (and quite different from the rest of California's electricity market). The challenges are daunting. They include shifting rapidly to renewable energy sources in the face of labor pressures to have DWP own its own sources; building miles of transmission lines to bring the renewable energy to DWP's customer base; repowering natural gas facilities while attempting to comply with stringent Clean Water Act requirements; and eliminating the utility's reliance on coal over the next two decades. These efforts will raise complex environmental and other value clashes, pitting those concerned about jobs, water pollution, species protection, and aesthetic harms against a utility admirably committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions significantly. Whether and how we resolve these clashes remains an open and contested question.

Carlson, A.E. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School for Law

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Idaho National Laboratorys FY09 & FY10 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2009 and 2010 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. In recent years, concern has grown about the environmental impact of GHGs. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of an inventory of the total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions. INL's GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries, but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated 103,590 and 102,413 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY09 and FY10, respectively. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's FY09 and FY10 GHG inventories: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

Jennifer D. Morton

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Project Information Form Project Title Working toward a policy framework for reducing greenhouse gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Provided (by each agency or organization) US DOT $37,874 Total Project Cost $37,874 Agency ID or ContractProject Information Form Project Title Working toward a policy framework for reducing greenhouse of Research Project This white paper is concerned with a preliminary investigation of the extent to which

California at Davis, University of

284

SMARTTool Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report Reporting Entity: University of Northern British Columbia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reporting Year: Calendar Year 2010 Greenhouse Gases in Tonnes Measure Quantity CO2 CH4 N2O tCO2e1 Scope 1.30 Emissions from Biomass Total Biomass Emissions 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.83 Total Emissions, Calendar Year 2010 5

Northern British Columbia, University of

285

Integrated Chemical Complex and Cogeneration Analysis System: Energy Conservation and Greenhouse Gas Management Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19f Integrated Chemical Complex and Cogeneration Analysis System: Energy Conservation and Cogeneration Analysis System is an advanced technology for energy conservation and pollution prevention, Beaumont, TX 77710, hopperjr@hal.lamar.edu, yawscl@hal.lamar.edu Key words; Energy Conservation, Greenhouse

Pike, Ralph W.

286

ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation: 50% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantsgeneration: 100% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantselectricity comes from central station natural-gas- fired combined cycle generation, and the other half comes from natural-gas-fired single cycle plants.

Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests being conducted by Westinghouse at Foster-Wheeler's Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFBC) test facility in Karhula, Finland. Task 5 was designed to demonstrate the improvements implemented in Task 4 by fabricating fifty 1.5-meter hot gas filters. These filters were to be made available for DOE-sponsored field trials at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), operated by Southern Company Services in Wilsonville, Alabama.

E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

289

Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

290

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal mining, petroleum extraction and refining, coking, andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking and

Kahrl, Fredrich James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas INTRODUCTION Alternative energy technologies such asmotivations of alternative energy technologies: mitigatingaddresses the goal of alternative energy technology

Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in gas turbinecombustion in gas turbine HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Effect of COEffect-depleting gases ·· COCO22 removal for gas purificationremoval for gas purification ·· COCO22 removal for greenhouse gas emissions reductionremoval for greenhouse gas emissions reduction ·· Other greenhouse gases

Zevenhoven, Ron

293

Author's personal copy International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 7 (2012) 2029  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in geological formations (such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep brine-filled permeable formations, coal for oil and gas exploration and production, gas permeable channels/faults in the caprocks (Annunziatellis et al., 2008), or geomechanical disruptions due to increased pressure in the reservoir, etc. (Gasda

Johnson, Peter D.

294

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions June 29, 2012 -...

295

Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia...

296

Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas, desorbtion, tracing, migration Overview The discovery of shale gas in UK Shales demonstrates how important and no doubt will vary from shale to shale. An improved understanding of the controls on gas production from

Henderson, Gideon

297

Overview of Avista GHG Modeling NPCC Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Gas CO2 Emissions A Bridge to a Low Carbon Future, or the Future? 815 1,190 lbs/MWh Gas CCCT has ~35% of coal emissions on a per-MWh basis Gas CT has ~50% of coal emissions on a per-MWh basis 119 119 210 CCCT CT Colstrip 3/4 #12;6/5/2013 2 Avista CO2 Emissions Forecast Rising emissions overall

298

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that support more load following and peaking generation withfor natural gas- fired load following and peaking generationneeded less load- following and peaking generation. Growth

Kahrl, Fredrich James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China Electricity Council. partial load in the evening whenof coal units run at partial load would make gas attractivemonth that is run at partial load, while other generators

Kahrl, Fredrich James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to lower the carbon intensity of the power generationelectricity grid carbon-intensities are considered: importance of grid carbon intensity. Natural-gas-fired CHP

Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? Americanto Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Volume I Sta?Paper Series Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

renewables, including large hydropower, by 2020. In 2009,coal mining and hydropower), iron and steel, machinery, andoil, and natural gas. Hydropower, nuclear, and wind energy

Kahrl, Fredrich James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Challenges and Opportunities for Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions at the State, Regional and Local Level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

house Gas Initiative (RGGI). Shortly thereafter, Westernof Northeast states for the RGGI and Western states for theperspective. .For example, the RGGI states have already ad-

Doyle, Jim

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Energy Consumption, Efficiency, Conservation, and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Japan's Building Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i n g s , including Fluorocarbon Leakage: Study o f Thermalgreenhouse gas emissions o f fluorocarbon leakage associatedwarming Impact o f Fluorocarbons used i n Thermal Insulation

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Challenges and strategies of shale gas development.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of this paper is to help new investors and project developers identify the challenges of shale gas E&P and to enlighten them of (more)

Lee, Sunje

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On reductions in GHG, and b) use analytical tools/methods to assess the emissions reductions possible through and prioritized based on factors such as cost effectiveness, potential for emission reductions, and applicability

307

Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating surface emissions. Until recently, dedicated research-grade instruments have been required  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG columns · Quantifying local to regional GHG enhancements for emissions inventory verificationAbstract Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating with another Cessna 210 over Central California quantified enhancements in CO2 and CH4 from urban

308

Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric-and Nuclear Power: A Life-cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric- and Nuclear, photovoltaic, nuclear, life cycle 1 #12;Introduction The production of energy by burning fossil fuels generates, it is envisioned that expanding generation technologies based on nuclear power and renewable energy sources would

309

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990­2009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 In 1992, the United climate change. This inventory adheres to both (1) a comprehensive and detailed set of methodologies

Little, John B.

310

Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products , Chase L.D.C.b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products Bessou C.1016/j.jclepro.2013.12.008 (Pre-proof version) ABSTRACT The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a non-profit association promoting sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certification scheme. Two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

A methodology for assessing MIT's energy used and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) actions can be made to decrease losses and therefore increase plant efficiencies. As production efficiencies are maximized, fuel use and thus emissions are minimized. From fiscal year 1998 to 2003, the gas turbine ...

Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for out-of-state coal generation, then clearly the GHGElectricity Generation (TWh/a) Natural Gas Coal Natural Gascoal becomes the marginal fuel. Note that the marginal generation

Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 18 (2013) 277284 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the atmosphere by large point sources such as fossil fuel power plants and cement opera- tions. The technology for carbon capture and storage already exists and is currently implemented by the oil and natural gas

Perfect, Ed

315

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquefied natural gas (LNG), Wind power (sails) Aviationand Policies the use of LNG will result in a small 2 percentbe a much greater potential to use LNG aboard most ships if

McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2000. Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric2000. Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric

Kahrl, Fredrich James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

climate change/stern_re- view_report.cfm. (2006). RGGI.Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI): An Initia tive of theGreenhouse Gas Initia tive (RGGI). Currently, Connecticut,

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the fabrication and testing of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) based hot gas filters. The fabrication approach utilized a modified filament winding method that combined both continuous and chopped fibers into a novel microstructure. The work was divided into five primary tasks. In the first task, a preliminary set of compositions was fabricated in the form of open end tubes and characterized. The results of this task were used to identify the most promising compositions for sub-scale filter element fabrication and testing. In addition to laboratory measurements of permeability and strength, exposure testing in a coal combustion environment was performed to asses the thermo-chemical stability of the CFCC materials. Four candidate compositions were fabricated into sub-scale filter elements with integral flange and a closed end. Following the 250 hour exposure test in a circulating fluid bed combustor, the retained strength ranged from 70 t 145 percent of the as-fabricated strength. The post-test samples exhibited non-catastrophic failure behavior in contrast to the brittle failure exhibited by monolithic materials. Filter fabrication development continued in a filter improvement and cost reduction task that resulted in an improved fiber architecture, the production of a net shape flange, and an improved low cost bond. These modifications were incorporated into the process and used to fabricate 50 full-sized filter elements for testing in demonstration facilities in Karhula, Finland and at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. After 581 hours of testing in the Karhula facility, the elements retained approximately 87 percent of their as-fabricated strength. In addition, mechanical response testing at Virginia Tech provided a further demonstration of the high level of strain tolerance of the vacuum wound filter elements. Additional testing in the M. W. Kellogg unit at the PSDF has accumulated over 1800 hours of coal firing at temperatures of 760 C including a severe thermal upset that resulted in the failure of several monolithic oxide elements. No failures of any kind have been reported for the MTI CFCC elements in either of these test campaigns. Additional testing is planned at the M. W. Kellogg unit and Foster Wheeler unit at the PSDF over the next year in order to qualify for consideration for the Lakeland PCFB. Process scale-up issues have been identified and manufacturing plans are being evaluated to meet the needs of future demand.

