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1

Chapter 23 - Statement of Costs Incurred and Claimed  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11-15-2012 11-15-2012 23-1 CHAPTER 23 STATEMENT OF COSTS INCURRED AND CLAIMED 1. INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE. This chapter serves to provide the financial management requirements and responsibilities for preparing and reporting the Statement of Costs Incurred and Claimed. (a) Requirements and Applicability (1) The Statement of Costs Incurred and Claimed (SCIC), is prepared and certified by DOE's integrated contractors annually after they have submitted their financial statements and related information to their cognizant field elements (Attachment 23-1). This requirement applies to individual DOE contracts that include the contract clause at 48 CFR 970.5232-2 (alternate iii). The costs reported on this statement should be consistent with the contractors' financial statements. The SCIC form is

2

Docket No. ER12--000, Request to Recover Prudently-Incurred Costs Associated with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dear Secretary Bose: Pursuant to Section 205 of the Federal Power Act (FPA) 1 and Part 35 of the regulations of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 2 Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G) hereby submits for filing revised tariff sheets to the Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT) administered by PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM) modifying PSE&G’s existing cost-of-service formula rate (Formula Rate) to permit the recovery of prudently incurred costs associated with the abandonment of the Branchburg-Roseland-Hudson 500 kilovolt (kV) project (BRH Project or the Project). PSE&G respectfully requests that the Commission permit the revised tariff sheets to become effective in sixty (60) days (i.e., September 17, 2012) with no suspension period or hearing. 1

Law Department; Honorable Kimberly; D. Bose

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Costs Incurred by Selected Tribal Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients, OAS-RA-13-28  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Costs Incurred by Selected Tribal Costs Incurred by Selected Tribal Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients OAS-RA-13-28 July 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 July 18, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY FROM: Rickey R. Hass Deputy Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Costs Incurred by Selected Tribal Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients" BACKGROUND Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), the Department of Energy's (Department) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program received $3.2 billion to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use and fossil fuel

4

Questioned, Unresolved, and Potentially Unallowable Costs Incurred by Los Alamos National Laboratory during Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009, OAS-L-12-04  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Special Report Special Report Questioned, Unresolved and Potentially Unallowable Costs Incurred by Los Alamos National Laboratory during Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009 OAS-L-12-04 April 2012 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 April 19, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE ADMINISTRATOR, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FROM: George W. Collard Assistant Inspector General for Audits Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Special Report on "Questioned, Unresolved and Potentially Unallowable Costs Incurred by Los Alamos National Laboratory during Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009" BACKGROUND Since June 2006, Los Alamos National Security, LLC, has operated the National Nuclear Security Administration's Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) for the Department of

5

Questioned, Unresolved and Potentially Unallowable Costs Incurred by Los Alamos National Laboratory During Fiscal Year 2012, OAS-L-13-02  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Questioned, Unresolved and Potentially Unallowable Costs Incurred by Los Alamos National Laboratory During Fiscal Year 2010 OAS-L-13-02 November 2012 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 November 20, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE ADMINISTRATOR, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FROM: Rickey R. Hass Deputy Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Special Report on "Questioned, Unresolved and Potentially Unallowable Costs Incurred by Los Alamos National Laboratory During Fiscal Year 2010" BACKGROUND Since June 2006, Los Alamos National Security, LLC, has operated the National Nuclear Security Administration's Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) for the Department of Energy.

6

Cost effective multimedia courseware development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multimedia technology offers considerable potential for education though the costs of production of courseware are prohibitive especially in a rapidly changing discipline such as computer science. This paper proposes a cost-effective technique which ...

C. J. Pilgrim; Y. K. Leung; D. D. Grant

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change Agency...

8

Low Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal Resource Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Low Cost Exploration,...

9

Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Developing a total replacement cost index for suburban office projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the components of replacement costs for office developments, and how these components combine to create total development costs is essential for success in office real estate development. Surprisingly, the ...

Hansen, David John, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

An economic model of software quality costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As of today there is very little knowledge is available about the economics of software quality. The costs incurred and benefits of implementing different quality practices over the software development life cycle are not well understood. There are some ... Keywords: TQM, quality cost model, software quality

Amel Kolašinac; Ljubomir Lazic; Dženan Avdic

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Towards a "personal cost" model for end-user development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software cost estimation techniques are used to provide a useful measure of the complexities, efforts, and costs involved in system development. Despite three decades of research on software cost estimation, the research community has yet to provide ... Keywords: EUD, cost-estimation, end-user development, motivation, qualitative evaluation, software quality

Roderick A. Farmer; Baden Hughes

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Heliostat Development to Low-Cost Heliostat Development to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment National Laboratory Research & Development

14

Sharing Supermodular Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents. ..... Mixed integer programming formulations for production planning and scheduling prob- lems.

15

National Lab Uses OGJ Data to Develop Cost Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the past 30 years, the Oil and Gas Journal (OGJ) has published data on the costs of onshore and offshore oil and gas pipelines and related equipment. This article describes the methodology employed and resulting equations developed for conceptual capital cost estimating of onshore pipelines. Also described are cost trends uncovered during the course of the analysis.

Brown, Daryl R.; Cabe, James E.; Stout, Tyson E.

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

16

Development of Low-cost Functional Geopolymeric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Development of Low-cost Functional Geopolymeric Materials. Author(s), Mazen Alshaaer, Rushdi Yousef, Bassam El-Eswed, Hani Khoury, ...

17

Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

Not Available

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Cost Sharing for the Economic Lot-Sizing Problem with ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost and production costs. In addition, in each period, the retailer incurs holding costs for storing serviceable product and returned product in inventory.

19

Field development will cost $1 billion  

SciTech Connect

The development of the Belridge property 40 miles west of Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley is not only one of the biggest production developments of this decade in California but also is one of the msot challenging. It will call on advanced expertise and, ultimately, on techniques that are still in the research stage. The program calls for drilling at least 3000 wells and reworking another 2200 wells. In excess of $100 million is being committed in 1980 alone. Since acquiring the property, Shell has increased the estimate of proved developed and undeveloped reserves to approximately 598 million bbl of hydrocarbon liquids and 364 billion cu ft of natural gas. The higher estimates mirror the company's confidence in its capability to recover a larger amount of the in-place oil and gas than previously expected.

Rintoul, B.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Development and Evaluation of Low Cost Mercury Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is conducting research to investigate sorbent injection for mercury removal in utility flue gas. This report describes laboratory work conducted from mid-1999 through mid-2000 to investigate the ability of low-cost sorbents to remove mercury from simulated and actual flue gas. The goal of this program is the development of effective mercury sorbents that can be produced at lower costs than existing commercial activated carbons. In this work, low-cost sorbents were prepared and then evaluated in labo...

2000-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Development of a Low-Cost Tide Gauge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low-cost tide gauge was developed and field tested to demonstrate a technology that would enable more cost-effective and greater sampling of spatially variable water levels and ocean surface waves. The gauge was designed to be adaptable to ...

Mark F. Giardina; Marshall D. Earle; John C. Cranford; Daniel A. Osiecki

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects Ryan Wiser This analysis was funded by the Wind & Water Power Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy factor trends fails to convey recent improvements in the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from wind

23

Development of Low-cost Hydrogen Sensors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research was aimed at understanding and improving the speed and reproducibility of our resistive hydrogen sensor, along with complementary efforts in manufacturability and further design improvements. Maskworks were designed to allow for the printing and firing of multi-sensor layouts (15 per substrate) and a large batch of these sensors was produced using standard thick-film manufacturing lines. Piece-to-piece variations of both the as-made resistance and the response of these sensors to hydrogen were within acceptable tolerances, and the sensor design has now been released for commercial prototyping. Automated testing was begun in order to develop long-term performance data. Dynamic response of selected sensors was measured before and after exposures to methane, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon monoxide, in order to assess the effects of interference gases and surface poisoning. As expected, H{sub 2}S degrades the sensor somewhat, whereas CH{sub 4} and CO do not create significant interference when air is present.

Lauf, R.J.

2001-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

24

SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Heliostat Development Cost Heliostat Development HiTek logo Photo of a machine with two round discs connected by intertwined chains. A staged-chain drive unit eliminates destructive coupling loads from severe wind conditions and greatly reduces cumulative fatigue damage. HiTek Services, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is conducting fundamental parametric analyses of the optimum heliostat size and developing a novel low-cost heliostat design. Approach There are four tasks under this award: Develop a means to determine the optimum size range of the heliostat, in terms of the applied forces and moments, manufacturing learning curve effects, O&M, and optical efficiency. The outcome of this task will be a spreadsheet analysis tool for parametrically determining heliostat costs that are appropriately allocated into categories with inputs for a specific design.

25

Development and performance of a miniature, low cost mass spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A miniature, low cost mass spectrometer has been developed that is capable of unit resolution over a mass range of 10 to 50 AMU. The design of the mass spectrometer incorporates several new features that enhance the ...

Hemond, Brian D. (Brian David Thomson)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

27

Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector  

SciTech Connect

This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Technical Support (LTS) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), through this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) seeks to facilitate the development of innovative SMR designs that have the potential to address the nation's economic, environmental and energy security goals. Specifically, the Department is soliciting applications for SMR designs that offer unique and innovative solutions for achieving the objectives of enhanced safety, operations, and performance relative to currently certified designs. This FOA focuses on design development and

30

Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Technical Support (LTS) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), through this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) seeks to facilitate the development of innovative SMR designs that have the potential to address the nation's economic, environmental and energy security goals. Specifically, the Department is soliciting applications for SMR designs that offer unique and innovative solutions for achieving the objectives of enhanced safety, operations, and performance relative to currently certified designs. This FOA focuses on design development and

31

Low Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal Resource Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Low Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal Resource Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Chena Hot Springs geothermal field was intensively explored, tested, and developed without a wireline unit between October 2005 and August 2006. Due to the remote location of the project and its small size of 0.4 MW, it was necessary to perform the work without the geothermal industry infrastructure typically utilized in the 48 contiguous states. This could largely be done because some of the wells were capable of artesian flow at below boiling temperatures. The geology, consisting of

32

DEVELOPMENT OF A PRODUCTION COST ESTIMATION FRAMEWORK TO SUPPORT PRODUCT FAMILY DESIGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main task of a product family designer is to decide the right components/design variables to share among products to maintain economies of scale with minimum sacrifice in the performance of each product in the family. The decisions are usually based on several criteria, but production cost is of primary concern. Estimating the production cost of a family of products involves both estimating the production cost of each product in the family and the costs incurred by common and variant components/design variables in the family. To estimate these costs consistently and accurately, we propose a production cost estimation framework to support product family design based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC) that consists of three stages: (1) allocation, (2) estimation, and (3) analysis. In the allocation stage, the production activities and resources needed to produce the entire products in a family are identified and classified with an activity table, a resource table, and a production flow. To help allocate product data for production, a product family structure is represented by a hierarchical classification of products that form the product family. In the estimation stage, production costs are estimated with cost estimation methods selected based on the type of information available. In the analysis stage,

Jaeil Park; Timothy W. Simpson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

C.E. (Sandy) Thomas, Ph.D., President; Principal Investigator, and

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

34

Minimum cost subset selection with two competing agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

do not require qualified personnel, or when internal costs proportional to skills are incurred .... In conclusion, we tackle four different versions of the minimum cost ...

35

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap K. Hudon, T. Merrigan, J. Burch and J. Maguire National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54793 August 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap K. Hudon, T. Merrigan, J. Burch and J. Maguire National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. SHX1.1001 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54793 August 2012

36

Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook.

Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs  

SciTech Connect

The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

Rose, K.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation system leads to higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. However, in a CSP system, higher operating temperature also leads to greater thermal losses. These two effects combine to give an optimal system-level operating temperature that may be less than the upper operating temperature limit of system components. The overall efficiency may be improved by developing materials, power cycles, and system-integration strategies that enable operation at elevated temperature while limiting thermal losses. This is particularly true for the TES system and its components. Meeting the SunShot cost target will require cost and performance improvements in all systems and components within a CSP plant. Solar collector field hardware will need to decrease significantly in cost with no loss in performance and possibly with performance improvements. As higher temperatures are considered for the power block, new working fluids, heat-transfer fluids (HTFs), and storage fluids will all need to be identified to meet these new operating conditions. Figure 1 shows thermodynamic conversion efficiency as a function of temperature for the ideal Carnot cycle and 75% Carnot, which is considered to be the practical efficiency attainable by current power cycles. Current conversion efficiencies for the parabolic trough steam cycle, power tower steam cycle, parabolic dish/Stirling, Ericsson, and air-Brayton/steam Rankine combined cycles are shown at their corresponding operating temperatures. Efficiencies for supercritical steam and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) are also shown for their operating temperature ranges.

Glatzmaier, G.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully exercised the tool's build/turn/drop/hold target capabilities and its higher end ratings for bit weight, torque and rotary speed. The tool teardowns were rigorously analyzed at the conclusion of each field run to assess component wear rates and to fully document any detrimental behavior(s) observed.

Roney Nazarian

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe  

SciTech Connect

This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005 and contains the following discussions: (1) Qualification Testing; (2) Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; (3) Field Test Demonstration; and (4) Commercial order for SR-CDP from Torch International. The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate ''cost effective'' Composite Drill Pipe. It is projected that this drill pipe will weigh less than half of its steel counter part. The resultant weight reduction will provide enabling technology that will increase the lateral distance that can be reached from an offshore drilling platform and the depth of water in which drilling and production operations can be carried out. Further, composite drill pipe has the capability to carry real time signal and power transmission within the pipe walls. CDP can also accommodate much shorter drilling radius than is possible with metal drill pipe. As secondary benefits, the lighter weight drill pipe can increase the storage capability of floating off shore drilling platforms and provide substantial operational cost savings.

James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Steve Loya

2006-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Low Cost Titanium Powder Development for Additive Manufacturing ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Cost Affordable Titanium IV. Presentation Title, Low Cost Titanium Powder ...