RICHARD A. WAGNER

1998-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

319

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of several pre-defined factors to changes in energy consumption and energy-related gas emissions (Ang appearing to be rising proportionally as a transportation mode. Federal government initiatives on the US the transportation sector (Office of Energy Efficiency, 2004); a rise of nearly 25% over 1990. The geographical

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the energy security bene?ts of reduced u.s. oil imports.security, namely, the share of alternatives to crude oil (oil such as o?-shore petroleum, and coal/gas based liquids, can be considered better for energy security (

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse GasesGHG Emissions from Biofuels . in STEPS Research Symposium .NRDC, Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

The Impacts of Alternative Patterns of Urbanization on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Agricultural County  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in energy use, with net-zero-energy development beingThe countys ?rst net-zero-energy neighborhood, UC Davis

Wheeler, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

Zigler, B.T.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Economic investigation of discount factors for agricultural greenhouse gas emission offsets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approaches to discount factors, estimation and incorporation of discount factors procedures are developed. Discount factors would be imposed by credit purchasers due to noncompliance with regulatory program of the credits with GHG program including...

Kim, Man-Keun

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

331

Investigating greenhouse gas emission pathways In selected OECD countries using a hybrid energy-economy approach.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This report outlines the development and analysis of CIMS OECD-EPM. CIMS OECD-EPM is a hybrid energy-economy model that forecasts energy consumption and GHG emissions in (more)

Goldberg, Suzanne

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Using ArcGIS to extrapolate greenhouse gas emissions on the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using ArcGIS to extrapolate greenhouse gas emissions on the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China Lindsey MW Yasarer, PhD Candidate, University of Kansas Dr. Zhe Li, Associate Professor, Chongqing University Dr...D Student, Chongqing University Zhengyu Zhang and Xiao Yao, Masters Students, Chongqing University CSTEC: China Science and Technology Exchange Center NSF EAPSI Program The research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China...

Yasarer, Lindsey

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

333

California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (Update) (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The state of California was given authority under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) to set emissions standards for light-duty vehicles that exceed federal standards. In addition, other states that do not comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the Environmental Protection Agency under CAAA90 were given the option to adopt Californias light-duty vehicle emissions standards in order to achieve air quality compliance. CAAA90 specifically identifies hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx as vehicle-related air pollutants that can be regulated. California has led the nation in developing stricter vehicle emissions standards, and other states have adopted the California standards.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Introduction: U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartmentJune 20,AmongDevelopment andRequirementsOverview of 1

335

Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Kalman-filtered compressive sensing for high resolution estimation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sparse measurements.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The limited nature of the measured data leads to a severely-underdetermined estimation problem. If the estimation is performed at fine spatial resolutions, it can also be computationally expensive. In order to enable such estimations, advances are needed in the spatial representation of ffCO2 emissions, scalable inversion algorithms and the identification of observables to measure. To that end, we investigate parsimonious spatial parameterizations of ffCO2 emissions which can be used in atmospheric inversions. We devise and test three random field models, based on wavelets, Gaussian kernels and covariance structures derived from easily-observed proxies of human activity. In doing so, we constructed a novel inversion algorithm, based on compressive sensing and sparse reconstruction, to perform the estimation. We also address scalable ensemble Kalman filters as an inversion mechanism and quantify the impact of Gaussian assumptions inherent in them. We find that the assumption does not impact the estimates of mean ffCO2 source strengths appreciably, but a comparison with Markov chain Monte Carlo estimates show significant differences in the variance of the source strengths. Finally, we study if the very different spatial natures of biogenic and ffCO2 emissions can be used to estimate them, in a disaggregated fashion, solely from CO2 concentration measurements, without extra information from products of incomplete combustion e.g., CO. We find that this is possible during the winter months, though the errors can be as large as 50%.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin, Ireland

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Development of a Compressed Hydrogen Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kpsi "Saran Wrap" Tank Energy Density for Hydrogen Storage Systems " Advance the development of a cost · Satisfying hydrogen gas permeation requirements · Increasing energy density efficiency · Developing cost · Design » T700 carbon fiber overwrap with high interspersed winding pattern with design FOS of 2.45 » NGV

338

The California greenhouse gas initiative and its implications to the automotive industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CAR undertook this investigation to better understand the costs and challenges of a local (state) regulation necessitating the implementation of alternative or advanced powertrain technology. CAR will attempt to add insight into the challenges that local regulations present to the automotive industry, and to contribute further to the discussion of how advanced powertrain technology may be used to meet such regulation. Any local law that (directly or indirectly) affects light duty motor vehicle fuel economy creates what in effect is a specialty market for powertrain technology. As such these small markets present significant challenges for automotive manufacturers. First, a small market with unique standards presents significant challenges to an industry that has sustained growth by relying on large volumes to achieve scale economies and deliver products at a cost acceptable to the consumer. Further, the challenges of the additional technology make it likely that any powertrain capable of meeting the stringent emissions standards will include costly additional components, and thus will be more costly to manufacture. It is likely that manufacturers would consider the following actions as steps to deliver products to meet the pending California regulatory requirements anticipated as a result of prior California legislation: (1) Substituting more fuel efficient vehicles: Bring in more efficient vehicles from global operations, while likely dropping existing domestic products. (2) Substituting powertrains: Add existing downsized engines (i.e. turbocharged versions, etc.) into California market-bound vehicles. (3) Powertrain enhancements: Add technology to current engine and transmission offerings to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. (4) Incorporating alternative powertrains into existing vehicle platforms: Develop a hybrid or other type of powertrain for an existing vehicle. (5) New powertrains and new platforms: Develop vehicles specifically intended to incorporate new powertrain technologies, materials and/or design (e.g. the General Motors EV1 or the Toyota Prius). These five actions represent the gamut from the least complicated solution to the most complex. They also generally represent the least expensive response to the most expensive. It is possible that the least expensive responses may be least likely to meet market demands while achieving required GHG emission limits. At the same time, the most expensive option may produce a vehicle that satisfies the GHG reduction requirements and meets some consumer requirements, but is far too costly to manufacture and sell profitably. The response of a manufacturer would certainly have to take market size, consumer acceptance, technology implication and cost, as well as internal capacities and constraints, into consideration. It is important to understand that individual companies may respond differently in the short term. However, it is probable that there would be a more consistent industry-wide response in the longer term. Options 1 and 2 present the simplest responses. A company may reach into its global portfolio to deliver vehicles that are more fuel-efficient. These vehicles are usually much smaller and significantly less powerful than current U.S. offerings. Industry respondents indicated that such a strategy may be possible but would likely be met with less than positive reaction from the buying public. A general estimate for the cost to homologize a vehicle--that is, to prepare an existing vehicle for entry into the United States provided all business conditions were met (reasonable product, capacity availability, etc.), would be approximately $50 million. Assuming an estimated cost for homologation to meet U.S. standards of $50 million and a 20,000 vehicle per year sales volume in California, the company would then incur a $2,500 per-vehicle cost to bring them into the market. A manufacturer may also choose to incorporate a more efficient powertrain into a vehicle already sold in the market. The costs associated with such a strategy would include reengineering

Smith, B. C.; Miller, R. T.; Center for Automotive Research

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Energy efficiency for greenhouse gas emission reduction in China: The case of the cement industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A project at LBNL has combined two different approaches to investigate changes in efficiency in China`s cement industry, which currently accounts for over 6% of China`s total commercial energy use and over 1% of global carbon emissions. Cement output has doubled over the past five years, and will double again within 15 years. Addressing cement industry carbon emissions will be a key element of any program to control China`s carbon emissions. Macro-level analysis was used to investigate industry-wide trends, and detailed case studies of individual plants illuminated key issues in technology choice that fundamentally affect efficiency. In general, enterprises adopted technologies that increased output and improved quality, and had little regard for energy efficiency, though most new technologies and practices did improve efficiency. Changes in energy prices were a surprisingly weak factor in adoption of efficient technologies. Unexpectedly, many enterprises developed a strong preference for the least fuel-efficient technology, which allows power generation with kiln waste heat. This preference was motivated in a large part by the desire to achieve security in electricity supply, and by some reforms. This alternative has become increasingly popular, and threatens to reverse some progress made in reducing the carbon-intensiveness of China`s cement industry. Foreign technical assistance and more importantly, greater participation in China`s cement industry of foreign cement companies would speed the adoption of large scale very efficient precalciner plants. Paradoxically, improving energy efficiency in China`s cement industry is also a supply-side issue, improved reliability in China`s power network will make the more fuel-efficient alternative more attractive.

Sinton, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse gas regulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse.................................................................................................. 5 1.1.3 CALIFORNIA CLEAN FUELS PROGRAM ....................................... 6 1.1.5 AB 1007: THE ALTERNATIVE FUELS PLAN

Kammen, Daniel M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a flue gas condenser with a steam boiler. ? Improvedsteam dryers by gas ? Dryers and filtration equipment ? Applied CHP ? Purchased flue gas condensers ?

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen (Natural Gas, pipeline) Hydrogen (Natural Gas,liquid H2 truck) Hydrogen (Coal, pipeline) Electricity (production? Hydrogen Production Mix Natural Gas, pipeline,

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-on support of this project through data collection and review. School of Engineering Prof. Rudy Husar..........................................................2-3 2.2 Global Warming Potential and Carbon Dioxide Equivalents................................................................................................3-1 3.2 Intensity Ratio

Subramanian, Venkat

346

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

350

Opportunities for market-based programs worldwide that reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Initial Observations from Missions to the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Globally, governments and industries are implementing innovative voluntary programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Often these programs encourage groups to use cost effective technologies that capture market-based forces. These programs are successful because they capitalize on existing opportunities where both the environment and the participants can benefit (i.e., win-win opportunities). This paper documents efforts to investigate these kinds of win-win opportunities in three developing countries: the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico. Initial observations are provided as fresh information from the field, drawing on six missions during the last nine months. Utility costs, interest rates, and overall economic health appear to critically affect opportunities in each country. By contrast, details of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) design and local climate were often important differences between countries. These affect opportunities, for example, to achieve significant savings from cooling systems or not. Looking at the success of ESCOs was somewhat surprising. One might expect to see the most successful ESCO activity where utility costs are high and upgrade opportunities are plentiful (such as in the Philippines). This was not the case, however, as research in the Philippines did not reveal even one active ESCO contract yet. Design practices for new construction were in need of the same thing that helps US design teams do a better job of energy-efficient design, better communications between design team members. Finally, industrial firms were doing a variety of EE upgrades in each country, but this level of activity was relatively small compared to what should be cost effective.

Stanton-Hoyle, D.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas emissions from conven- tional power sources like coal.total emissions from coal- or natural gas-fired power plantsemissions, the lifecycle for natural gas power production is more complicated than that of coal.

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 12 (2013) 124135 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), and depleted oil or gas reservoirs (Holloway, 1997; Wildenborg and Lokhorst, 2005) where physicochemical

Long, Bernard

353

Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

panels, solar thermal equipment, and storage systems. Consequently, natural gas purchases for heating

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse Do Youl Bae, Calvin Ng, Joseph Pateman University of British Investigation into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse Do Youl Bae Calvin Ng Joseph Pateman March. This investigation deals with the viability of building a waste heat powered greenhouse on the roof of the new SUB

355

Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Wang, M. (2001) "Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Fuels and MotorLifecycle Analysis of Biofuels." Report UCD-ITS-RR-06-08.

Kammen, Daniel M.; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J.; Jones, Andrew D.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Delucchi, Mark A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia for informational purposes only and does not support or oppose development of the Marcellus Shale natural gas information regarding shale gas well development, ancillary facilities asso- ciated with that development

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

357

Greenhouse gas reduction by recovery and utilization of landfill methane and CO{sub 2} technical and market feasibility study, Boului Landfill, Bucharest, Romania. Final report, September 30, 1997--September 19, 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project is a landfill gas to energy project rated at about 4 megawatts (electric) at startup, increasing to 8 megawatts over time. The project site is Boului Landfill, near Bucharest, Romania. The project improves regional air quality, reduces emission of greenhouse gases, controls and utilizes landfill methane, and supplies electric power to the local grid. The technical and economic feasibility of pre-treating Boului landfill gas with Acrion`s new landfill gas cleanup technology prior to combustion for power production us attractive. Acrion`s gas treatment provides several benefits to the currently structured electric generation project: (1) increase energy density of landfill gas from about 500 Btu/ft{sup 3} to about 750 Btu/ft{sup 3}; (2) remove contaminants from landfill gas to prolong engine life and reduce maintenance;; (3) recover carbon dioxide from landfill gas for Romanian markets; and (4) reduce emission of greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction attributable to successful implementation of the landfill gas to electric project, with commercial liquid CO{sub 2} recovery, is estimated to be 53 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent of its 15 year life.

Cook, W.J.; Brown, W.R.; Siwajek, L. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Sanders, W.I. [Power Management Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States); Botgros, I. [Petrodesign, SA, Bucharest (Romania)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

360

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas, 1996b (? ). Black Liquor gasification IntroductionBerglin, N. July, 1998. Black Liquor Gasifier/Gas TurbinePreliminary Economics of Black Liquor Gasification Combined

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Grid...

362

Georgia-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

long-term, transformative development and accelerate sustainable, climate-resilient economic growth while slowing the growth of greenhouse gas emissions"1 Framework The following...

363

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st the Marcellus shale In addition to the specific questions identified for the case of Marcellus shale gas in New

Angenent, Lars T.

364

Risks and Risk Governance in Unconventional Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risks and Risk Governance in Unconventional Shale Gas Development Mitchell J. Small,*, Paul C, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada 89512, United States 1. INTRODUCTION The recent U.S. shale gas Issue: Understanding the Risks of Unconventional Shale Gas Development Published: July 1, 2014 A broad

Jackson, Robert B.

365

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 9 (2012) 1023 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strata other than depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g. in saline aquifers), relatively little indefinitely in the pore space of the rock. Potential storage sites include saline brine reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and coal seams. The technology

366

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

associated with coal generation occur at the smokestack. Theassociated with coal-fired electricity generation by up toCoal, Domestic Natural Gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity Generation,

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Burgett Geothermal Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Burgett Geothermal Greenhouses Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Cotton City, New Mexico Coordinates Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlem...

369

Developing a tight gas sand advisor for completion and stimulation in tight gas reservoirs worldwide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPING A TIGHT GAS SAND ADVISOR FOR COMPLETION AND STIMULATION IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS WORLDWIDE A Thesis by KIRILL BOGATCHEV Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2007 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering DEVELOPING A TIGHT GAS SAND ADVISOR FOR COMPLETION AND STIMULATION IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS WORLDWIDE A Thesis by KIRILL...

Bogatchev, Kirill Y

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

370

An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. (2007) DAES domestic alternative energy sources,IAES imported alternative energy sources In the transportA critique and alternative to the energy ladder model. World

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy-efficiency standards for electric motors in Brazil-Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. Office of Energy Efficiency

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Difiglio, C. (2000). Energy efficiency and consumptiontheMcNeil, M. (2007). Energy-efficiency standards for electricfor advancing energy efficiency and renewable energy use in

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by all current demand-side management programs in the USAif energy efficiency (demand-side management) programs avoidenergy supply and demand side management but also specific

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Snow, C. (2008). Winery carbon footprint calculator online.so-called energy and carbon footprints of their products.energy footprint and carbon footprint refer to the total

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Primary energy supply per unit of GDP (excluding biomass;is defined as energy use per unit of GDP and is an aggregateenergy sector. Much of the variations of CO 2 emissions per unit of GDP

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for transportation, or energy production in rural areas, isthe rural people can only be achieved, if LCI energy sourcesjobs in rural areas (Sims 2003). Renewable energy systems

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good quality, most of it is discharged to surface drainages or to soil (for irrigation). CBNG water quality generally declines when moving from the Cheyenne River drainage northwestward to the Belle Fourche, Little Powder, and Powder River drainages and in the central and western part of the PRB, most CBNG water goes to evaporation-infiltration ponds or is discharged directly to surface drainages. Concerns center on the salinity of the water, usually measured as total dissolved solids (TDS), or electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Other management options currently in use include injection, managed irrigation (with additives to mitigate the effects of high salinity), atomization, and treatment by reverse osmosis or ion exchange. A key water quality issue is the cumulative effect of numerous CBNG water discharges on the overall water quality of basin streams. This leads to one of the most contentious issues in CBNG development in Wyoming's PRB: Montana's concern about the potential downstream effects of water quality degradation on rivers flowing north into Montana. Many of the benefits and costs associated with CBNG development have been debated, but dealing with CBNG water quantity and quality arguably has been the most difficult of all the issues. Given the importance of these issues for continued development of CBNG resources in Wyoming and elsewhere, the DOE-NETL funded project presented here focuses on CBNG co-produced water management. The research was organized around nine separate, but interrelated, technical project tasks and one administrative task (Task 1). The nine technical project tasks were pursued by separate research teams at the University of Wyoming, but all nine tasks were coordinated to the extent possible in order to maximize information gained about CBNG co-produced waters. In addition to project management in Task 1, the key research tasks included: (2) estimating groundwater recharge rates in the PRB; (3) groundwater contamination of trace elements from CBNG disposal ponds; (4) use of environmental tracers in assessing wate