42

Development of a right-of-way cost estimation and cost estimate management process framework for highway projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Escalation of right-of-way (ROW) costs have been shown to be a prime contributor to project cost escalation in the highway industry. Two problems contribute to ROW cost escalation: 1) the ROW cost estimation and cost estimate management process generally lacks structure and definition as compared to other areas of cost estimation; and 2) there is a lack of integration and communication between those responsible for ROW cost estimating and those responsible for general project cost estimating. The research for this thesis was preceded by a literature review to establish the basis for the study. Data collection was completed through interviews of seven state highway agencies (SHAs) and two local public agencies (LPAs). The findings of the research are presented in a set of ROW flowcharts which document the steps, inputs, and outputs of the ROW cost estimation and cost estimate management process. Three ROW cost estimates and a cost management process take place throughout project development. An effort was made from the onset of the research to relate the ROW cost estimating and cost estimate management process to the first four project development phases (planning, programming. preliminary design, and final design). There are five flowcharts produced as a result of this research: 1) an agency-level flowchart showing all cost estimates and the interaction of ROW with the project development process; 2) a conceptual ROW cost estimating flowchart which depicts the required steps during planning; 3) a baseline ROW cost estimating flowchart which depicts the required steps during programming; 4) an update ROW cost estimating flowchart which depicts the required steps during preliminary design to include a cost estimate management loop; and 5) a ROW cost management flowchart which depicts the required steps during final design. Although selected SHA contacts provided input following the development of the flowcharts, the flowcharts were only validated to a limited extent due to time and budget constraints. These flowcharts attempt to address the two contributing problems to ROW cost escalation by providing structure to the ROW cost estimation process and by developing the ROW process flowcharts linked to the project development process. Based on the input provided by SHA contacts, the flowcharts appear to have the potential to provide guidance to SHAs in improving the accuracy of ROW cost estimates through addressing these two problems.

Lucas, Matthew Allen

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Total Cost of Motor-Vehicle Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Grand total social cost of highway transportation Subtotal:of alternative transportation investments. A social-costtransportation option that has These costs will be inefficiently incurred if people do not fully lower total social costs.

Delucchi, Mark A.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE  

SciTech Connect

This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 and contains the following discussions: (1) Direct Electrical Connection for Rotary Shoulder Tool Joints; (2) Conductors for inclusion in the pipe wall (ER/DW-CDP); (3) Qualify fibers from Zoltek; (4) Qualify resin from Bakelite; (5) First commercial order for SR-CDP from Integrated Directional Resources (SR-CDP); and (6) Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Peter Manekas

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

45

Development of Low Cost Sensors for Hydrogen Safety Applications  

SciTech Connect

We are developing rugged and reliable hydrogen safety sensors that can be easily manufactured. Potential applications also require an inexpensive sensor that can be easily deployed. Automotive applications demand low cost, while personnel safety applications emphasize light-weight, battery-operated, and wearable sensors. Our current efforts involve developing and optimizing sensor materials for stability and compatibility with typical thick-film manufacturing processes. We are also tailoring the sensor design and size along with various packaging and communication schemes for optimal acceptance by end users.

Hoffheins, B.S.; Holmes, W., Jr.; Lauf, R.J.; Maxey, L.C.; Salter, C.; Walker, D.

1999-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

46

Development of low cost concentrating solar collectors. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A low cost concentrating collector has been developed that has the following features: (1) Material cost per 4 foot by 8 foot panel of $175 or $225 at retail prices depending on which of the two versions are used. (2) Low weight of 159 pounds per panel when liquid-filled or approximately 5 pounds per square foot to result in minor additional roof stress. (3) A concentration factor of 1.72 to reduce the necessary storage volume for winter heating and obtain adequate temperature for future air conditioning.(4) High efficiency when mounted parallel to the roof to reduce wind damage, roof stresses, and blend better with architectural features of a house.

Batzer, D.

1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Full Economic Costing:-Updated guidance notes for peer reviewers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the level of resources required to undertake the project and not their unit cost. In particular, peer are as follows: 1) Directly Incurred costs: These are costs which are specific to a project and will be charged to the project on the basis of actual costs incurred. They must be supported by an audit record, which

49

Development of Commodity Grade, Lower Cost Carbon Fiber - Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fiber reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fiber composites in transportation is the high cost of the fiber when compared to other candidate materials. As part of the United States Department of Energy s FreedomCAR initiative, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fiber. This paper will highlight the on-going research in this area. Through Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its partners have been working with the US Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would enable the production of carbon fiber at 5-7 dollars per pound. Achievement of this cost goal would allow the introduction of carbon fiber based composites into a greater number of applications for future vehicles. The approach has necessitated the development of both alternative precursors and more efficient production methods. Alternative precursors under investigation include textile grade polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers and fibers from lignin-based feedstocks. Previously, as part of the research program, Hexcel Corporation developed the science necessary to allow textile grade PAN to be used as a precursor rather than typical carbon fiber grade precursors. Efforts are also underway to develop carbon fiber precursors from lignin-based feedstocks. ORNL and its partners are working on this effort with domestic pulp and paper producers. In terms of alternative production methods, ORNL has developed a microwave-based carbonization unit that can process pre-oxidized fiber at over 200 inches per minute. ORNL has also developed a new method of high speed oxidation and a new method for precursor stabilization. Additionally, novel methods of activating carbon fiber surfaces have been developed which allow atomic oxygen concentrations as high as 25-30% to be achieved rather than the more typical 4-8% achieved by the standard industrial ozone treatment.

Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPGâ??s program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPGâ??s high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with the standard diffuser sheets used by OLED manufacturers. For an internal extraction layer (IEL), PPG tested two concepts combining nanoparticles either in a solgel coating inserted between the anode and OLED or anode and glass interface, or incorporated into the internal surface of the glass. Efficacy enhancements of 1.31x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for the IEL by itself and factors of 1.73x were attained for an IEL in combination of thick acrylic block as an EEL. Recent offline measurements indicate that, with further optimization, factors over 2.0x could be achieved through an IEL alone.

Scott Benton; Abhinav Bhandari

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

51

Microsoft Word - IG Testimony - UCLANL Cost Incurred- Long9 delivered.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GREGORY H. FRIEDMAN GREGORY H. FRIEDMAN INSPECTOR GENERAL U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BEFORE THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND COMMERCE SUBCOMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT AND INVESTIGATIONS FOR RELEASE ON DELIVERY Thursday, May 1, 2003 1 Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, I am pleased to be here at your request to testify on the Office of Inspector General's (OIG) reviews of management practices at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In February of this year, I testified before this Subcommittee regarding our Special Inquiry report on Operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (DOE/IG-0584, January 2003). That report noted a series of actions taken by Laboratory officials, which obscured serious property and

52

Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Applications Development  

SciTech Connect

The complexity of petascale and exascale machines makes it increasingly difficult to develop applications that can take advantage of them. Future systems are expected to feature billion-way parallelism, complex heterogeneous compute nodes and poor availability of memory (Peter Kogge, 2008). This new challenge for application development is motivating a significant amount of research and development on new programming models and runtime systems designed to simplify large-scale application development. Unfortunately, DoE has significant multi-decadal investment in a large family of mission-critical scientific applications. Scaling these applications to exascale machines will require a significant investment that will dwarf the costs of hardware procurement. A key reason for the difficulty in transitioning today's applications to exascale hardware is their reliance on explicit programming techniques, such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model to enable parallelism. MPI provides a portable and high performance message-passing system that enables scalable performance on a wide variety of platforms. However, it also forces developers to lock the details of parallelization together with application logic, making it very difficult to adapt the application to significant changes in the underlying system. Further, MPI's explicit interface makes it difficult to separate the application's synchronization and communication structure, reducing the amount of support that can be provided by compiler and run-time tools. This is in contrast to the recent research on more implicit parallel programming models such as Chapel, OpenMP and OpenCL, which promise to provide significantly more flexibility at the cost of reimplementing significant portions of the application. We are developing CoMPI, a novel compiler-driven approach to enable existing MPI applications to scale to exascale systems with minimal modifications that can be made incrementally over the application's lifetime. It includes: (1) New set of source code annotations, inserted either manually or automatically, that will clarify the application's use of MPI to the compiler infrastructure, enabling greater accuracy where needed; (2) A compiler transformation framework that leverages these annotations to transform the original MPI source code to improve its performance and scalability; (3) Novel MPI runtime implementation techniques that will provide a rich set of functionality extensions to be used by applications that have been transformed by our compiler; and (4) A novel compiler analysis that leverages simple user annotations to automatically extract the application's communication structure and synthesize most complex code annotations.

Bronevetsky, G; Quinlan, D; Lumsdaine, A; Hoefler, T

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries Title The Development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries Publication Type Journal...

54

FACILITIES ENGINEER WEST CHICAGO Execute capital projects for manufacturing facilities and utilities systems: scope development, cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improvements, including all stages of project engineering: scope development, cost estimation, system designFACILITIES ENGINEER ­ WEST CHICAGO OVERVIEW: Execute capital projects for manufacturing facilities and utilities systems: scope development, cost estimation, system design, equipment sizing

Heller, Barbara

55

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects Title Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects...

56

Comparison of indirect cost multipliers for vehicle manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

In the process of manufacturing and selling vehicles, a manufacturer incurs certain costs. Among these costs are those incurred directly as a part of manufacturing operations and those incurred indirectly in the processes of manufacturing and selling. The indirect costs may be production-related, such as R and D and engineering; business-related, such as corporate staff salaries and pensions; or retail-sales-related, such as dealer support and marketing. These indirect costs are recovered by allocating them to each vehicle. Under a stable, high-volume production process, the allocation of these indirect costs can be approximated as multipliers (or factors) applied to the direct cost of manufacturing. A manufacturer usually allocates indirect costs to finished vehicles according to a corporation-specific pricing strategy. Because the volumes of sales and production vary widely by model within a corporation, the internal corporate percent allocation of various accounting categories (such as profit or corporate overheat) can vary widely among individual models. Approaches also vary across corporations. For these purposes, an average value is constructed, by means of a generic representative method, for vehicle models produced at high volume. To accomplish this, staff at Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Center for Transportation Research analyzed the conventional vehicle cost structure and developed indirect cost multipliers for passenger vehicles. This memorandum summarizes the results of an effort to compare and put on a common basis the cost multipliers used in ANL's electric and hybrid electric vehicle cost estimation procedures with those resulting from two other methodologies. One of the two compared methodologies is derived from a 1996 presentation by Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird of Chrysler Corporation, the other is by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), as described in a 1995 report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Congress of the United States. The cost multipliers are used for scaling the component costs to retail prices.

Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Cuenca, R.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

57

Development Pathways to Low-Cost Engineering Beta Gamma TiAl ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Cost-Affordable Titanium III. Presentation Title, Development Pathways to ...

58

Research and Development of Low-cost Titanium Alloys for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Therefore, low-cost elements such as Fe, Mn, Cr, O, and N are gaining attention in titanium alloy design for biomedical applications. For biomedical applications ...

59

DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates all progress in the first two years of this NETL/DOE supported program. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: (1) Specifications for both 5 5/16 inch and 3 3/8 inch composite drill pipe have been finalized. (2) All basic laboratory testing has been completed and has provide sufficient data for the selection of materials for the composite tubing, adhesives, and abrasion coatings. (3) Successful demonstration of composite/metal joint interfacial connection. (4) Upgrade of facilities to provide a functional pilot plant manufacturing facility. (5) Arrangements to have the 3 3/8 inch CDP used in a drilling operation early in C.Y. 2002. (6) Arrangements to have the 5 5/16 inch CDP marketed and produced by a major drill pipe manufacturer.

James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

60

Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe  

SciTech Connect

This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report reiterates the presentation made to DOE/NETL in Morgantown, WV on August 1st, 2002 with the addition of accomplishments made from that time forward until the issue date. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: {sm_bullet} Specifications for both 5-1/2'' and 1-5/8'' composite drill pipe have been finalized. {sm_bullet} Full scale testing of Short Radius (SR) CDP has been conducted. {sm_bullet} Successful demonstration of metal to composite interface (MCI) connection. {sm_bullet} Preparations for full scale manufacturing of ER/DW CDP have begun. {sm_bullet} Manufacturing facility rearranged to accommodate CDP process flow through plant. {sm_bullet} Arrangements to have the 3 3/8'' CDP used in 4 separate drilling applications in Oman, Oklahoma, and Texas.

James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

2002-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Development of Low-Cost Directionally-Solidified Turbine Blades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

blade cost was realized. As a result, the new DS Mar-M 247 blade has been selected for production in the TFE731-B-100, an advanced version of the TFE731 -3 ...

62

Development of a low-cost underwater manipulator.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis describes the design, modeling, manufacture, and testing of a low cost, multiple degree-of-freedom underwater manipulator. Current underwater robotic arm technologies are often expensive… (more)

Cooney, Lauren Alise

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Development of a low-cost underwater manipulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the design, modeling, manufacture, and testing of a low cost, multiple degree-of-freedom underwater manipulator. Current underwater robotic arm technologies are often expensive or limited in functionality. ...

Cooney, Lauren Alise

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force fields up to 74 kilohertz (KHz), a removable section of copper wire can be placed inside the composite pipe to short the tool joints electrically allowing electromagnetic signals inside the collar to induce and measure the same within the rock formation. By embedding a pair of wires in the composite section and using standard drill pipe box and pin ends equipped with a specially developed direct contact joint electrical interface, power can be supplied to measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) bottom hole assemblies. Instantaneous high-speed data communications between near drill bit and the surface are obtainable utilizing this 'smart' drilling technology. The composite drill pipe developed by ACPT has been field tested successfully in several wells nationally and internationally. These tests were primarily for short radius and ultra short radius directional drilling. The CDP in most cases performed flawlessly with little or no appreciable wear. ACPT is currently marketing a complete line of composite drill collars, subs, isolators, casing, and drill pipe to meet the drilling industry's needs and tailored to replace metal for specific application requirements.

James C. Leslie

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Microalgae Production Cost Analysis: Development of Goals And Its Implications On Future Research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the production and economic models, with specific discussion of input assumptions used to derive microalgae product costs for the state of the art, theoretical-best and for the 1994 attainability target. These product cost estimates form the basis for developing program cost goals for microalgae fuel technology.

Hill, A. M.; McIntosh, R. P.

1984-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

66

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects Ryan Wiser, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eric Lantz, National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

67

Low cost solar concentrator for domestic use in developing countries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The model of solar concentrator described in the present paper is easy to fabricate, has a lower cost of production, is rugged and light in weight. Thin sticks cut from a bamboo are woven into a parabolic basket. At every stage of construction of the basket its shape is checked. The ruff inner surface is smoothened out by applying a paste made from wheat and fennagreak flours mixed in equal proportion with water. This paste after drying forms a smooth thin coating on the inner surface. Metallized polyster paper can be stuck on the inner surface with Fevicol (adhesive). An iron rod pierced horizontally through the basket at its focal height serves to mount the basket on a stand and also can be used to hold the cooking pot. The basket can be rotated through 120 degrees. A 0.8 m diameter basket costing about R x 64 can be used to cook suitable items for a family of five in about 100 minutes.

Pande, D.R.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

A Framework to Support A Systematic Approach to Unit Cost Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Availability of historical unit cost data is an important factor in developing accurate project cost estimates. State highway agencies (SHAs) collect data on historical bids and/or production rates, crew sizes and mixes, material costs, and equipment costs, including contractor overhead and profit. The objective of this research is to create a framework to define a standardized and a systematic approach for developing unit costs for construction project estimating. A literature review was conducted that provided an overview of estimating techniques used in project estimating, estimation guidelines maintained by SHAs, and information systems used in the estimation process. After gaining a broad overview of the industry‘s approach to unit cost development, a survey was then conducted. The purpose of the survey was to identify the state of practice in SHAs for unit cost development. The survey helped to identify SHAs doing considerable work in unit cost development and interviews were conducted with these agencies to know their unit cost development process in detail. The results from survey and the interviews were then used in defining the framework. The framework provides a standardized way to use historical data for preparing construction project estimates.

Ramesh, Sushanth

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Developing an activity-based costing approach for system development and implementation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes the use of the Activity Based Costing (ABC) approach to software estimation. Like other more traditional approaches to software estimation, ABC provides man-day estimates. In addition, it also provides detailed costing information ... Keywords: IS project planning, activity-based costing, effort estimation, organizational learning, software process measurement, time and cost estimation

Ginny Ooi; Christina Soh

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Development of an Operations and Maintenance Cost Model to Identify Cost of Energy Savings for Low Wind Speed Turbines: July 2, 2004 -- June 30, 2008  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the operatons and maintenance cost model developed by Global Energy Concepts under contract to NREL to estimate the O&M costs for commercial wind turbine generator facilities.

Poore, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Development of Simpler, Cost Effective Oil Conditioning Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was recognized that the flexibility and complexity associated with the multipurpose on-line continuous oil-conditioning unit (Mark I), developed in this project in prior years, might not be needed in some cases. Furthermore, it was anticipated that simpler or single purpose units might have equal or higher merit. Subsequent efforts were focused towards the development of stand-alone units for dehydration, decontamination, and degassing/dehydration. This technical update describes work to date on the d...

2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

73

Development of a Measurement and Verification (M&V) Costing Toolkit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the development of a M&V Costing Toolkit that has been developed to assist the U.S. Army with the standardization of costing procedures for measuring and verifying energy savings from Energy Service Performance Contracts (ESPC) at army bases. This M&V costing toolkit contains pricing for a wide-variety of sensors, data loggers, portable data loggers and transducers used to measure energy savings from energy conservation retrofits to buildings. The M&V costing toolkit also contains a framework for pricing the installation, maintaining the equipment, and the removal of instrumentation associated with the measurement of energy savings. The toolkit includes costing procedures for collecting the data from remote sites, archiving of the data, QC procedures, data analysis, savings reporting, and project closeout costing. This paper presents a general overview of the M&V costing process, various methods for monitoring and verifying savings, and a description of the M&V Costing Toolkit. Two examples of the use of the M&V Costing Toolkit are also presented. Twelve additional examples are provided with the toolkit, including the M&V of boilers, chillers, Energy Management and Control System (EMCS), and lighting retrofits (Haberl et al. 2003b).

Haberl, J. S.; Lewis, T.; Im, P.; Carlson, K. A.; Underwood, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Development of High Efficacy, Low Cost Phosphorescent Oled Lightning Luminaire  

SciTech Connect

In this two year program, UDC together with Armstrong World Industries, Professor Stephen Forrest (University of Michigan) and Professor Mark Thompson (University of Southern California) planned to develop and deliver high efficiency OLED lighting luminaires as part of an integrated ceiling illumination system that exceed the Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 performance projections. Specifically the UDC team in 2010 delivered two prototype OLED ceiling illumination systems, each consisting of four individual OLED lighting panels on glass integrated into Armstrong's novel TechZone open architecture ceiling systems, at an overall system efficacy of 51 lm/W, a CRI = 85 and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 10,000 hours. This accomplishment represents a 50% increase in luminaire efficacy and a factor of two in lifetime over that outlined in the solicitation. In addition, the team has also delivered one 15cm x 15cm lighting panel fabricated on a flexible metal foil substrate, demonstrating the possibility using OLEDs in a range of form factors. During this program, our Team has pursued the commercialization of these OLED based ceiling luminaires, with a goal to launch commercial products within the next three years. We have proven that our team is ideally suited to develop these highly novel and efficient solid state lighting luminaires, having both the technical experience and commercial strategy to leverage work performed under this contract. Our calculations show that the success of our program could lead to energy savings of more than 0.5 quads or 8 MMTC (million metric tons of carbon) per year by 2016.

Michael Hack

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

75

Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Task 1 of this research was the development of a high-resolution, fully implicit, finite-difference, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional simulator for chemical flooding. The major physical phenomena modeled in this simulator are dispersion, heterogeneous permeability and porosity, adsorption, interfacial tension, relative permeability and capillary desaturation, compositional phase viscosity, compositional phase density and gravity effects, capillary pressure, and aqueous-oleic-microemulsion phase behavior. Polymer and its non-Newtonian rheology properties include shear-thinning viscosity, permeability reduction, inaccessible pore volume, and adsorption. Options of constant or variable space grids and time steps, constant-pressure or constant-rate well conditions, horizontal and vertical wells, and multiple slug injections are also available in the simulator. The solution scheme used in this simulator is fully implicit. The pressure equation and the mass-conservation equations are solved simultaneously for the aqueous-phase pressure and the total concentrations of each component. A third-order-in-space, second-order-in-time finite-difference method and a new total-variation-diminishing (TVD) third-order flux limiter are used that greatly reduce numerical dispersion effects. Task 2 was the optimization of surfactant flooding. The code UTCHEM was used to simulate surfactant polymer flooding.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Volume I. Benefit--cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Section II follows a brief introduction and is entitled ''Benefit-Cost Analysis Framework.'' The analytical framework deals with two major steps involved in assessing the pros and cons of energy resource development (or any other type of development). The first is to identify and describe the overall tribal resource planning and decision process. The second is to develop a detailed methodological approach to the assessment of the benefits and costs of energy development alternatives within the context of the tribe's overall planning process. Sections III, IV, and V present the application of the benefit-cost analysis methodology to coal; oil and gas; and uranium, oil shale, and geothermal development, respectively. The methodology creates hypothetical examples that illustrate realistic development opportunities for the majority of tribes that have significant reserves of one or more of the resources that may be economic to develop.

Not Available

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Governmental costs and revenues associated with geothermal energy development in Imperial County. Special Publication 3241  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study estimates the cost and revenue impacts to local governments of three geothermal energy growth scenarios in Imperial County. The level of geothermal energy potential for the three development scenarios tested is 2,000, 4,000 and 8,000 MW--enough power to serve 270,000 to 1,000,000 people. The government agencies involved do not expect any substantial additional capital costs due to geothermal energy development; therefore, average costing techniques have been used for projecting public service costs and government revenues. The analysis of the three growth scenarios tested indicates that county population would increase by 3, 7 and 19 percent and assessed values would increase by 20, 60, and 165 percent for Alternatives No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 respectively. Direct and indirect effects would increase new jobs in the county by 1,000, 3,000 and 8,000. Government revenues would tend to exceed public service costs for county and school districts, while city costs would tend to exceed revenues. In each of the alternatives, if county, cities and school districts are grouped together, the revenues exceed costs by an estimated $1,600 per additional person either directly or indirectly related to geothermal energy development in the operational stages. In the tenth year of development, while facilities are still being explored, developed and constructed, the revenues would exceed costs by an approximate $1,000 per additional person for each alternative. School districts with geothermal plants in their boundaries would be required by legislation SB 90 to reduce their tax rates by 15 to 87 percent, depending on the level of energy development. Revenue limits and school taxing methods will be affected by the Serrano-Priest decision and by new school legislation in process.

Goldman, G.; Strong, D.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Handbook for quick cost estimates. A method for developing quick approximate estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided.

Ball, J.R.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

REQUEST FOR INDIRECT COST WAIVER I. Project Director  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REQUEST FOR INDIRECT COST WAIVER I. Project Director: Department: Project Title: Project Sponsor without fully recovering the institutional indirect costs which will be incurred in conducting the project COSTS 1. FULL: OF I. A. C. 2. PARTIAL: OF H. B. K. TOTAL PROJECT COSTS L. INDIRECT COSTS TO BE WAIVED, J

Krovi, Venkat

82

Develop nickel--zinc battery suitable for electric vehicle propulsion. Task A: design and cost study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-month design and cost study for the use of nickel--zinc batteries in electric vehicles is presented. Battery configuration is analyzed, and expected performance is set forth. Current development problems concern component materials and capacity decline on cycling, electrolyte maintenance, and thermal characteristics. The manufacturing process is outlined, and estimates are made for cost, materials requirements, capital needs, etc. 61 figures, 24 tables. (RWR)

None

1977-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Program on Technology Innovation: Development of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Performance and Cost Modeling Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development of an integrated performance and cost model for advanced coal power plant undertaken to enable users to screen technologies prior to engaging in more extensive studies of their preferred choice. Such screening activities generally require utilities to contract with outside engineering firms with access to sophisticated engineering modeling software and experienced staff to perform the studies, thus costing significant time and investment.

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Title Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-55088 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Whitehead, Camilla Dunham, Victor H. Franco, Alexander B. Lekov, and James D. Lutz Document Number LBNL-55088 Pagination 22 Date Published May 31 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated.The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

85

A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs.

MOORE,LARRY M.

2000-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

86

Mainstream Engineering Develops a Low-Cost Energy-Saving Device for A/C  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mainstream Engineering Develops a Low-Cost Energy-Saving Device Mainstream Engineering Develops a Low-Cost Energy-Saving Device for A/C Systems Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) SBIR/STTR Home About Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) Applicant and Awardee Resources Commercialization Assistance Other Resources Awards SBIR/STTR Highlights Reporting Fraud Contact Information Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer U.S. Department of Energy SC-29/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-5707 F: (301) 903-5488 E: sbir-sttr@science.doe.gov More Information » January 2013 Mainstream Engineering Develops a Low-Cost Energy-Saving Device for A/C Systems Mainstream is achieving its goal to commercialize practical and

87

Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells and modeling the impact of system parameters on levelized cost of electricity .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis is to develop low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells which are at the right intersection of cost and performance to… (more)

Kang, Moon Hee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Low Wind Speed Technology Phase II: Development of an Operations and Maintenance Cost Model for LWST; Global Energy Concepts  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes a subcontract with Global Energy Concepts to evaluate real-world data on O&M costs and to develop a working model to describe these costs for low wind speed sites.

Not Available

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE`s ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE's ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Application of EPRI's Transmission Services Costing Framework to the Development of Open Access Transmission Tariffs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Public utilities in the United States are expected to provide transmission services and ancillary services to eligible customers. This report documents how Centerior Energy Corporation developed a network integration transmission service tariff, a point-to-point transmission service tariff, and four ancillary services tariffs by applying EPRI's Transmission Services Costing Framework.

1996-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

93

Development of a Low Cost Insulated Foil Substrate for Cu(InGaSe)2 Photovoltaics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project validated the use of stainless steel flexible substrate coated with silicone-based resin dielectric, developed by Dow Corning Corporation, for Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics. The projects driving force was the high performance of Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics coupled with potential cost reduction that could be achieved with dielectric coated SS web substrate.

ERTEN ESER

2012-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

94

Development of a method for recording energy costs and uses during the construction process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rising energy costs should be a concern to contractors, designers, and owners. It is difficult to make a quantity takeoff for energy usage because these costs are imbedded in the materials, equipment, or overhead costs. This research examines energy consumption during the construction process, sets forth methods for recording this energy consumption and establishes a program for the recording and analysis of this data. An energy study of electricity, gasoline, and diesel consumption was made for the construction of three buildings to determine what data was available. After available data was evaluated, and the Energy Data Analysis program developed, three other construction sites were visited to determine how readily energy data can be recorded using the program. Four construction energy phases were identified from this research. The four phases are: 1) site clearing and preparation, 2) building structure, 3) interior finishes, and 4) commissioning. The main type of energy consumption during Phase 1 is diesel fuel for earth moving equipment. The energy uses for Phases 2 and 3 varied considerably among the projects studied and were difficult to quantify. However, the energy use during these phases was low compared to other phases and for many projects may not be economical to evaluate. During Phase 4, electrical energy demand was high due to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) commissioning requirements and power up of all electrical power uses including lighting. These few construction projects are not enough to make definitive conclusions about what percentage of the total project cost is spent on energy. This research found that construction energy costs vary during different phases of the building process and can be a significant part of that phase (as high as 5.7% of the cost). The Visual Basic program developed during this research will facilitate future energy studies on construction sites. When the program is applied to a project, it identifies and quantifies the energy use, and makes predictions as to which project tasks warrant further energy studies.

Arnold, Althea Gayle

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Sample Invoice Cost Share UT-B Contracts Div August 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SHIPPED VIA CUSTOMER NUMBER TERMS NET DAYS COST ELEMENT DESCRIPTION CURRENT COSTS CUMULATIVE COSTS DIRECT for the Department of Energy COMMENTS OR SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS: SUBCONTRACT NUMBER BILLING PERIOD Begin/End Date AMOUNT PREVIOUSLY PAID TOTAL COST INCURRED COMPANY COST SHARE * SELLERS COST SHARE * TOTAL INVOICED *If

96

Discrete Event Model Development of Pilot Plant Scale Microalgae Facilities: An Analysis of Productivity and Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

America's reliance on foreign oil has raised economic and national security issues, and in turn the U.S. has been active in reducing its dependence on foreign oil to mitigate these issues. Also, the U.S. Navy has been instrumental in driving bio-fuel research and production by setting an ambitious goal to purchase 336M gallons of bio-fuel by 2020. The production of microalgae biomass is a promising field which may be able to meet these demands. The utilization of microalgae for the production of bio-fuel requires the implementation of efficient culturing processes to maximize production and reduce costs. Therefore, three discrete rate event simulation models were developed to analyze different scaling scenarios and determine total costs associated with each scenario. Three scaling scenarios were identified by this analysis and included a stepwise, volume batching and intense culturing process. A base case and potential best case were considered in which the culturing duration, lipid content and lipid induction period were adjusted. A what-if analysis was conducted which identified and reduced capital and operational costs contributing greatly to total costs. An NPV analysis was performed for each scenario to identify the risk associated with future cash flows. The research findings indicate that the intense culturing scaling scenario yielded the greatest model throughput and least total cost for both the base case and potential best case. However, this increased productivity and cost reduction were not significantly greater than the productivity generated by the stepwise scaling scenario, suggesting that the implementation of flat plate bio-reactors in the intense culturing process may be non-advantageous given the increased operational costs of these devices. The volume batching scenario yielded the greatest total cost L^-1 of microalgae bio-oil for both, indicating an inefficient process. The scaling scenarios of the base case and potential best case yielded negative NPV's while the stepwise and intense culturing scenarios of the what-if analysis generated positive NPV's. The base case is based on current technological advances, biological limitations and costs of microalgae production therefore, a negative NPV suggests that utilizing microalgae for bio-fuel production is not an economically feasible project at this time.