William Ruckelshaus

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

Communication to the 10th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT 10), Amsterdam, September 19-23, 2010.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inaugurated in 2010. Apart from enhanced oil recovery projects or projects where the captured CO2 is a fatal is then injected through a reworked existing well into the depleted natural gas field of Rousse 1 rock formation 4: The reservoir pressure, currently 30 bars, should be increased to 70 bars post injection, which remains well

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 16 (2013) 129144 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a coal-fed Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant. Net emissions were further reduced to 0 Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) plant, and 0.39 ± 0.03 t/bbl (63.3 ± 4.4 g/MJ) when using livestock manure

Jaramillo, Paulina

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Natural Gas Engine Development: July 2003--July 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Describes project to develop natural gas engines that would be certifiable to nitrogen oxide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emission levels below 2004 federal standards.

Lekar, T. C.; Martin, T. J.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Natural Gas Engine Development: July 2003 -- July 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discusses project to develop heavy-duty, 8.1L natural gas vehicle engines that would be certifiable below the 2004 federal emissions standards and commercially viable.

Lekar, T. C.; Martin, T. J.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Methods developed for detecting hazardous elements in produced gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, Ill. has been developing sampling and analytical methods to detect in natural gas various trace constituents that may pose health, safety, or operational risks. The constituents of interest include paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons, H[sub 2]S, organic sulfur compounds, arsenic, mercury, radon, and others. Better sampling and analytical techniques for produced natural gas, similar to those developed by IGT for processed gas, will enhance producers and processors' abilities to monitor undesirable constituents in raw gas streams and improve their clean-up processes. The methods developed at IGT were modifications of air sampling and analytical methods that are commonly used for air toxic substances. These monitoring methods, when applied to natural gas, present special challenges because gas has a much more complex matrix than the air. Methods for the analysis of the following are discussed: arsenic, mercury, radon, sulfur compounds, hydrocarbons, and aromatics including BTEX and PAHs.

Chao, S.; Attari, A. (Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

1995-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

384

World Bank-Low-carbon Energy Projects for Development in Sub...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa has an unprecedented opportunity: choosing a cleaner development pathway via low-carbon energy alternatives that can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, at the same...

385

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and drivetrain efficiencies, which implies either significant breakthroughs in the development of next-generation

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Geothermal Developments at San Diego Gas & Electric  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1972, the first well flow tests were conducted by NARCO and Magma Power to determine reservoir characteristics such as mass flow, temperature, stability, and mineral content of geothermal brine from the exploration wells. The results of these tests were encouraging. Brine temperatures were relatively hot, and salinity was less than previously experienced. Results were sufficient to justify further testing of the process design to determine an appropriate energy conversion cycle for a power plant. Both the flash cycle and binary cycle were considered. In the binary cycle, geothermal heat is transferred from hot brine to a secondary working fluid by means of heat exchangers. The heated secondary fluid expands to drive a turbine-generator. The flash cycle was rejected because the high measured noncondensible gas content of the brines seriously reduced the cycle efficiency. The reduced salinity was expected to result in reduced scaling characteristics. For these reasons the binary cycle was selected for initial design and field testing. In 1973, a series of field tests was conducted to support the design of the binary conversion cycle. Unfortunately, a rapid decline in heat exchanger performance resulting from scaling demonstrated a need to reevaluate the cycle design. A flash/binary process was chosen as the basis for facility design modifications and additional field testing. Design modifications were to use as much of the original design as possible in order to minimize cost. In March of 1974, SDG&E resumed field testing at Niland using reduced size models of the new flash/binary design. The 1974 test program confirmed the decision to modify the design, construction, and operation of the GLEF in a four-stage, flash/binary cycle configuration. In May of 1975, the design was completed and construction of the GLEF began. Startup operations were initiated and in June 1976 the facility was dedicated. In the fall of 1976 while debugging and initial operation was being accomplished, a test program was developed to provide additional basic information necessary for the design of a commercial flash/binary geothermal plant. The primary objective of the program was to develop binary heat exchanger heat design data under a variety of conditions.

Anastas, George; Hoaglin, Gregory J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

Fischer, Marc

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

388

Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

agreements, to undertake energy audits, develop energyplatforms, provided energy audits, and provided financialmembers to undertake an energy audit and set energy or

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE`s upstream as well as downstream natural gas R&D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE`s Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R&D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R&D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R&D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R&D programs.

Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

392

Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to provide training and energy audits and to help industrial1997 to end of March - Energy audits have allow to avoidagrees to undertake an energy audit, develop a management

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Cooling towers among ivory towers : a comparative analysis of research universities, electricity consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rationale for university sustainability and existing international agreements on sustainability in higher education are reviewed in the context of developing a model to determine the linkages between three environmental ...

Keegan, Brian C. (Brian Christopher)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Distributional Impacts of a U.S. Greenhouse Gas Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis of Carbon Pricing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a new model of the U.S., the U.S. Regional Energy Policy (USREP) model that is resolved for large states and regions of the U.S. and by income class and apply the model to investigate a $15 per ton CO2 equivalent ...

Paltsev, Sergey

395

DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP R. C. Meier, Program Manager, Gas Heat Pump Program General Electric Company P. 0. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 FILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE SUMMARY The Stirling/Rankine Heat Activated Heat Pump is a high performance product for space

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

396

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed, and simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

397

Natural Gas Development and Grassland Songbird Abundance in Southwestern Saskatchewan: The Impact of Gas Wells and Cumulative Disturbance .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The quantity and quality of remaining grasslands in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, are threatened by expansion of natural gas development. The number of natural gas wells (more)

Bogard, Holly Jayne Kalyn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

2008-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

399

CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of...

400

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions through a measurable reduction of energy intensity. Energy efficiency evaluations and initiatives are implemented on the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of a variety of vehicle, fuel, and technology choices. Overview Measures the petroleum displacement and greenhouse gas emissions of medium and heavy-duty vehicles and...

402

Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

national standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). The standards would apply to model year 2012 - 2016 passenger cars and light...

403

Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Developing a tight gas sand advisor for completion and stimulation in tight gas reservoirs worldwide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and experience about completion and stimulation technologies used in TGS reservoirs. We developed the principal design and two modules of a computer program called Tight Gas Sand Advisor (TGS Advisor), which can be used to assist engineers in making decisions...

Bogatchev, Kirill Y.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fact sheet describes the federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources.

407

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data03. U.S. EIA4. Nitrous

408

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data03. U.S. EIA4. Nitrous1.

409

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data03. U.S. EIA4. Nitrous1.A2.

410

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data03. U.S. EIA4.

411

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vehicles with hydrogen (and fuel cells) and electricity,vehicles and hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles. Such

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

State of the Art and Future Developments In Natural Gas Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

State of the Art and Future Developments In Natural Gas Engine Technologies State of the Art and Future Developments In Natural Gas Engine Technologies 2003 DEER Conference...

413

Ambient Laboratory Coater for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

this research is targeted at developing improved experimentally-based scaling relationships for the hydrodynamics of shallow, gas-spouted beds of dense particles. The work is motivated by the need to more effctively scale up shallow spouted beds used in processes such as in the coating of nuclear fuel particles where precise control of solids and gas circulation is critically important. Experimental results reported here are for a 50 mm diameter spouted bed containing two different types of bed solids (alumina and zirconia) at different static bed depths and fluidized by air and helium. Measurements of multiple local average pressures, inlet gas pressure fluctuations, and spout height were used to characterize the bed hydrodynamics for each operating condition. Follow-on studies are planned that include additional variations in bed size, particle properties, and fluidizing gas. The ultimate objective is to identify the most important non-dimensional hydrodynamic scaling groups and possible spouted-bed design correlations based on these groups.

Duane D. Bruns; Robert M. Counce; Irma D. Lima Rojas

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

414

Development of a passive soil gas flux sampler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE SOIL GAS FLUX SAMPLER A Thesis by BRIAN C. McQUOWN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991... Major Subject: Civil Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE SOIL GAS FLUX SAMPLER A Thesis by BRIAN C. McQUOWN Approved as to style and content by: Stuart A. a terman (Co-chair of Committee) Andrew . cFa land (Member) Bill Batchelor (Co...