Stepp, Justin Wayne

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Batteries on the battlefield developing a methodology to estimate the fully burdened cost of batteries in the Department of Defense .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??L), have developed methodologies to calculate the fully burdened cost of fuel as delivered energy in defense systems. Whereas these previous studies did not consider… (more)

Hughley, Anthony E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

2004-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Wireless Smart Sensor Development Update: Applying Technology to Reduce Fire Watch Costs and to Improve Coverage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smart Sensor product development for the use of fire watch improvement has been initiated by EPRI for the purposes of understanding the current state and/or industry available systems for electronically supporting the performance of existing work activities and/or providing for performance enhancement through cost effective monitoring and automation capabilities. The use of wireless technologies will allow a greater ease of deployment, reduced response time, and increased efficiency for fire watch equipm...

2004-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

108

Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop cost-effective surfactant flooding technology by using surfactant simulation studies to evaluate and optimize alternative design strategies taking into account reservoir characteristics, process chemistry, and process design options such as horizontal wells. Task 1 is the development of an improved numerical method for our simulator that will enable us to solve a wider class of these difficult simulation problems, accurately and affordably. Task 2 is the application of this simulator to the optimization of surfactant flooding to reduce its risk and cost. The objective of Task 2 is to investigate and evaluate, through a systematic simulation study, surfactant flooding processes that are cost-effective. We previously have reported on low tension polymer flooding as an alternative to classical surfactant/polymer flooding. In this reporting period, we have studied the potential of improving the efficiency of surfactant/polymer flooding by coinjecting an alkali agent such as sodium carbonate under realistic reservoir conditions and process behavior. The alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flood attempts to take advantage of high pH fluids to reduce the amount of surfactant needed by the chemical reactions between injection fluid and formation fluid or formation rocks.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Jessen, F.W.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Phase 2 cost quality management assessment report for the Office of Technology Development (EM-50)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Environmental Management (EM) Head quarters (HQ) Cost Quality Management Assessment (CQMA) evaluated the practices of the Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The CQMA reviewed EM-50 management documents and reported results in the HQ CQMA Phase 1 report (March 1993). In this Assessment Phase, EM-50 practices were determined through interviews with staff members. The interviews were conducted from the end of September through early December 1993. EM-50 management documents (Phase 1) and practices (Phase 2) were compared to the Performance Objectives and Criteria (POCs) contained in the DOE/HQ Cost Quality Management Assessment Handbook. More detail on the CQMA process is provided in section 2. Interviewees are listed in appendix A. Documents reviewed during Phase 2 are listed in appendix B. Section 3 contains detailed observations, discussions, and recommendations. A summary of observations and recommendations is presented.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Cost effectiveness of park-and-ride lots in the Puget Sound region area. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A cost-effectiveness evaluation and a cost-benefit analysis was performed on a park-and-ride system consisting of 26 park-and-ride lots in the Seattle metropolitan area. Costs and benefits of the system were examined with respect to the user, the community at large, and the public agencies responsible for providing for the community's transportation needs. Using survey and other data as input, a model was developed to calculate the total incurred trip costs of both the park-and-ride trip and the corresponding trip not involving the park-and-ride lot. General results indicated that the park-and-ride system in the Seattle area is cost effective.

Rutherford, G.S.; Wellander, C.A.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

External costs of intercity truck freight transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From a societal perspective, it is desirable for all transportation users to pay their full social (private and external) costs. We estimate four general types of external costs for intercity freight trucking and compare them with the private costs incurred by carriers. Estimated external costs include: accidents (fatalities, injuries, and property damage); emissions (air pollution and greenhouse gases); noise; and unrecovered costs associated with the provision, operation, and maintenance of public facilities. The analysis reveals that external costs are equal to 13.2 % of private costs and user fees would need to be increased about

David J. Forkenbrock

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

114

A fast-developing and low-cost characterization and test environment for a double axis resonating micromirror  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) can be very challenging due to the multi-domain nature of these devices. Nowadays high volume, high-cost, and accurate measuring ... Keywords: Fast-developing, Low-cost characterization, MOEMS, Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), Micromirror, Testing

Francesco Battini; Emilio Volpi; Eleonora Marchetti; Tommaso Cecchini; Francesco Sechi; Luca Fanucci; Ulrich Hofmann

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Final Technical Progress Report: Development of Low-Cost Suspension Heliostat; December 7, 2011 - December 6, 2012  

SciTech Connect

Final technical progress report of SunShot Incubator Solaflect Energy. The project succeeded in demonstrating that the Solaflect Suspension Heliostat design is viable for large-scale CSP installations. Canting accuracy is acceptable and is continually improving as Solaflect improves its understanding of this design. Cost reduction initiatives were successful, and there are still many opportunities for further development and further cost reduction.

Bender, W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

FeatherWeight: low-cost optical arbitration with QoS support  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nanophotonic signaling technology enables efficient global communication and low-diameter networks such as crossbars that are often optically arbitrated. However, existing optical arbitration schemes incur costly overheads (e.g., waveguides, laser ... Keywords: arbitration, interconnection networks, nanophotonics

Yan Pan; John Kim; Gokhan Memik

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station: Comparison of two decommissioning cost estimates developed for the same commercial nuclear reactor power station  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the results of a comparison of a previous decommissioning cost study by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and a recent decommissioning cost study of TLG Engineering, Inc., for the same commercial nuclear power reactor station. The purpose of this comparative analysis on the same plant is to determine the reasons why subsequent estimates for similar plants by others were significantly higher in cost and external occupational radiation exposure (ORE) than the PNL study. The primary purpose of the original study by PNL (NUREG/CR-0672) was to provide information on the available technology, the safety considerations, and the probable costs and ORE for the decommissioning of a large boiling water reactor (BWR) power station at the end of its operating life. This information was intended for use as background data and bases in the modification of existing regulations and in the development of new regulations pertaining to decommissioning activities. It was also intended for use by utilities in planning for the decommissioning of their nuclear power stations. The TLG study, initiated in 1987 and completed in 1989, was for the same plant, Washington Public Supply System's Unit 2 (WNP-2), that PNL used as its reference plant in its 1980 decommissioning study. Areas of agreement and disagreement are identified, and reasons for the areas of disagreement are discussed. 31 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

The Development of Low-Cost Integrated Composite Seal for SOFC: Materials and Design Methodologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work conducted by UConn SOFC seal development team during the Phase I program and no cost extension. The work included composite seal sample fabrication, materials characterizations, leak testing, mechanical strength testing, chemical stability study and acoustic-based diagnostic methods. Materials characterization work revealed a set of attractive material properties including low bulk permeability, high electrical resistivity, good mechanical robustness. Composite seal samples made of a number of glasses and metallic fillers were tested for sealing performance under steady state and thermal cycling conditions. Mechanical testing included static strength (pull out) and interfacial fracture toughness measurements. Chemically stability study evaluated composite seal material stability after aging at 800 C for 168 hrs. Acoustic based diagnostic test was conducted to help detect and understand the micro-cracking processes during thermal cycling test. The composite seal concept was successfully demonstrated and a set of material (coating composition & fillers) were identified to have excellent thermal cycling performance.

Xinyu Huang; Kristoffer Ridgeway; Srivatsan Narasimhan; Serg Timin; Wei Huang; Didem Ozevin; Ken Reifsnider

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6) Demonstration of novel processes for composite cathode and cermet anode materials. Track 2--ORNL's development work focused solely on making anode-supported planar cells by tape casting of a porous anode substrate, screen printing of a YSZ electrolyte film, co-sintering of the bi-layer element, and screen-printing of an opposite cathode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale-up of anode tape casting and lamination processes; (2) Development of proprietary ink vehicle for screen-printing processes; (3) Development of screen-printing process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer anode-supported elements; and (5) Development of cathode screen-printing process. Track 3--UMR's process development work involved fabrication of a micro-porous cathode substrate, deposition of a nano-porous interlayer film, deposition of nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films from polymeric precursor solutions, and deposition of an anode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale up of tape casting and sintering methods for cathode substrates; (2) Deposition of nano-porous ceria interlayer films on cathode substrates; (3) Successful deposition of dense YSZ films on porous cathode substrates; and (4) Identification of several anode material options.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ampulse Raises $8 Million to Develop Low-Cost Solar Cells I  

Low-Cost Solar Cells In November 2009 Ampulse ... For consumers the benefits of using this appliance will vary depending on family size and hot

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

Michael D. Durham

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Process design and costing of bioethanol technology: A tool for determining the status and direction of research and development  

SciTech Connect

Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the US Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. The authors use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help them understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on their latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Their analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Glassner, D.; Sheehan, J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Optimization of Transmission Line Design Using Life Cycle Costing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When an overhead line is designed, all costs incurred during the expected life of the line should be considered. The total cost during the life or life-cycle cost of a transmission line is a combination of the initial capital cost, operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, cost of electrical losses over its entire life, and dependability associated costs. The option that has the lowest life-cycle cost is selected as the optimized design. A tool is required by utility engineers to help them readily select an ...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

124

Optimization of Transmission Line Design Using Life-Cycle Costing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When an overhead line is designed, all costs incurred during the expected life of the line should be considered. The total cost during the life, or life-cycle cost, of a transmission line is a combination of the initial capital cost, operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, cost of electrical losses over its entire life, and dependability-associated costs. The option that has the lowest life-cycle cost is selected as the optimized design. A tool is required by utility engineers to help them readily select a...

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

125

Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

A Development Path to the Efficient and Cost-Effective Bulk Storage of Electrical Energy  

SciTech Connect

Efficient and cost-effective means for storing electrical energy is becoming an increasing need in our electricity-oriented society. For example, for electric utilities an emerging need is for distributed storage systems, that is, energy storage at substations, at solar or wind-power sites, or for load-leveling at the site of major consumers of their electricity. One of the important consequences of distributed storage for the utilities would be the reduction in transmission losses that would result from having a local source of load-leveling power. For applications such as these there are three criteria that must be satisfied by any new system that is developed to meet such needs. These criteria are: (1) high 'turn-around' efficiency, that is, high efficiency of both storing and recovering the stored energy in electrical form, (2) long service life (tens of years), with low maintenance requirements, and, (3) acceptably low capital cost. An additional requirement for these particular applications is that the system should have low enough standby losses to permit operation on a diurnal cycle, that is, storing the energy during a portion of a given day (say during sunlight hours) followed several hours later by its use during night-time hours. One answer to the spectrum of energy storage needs just outlined is the 'electromechanical battery'. The E-M battery, under development for several years at the Laboratory and elsewhere in the world, has the potential to solve the above energy storage problems in a manner superior to the electro-chemical battery in the important attributes of energy recovery efficiency, cycle lifetime, and amortized capital cost. An electromechanical battery is an energy storage module consisting of a high-speed rotor, fabricated from fiber composite, and having an integrally mounted generator/motor. The rotor operates at high speed, in vacuo, inside of a hermetically sealed enclosure, supported by a 'magnetic bearing', that is, a bearing that uses magnetic forces to support the rotor against gravity. Magnetic bearings are a virtual necessity for the E-M battery in order to achieve long service life, and to minimize frictional losses so that the battery does not lose its charge (run down) too rapidly. These considerations mitigate against the use of conventional mechanical bearings in the E-M battery for most applications. The Laboratory has pioneered the development of a new form of magnetic bearing to meet the special requirements of the E-M battery: the 'ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing'. Simpler, and potentially much less expensive than the existing 'active' magnetic bearings (ones requiring electronic amplifiers and feedback circuits for their operation) development of the ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing represents a technological breakthrough. Beyond its use in the E-M battery, the ambient-temperature magnetic bearing could have important applications in replacing conventional lubricated mechanical bearings in electrical machinery. Here the gains would be two-fold: reduced frictional losses, leading to higher motor efficiency, and, of equal importance, the elimination of the need for lubricants and for routine replacement of the bearings owing to mechanical wear. Thus an added benefit from a vigorous pursuit of our electromechanical battery concepts could be its impact on many other areas of industry where rotating machinery in need of improved bearings is involved. If perfected, passive magnetic bearings would seem to represent an almost ideal replacement for the mechanical bearings in many types of industrial electrical machinery. Returning to the issued of energy storage, the E-M battery itself has much to contribute in the area of improving the efficiency of stationary energy storage systems. For example, many electrical utilities utilize 'pumped hydro' energy storage systems as a means of improving the utilization of their 'base-load' power plants. That is, electrical energy is stored during off-

Post, R F

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

A Development Path to the Efficient and Cost-Effective Bulk Storage of Electrical Energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efficient and cost-effective means for storing electrical energy is becoming an increasing need in our electricity-oriented society. For example, for electric utilities an emerging need is for distributed storage systems, that is, energy storage at substations, at solar or wind-power sites, or for load-leveling at the site of major consumers of their electricity. One of the important consequences of distributed storage for the utilities would be the reduction in transmission losses that would result from having a local source of load-leveling power. For applications such as these there are three criteria that must be satisfied by any new system that is developed to meet such needs. These criteria are: (1) high 'turn-around' efficiency, that is, high efficiency of both storing and recovering the stored energy in electrical form, (2) long service life (tens of years), with low maintenance requirements, and, (3) acceptably low capital cost. An additional requirement for these particular applications is that the system should have low enough standby losses to permit operation on a diurnal cycle, that is, storing the energy during a portion of a given day (say during sunlight hours) followed several hours later by its use during night-time hours. One answer to the spectrum of energy storage needs just outlined is the 'electromechanical battery'. The E-M battery, under development for several years at the Laboratory and elsewhere in the world, has the potential to solve the above energy storage problems in a manner superior to the electro-chemical battery in the important attributes of energy recovery efficiency, cycle lifetime, and amortized capital cost. An electromechanical battery is an energy storage module consisting of a high-speed rotor, fabricated from fiber composite, and having an integrally mounted generator/motor. The rotor operates at high speed, in vacuo, inside of a hermetically sealed enclosure, supported by a 'magnetic bearing', that is, a bearing that uses magnetic forces to support the rotor against gravity. Magnetic bearings are a virtual necessity for the E-M battery in order to achieve long service life, and to minimize frictional losses so that the battery does not lose its charge (run down) too rapidly. These considerations mitigate against the use of conventional mechanical bearings in the E-M battery for most applications. The Laboratory has pioneered the development of a new form of magnetic bearing to meet the special requirements of the E-M battery: the 'ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing'. Simpler, and potentially much less expensive than the existing 'active' magnetic bearings (ones requiring electronic amplifiers and feedback circuits for their operation) development of the ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing represents a technological breakthrough. Beyond its use in the E-M battery, the ambient-temperature magnetic bearing could have important applications in replacing conventional lubricated mechanical bearings in electrical machinery. Here the gains would be two-fold: reduced frictional losses, leading to higher motor efficiency, and, of equal importance, the elimination of the need for lubricants and for routine replacement of the bearings owing to mechanical wear. Thus an added benefit from a vigorous pursuit of our electromechanical battery concepts could be its impact on many other areas of industry where rotating machinery in need of improved bearings is involved. If perfected, passive magnetic bearings would seem to represent an almost ideal replacement for the mechanical bearings in many types of industrial electrical machinery. Returning to the issued of energy storage, the E-M battery itself has much to contribute in the area of improving the efficiency of stationary energy storage systems. For example, many electrical utilities utilize 'pumped hydro' energy storage systems as a means of improving the utilization of their 'base-load' power plants. That is, electrical energy is stored during off-peak hours for delivery at times of peak usage. These pumped hydro sys

Post, R F

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

128

The development of a life cycle cost model for railroad tunnels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today, Life Cycle Costing is one of the most popular ways of assessing a project's or an investment's worth to a company. This method of assessment is often applied to all stages of a investment's lifecycle, starting from ...

Angeles, Jon Virgil V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Development of design & technology package for cost effective housing in Gujrat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purpose: Improve quality of life in rural areas through intervention of infrastructure and housing improvement. Provide methods of building better and cost-effective houses at a quicker pace. Devise strategies of withdrawing ...

Chaudhry, Rajive

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Development of a low-cost, rapid-cycle hot embossing system for microscale parts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hot embossing is an effective technology for reproducing micro-scale features in polymeric materials, but large-scale adoption of this method is hindered by high capital costs and low cycle times relative to other technologies, ...

Hale, Melinda (Melinda Rae)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Development of low-cost, compact, reliable, high energy density ceramic nanocomposite capacitors.  

SciTech Connect

The ceramic nanocomposite capacitor goals are: (1) more than double energy density of ceramic capacitors (cutting size and weight by more than half); (2) potential cost reductino (factor of >4) due to decreased sintering temperature (allowing the use of lower cost electrode materials such as 70/30 Ag/Pd); and (3) lower sintering temperature will allow co-firing with other electrical components.

Cooley, Erika J.; Monson, Todd C.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Huber, Dale L.; Fellows, Benjamin D.; Stevens, Tyler E.; Roesler, Alexander William; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Development of a Pilot Study Simulation to Investigate the Impact of Target Costing on Team Dynamics and Design Aesthetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Target costing is widely accepted across the automobile manufacturing industries such as the Toyota Corporation followed by other manufacturing companies such as Nissan, Chrysler, Boeing, Sony, etc. However, its use in the construction industry has been limited. The application of target costing in the construction industry has been referred to as Target Value Design (TVD), which forms an important fragment of the whole lean delivery system, Integrated Project Delivery. For the purpose of studying the team dynamics and the impact of cost on aesthetics, this research is split in to the following two parts. 1. Conducting simple experiments /simulations with students, such as designing and building a product to target cost to explore the impact of cost on the design of the product and the team dynamics. 2. Exploring the challenges faced by the teams while working on TVD through literature review and Focus Group Interviews with construction industry professionals with experience in the TVD process. Similar to other lean simulations like the airplane game and the dice game, aimed at demonstrating the impact of lean, this simulation of designing a two feet (2’) tall wine glass holder with materials such as paper, Styrofoam plates, cups etc. is an attempt to understand the challenges of designing to target cost process. The simulation conducted is to mirror the real world TVD process. Results of the experiment conclude that cost does not have a negative influence on the design. There is no correlation between the high costs and better design, that is, the most expensive solutions are not always the best solutions. However, correlation existed between the target cost and the design aesthetics. Indeed, cost as a constraint aided the team in focusing on the design and developing solutions within the project constraints. The results of the experiment are similar to the practice of the TVD in reality as case studies and interviews arrive at similar conclusions. Finally, the experiment depicted that collaborating and working in a team might result in arguments but generates competitive design solutions without affecting the team dynamics. The research is of significance to construction industry professionals and owners to investigate the challenges and implications of implementing target costing in designing to target cost.

Gottipati, Udaya Naidu

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Seller of spent batteries incurs CERCLA liability under appeals court reversal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reversing a lower court ruling, the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit has decided that an auto parts company that sold spent lead-acid batteries to a lead reclaimer can be held liable under CERCLA for contamination caused by battery remnants (Cattelus Development Corporation v. United States et al., Dockett Number: 93-16530). The lower court had ruled that the auto parts company was not liable because (1) the batteries still had a {open_quotes}productive use{close_quotes} when they were sold, and (2) the company had no involvement in the final disposition of the battery casings.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Information erasure without an energy cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Landauer argued that the process of erasing the information stored in a memory device incurs an energy cost in the form of a minimum amount of mechanical work. We find, however, that this energy cost can be reduced to zero by paying a cost in angular momentum or any other conserved quantity. Erasing the memory of Maxwell's demon in this way implies that work can be extracted from a single thermal reservoir at a cost of angular momentum and an increase in total entropy. The implications of this for the second law of thermodynamics are assessed.

Joan A. Vaccaro; Stephen M. Barnett

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

135

This Guide is designed to provide assistance to the community regarding the direct charging of costs to sponsored projects while maintaining compliance with the Federal cost principles (2 CFR Part 220, OMB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

charging of costs to sponsored projects while maintaining compliance with the Federal cost principles (2. Typical costs charged directly to a sponsored project include: 1. compensation of employees incurred for the sponsored project. Costs of materials from stock/services rendered by specialized

136

Agent Development Support for Tcl R. Scott Cost, Ian Soboroff, Jeegar Lakhani, Tim Finin, Ethan Miller and Charles Nicholas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agent Development Support for Tcl R. Scott Cost, Ian Soboroff, Jeegar Lakhani, Tim Finin, Ethan for the design of distributed systems. Tcl is an ideal language with which to build agents, because scripts written in Tcl may be used on any machine that can run Tcl, and because the Tcl language environment

Nicholas, Charles

137

Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

Camillo A. DiNunzio Framatome ANP DE& S; Dr. Abhinav Gupta Assistant Professor NCSU; Dr. Michael Golay Professor MIT Dr. Vincent Luk Sandia National Laboratories; Rich Turk Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems; Charles Morrow, Sandia National Laboratories; Geum-Taek Jin, Korea Power Engineering Company Inc.

2002-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

Method for including operation and maintenance costs in the economic analysis of active solar energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For a developing technology such as solar energy, the costs for operation and maintenance (O and M) can be substantial. In the past, most economic analyses included these costs by simply assuming that an annual cost will be incurred that is proportional to the initial cost of the system. However, in assessing the economics of new systems proposed for further research and development, such a simplification can obscure the issues. For example, when the typical method for including O and M costs in an economic analysis is used, the O and M costs associated with a newly developed, more reliable, and slightly more expensive controller will be assumed to increase - an obvious inconsistency. The method presented in this report replaces this simplistic approach with a representation of the O and M costs that explicitly accounts for the uncertainties and risks inherent in the operation of any equipment. A detailed description of the data inputs required by the method is included as well as a summary of data sources and an example of the method as applied to an active solar heating system.

Short, W.D.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

moment both costs and energy efficiency are too uncertain toW. (2008). Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Savingenergy densities, costs, cycle times and efficiencies. A

Xu, Tengfang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available publicly through the Department of Energy or by visiting the links listed in Appendix 1. More

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

142

Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available publicly through the Department of Energy or by visiting the links listed in Appendix 1. More

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

143

Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

Cerio, Frank

2013-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

144

Energy Conservation Fund: Helping Corporations Develop Energy Conservation Strategies and Reduce Utility Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy conservation projects can save companies significant money over time and often pay for themselves very quickly. This is especially true with the dramatic increase in energy costs over the past few years. Yet convincing corporate decision makers of their value is challenging, since most plants with limited capital tend to direct resources toward projects that increase production rather than toward those that save energy. The irony is that production projects may not realize savings if markets change, while conservation improvements usually change a plant's infrastructure in ways that ensure continued savings. Establishing a business unit or department focused on energy cost reduction and investing its profits in an Energy Conservation Fund (ECF) is part of a total energy approach that helps corporations identify projects, dedicate funds and implement changes. It makes conservation improvement projects more attractive on the front end, so companies can enjoy the long-term benefits.

Swanson, G. A.; Houston, W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Technology for Retrofitting Coal-Fired Boilers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost effeCtive Cost effeCtive oxy-Combustion teChnology for retrofitting Coal-fireD boilers Background Electric power generation from fossil fuels represents one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, not just in the United States, but throughout the world. Various technologies and concepts are being investigated as means to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The concept of pulverized coal (PC) oxy-combustion is one potential economical solution, whereby coal is combusted in an enriched oxygen environment using pure oxygen diluted with recycled flue gas. In this manner, the flue gas is composed primarily of CO 2 and H 2 O, so that a concentrated stream of CO 2 is produced by simply condensing the water in the exhaust stream. An advantage of

146

Study of costs associated with alternative fuels development: A case study. Research report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the study was to conduct a case study of large-scale fuel conversion project to assess selected costs and related issues. An inventory of public transit agencies engaged in demonstration projects involving alternative fuels as conducted with representative sample of large public transit systems in the nation. Included in the survey were questions pertaining to fuel supply arrangements, fuel reserve storage requirements and/or deficiencies; future plans for managing energy resources and costs associated with fuel conversion/alternative fuels use -- whether planned or currently in operation. The case study approach was used to document the methodological and logistical problems encountered during the course of projects involving alternative fuels use compared with a control sample using diesel fuel. Monthly status reports on the alternative fuel project included data on accumulated mileage, road calls/unscheduled maintenance, fuel consumption, fuel cost per mile, alternative fuel purchases, schedule of activities, personnel, safety , and diesel emission test results. The data collected indicate several conclusions and future implications about technical and safety issues associated with the testing and use of liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Lede, N.W.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Joint Development of Coated Conductor and Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-007-213  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

UES plans on developing CIGS thin films by using Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) technique as it is a low-cost, non-vacuum method for scale-up to large area PV modules. NREL will support UES, Inc. through expert processing, characterization and device fabrication. NREL scientists will also help develop a processing phase diagram which includes composition, film thickness, annealing temperature and ambient conditions. Routine measurements of devices and materials will be done under NREL's core support project.

Bhattacharya, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Status of Multi-Pollutant Process Development: LoTOx/BOC, GSA/FLS, Pahlmanite Cost Projections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the need for more stringent control of power plant emissions increases, so does the need for more cost-effective approaches to reducing these pollutants. Current methods employ technologies designed to reduce specific pollutants, which require combinations of different emission control systems. Some air pollution control suppliers and utilities are developing technologies that have the potential to reduce the emission rates for multiple pollutants simultaneously, with the goal of identifying integrate...

2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

150

The development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries Title The development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Striebel, Kathryn A., Joongpyo Shim, Azucena Sierra, Hui Yang, Xiangyun Song, Robert Kostecki, and Kathryn N. McCarthy Journal Journal of Power Sources Volume 146 Pagination 33-38 Keywords libob, lifepo4, lithium-ion, post-test, raman spectroscopy Abstract Pouch type LiFePO4-natural graphite lithium-ion cells were cycled at constant current with periodic pulse-power testing in several different configurations. Components were analyzed after cycling with electrochemical, Raman and TEM techniques to determine capacity fade mechanisms. The cells with carbon-coated current collectors in the cathode and LiBOB-salt electrolyte showed the best performance stability. In many cases, iron species were detected on the anodes removed from cells with both TEM and Raman spectroscopy. The LiFePO4 electrodes showed unchanged capacity suggesting that the iron is migrating in small quantities and is acting as a catalyst to destabilize the anode SEI in these cells.

151

Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Analysis of electricity production costs from the geopressured geothermal resource  

SciTech Connect

The economics of the geopressured geothermal resource along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico is assessed. Geopressured waters are nearly under twice the normal hydrostatic pressure and believed to be saturated with methane. The costs of generating electricity from this resource are estimated based on the description and conceptual development plans provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Methane content and selling prices are the most important factors affecting the commercial potential of geopressured resources--so it is important that electrical generation be viewed as a by-product of methane production. On the same incremental cost basis, the cost of electricity generated from the geohydraulic energy is potentially competitive with conventional energy sources. This would require development of a small commercial high pressure, hydraulic turbine to extract geohydraulic energy at the wellhead in plants of about 3 MW capacity. Price/quantity relationships are developed for electricity generation from geopressured resources for each of three development plans proposed by USGS. Studies, based on field constructed plants, indicated an optimum power plant size in the range of 20 to 60 MWe, depending on water temperature. However, if standardized thermal conversion power plants could be factory produced in the 6 MWe range competitively with larger field constructed plants, then the optimum plant size might be reduced to single wellhead units.Wellhead units would completely eliminate fluid transmission costs, but would probably incur higher costs for heat rejection, power plant operation, and electrical transmission. The upper cost target for competitive wellhead plants would be on the order of $800/kW in 1975 dollars.

Bloomster, C.H.; Knutsen, C.A.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 3. Component development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The status of the component development effort both in the thermoelectric module area and in the heat source task is reported. In addition, related efforts by outside facilities are identified and a bibliography of heat source development documents is presented.

Not Available

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Benefit/Cost Analysis of Geothermal Technology R&D. Volume III: Energy Extraction and Utilization Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes the benefit/cost relationship for 44 research and development (R and D) projects being funded by the Utilization Technology Branch (UTB) of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), Department of Energy (DOE) as a part of its Energy Extraction and Conversion Technology program. The benefits were computed in terms of the savings resulting from the reduction in the cost of electricity projected to be generated at 27 hydrothermal prospects in the US between 1978 and 2000, due to technological improvements brought about by successful R and D. The costs of various projects were estimated by referring to the actual expenditures already incurred and the projected future budgets for these projects. In certain cases, the expected future expenditures had to be estimated on the basis of the work which would need to be done to carry a project to the commercialization stage.