McQuown, Brian C

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

415

An issue of trust: state corruption, responsibility and greenhouse gas emissions This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 5 (2010 uncontroversial, since the economic theory of externalities suggests that, given some level of external cost imposed by the anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases (GHG), some reduction of emissions 4 Author

Kammen, Daniel M.

416

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Engineering) W. VA #12;Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach August 2011 version Page 2 Energy Transitions sources globally, some very strong short-term drivers of energy transitions reflect rising concerns over

Walter, M.Todd

417

Development of a Natural Gas-to-Hydrogen Fueling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressors Reliable & cost effective hydrogen fueling system #12;9 Accomplishments > Comprehensive subsystem> Development of a Natural Gas-to- Hydrogen Fueling System DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Merit Review integrator, fuel processing subsystem ­ FuelMaker Corporation > Maker of high-quality high

418

1 INTRODUCTION Gas storage caverns were developed mainly for sea-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recovery periods. This operation mode also is considered for Compressed Air Storage (CAES) facilities1 INTRODUCTION Gas storage caverns were developed mainly for sea- sonal storage, with one or a few are discussed. In Section 4, the energy bal- ance equation is established and some simplifica- tions allow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Licensed oil acreage in the 6 North Africa countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) totaled 1,500,000 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1986, down 290,000 km/sup 2/ from 1985. About 50% of the relinquishments were in Libya. Most oil and gas discoveries were made in Egypt (16 oil and 2 gas). Several oil finds were reported in onshore Libya, and 1 was reported in Algeria in the southeastern Sahara. According to available statistics, development drilling decreased from 1985 levels, except in Tunisia. A 6.3% decline in oil production took place in 1986, falling below the 3 million bbl level (2,912,000 b/d). Only sparse data are released on the gas output in North Africa. 6 figures, 27 tables.

Michel, R.C.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Developing a gas purchasing strategy using a linear model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper outlines the process of developing a gas purchasing strategy with the use of a linear programming model. The linear model is used to determine the least cost approach regarding the acquisition of natural gas which has a considerable impact on the company`s financial performance. The author discusses the importance of optimizing gas costs from an end-user`s perspective. The Midland Cogeneration Venture (MCV) is the country`s largest cogeneration facility. The Facility has been certified by FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) as a Q.F. (Qualifying Facility) under PURPA (Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978). Unlike utilities, who have the ability to pass costs through to customers, MCV`s revenues are based on long-term contracts with its utility and industrial customers. Therefore, MCV cannot pass costs through to its customers. As such, effectively managing costs is vital to the success of the company.

Alst, K.M. Van [Midland Cogeneration Venture Limited Partnership, Midland, MI (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The Kyoto Protocol and developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Under the Kyoto Protocol, the world's wealthier countries assumed binding commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement requires these countries to consider ways to minimize adverse effects on developing ...

Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Reilly, John M.; Jacoby, Henry D.

422

The road to the successful clean development mechanism : lessons from the past  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has evolved at a surprising speed since 2003 and is considered to have made positive contributions to the development of greenhouse-gas-reducing projects in developing countries. Taking ...

Song, Jaemin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Summary of Oil and Natural Gas Development Impacts on Prairie Grouse September 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary of Oil and Natural Gas Development Impacts on Prairie Grouse September 2006 Jeffrey L. Beck Independent Avenue Grand Junction, CO 81505 Please cite as: Beck, J. L. 2006. Summary of oil and natural gas and Natural Gas Development Impacts on Prairie Grouse 2 disturbances such as oil and gas development

Beck, Jeffrey L.

424

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Development of the Miller cycle for natural gas engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural gas is a viable alternative fuel to reduce exhaust emissions. But comparing natural gas engines with base diesel engines, the power output is 20--30% lower and the thermal efficiency is 4--5% lower due to knocking in the gas engine. The Miller cycle with independent presetting of the compression and expansion ratio for gas engines increases the engine efficiency with increased expansion ratio, while engine knocking can be avoided by reducing the compression ratio. A turbocharged inter-cooled spark ignition gas engine was modified to the Miller cycle engine and a thermal efficiency of 38%, 1.14MPa BMEP was attained with a three-way catalyst system compared to a thermal efficiency of 33%, 0.97 Mpa BMEP achieved by the conventional Otto cycle. On the other hand, the higher boost pressure, due to the lower compression ratio for avoiding knocking, caused a higher back pressure. This hinders the advantages of the Miller cycle and it is difficult to improve the engine performance further. Therefore, based on the Miller cycle, other technologies for avoiding knocking were developed to improve engine performance. A two-stage intake cooling system was developed, in which a new inter-cooler is installed in the intake passages close to the cylinder head as a second inter-cooler, besides an ordinary charge cooler. This significantly cools the blow-back mixture from the cylinder in the Late Intake-Closing Method Miller cycle. Besides the two-stage intake cooling system, a new split cooling system was also developed for the Miller cycle, where cooling water flowing to the cylinder head is independent of that flowing to the cylinder block. Cooling water at 313 K is circulated in the cylinder head to extend the knock-free zone and to improve the intake charging efficiency while cooling water at 353 K is circulated in the cylinder block to reduce the friction loss.

Zhang, F.R.; Okamoto, Kazuhisa; Shimogata, Satoshi; Shoji, Fujio [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan). Energy Technology Research Inst.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

427

Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Injector Concept for Gas Turbines Robert K. Cheng * , Scottconcept for ultra- low NO x gas turbines. Low-swirl flamevirtually every industrial gas turbine manufacturer to meet

Cheng, R.K.; Fable, S.A.; Schmidt, D.; Arellano, L.; Smith, K.O.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

DEVELOPMENT OF A NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN FUEL STATION William E. Liss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for compressed natural gas vehicles. The integrated natural gas-to-hydrogen system includes a high efficiency on leveraging of developments in the stationary PEM fuel cell and compressed natural gas vehicle market sectors

429

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

430

OGEL (Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence): Focussing on recent developments in the area of oil-gas-energy law,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

About OGEL OGEL (Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence): Focussing on recent developments in the area of oil-gas-energy law, regulation, treaties, judicial and arbitral cases, voluntary guidelines, tax and contracting, including the oil-gas- energy geopolitics. For full Terms & Conditions and subscription rates

Dixon, Juan

431

Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make-up water for successive fracs. RFW, however, contains dissolved salts, suspended sediment and oils that may interfere with fracking fluids and/or clog fractures. This would lead to impaired well productivity. The major technical constraints to recycling RFW involves: identification of its composition, determination of industry standards for make-up water, and development of techniques to treat RFW to acceptable levels. If large scale RFW recycling becomes feasible, the industry will realize lower transportation and disposal costs, environmental conflicts, and risks of interruption in well development schedules.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

International oil and gas exploration and development activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

Natural Gas Discovery and Development Impacts on Rio Vista and Its Community  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

local residents while natural gas energy resource developmentEnergy resource development creates new opportunities for locallocal communities are undermined with existing energy development

Gbedema, Tometi Koku

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Waste Heat Recovery for Usage by a Rooftop Greenhouse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into Waste Heat Recovery for Usage by a Rooftop Greenhouse Rohit Singla, Jeremy Lord, Jorden Hetherington Investigation into Waste Heat Recovery for Usage by a Rooftop Greenhouse April 4, 2013 Dr. Naoko Ellis APSC 262 of this waste heat recovery method. Constraints that are taken into this investigation include various factors

435

Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water vapor (the most abundant GHG) accounts for the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect. However, water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, and human activity...

436

Development of biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program to develop biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines was started at Aerospace Research Corporation in 1980. The research culminated in construction and installation of a power generation system using an Allison T-56 gas turbine at Red Boiling Springs, Tennessee. The system has been successfully operated with delivery of power to the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Emissions from the system meet or exceed EPA requirements. No erosion of the turbine has been detected in over 760 hours of operation, 106 of which were on line generating power for the TVA. It was necessary to limit the turbine inlet temperature to 1450{degrees}F to control the rate of ash deposition on the turbine blades and stators and facilitate periodic cleaning of these components. Results of tests by researchers at Battelle Memorial Institute -- Columbus Division, give promise that deposits on the turbine blades, which must be periodically removed with milled walnut hulls, can be eliminated with addition of lime to the fuel. Operational problems, which are centered primarily around the feed system and engine configuration, have been adequately identified and can be corrected in an upgraded design. The system is now ready for development of a commercial version. The US Department of Energy (DOE) provided support only for the evaluation of wood as an alternative fuel for gas turbines. However, the system appears to have high potential for integration into a hybrid system for the production of ethanol from sorghum or sugar cane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs.

Hamrick, J T [Aerospace Research Corp., Roanoke, VA (USA)

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Development of ceramic composite hot-gas filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel type of hot-gas filter based on a ceramic fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix was developed and extended to fullsize, 60-mm OD by 1.5-meter-long, candle filters. A commercially viable process for producing the filters was developed, and the filters are undergoing testing and demonstration throughout the world for applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. Development activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the 3M Company, and testing at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (STC) are presented. Demonstration tests at the Tidd PFBC are underway. Issues identified during the testing and demonstration phases of the development are discussed. Resolution of the issues and the status of commercialization of the filters are described.

Judkins, R.R.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Smith, R.G.; Fischer, E.M.; Eaton, J.H.; Weaver, B.L.; Kahnke, J.L.; Pysher, D.J. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,839,817 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1985, a decrease of 3% from the 1,896,446 km/sup 2/ held at the end of 1984. This decrease mainly is due to significant relinquishments made in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Morocco, however, had an increase of 18,087 km/sup 2/. Oil discoveries were reported in Algeria (possibly 5), Libya (at least 2), and Egypt (16). Only 1 gas find was made (in Morocco). According to sparse information, development drilling may have decreased markedly during 1985. Oil and condensate production increased by 3.1% to approximately 3,054,000 b/d compared to about 2,963,400 b/d in 1984. No statistics are currently available on gas production in North Africa. 8 figures, 27 tables.

Michel, R.C.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Development of NDE methods for hot gas filters.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ceramic hot gas candle filters are currently under development for hot gas particulate cleanup in advanced coal-based power systems. The ceramic materials for these filters include nonoxide monolithic, nonoxide-fiber-reinforced composites, and nonoxide reticulated foam. A concern is the lack of reliable data on which to base decisions for reusing or replacing hot gas filters during plant shutdowns. The work in this project is aimed at developing nondestructive evaluation (FIDE) technology to allow detection, and determination of extent, of life-limiting characteristics such as thermal fatigue, oxidation, damage from ash bridging such as localized cracking, damage from local burning, and elongation at elevated temperature. Although in-situ NDE methods are desirable in order to avoid disassembly of the candle filter vessels, the current vessel designs, the presence of filter cakes and possible ash bridging, and the state of NDE technology prevent this. Candle filter producers use a variety of NDE methods to ensure as-produced quality. While impact acoustic resonance offers initial promise for examining new as-produced filters and for detecting damage in some monolithic filters when removed from service, it presents difficulties in data interpretation, it lacks localization capability, and its applicability to composites has yet to be demonstrated. Additional NDE technologies being developed and evaluated in this program and whose applicability to both monolithics and composites has been demonstrated include (a) full-scale thermal imaging for analyzing thermal property variations; (b) fret, high-spatial-resolution X-ray imaging for detecting density variations and dimensional changes; (c) air-coupled ultrasonic methods for determining through-thickness compositional variations; and (d) acoustic emission technology with mechanical loading for detecting localized bulk damage. New and exposed clay-bonded SiC filters and CVI-SiC composite filters have been tested with these additional NDE methods.

Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Lee, H.; Spohnholtz, T.; Sun, J. G.

1999-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Exploring the Environmental Effects of Shale Gas Development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploring the Environmental Effects of Shale Gas Development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed STAC Committee). 2013. Exploring the environmental effects of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The purpose of this workshop was to engage

442

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR Conference Report - September 2007 & The Oil And Gas Development Partnership #12;ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR May 16, 2007 St. John's Conference Report September

deYoung, Brad

443

Visual Impact Assessment in British Oil and Gas Developments1 Dennis F. Gillespie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Visual Impact Assessment in British Oil and Gas Developments1 2/ Dennis F. Gillespie 3/ Brian D Unit, Department of Geography, University of Aberdeen, Scotland. Abstract: Development of oil and gas these effects into account. Since 1970, the offshore discovery and development of oil and gas resources

Standiford, Richard B.

444

Constitutional Implications of Regional CO2 Cap-and-Trade Programs: The Northeast Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative as a Case in Point  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the purchase of out-of- RGGI electricity generating CO 2CONSTITUTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF RGGI "(i) to study state andGas Initiative, About RGGI, http://www.rggi. org/about (last

Funk, William

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

446

Achieving Californias Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that may slow the process of sustainable development. Inpotentially slow the process of sustainable development.

Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Savings to Reduce Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For evaluating greenhouse gas reduction strategies and estimating costs, the following information resources can help Federal agencies estimate energy and cost savings potential by building type.

449

2008 International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

greenhouse gas emissions. Purchasing a carbon offset on the European emissions trading market would cost

450

Ceramic stationary gas turbine development program -- Fifth annual summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program is being performed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through the selective replacement of metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. The program focuses on design, fabrication, and testing of ceramic components, generating a materials properties data base, and applying life prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The development program is being performed by a team led by Solar Turbines Incorporated, and which includes suppliers of ceramic components, US research laboratories, and an industrial cogeneration end user. The Solar Centaur 50S engine was selected for the development program. The program goals included an increase in the turbine rotor inlet temperature (TRIT) from 1,010 C (1,850 F) to 1,121 C (2,050 F), accompanied by increases in thermal efficiency and output power. The performance improvements are attributable to the increase in TRIT and the reduction in cooling air requirements for the ceramic parts. The ceramic liners are also expected to lower the emissions of NOx and CO. Under the program uncooled ceramic blades and nozzles have been inserted for currently cooled metal components in the first stage of the gas producer turbine. The louvre-cooled metal combustor liners have been replaced with uncooled continuous-fiber reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) liners. Modifications have been made to the engine hot section to accommodate the ceramic parts. To date, all first generation designs have been completed. Ceramic components have been fabricated, and are being tested in rigs and in the Centaur 50S engine. Field testing at an industrial co-generation site was started in May, 1997. This paper will provide an update of the development work and details of engine testing of ceramic components under the program.

Price, J.R.; Jimenez, O.; Faulder, L.; Edwards, B.; Parthasarathy, V.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

REVISED NOTICE OF PROPOSED AWARDS Advanced Natural Gas Engine Research and Development for Class 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVISED NOTICE OF PROPOSED AWARDS Advanced Natural Gas Engine Research and Development for Class 3 Notice (PON-12-504) entitled "Advanced Natural Gas Engine research and Development for Class 3 through of natural gas engine concepts for application in light heavy-duty vehicles (LHDV) and medium heavy duty

453

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES THE HOUSING MARKET IMPACTS OF SHALE GAS DEVELOPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES THE HOUSING MARKET IMPACTS OF SHALE GAS DEVELOPMENT Lucija Muehlenbachs © notice, is given to the source. #12;The Housing Market Impacts of Shale Gas Development Lucija to control for confounding factors, we recover hedonic estimates of property value impacts from shale gas

Habib, Ayman

454

Development of fission gas swelling and release models for metallic nuclear fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel swelling and fission gas generation for fast reactor fuels are of high importance since they are among the main limiting factors in the development of metallic fast reactor fuel. Five new fission gas and swelling ...

Andrews, Nathan Christopher

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks #12;Three Pillars Behind Climate Change! #12;1. Global. Greenhouse Gases have been on the increase. #12;3. The Greenhouse effect is a powerful theory that explains! natural greenhouse effect! · an empirical introduction #12;Moral of the story: The doubling of CO2 causes

456

Proceedings of the natural gas research and development contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this meeting was to present results of the research in the DOE-sponsored Natural Gas Program, and simultaneously to provide a forum for real-time technology transfer, to the active research community, to the interested public, and to the natural gas industry, who are the primary users of this technology. The current research focus is to expand the base of near-term and mid-term economic gas resources through research activities in Eastern Tight Gas, Western Tight Gas, Secondary Gas Recovery (increased recovery of gas from mature fields); to enhance utilization, particularly of remote gas resources through research in Natural Gas to Liquids Conversion; and to develop additional, long term, potential gas resources through research in Gas Hydrates and Deep Gas. With the increased national emphasis on the use of natural gas, this forum has been expanded to include summaries of DOE-sponsored research in energy-related programs and perspectives on the importance of gas to future world energy. Thirty-two papers and fourteen poster presentations were given in seven formal, and one informal, sessions: Three general sessions (4 papers); Western Tight Gas (6 papers); Eastern Tight Gas (8 papers); Conventional/Speculative Resources (8 papers); and Gas to Liquids (6 papers). Individual reports are processed separately on the data bases.

Malone, R.D.; Shoemaker, H.D.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

(Limiting the greenhouse effect)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

Rayner, S.

1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

458

Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the manufacturing sector, about 26% is electricity, 58% is natural gas, 10% is coal (excluding coal coke and breeze) and the remainder is from liquid fuels. 1 AdaptedfromTableE6.4. EndUsesofFuelConsumption,1998(URL: ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/consumption/industry/d98...FuelConsumptionbyEnd-UseforallMECSIndustries,1998,trillionBTU Electricity Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal (excluding Coal Cokeand Breeze) Total BoilerFuel 29 308 2,538 770 3,645 ProcessHeating 363 185 3,187 331 4,066 ProcessCoolingand Refrigeration 209 2 22 233 MachineDrive 1,881 25 99 7 2...