Dhillon, Harpal S.; Nguyen, Van Thanh; Pfundstein, Richard T.; Entingh, Daniel J.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the procedures and data sources used to develop an energy-consumption and system-cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total-energy systems in the nonindustrial building market. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings - office buildings, retail stores, hotels and motels, schools, hospitals, and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system. The systems were simulated for a single building size for each building type. Methods were developed to extrapolate the system cost and performance data to other building sizes.

Pine, G.D.; Christian, J.E.; Mixon, W.R.; Jackson, W.L.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Cost-Affordable Titanium III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Production and Thermomechanical Consolidation of Titanium Alloy Powders · Cost Affordable Developments in Titanium Technology and ...

157

Development of standardized, low-cost AC PV systems. Phase I annual report, 7 September 1995--7 November 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this two-year program are to improve the reliability and safety and reduce the cost of installed grid-connected PV systems by creating standardized, pre-engineered components and an enhanced, low-cost, 250-Watt micro inverter. These advances will be combined with the new, large area Solarex MSX-240 PV module resulting in standard, modular AC PV {open_quotes}building blocks{close_quotes} used to create utility-interactive PV systems as small as one module to many thousands of modules to suit virtually any application. AC PV building blocks will be developed to meet the requirements of the U.S., Japanese and European markets.

Strong, S.J.; Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Kaelin, M.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Cost and other barriers to public access computing in developing countries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Public access to computers and the Internet can play an important role in social and economic development if it effectively helps to meet the needs of underserved populations. Public access venues such as libraries, telecentres and cybercafés ... Keywords: ICT4D, affordability, cybercafés, developing countries, digital literacy, fees, libraries, local content, public access, telecentres

Melody Clark; Ricardo Gomez

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Costs to build Fermilab in 1984 dollars  

SciTech Connect

It is of current interest to examine the costs incurred to date to build Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and to determine what those costs are when stated in FY 1984 constant dollars. The appended tables are in support of this exercise and are based on all costs for Equipment items (reduced by obsolescence) and all Plant Projects which have been appropriated through FY 1984. Also included are non-plant costs which are required to complete the Energy Saver, Tevatron I and II projects (i.e., Equipment and R and D in support of Construction). This study makes the assumption that all funding through FY 1984 will have been costed by the end of FY 1986. Those costs incurred in FY 1985 and FY 1986 have been deflated to FY 1984 dollars. See Appendix A for the DOE inflation factors used in the conversion to FY 1984 dollars. The costs are identified in three categories. The Accelerator Facilities include all accelerator components, the buildings which enclose them and utilities which support them. The Experimental Facilities include all beam lines, enclosures, utilities and experimental equipment which are usable in current experimental programs. The Support Facilities include lab and office space, shops, assembly facilities, roads, grounds and the utilities which do not specifically support the Accelerator or Experimental Facilities, etc.

Jordan, N.G.; Livdahl, P.V.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Viable alternative for conducting cost-effective daily atmospheric soundings in developing countries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiosonde-collected data are of vital importance to a wide variety of studies that aim at understanding the interaction between land-surface and the atmosphere, amongst others. However, atmospheric measurements in developing countries, some of which ...

Thomas Lafon; Jennifer Fowler; John Fredy Jiménez; Gabriel Jaime Tamayo Cordoba

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161

Assessment of Cost Uncertainties for Large Technology Projects: A Methodology and an Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large projects, especially those planned and managed by government agencies, often incur substantial cost overruns. The tolerance, particularly on the part of members of Congress, for these cost overruns has decreased, thus increasing the need for accurate, ... Keywords: Decision analysis: risk. Government

Robin L. Dillon; Richard John; Detlof von Winterfeldt

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Fast Algorithms for Specially Structured Minimum Cost Flow Problems with Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the classical minimum cost flow problem is to send units of a good that reside at one or more points in a network (sources or supply nodes) with arc capacities to one or more other points in the network (sinks or demand nodes), incurring ... Keywords: analysis of algorithms, applications, computational complexity, flow algorithms, minimum cost flow problem, networks

Balachandran Vaidyanathan; Ravindra K. Ahuja

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

DOE geothermal R&D program focused on facilitating long-term, cost-effective private resource development  

SciTech Connect

Analyses conducted in support of the National Energy Strategy projected that as much as 22,000 megawatts of cost-effective, moderate-temperature geothermal energy are available to the U.S. over the long-term, or to the year 2030. Thus, the primary hydrothermal technology research goal of the Department's Geothermal Division is to facilitate the ability of the private sector to exploit competitively this large source of energy up to that capacity level or greater. The primary mechanism for implementing this goal is an R&D core program cost-shared with industry focused on major cost-sensitive technology areas: exploration technology, reservoir engineering and management, and drilling. The NES analyses also indicated that electricity generated with energy derived from hot dry rock could be a geographically dispersed, logical follow-on to hydrothermal electricity in the longer term. In order to demonstrate whether energy at useful temperatures can be extracted over extended periods at competitive energy prices, a long-term flow test of an experimental HDR system will be conducted. This paper describes DOE's current participation in R&D activities leading to the development of ''cutting edge'' technology that will serve the geothermal industry's interest well into the next century.

Mock, John E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites  

SciTech Connect

In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of useful products using this technology is to scale the technology from the 700-L pilot reactor to a small-scale production facility, with dedicated operation staff and engineering controls. In addition, we recommend that a market study be conducted as well as further product development for construction products that will utilize the unique properties of this bio-based material.

David N. Thompson, Robert W. Emerick, Alfred B. England, James P. Flanders, Frank J. Loge, Katherine A. Wiedeman, Michael P. Wolcott

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Low-cost CuInSe[sub 2] submodule development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aim of this project is development and demonstration of processing steps necessary for fabrication of high efficiency CuInSe[sub 2] solar cells and sub-modules by the two-stage technique (also called the selenization method.) During this period, we have optimized the processing parameters of this method and demonstrated CuInSe[sub 2]/CdS/ZnO devices with a 1[endash]4 cm[sup 2] area and up to 12.4% active area efficiency. We have also developed a novel approach for the preparation of Cu/In precursors that improved the stoichiometric and morphological uniformity in these films. We have developed processing steps and tooling for handling up to 1 ft[sup 2] size substrates and as a result of these efforts demonstrated our first monolithically integrated sub-module of 1 ft[sup 2] area. 16 figs, 1 tab, 15 refs.

Basol, B.M.; Kapur, V.K.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. (International Solar Electric Technology, Inglewood, CA (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Cost Benefit Analysis Modeling Tool for Electric vs. ICE Airport Ground Support Equipment – Development and Results  

SciTech Connect

This report documents efforts to develop a computer tool for modeling the economic payback for comparative airport ground support equipment (GSE) that are propelled by either electric motors or gasoline and diesel engines. The types of GSE modeled are pushback tractors, baggage tractors, and belt loaders. The GSE modeling tool includes an emissions module that estimates the amount of tailpipe emissions saved by replacing internal combustion engine GSE with electric GSE. This report contains modeling assumptions, methodology, a user’s manual, and modeling results. The model was developed based on the operations of two airlines at four United States airports.

James Francfort; Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Automated array assembly task development of low-cost polysilicon solar cells. Quarterly technical report No. 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three types of polysilicon materials were experimentally evaluated with Sensor Technology's standard production processing sequence during this reporting period. These materials include Wacker, Crystal Systems, and Exotic Materials polysilicon wafers. The average crystal grain size in the three polysilicon materials was obtained by statistically averaging the longest and shortest dimensions of each crystal grain in a set of random grain size measurements. An equation was derived to compute the fractional power loss associated with insufficient gridline coverage of polysilicon crystal grains. Two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the use of the fractional power loss equations in determining the suitability of the gridline spacing in a particular polysilicon grid pattern design. Other processes were explored for the purpose of improving the polysilicon solar cell efficiencies. Several metallization techniques were examined for suitability with a spray-on-dopant junction formation process sequence. A metallization problem was incurred in this program with cause and solution yet to be determined.

Allison, K.L.; Jones, G.T.; Rhee, S.S.; Chitre, S.R.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Retrofitting for Coal-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to further develop the oxy-combustion technology for commercial retrofit in existing wall-fired and Cyclone boilers by 2012. To meet this goal, a research project was conducted that included pilot-scale testing and a full-scale engineering and economic analysis.

Hamid Farzan

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by California Energy Commission (CEC) and managed by California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE). The project purpose is to characterize energy savings, technology costs, market potential, and economic viability of newly selected technologies applicable to California. In this report, LBNL first performed technology reviews to identify new or under-utilized technologies that could offer potential in improving energy efficiency and additional benefits to California industries as well as in the U.S. industries, followed by detailed technology assessment on each targeted technology, with a focus on California applications. A total of eleven emerging or underutilized technologies applicable to California were selected and characterized with detailed information in this report. The outcomes essentially include a multi-page summary profile for each of the 11 emerging or underutilized technologies applicable to California industries, based on the formats used in the technology characterization reports (Xu et al. 2010; Martin et al. 2000).

Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its ability to capture vapor phase Hg, however activated carbon performed relatively well. At the normal operating temperatures of 298-306 F, mercury emissions from the ESP were so low that both particulate and elemental mercury were ''not detected'' at the detection limits of the Ontario Hydro method for both baseline and injection tests. The oxidized mercury however, was 95% lower at a sorbent injection concentration of 10 lbs/MMacf compared with baseline emissions. When the flue gas temperatures were increased to a range of 343-347 F, mercury removal efficiencies were limited to fly ash LOI, operation of the SNCR system, and flue gas temperature on the native mercury capture without sorbent injection. Listed below are the main conclusions from this program: (1) SNCR on/off test showed no beneficial effect on mercury removal caused by the SNCR system. (2) At standard operating temperatures ({approx} 300 F), reducing LOI from 30-35% to 15-20% had minimal impact on Hg removal. (3) Increasing flue gas temperatures reduced Hg removal regardless of LOI concentrations at Salem Harbor (minimum LOI was 15%). Native mercury removal started to fall off at temperatures above 320 F. ACI effectiveness for mercury removal fell off at temperatures above 340 F. (4) Test method detection limits play an important role at Salem Harbor due to the low residual emissions. Examining the proposed MA rule, both the removal efficiency and the emission concentrations will be difficult to demonstrate on an ongoing basis. (5) Under tested conditions the baseline emissions met the proposed removal efficiency for 2006, but not the proposed emission concentration. ACI can meet the more-stringent 2012 emission limits, as long as measurement detection limits are lower than the Ontario Hydro method. SCEM testing was able to verify the low emissions. For ACI to perform at this level, process conditions need to match those obtained during testing.

Michael D. Durham

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both melting and casting environments. Three approaches were employed with partial to full success to achieve this goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; and (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions. The results of the research work and the field tests performed utilizing these three approaches are listed below: (1) It was demonstrated that high-density IR heating could be a tool for altering and sealing the surface porosity of fused silica. However, the process was not very cost-effective. (2) A low-cost glaze composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) similar to that of a DFS tube was identified and was successfully tested for its integrity and adherence to DFS. Although the glaze acted as a barrier between the molten aluminum and the DFS, persistent porosity and crazing within the glaze affected its performance during the reactivity tests, thus acting as an obstacle in scaling up production of this glaze. (3) Pyrotek's XL glaze showed great success in improving the life of the DFS tubes. Pyrotek has reported an increasing market demand for the XL-coated DFS tubes, which exhibit useful lifetimes three times better than those of uncoated tubes. (4) A computer model to optimize particle size distribution for reduced permeability was developed and successfully applied to casting formulations. Silica riser tubes produced using these new formulations have been tested in a commercial aluminum casting facility and have been reported to increase the life of the DFS tubes by 700%. (5) If all the DFS riser tubes used in LPD casting of aluminum automotive components are replaced with the better, longer-lasting castable riser tubes, the potential national energy savings is estimated to be 206 billion Btu/year.

Dale E. Brown (Pyrotek); Puja B. Kadolkar (ORNL)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Develop safe, low-cost method of manufacturing rechargeable, high conductivity lithium batteries. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of much of this work is the rechargeable lithium battery, because of its high energy density, and the use of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE`s) for ease of fabrication and lightness of weight. The classical solid polymer electrolyte is based on the use of salts such as lithium triflate dissolved in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) or poly(propylene oxide). This specific polymer electrolyte has severe limitations. Poly(ethylene oxide) is a microcrystalline polymer at 25 C, and ion migration occurs only in the 20--30% of the material that is amorphous. Useable conductivities (10{sup {minus}5} S/cm) can be achieved only when the material is heated above 80 C. Two approaches to generate higher electrolyte conductivities at ambient temperatures are being developed. In the first, organic solvents are added to the polymer to plasticize it and dissolve the microcrystallites. This increases the conductivity but raises the possibility of fires if the battery casing ruptures during high charge or discharge conditions or when the device is punctured by impact. The alternative is to design new polymers that are good solid electrolyte media but which are completely amorphous and have low glass transition temperatures. Such a polymer is MEEP (poly[bis(methoxyethoxy)phosphazene]), first synthesized in the author`s laboratories. The main objective was to develop crosslinking methods for MEEP which could be used on a mass production scale to produce thin film rechargeable lithium batteries. A further objective was to assemble working energy storage devices to investigate the feasibility that this system could be developed commercially.

Allcock, H.R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

OOTW COST TOOLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Site restoration: Estimation of attributable costs from plutonium-dispersal accidents  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear weapons accident is an extremely unlikely event due to the extensive care taken in operations. However, under some hypothetical accident conditions, plutonium might be dispersed to the environment. This would result in costs being incurred by the government to remediate the site and compensate for losses. This study is a multi-disciplinary evaluation of the potential scope of the post-accident response that includes technical factors, current and proposed legal requirements and constraints, as well as social/political factors that could influence decision making. The study provides parameters that can be used to assess economic costs for accidents postulated to occur in urban areas, Midwest farmland, Western rangeland, and forest. Per-area remediation costs have been estimated, using industry-standard methods, for both expedited and extended remediation. Expedited remediation costs have been evaluated for highways, airports, and urban areas. Extended remediation costs have been evaluated for all land uses except highways and airports. The inclusion of cost estimates in risk assessments, together with the conventional estimation of doses and health effects, allows a fuller understanding of the post-accident environment. The insights obtained can be used to minimize economic risks by evaluation of operational and design alternatives, and through development of improved capabilities for accident response.

Chanin, D.I.; Murfin, W.B. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest that were varied included SO{sub 3} conditioning on/off, injection concentrations, and distribution spray patterns. The original test plan called for parametric testing of NORIT FGD carbon at 1, 3, and 10 lbs/MMacf. These injection concentrations were estimated based on results from the Pleasant Prairie tests that showed no additional mercury removal when injection concentrations were increased above 10 lbs/MMacf. The Brayton Point parametric test data indicated that higher injection concentrations would achieve higher removal efficiencies and should be tested. The test plan was altered to include testing at 20 lbs/MMacf. The first test at this higher rate showed very high removal across the second ESP (>80%). Unlike the ''ceiling'' phenomenon witnessed at Pleasant Prairie, increasing sorbent injection concentration resulted in further capture of vapor-phase mercury. The final phase of field-testing was a 10-day period of continuous injection of NORIT FGD carbon. During the first five days, the injection concentration was held at 10 lbs/MMacf, followed by nominally five days of testing at an injection concentration of 20 lbs/MMacf. The mercury removal, as measured by the semi-continuous emission monitors (S-CEM), varied between 78% and 95% during the 10 lbs/MMacf period and increased to >97% when the injection concentration was increased to 20 lbs/MMacf. During the long-term testing period, mercury measurements following EPA's draft Ontario Hydro method were conducted by TRC Environmental Corporation at both 10 and 20 lbs/MMacf test conditions. The Ontario Hydro data showed that the particulate mercury removal was similar between the two conditions of 10 or 20 lbs/MMacf and removal efficiencies were greater than 99%. Elemental mercury was not detected in any samples, so no conclusions as to its removal can be drawn. Removal of oxidized mercury, on the other hand, increased from 68% to 93% with the higher injection concentration. These removal rates agreed well with the S-CEM results.

Michael D. Durham

2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

176

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its ability to capture vapor phase Hg, however activated carbon performed relatively well. At the normal operating temperatures of 298-306 F, mercury emissions from the ESP were so low that both particulate and elemental mercury were ''not detected'' at the detection limits of the Ontario Hydro method for both baseline and injection tests. The oxidized mercury however, was 95% lower at a sorbent injection concentration of 10 lbs/MMacf compared with baseline emissions. When the flue gas temperatures were increased to a range of 343-347 F, mercury removal efficiencies were limited to <25%, even at the same sorbent injection concentration. Other tests examined the impacts of fly ash LOI, operation of the SNCR system, and flue gas temperature on the native mercury capture without sorbent injection. Listed below are the main conclusions from this program: (1) SNCR on/off test showed no beneficial effect on mercury removal caused by the SNCR system. (2) At standard operating temperatures ({approx} 300 F), reducing LOI from 30-35% to 15-20% had minimal impact on Hg removal. (3) Increasing flue gas temperatures reduced Hg removal regardless of LOI concentrations at Salem Harbor (minimum LOI was 15%). Native mercury removal started to fall off at temperatures above 320 F. ACI effectiveness for mercury removal fell off at temperatures above 340 F. (4) Test method detection limits play an important role at Salem Harbor due to the low residual emissions. Examining the proposed MA rule, both the removal efficiency and the emission concentrations will be difficult to demonstrate on an ongoing basis. (5) Under tested conditions the baseline emissions met the proposed removal efficiency for 2006, but not the proposed emission concentration. ACI can meet the more-stringent 2012 emission limits, as long as measurement detection limits are lower than the Ontario Hydro method. SCEM testing was able to verify the low emissions. For ACI to perform at this level, process conditions need to match those obtained during testing.

Michael D. Durham

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A recent review by the U.S. Advanced Ceramics Association, the Aluminum Association, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (DOE/OIT) described the status of advanced ceramics for aluminum processing, including monolithics, composites, and coatings. The report observed that monolithic ceramics (particularly oxides) have attractive properties such as resistance to heat, corrosion, thermal shock, abrasion, and erosion [1]. However, even after the developments of the past 25 years, there are two key barriers to commercialization: reliability and cost-effectiveness. Industry research is therefore focused on eliminating these barriers. Ceramic coatings have likewise undergone significant development and a variety of processes have been demonstrated for applying coatings to substrates. Some processes, such as thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines, exhibit sufficient reliability and service life for routine commercial use. Worldwide, aluminum melting and molten metal handling consumes about 506,000 tons of refractory materials annually. Refractory compositions for handling molten aluminum are generally based on dense fused cast silica or mullite. The microstructural texture is extremely important because an interlocking mass of coarser grains must be bonded together by smaller grains in order to achieve adequate strength. At the same time, well-distributed microscopic pores and cracks are needed to deflect cracks and prevent spalling and thermal shock damage [2]. The focus of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective, low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both smelting and casting environments. The primary goal was to develop improved coatings and functionally graded materials that will possess superior combinations of properties, including resistance to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting. When these materials are successfully deployed in aluminum smelting and casting operations, their superior performance and durability will give end users marked improvements in uptime, defect reduction, scrap/rework costs, and overall energy savings resulting from higher productivity and yield. The implementation of results of this program will result in energy savings of 30 trillion Btu/year by 2020. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) project, riser tube used in the low-pressure die (LPD) casting of aluminum was selected as the refractory component for improvement. In this LPD process, a pressurized system is used to transport aluminum metal through refractory tubes (riser tubes) into wheel molds. It is important for the tubes to remain airtight because otherwise, the pressurized system will fail. Generally, defects such as porosity in the tube or cracks generated by reaction of the tube material with molten aluminum lead to tube failure, making the tube incapable of maintaining the pressure difference required for normal casting operation. Therefore, the primary objective of the project was to develop a riser tube that is not only resistant to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting, but is also less permeable, so as to achieve longer service life. Currently, the dense-fused silica (DFS) riser tube supplied by Pyrotek lasts for only 7 days before undergoing failure. The following approach was employed to achieve the goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions; (4) Optimize refractory formulations to minimize wetting by molten aluminum, and characterize erosion, corrosion, and spallation rates under realistic service conditions; and (5) Scale up the processing methods to full-sized components and perform field testi

Kadolkar, Puja [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies: Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Broadening the Appeal of Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies Preprint Shannon Cowlin, Jaquelin Cochran, Sadie Cox, and Carolyn Davidson National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wytze van der Gaast JI Network Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum Denver, Colorado May 13-17, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-6A20-54487 August 2012 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes.

179

Development of Low Cost Carbonaceous Materials for Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Final report on the US DOE CARAT program describes innovative R & D conducted by Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL, USA in cooperation with researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and defines the proper type of carbon and a cost effective method for its production, as well as establishes a US based manufacturer for the application of anodes of the Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer batteries of the Hybrid Electric and Pure Electric Vehicles. The three materials each representing a separate class of graphitic carbon, have been developed and released for field trials. They include natural purified flake graphite, purified vein graphite and a graphitized synthetic carbon. Screening of the available on the market materials, which will help fully utilize the graphite, has been carried out.

Barsukov, Igor V.

2002-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

180

Cost Effective Single Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

three relevant technologies, namely casting, alloy development and orientation measurement, developed by Rolls-Royce to enable the cost effective production.

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181

MATERIALS DEGRADATION ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT TO ENABLE ULTRA LOW COST, WEB-PROCESSED WHITE P-OLED FOR SSL  

SciTech Connect

Progress over Phase II of DE-FG02-07ER86293 'Materials Degradation Analysis and Development to Enable Ultra Low Cost, Web-Processed White P-OLED for SSL' was initially rapid in terms of device performance improvements. We exceeded our device luminance lifetime goals for printed flexible white OLEDs as laid out in our project proposal. Our Phase II performance target was to demonstrate >1500 hours luminance lifetime at 100 Cd/m2 from a printed flexible device. We now have R&D devices well in excess of 8000 hrs lifetime at 100 Cd/m2, tested in air. We also were able to produce devices which met the voltage target of >1500 hours below 15V operation. After completing the initial performance milestones, we went on to focus on color-related degradation issues which were cited as important to commercialization of the technology by our manufacturing partners. We also put additional focus on cathode work as the active material development that occurred over the STTR time period required an adaptation of the cathode from the original cathode formulations which were developed based on previous generation active layer materials. We were able to improve compatibility of the cathode with some of the newer generation active layer materials and improve device yield and voltage behavior. An additional objective of the initial Phase II was to further develop the underlying manufacturing technology and real-life product specifications. This is a key requirement that must be met to ensure eventual commercialization of this DOE-funded technology. The link between commercial investment for full commercialization and R&D efforts in OLED solid State Lighting is often a large one. Add-Vision's lower cost, printed OLED manufacturing approach is an attraction, but close engagement with manufacturing partners and addressing customer specifications is a very important link. Manufacturing technology encompasses development of moisture reduction encapsulation technology, improved cost performance, and reductions in operating voltage through thinner and higher uniformity active device layers. We have now installed a pilot encapsulation system at AVI for controlled, high throughput lamination encapsulation of flexible OLEDs in a novel process. Along with this, we have developed, with our materials supply partners, adhesives, barrier films and other encapsulation materials and we are showing total air product lifetimes in the 2-4 years range from a process consistent with our throughput goals of {approx}1M device per month ({approx}30,000 sq. ft. of processed OLEDs). Within the last year of the project, we have been working to introduce the manufacturing improvements made in our LEP deposition and annealing process to our commercial partners. Based on the success of this, a pilot scale-up program was begun. During this process, Add-Vision was acquired by a strategic partner, in no small part, because of the promise of future success of the technology as evidenced by our commercial partners pilot scale-up plans. Overall, the performance, manufacturing and product work in this project has been successful. Additional analysis and device work at LBL has also shown a unique adhesion change with device bias stressing which may result from active layer polymer cross-linking during bias stressing of device. It was shown that even small bias stresses, as a fraction of a full device lifetime stress period, result in measurable chemical change in the device. Further work needs to be conducted to fully understand the chemical nature of this interaction. Elucidation of this effect would enable doped OLED formulation to be engineered to suppress this effect and further extend lifetimes and reduce voltage climb.

DR. DEVIN MACKENZIE

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

182

Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. First annual report for the period, September 30, 1992--September 29, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research consists of the parallel development of a new chemical flooding simulator and the application of existing UTCHEM simulation code to model surfactant flooding. The new code is based upon a completely new numerical method that combines for the first time higher order finite difference methods, flux limiters, and implicit algorithms. Early results indicate that this approach has significant advantages in some problems and will likely enable simulation of much larger and more realistic chemical floods once it is fully developed. Additional improvements have also been made to the UTCHEM code and it has been applied for the first time to the study of stochastic reservoirs with and without horizontal wells to evaluate methods to reduce the cost and risk of surfactant flooding. During the first year of this contract, significant progress has been made on both of these tasks. The authors have found that there are indeed significant differences between the performance predictions based upon the traditional layered reservoir description and the more realistic and flexible descriptions using geostatistics. These preliminary studies of surfactant flooding using horizontal wells shows that although they have significant potential to greatly reduce project life and thus improve the economics of the process, their use requires accurate reservoir descriptions and simulations to be effective. Much more needs to be done to fully understand and optimize their use and develop reliable design criteria.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Cost Development Guidelines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table of Contents Table of Contents..................................................................................................... ii

unknown authors

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Cost Development Guidelines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table of Contents Table of Contents..................................................................................................... ii Table of Exhibits...................................................................................................... v Approval.................................................................................................................. vi

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

External Costs of Energy Technologies Position Statement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The American Nuclear Society believes that decisions concerning national energy policy should appropriately take external costs into account. In some energy options, external costs are not included in the cost of the energy produced; instead, they are borne by parties not involved in the original transaction, generally without consent or due compensation. External costs 1 may be related to many factors, including impacts on public health, environmental impacts, degradation of quality of life, degradation of agricultural land, depletion of natural resources, and reduction in security. These costs are incurred at various stages of the life cycle of an energy technology. While some energy technologies may appear to have smaller environmental impacts than others, their external costs may be significant when the complete life cycle costs are taken into account. Particularly, an energy source that is inherently intermittent will require, for applications demanding reliable performance, either a backup energy supply or an energy storage facility, whose external costs are not negligible. On the other hand, practically all the costs to make nuclear power technology safe and secure, including the costs of waste management and disposal, are already incorporated into the cost of electricity generation. 2 Appropriately accounting for external costs should be an essential element in energy policy since in doing so, the final product is compared based on a consistent set of parameters for all technologies, and the resulting mix of energy sources will more appropriately balance the competing economic, environmental, and social needs from energy production and consumption.

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Design, development, and performance evaluation of a low-cost, low-power wake-up radio system for wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy-efficient operation is a challenge for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A common method employed for this purpose is duty-cycled operation, which extends battery lifetime yet incurs several types of energy wastes and challenges. A promising alternative ... Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, asynchronous, low-power, wake-up receiver

Joaquim Oller, Ilker Demirkol, Jordi Casademont, Josep Paradells

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Development of a Low-Cost, Durable Membrane and MEA for Stationary and Mobile Fuel Cell Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. (formerly Atofina, Inc.) to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the Fuel Cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted in using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® (Arkema trade name for PVDF) provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix. In a first phase, Arkema demonstrated the feasibility of the concept with the M31 membrane generation. After MEA optimization, it was shown that the beginning-of-life (BOL) performance of M31 MEAs was essentially on a par with that of PFSA MEAs at 60ºC under fully humidified conditions. On the other hand, long-term durability studies showed a high decay rate of 45µV/h over a 2100 hr. test. Arkema then designed several families of polyelectrolyte candidates, which – in principle – could not undergo the same failure mechanisms. A new membrane candidate was developed: M41. It offered the same generally good mechanical, ex-situ conductivity and gas barrier properties as M31. In addition, ex-situ accelerated testing suggested a several orders of magnitude improvement in chemical stability. M41 based MEAs showed comparable BOL performance with that of PFSA (80ºC, 100% RH). M41 MEAs were further shown to be able to withstand several hours temperature excursions at 120ºC without apparent damage. Accelerated studies were carried out using the DOE and/or US Fuel Cell Council protocols. M41 MEAs shown sizeable advantages over PFSA MEAs in the Open Circuit Voltage Hold test, Relative Humidity Cycling test and the Voltage Cycling test. The main known limitation of the M41 family is its ability to function well at low RH.

Michel Foure, Scott Gaboury, Jim Goldbach, David Mountz and Jung Yi (no longer with company)

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Development of low cost contacts to silicon solar cells. Final report, 15 October 1978-30 April 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of work done on the development of a copper based contact system for silicon solar cells is presented. The work has proceeded in three phases: (1) Development of a copper based contact system using plated Pd-Cr-Cu. Good cells were made but cells degraded under low temperature (300/sup 0/C) heat treatments. (2) The degradation in Phase I was identified as copper migration into the cells junction region. A paper study was conducted to find a proper barrier to the copper migration problem. Nickel was identified as the best candidate barrier and this was verified in a heat treatment study using evaporated metal layers. (3) An electroless nickel solution was substituted for the electroless chrominum solution in the original process. Efforts were made to replace the palladium bath with an appropriate nickel layer, but these were unsuccessful. 150 cells using the Pd-Ni-Cu contact system were delivered to JPL. Also a cost study was made on the plating process to assess the chance of reaching 5 cents/watt.