Sinha, P.; Wise, M.; Smith, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Analysis of the Development of Messoyakha Gas Field: A Commercial Gas Hydrate Reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the presence of gas hydrates in the Messoyakha field was not a certainty, this current study determined the undeniable presence of gas hydrates in the reservoir. This study uses four models of the Messoyakha field structure and reservoir conditions...

Omelchenko, Roman 1987-

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

460

Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum rights in the 6 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered by this paper amounted to 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1983, an 11% decrease from the 2,044,851 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1982. This decrease is mostly due to relinquishments in Sudan. Onshore seismic activity decreased in all countries except Sudan, where it slightly increased. Marine seismic activity increased by 85%, mostly due to significant efforts in Morocco and Egypt. Exploration drilling activity increased with 179 wildcats completed in 1983 compared to 166 in 1982. The success rate was 44.7% compared to 36% in 1982. No discoveries were made in Morocco. No new hydrocarbon province was discovered in 1983. Development drilling sharply increased in Egypt and remained at about the same levels in the other countries as in 1982. In Sudan, Chevron started in late September the first development drilling operations in Unity field. Oil production, with a daily average of 2,872,000 bbl, was at the same level as in 1982. In Egypt, 7 new fields went on-stream in the Gulf of Suez, 2 in the Western Desert, and 1 in the Eastern Desert. One field was put on-stream in Libya and 4 in Tunisia. Utilized gas production probably remained at the same level as in 1982 (2000 mmcf/day). 9 figures, 28 tables.

Nicod, M.A.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

462

Development of a natural gas systems analysis model (GSAM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of the activities to date and schedule for future testing, validation, and authorized enhancements of Natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). The goal of this report is to inform DOE managers of progress in model development and to provide a benchmark for ongoing and future research. Section II of the report provides a detailed discussion on the major GSAM development programs performed and completed during the period of performance, July 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. Key improvements in the new GSAM version are summarized in Section III. Programmer's guides for GSAM main modules were produced to provide detailed descriptions of all major subroutines and main variables of the computer code. General logical flowcharts of the subroutines are also presented in the guides to provide overall picture of interactions between the subroutines. A standard structure of routine explanation is applied in every programmer's guide. The explanation is started with a brief description or main purpose of the routine, lists of input and output files read and created, and lists of invoked/child and calling/parent routines. In some of the guides, interactions between the routine itself and its parent and child routines are presented in the form of graphical flowchart. The explanation is then proceeded with step by step description of computer code in the subroutine where each step delegates a section of related code. Between steps, if a certain section of code needs further explanation, a Note is inserted with relevant explanation.

NONE

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study, 2013 Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

464

Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Development of gas production type curves for coalbed methane reservoirs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coalbed methane is an unconventional gas resource that consists on methane production from the coal seams. The unique coal characteristic results in a dual-porosity system. (more)

Garcia Arenas, Anangela.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A novel branch and bound algorithm for optimal development of gas fields under uncertainty in reserves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in reserves Vikas Goel , Ignacio E. Grossmann Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University and operational planning for development of gas fields under uncertainty in gas reserves. Assuming uncertainties models for planning in the oil and gas exploration and production industry. A major challenge

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

467

Strategic Planning, Design and Development of the Shale Gas Supply Chain Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Strategic Planning, Design and Development of the Shale Gas Supply Chain Network Diego C. Cafaro1-term planning of the shale gas supply chain is a relevant problem that has not been addressed before Shale gas, supply chain, strategic planning, MINLP, solution algorithm * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

468

Development and Implementation of Interactive/Visual Software for Simple Aircraft Gas Turbine Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aircraft Gas Turbine, define the thermodynamic cycle implemented in the model, define the key engineDevelopment and Implementation of Interactive/Visual Software for Simple Aircraft Gas Turbine of software to analyze and design gas turbine systems has been an important part of this course since 1988

Ghajar, Afshin J.

469

Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize the design for manufacturing. This work included the initiation of a large field testing program (over 125 units) and an in-depth reliability program intended to minimize the risks associated with a new product introduction. At the time of this report, A.O. Smith plans to introduce this product to the marketplace in the early 2006 time period.

Peter Pescatore

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

470

Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources: Annual report, October 1986--September 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid ice-like mixtures of natural gas and water in the form of natural gas hydrated have been found immobilized in the rocks beneath the permafrost in Arctic basins and in muds under the deep water along the American continental margins, in the North Sea and several other locations around the world. It is estimated that the arctic areas of the United States may contain as much as 500 trillion SCF of natural gas in the form of gas hydrates (Lewin and Associates, 1983). While the US Arctic gas hydrate resources may have enormous potential and represent long term future source of natural gas, the recovery of this resource from reservoir frozen with gas hydrates has not been commercialized yet. Continuing study and research is essential to develop technologies which will enable a detailed characterization and assessment of this alternative natural gas resource, so that development of cost effective extraction technology.

Sharma, G.D.; Kamath, V.A.; Godbole, S.P.; Patil, S.L.; Paranjpe, S.G.; Mutalik, P.N.; Nadem, N.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Achieving Californias Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ND) Standards The U.S. Green Building Councils Leadershipnew urbanism, and green building. Developments that meeti.e. , energy savings in green buildings, transportation

Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Exploration and Development of Oil and Gas on School and Public Lands (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute authorizes the Board of School Lands and Funds to lease school and public lands under its jurisdiction for oil and gas exploration and development purposes.

473

An Institutional Analysis of Oil and Gas Sector Development and Environmental Management in the Yukon Territory.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis investigates the ways in which oil and gas development priorities and concern for the environment are integrated within strategic planning and management frameworks, (more)

May, Jason C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Development of Novel Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the objectives, technical barrier, approach, and accomplishments for the development of a novel water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor for hydrogen enhancement and CO reduction. We have synthesized novel CO{sub 2}-selective membranes with high CO{sub 2} permeabilities and high CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/CO selectivities by incorporating amino groups in polymer networks. We have also developed a one-dimensional non-isothermal model for the countercurrent WGS membrane reactor. The modeling results have shown that H{sub 2} enhancement (>99.6% H{sub 2} for the steam reforming of methane and >54% H{sub 2} for the autothermal reforming of gasoline with air on a dry basis) via CO{sub 2} removal and CO reduction to 10 ppm or lower are achievable for synthesis gases. With this model, we have elucidated the effects of system parameters, including CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} selectivity, CO{sub 2} permeability, sweep/feed flow rate ratio, feed temperature, sweep temperature, feed pressure, catalyst activity, and feed CO concentration, on the membrane reactor performance. Based on the modeling study using the membrane data obtained, we showed the feasibility of achieving H{sub 2} enhancement via CO{sub 2} removal, CO reduction to {le} 10 ppm, and high H{sub 2} recovery. Using the membrane synthesized, we have obtained <10 ppm CO in the H{sub 2} product in WGS membrane reactor experiments. From the experiments, we verified the model developed. In addition, we removed CO{sub 2} from a syngas containing 17% CO{sub 2} to about 30 ppm. The CO{sub 2} removal data agreed well with the model developed. The syngas with about 0.1% CO{sub 2} and 1% CO was processed to convert the carbon oxides to methane via methanation to obtain <5 ppm CO in the H{sub 2} product.

Ho, W. S. Winston

2004-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

475

Final Report. SFAA No. DEFC02-98CH10961. Technical assistance for joint implementation and other supporting mechanisms and measures for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IIEC, a division of CERF, has developed an extensive base of experience implementing activities that support climate action by developing USIJI projects in transitional countries within Asia, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and southern Africa. IIEC has been able to provide a range of technical and policy assistance to governments and industry in support of sustainable energy use. IIEC continues to work in key countries with local partners to develop and implement energy efficiency policies and standards, develop site-specific projects, and assist governing bodies to establish national priorities and evaluation criteria for approving GHG-mitigation projects. As part of this project, IIEC focused on promoting a series of activities in Thailand and South Africa in order to identify GHG mitigation projects and work within the national approval process of those countries. The sections of this report outline the activities conducted in each country in order to achieve that goal.

Knight, Denise

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

2003-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

477

US10 Capable Prototype Volvo MG11 Natural Gas Engine Development: Final Report, December 16, 2003 - July 31, 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report discusses a project to develop a low-emissions natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three-way catalyst (TWC).

Tai, C.; Reppert, T.; Chiu, J.; Christensen, L.; Knoll, K.; Stewart, J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all

Walter, Frederick M.

479

Geomechanical Development of Fractured Reservoirs During Gas Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is constructed by implementing a poroviscoelastic model into the dual permeability (DPM)-finite element model (FEM) to investigate the coupled time-dependent viscoelastic deformation, fracture network evolution and compressible fluid flow in gas shale reservoir...

Huang, Jian

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

480

Optimizing Development Strategies to Increase Reserves in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in tight gas fields is challenging, not only because of the wide range of depositional environments and large variability in reservoir properties, but also because the evaluation often has to deal with a multitude of wells, limited reservoir information...

Turkarslan, Gulcan

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development greenhouse gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Development of a miniature, continuous measurement, stochastic perturbation gas chromatograph  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used analytical chemistry techniques for separating and analyzing chemical compounds. Chromatographic methods are used to identify constituent species within a compound and ...

Paster, Eli (Eli Travis)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

DOE Showcases Websites for Tight Gas Resource Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Two U.S. Department of Energy projects funded by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory provide quick and easy web-based access to sought after information on tight-gas sandstone plays.

483

Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984. An increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North America ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries. 9 figures, 27 tables.

Michel, R.C.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984, an increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North Africa ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was up 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries.

Michel, R.Ch.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

The Influence on Climate Change of Differing Scenarios for Future Development Analyzed Using the MIT Integrated Global System Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A wide variety of scenarios for future development have played significant roles in climate policy discussions. This paper presents projections of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, sea level rise due to thermal expansion ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

486

Population enumeration and the effects of oil and gas development on dune-dwelling lizards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

abundances of dune-dwelling lizards among sites that varied in oil and gas development. I conducted distance line transects and compared those density estimates to densities obtained from total removal plots. I quantified the amount of oil and gas development...

Smolensky, Nicole Limunga

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter about it.But nobody does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we

Schwartz, Stephen E.

488

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something

Schwartz, Stephen E.

489

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

Johnson, Robert E.

490

2, 289337, 2002 Greenhouse effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 2, 289­337, 2002 Greenhouse effect and climate stability V. G. Gorshkov and A. M. Makarieva water vapour concentration, dependence of the planetary greenhouse effect on atmospheric water content to dynamic singularities in the physical temperature-dependent behaviour of the greenhouse effect. We

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

491

DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced from any one of a variety of sources (including coal) for the production of a spectrum of alternative fuels (hydrocarbons and oxygenate fuels), octane enhancers, and chemicals and chemical intermediates. In particular, the data from the 1995 LPMEOH{trademark} campaign provided confirmation of assumptions used in the design of the catalyst reduction system at the Kingsport LPMEOH{trademark} Commercial Demonstration Project, and the alternate methanol catalyst has been in use there since late 1998. The kinetic model was also expanded to allow for more accurate prediction of methanol production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) conversion, and more accurate modeling of by-product formation for the alternate methanol catalyst. The outstanding performance results of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process at Kingsport can be attributed in large part to the body of work performed since 1981 in collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products. In addition, a pilot-plant-tested LPDME{trademark} Process has been demonstrated, and the product cost of DME from coal-derived syngas can be competitive in certain locations and applications. The need for liquid fuels will continue to be a critical concern for this nation in the 21st century. Efforts are needed to ensure the development and demonstration of economically competitive, efficient, environmentally responsible technologies that produce clean fuels and chemicals from coal under DOE's Vision 21 concept. These liquids will be a component of the fuel mix that will provide the transition from the current reliance on carbon-based fuels to the ultimate use of H{sub 2} as a means of energy transport. Indirect liquefaction, which converts the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) produced by the gasification of coal to sulfur- and nitrogen-free liquid products, is a key component of the Vision 21 initiative. The results from this current program provide continued support to the objectives for the conversion of domestic coal to electric power and co-produced clean liquid fuels and chemicals in an environmentally superior manner.

Peter J. Tijrn

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

492

Oil and gas developments in western Canada in 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exploratory drilling in western Canada increased by 21% in 1987 whereas total drilling increased by 32%. The seismic crew count increased 4% to 671 crew-months, and land expenditures increased 166% to $793 million. No major plays broke during 1987 in western Canada. The 2 major plays resulting from 1986 activity - Caroline, Alberta, and Tableland, Saskatchewan - continued to expand in 1987. By year end at Caroline, industry drilled 14 wells, which included 6 Swan Hills gas wells, 3 uphole gas wells, 3 wells standing or suspended, and 2 dry holes. The reserves for this field now are 17 billion m/sup 3/ of sales gas, 32 million m/sup 3/ of condensate, and 20 million MT of sulfur. At Tableland and surrounding areas, industry has drilled 11 oil wells and 16 dry holes. No overall reserve figures have been published for this play. In Alberta, operators had their best exploratory oil success in the Cretaceous Second White Specks and in the Devonian Nisku, Leduc, Gilwood, and Keg River; the best exploratory gas success was in the Cretaceous Viking and Paddy, and Devonian Nisku and Leduc. In British Columbia, gas drilling was successful in the Cretaceous of the Deep Basin, as well as in the Mississippian Kiskatinaw and the Triassic Halfway. In Saskatchewan, both the shallow Cretaceous gas play and the deep Devonian Winnipegosis oil play continued to expand, whereas in Manitoba the main exploration target was the Mississippian carbonates and Bakken Formation. The Northwest Territories, Beaufort Sea, and Arctic Islands had a poor year, with only 4 exploratory wells drilled - all dry holes. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

Portigal, M.H.; Creed, R.M.; Hogg, J.R.; Hewitt, M.D.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

Air Products and Chemicals

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

495

Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the 6 countries covered by this paper, valid petroleum rights at the end of 1981 amounted to 2,024,414 km/sup 2/ or 7% more than at the end of 1980. As far as the rightholding situation is concerned, the main event was the abandonment by Esso of all its rights in Libya. Information on exploration activity remains scarce, but it is estimated that seismic activity increased by 35%. Large air-magnetometry surveys were carried out in Sudan and Egypt. Exploration drilling activity continued to increase, with 169 wells completed versus 115 in 1980. This effort led to 67 oil and gas discoveries, a success rate of about 40% compared with 35% in 1980. All these discoveries were made in established producing provinces. Highly successful results were obtained in the Gulf of Suez with 1 gas and 19 oil discoveries compared with 4 discoveries in 1980. Good success was also obtained by ONAREP, the new Moroccan state company, with 5 gas discoveries out of 11 wells spudded during the year. Chevron continued to find oil in the interior basins of Sudan, and expects commercial production in 1984 from the Unity field, which has reserves estimated at 400 million bbl of oil. Oil production markedly decreased by about 23%, with an average of 2,820,000 BOPD in 1981. Oil output decreased in all the North African countries except Egypt, where it increased 8%. Utilized natural gas production can be estimated at about 2300 MMCFGD. Sonatrach published official figures for gross gas production in 1981 which amounted to 4420 MMCFGD, of which about 2000 MMCFGD were collected and utilized.

Nicod, M.A.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in Chinas and Indias iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., Chinas, and Indias iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are represented, in addition to the extensive data compiled from recent studies on bottom-up representation of efficiency measures for the sector. We also defined various mitigation scenarios including long-term production trends to project country-specific production, energy use, trading, carbon emissions, and costs of mitigation. Such analyses can provide useful information to assist policy-makers when considering and shaping future emissions mitigation strategies and policies. The technical objective is to analyze the costs of production and CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the U.S, China, and Indias iron and steel sectors under different emission reduction scenarios, using the ISEEM-IS as a cost optimization model. The scenarios included in this project correspond to various CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets for the iron and steel sector under different strategies such as simple CO{sub 2} emission caps (e.g., specific reduction goals), emission reduction via commodity trading, and emission reduction via carbon trading.

Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Development of a Spectroscopic Technique for Continuous Online Monitoring of Oxygen and Site-Specific Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting-substance. Its sources are diffuse and poorly characterized, complicating efforts to understand anthropogenic impacts and develop mitigation policies. Online, ...

Harris, Eliza

498

Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

499

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Energyof the Americas |DOE Former Worker/EnergyFracture Fluids Shale Gas

500

Geology and development of Pitas Point gas field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pitas Point field produces gas from the Pliocene Pico and Repetto formations along an east-west-trending anticline located on OCS leases P-0233, P-0234, and P-0346, 9 mi south of Carpinteria in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. The field has produced 84 bcf (through July 1987), at an average daily rate of 60 MMCFGD, from low-resistivity turbidite sandstones. the Pitas Point structure is an asymmetric (steeper north flank), broad, unfaulted anticline. The maximum area of gas accumulation is 1900 ac. In the field area, 15,000 ft of Pliocene-Pleistocene sandstones and shales are present. The major gas pay zones occur between 9900 and 12,000 ft subsea. Shallow pay zones are also present from 3500 to 7500 ft subsea. The deep zone reservoir sandsto