Tanner, D.P.; Iles, P.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost, Durable Seal Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * Technical Approach * Timeline * Team Roles * Budget * Q&A 2 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Project Objective Develop advanced, low cost, durable seal materials and sealing techniques amenable to high volume manufacture of PEM cell stacks. DOE Targets/Goals/Objectives Project Goal Durability Transportation: 5,000 hr Stationary: 40,000 hr Durability Improve mechanical and chemical stability to achieve 40,000 hr of useful operating life. Low Cost Low Cost A material cost equivalent to or less than the cost of silicones in common use. 3 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL

191

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

On developing a fast, cost-effective and non-invasive method to derive data center thermal maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ongoing research has demonstrated the potential benefits of thermal-aware load placement in data centers to both reduce cooling costs and component failure rates. However, thermal-aware load placement techniques have not been widely deployed in existing ...

Michael Jonas; Georgios Varsamopoulos; Sandeep K. S. Gupta

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Feasibility study to update annualized cost of leaving (ACOL) procedures at the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center (NPRDC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate forecasts of officer retention rates are required in order to shape correctly the size and internal structure of the Navy manpower force through accession, promotion, and related policies. This study, conducted in 1987 for the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center (NPRDC), reviews existing forecasting and simulation methodologies and suggests new methods to implement in the future in order to improve forecasts of naval officer retention rates. The study also considers alternative sources of data to capture civilian earnings opportunities in the models. Two major types of models -- Annualized Cost of Leaving (ACOL) and Dynamic Retention (DR) -- are discussed in detail with respect to the ability to model and evaluate manpower policies of interest to NPRDC staff. A variety of other techniques which should be considered during the estimation stage are also discussed. The general study approach involved researching the subject area, the current data, the current models, and current estimation procedures. Available data and methodologies were then compared with the NPRDC problem in order to recommend potential solutions. This study did not include data collection or data analysis. This report is organized in eight sections. The Background Section discusses the history of officer retention models, the scope of officer manpower analysis at NPRDC, and NPRDC's history of officer loss-rate forecasting. Section 3 discusses the approach to model selection, which includes addition to a thorough discussion of the Dynamic Retention Model (DRM) and a comparison of the DRM and ACOL model. Section 5 presents alternative modeling directions for forecasting and a summary of compensation policy issues. The summary and conclusions appear in Section 6, and recommendations are in Section 7. References are in Section 8.2. 30 refs., 1 tab. (JF)

Trumble, D.; Flanagan, D.M.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Commercial equipment cost database  

SciTech Connect

This report, prepared for DOE, Office of Codes and Standards, as part of the Commercial Equipment Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, specifically addresses the equipment cost estimates used to evaluate the economic impacts of revised standards. A database including commercial equipment list prices and estimated contractor costs was developed, and through statistical modeling, estimated contractor costs are related to equipment parameters including performance. These models are then used to evaluate cost estimates developed by the ASHRAE 90.1 Standing Standards Project Committee, which is in the process of developing a revised ASHRAE 90.1 standard. The database will also be used to support further evaluation of the manufacturer and consumer impacts of standards. Cost estimates developed from the database will serve as inputs to economic modeling tools, which will be used to estimate these impacts. Preliminary results suggest that list pricing is a suitable measure from which to estimate contractor costs for commercial equipment. Models developed from these cost estimates accurately predict estimated costs. The models also confirm the expected relationships between equipment characteristics and cost. Cost models were developed for gas-fired and electric water heaters, gas-fired packaged boilers, and warm air furnaces for indoor installation. Because of industry concerns about the use of the data, information was not available for the other categories of EPAct-covered equipment. These concerns must be addressed to extend the analysis to all EPAct equipment categories.

Freeman, S.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499  

SciTech Connect

Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

Smith, K.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

Tucker, R.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

198

How to Evaluate the Costs and Benefits of Participating in Coordinated Transportation Services; A Coordination Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This Manual focuses on the coordination of transportation resources by social service and community transportation providers. The Manual is designed to assist such providers to understand the potential benefits of coordination, to compare current cost and service patterns to those offered by other providers " to understand the costs incurred when participating in various coordination options, and to compute prices to charge to other agepcies when selling transportation services. The Manual has three messages: 1) in many coordination options there are trade-offs that can or must be made between cost and service variables; 2) in order to participate in coordination programs, agencies must understand all costs which they will continue to incur as well as those that will be experienced for the first time; 3) coordination can be a complex and complicated process which requires serlOUS attention to organizational, administrative and financial

P. Rlorming Organilo. Ion Nomo

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 2:27pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 4 For greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, once a Federal agency identifies the employee commute alternatives and supporting strategies that will most effectively reduce trips to the worksite, costs of encouraging adoption of those methods can be estimated. The annual costs of commute trip reduction programs can vary greatly by worksite. This section outlines types of costs that might be incurred by an agency as well as savings and other benefits of commute trip reduction to an agency, its employees, and the communities surrounding its major worksites. It includes: Employer costs and benefits Employee costs and benefits

200

Research and development of low cost processes for integrated solar arrays. Final report, April 15, 1974--January 14, 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of a program to study process routes leading to a low cost large area integrated silicon solar array manufacture for terrestrial applications are reported. Potential processes for the production of solar-grade silicon are evaluated from thermodynamic, economic, and technical feasibility points of view. Upgrading of the present arc-furnace process is found most favorable. Experimental studies of the Si/SiF/sub 4/ transport and purification process show considerable impurity removal and reasonable transport rates. Silicon deformation experiments indicate production of silicon sheet by rolling at 1350/sup 0/C is feasible. Significant recrystallization by strain-anneal technique has been observed. Experimental recrystallization studies using an electron beam line source are discussed. A maximum recrystallization velocity of approximately 9 m/hr is calculated for silicon sheet. A comparative process rating technique based on detailed cost analysis is presented.

Graham, C.D.; Kulkarni, S.; Louis, E.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Low-cost load research for electric utilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) developed two pragmatic approaches to meet most load-research objectives at a substantially lower cost than would be incurred with traditional techniques. GVEA serves three customer classes, with most of its load in the Fairbanks area. GVEA's new approaches simulate load curves for individual customer classes to the degree necessary to meet most load-research objectives for the utility, including applications to cost-of-service analysis, rate design, demand-side management, and load forecasting. These approaches make class load-shape information available to utilities that cannot otherwise afford to develop such data. Although the two approaches were developed for a small utility, they are likely to work at least as well for medium and large utilities. The first approach simulates class curves by combining load data from system feeders with information on customer mix and energy usage. GVEA's supervisory control and data acquisition system gives hourly data on feeder loads, and its billing database provides the number of customers and kilowatt-hour usage by customer class on each feeder. The second approach enhances load-research results by redefining target parameters. Data from several like-hours are used to calculate substitutes for the parameters traditionally defined from single-hour data points. The precision of peak responsibility estimates, for example, can be improved if several of the highest hourly demands in a given time period are used rather than the single highest hourly demand. Arguably, use of several highest hourly demands can also improve the reliability of the allocation of responsibility.

Gray, D.A.; Butcher, M.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Results of research to develop cost effective biomonitoring at oil shale lease tracts. Phase I. Fall sampling report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of censuses conducted during October 1981 to estimate the fall abundance of small mammals and avifauna on replicate plots in the vicinity of Federal Tract C-a (Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company). The objectives of the fall censuses were to evaluate alternative census techniques, test assumptions vital to the use of indices and abundance estimators, determine cost-functions associated with monitoring efforts, and estimate variance components needed to devise optimal monitoring designs. Analyses of the fall census data on small mammal abundance were performed.

Skalski, J.R.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

The development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cycling performance of low-cost LiFePO4-based high-power lithium-ion cells was investigated and the components were analyzed after cycling to determine capacity fade mechanisms. Pouch type LiFePO4/natural graphite cells were assembled and evaluated by constant C/2 cycling, pulse-power and impedance measurements. From post-test electrochemical analysis after cycling, active materials, LiFePO4 and natural graphite, showed no degradation structurally or electrochemically. The main reasons for the capacity fade of cell were lithium inventory loss by side reaction and possible lithium deposition on the anode.

Shim, Joongpyo; Sierra, Azucena; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2003-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

204

Development of a low-temperature, low-cost, black liquid solar collector. Final report, September 12, 1977-October 31, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Battelle's Columbus Laboratories (BCL) has developed an efficient, low-cost, low-temperature, nonconcentrating, liquid-heating solar collector suitable for use as a thermal energy source for heat pumps or other heating applications. The collector incorporates a black liquid heat transfer medium permitting solar radiation to be absorbed directly by the liquid. Based on detailed measurements of the spectral absorption properties on many black liquids, and on the results of computer analysis of collector performance, it has been shown that the black liquid collector concept has the potential of significantly improved performance compared with an unglazed (i.e., swimming pool type) black-absorber collector of comparable cost.On the other hand, it has the potential of significant cost savings compared with the single-glazed collector of comparable performance. Experimental data obtained on two black liquid collectors constructed during this project closely match the predicted curves obtained from a theoretical computer analysis. Results of the systems analysis studies have shown that the black liquid collector, when used as a heat source for a solar-assisted heat pump, has comparable performance to that of a single-glazed conventional collector but at considerably lower cost. Another important result is that currently available heat pump systems are not ideally matched or compatible with a solar-assisted system. A solar-assisted system will require design of heat pumps which can take advantage of the higher system coefficient of performance (COP) possible with a heat source at elevated temperatures.

Landstrom, D K; Talbert, S G; Stickford, Jr, G H; Fischer, R D; Hess, R E

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume VI. Cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the cost analysis is to determine the economic feasibility of a variety of hybrid vehicles with respect to conventional vehicles specifically designed for the same duty cycle defined by the mission analysis. Several different hybrid configurations including parallel, parallel-flywheel, and series vehicles were evaluated. The ramifications of incorporating examples of advanced batteries, these being the advanced lead-acid, nickel-zinc, and sodium sulfur were also investigated. Vehicles were specifically designed with these batteries and for the driving cycles specified by the mission. Simulated operation on the missions yielded the energy consumption (petroleum and/or electricity) over the driving cycles. It was concluded that: in the event that gasoline prices reach $2.50 to $3.00/gal, hybrid vehicles in many applications will become economically competitive with conventional vehicles without subsidization; in some commercial applications hybrid vehicles could be economically competitive, when the gasoline price ranges from $1.20 to $1.50/gal. The cost per kWh per cycle of the advanced batteries is much more important economically than the specific energy; the series hybrid vehicles were found to be more expensive in comparison to the parallel or parallel-flywheel hybrids when designed as passenger vehicles; and hybrid vehicles designed for private use could become economically competitive and displace up to 50% of the fuel normally used on that mission if subsidies of $500 to $2000 were supplied to the owner/operator. (LCL)

Hardy, K.S.

1979-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

206

Electricity Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs journal International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy volume year month chapter...

207

Design of a low-cost autoclave for adoption in rural health posts of the developing world  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Incidence of surgical site infection is two to five times higher in developing nations as compared to developed nations. Autoclaves kill all dangerous pathogens, including heat-resistant endospores, and are an essential ...

Tao, Gregory Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

future development of smart grids and distributed generationLess over-heating Enables smart grid, LEDs Currently limited

Xu, Tengfang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Estimating decommissioning costs: The 1994 YNPS decommissioning cost study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Early this year, Yankee Atomic Electric Company began developing a revised decommissioning cost estimate for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) to provide a basis for detailed decommissioning planning and to reflect slow progress in siting low-level waste (LLW) and spent-nuclear-fuel disposal facilities. The revision also reflects the need to change from a cost estimate that focuses on overall costs to a cost estimate that is sufficiently detailed to implement decommissioning and identify the final cost of decommissioning.

Szymczak, W.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Developing a Mechanistic Understanding of Lamellar Hydroxide Mineral Carbonation Reaction Processes to Reduce CO2 Mineral Sequestration Process Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanistic Understanding of Lamellar Hydroxide Mechanistic Understanding of Lamellar Hydroxide Mineral Carbonation Reaction Processes to Reduce CO 2 Mineral Sequestration Process Cost Michael J. McKelvy (mckelvy@asu.edu; 480-965-4535), Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya (chizmesh@asu.edu; 480-965-6072), Hamdallah Bearat (Hamdallah.Bearat@asu.edu; 480-965-2624), Renu Sharma (Renu.Sharma@asu.edu; 480-965-4541), and Ray W. Carpenter (carpenter@asu.edu; 480-965-4549) Center for Solid State Science and Science and Engineering of Materials PhD Program, P.O. Box 871704, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 USA ABSTRACT The potential environmental effects of increasing atmospheric CO 2 levels are of major worldwide concern. One alternative for managing CO 2 emissions is carbon sequestration: the capture and secure confinement of CO

213

Development of a Low-Cost 3-10 kW Tubular SOFC Power System - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Norman Bessette Acumentrics Corporation 20 Southwest Park Westwood, MA 02090 Phone: (781) 461-8251; Email: nbessette@acumentrics.com DOE Managers HQ: Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Phone: (202) 586-5463 Email: Dimitrios.Papageorgopoulos@ee.doe.gov GO: Reginald Tyler Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: Reginald.Tyler@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-03NT41838 Project Start Date: April 1, 2008 Project End Date: March 31, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The goal of the project is to develop a low-cost 3-10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generator capable of meeting multiple market applications. This is accomplished by: Improving cell power and stability * Cost reduction of cell manufacturing

214

Total cost model for making sourcing decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Methods | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methods Methods Disclaimer The data gathered here are for informational purposes only. Inclusion of a report in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a single discount rate in order to compare technology costs only. About the Cost Database For emerging energy technologies, a variety of cost and performance numbers are cited in presentations and reports for present-day characteristics and potential improvements. Amid a variety of sources and methods for these data, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's technology development programs determine estimates for use in program planning. The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

216

Overview and Low Cost Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... The major reason that there is not more widespread use of titanium and its alloys is the high cost. Developments in reducing the cost of titanium ...

217

User cost in oil production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The assumption of an initial fixed mineral stock is superfluous and wrong. User cost (resource rent) in mineral production is the present value of expected increases in development cost. It can be measured as the difference ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution; Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Achieving Results with Renewable Energy in the Federal Government (Brochure)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front

219

Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

Mattos, L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12;· Marginal Cost: ­ Change in total cost ­ Any production process involves fixed and variable costs. As production increases/expands, fixed costs are unchanged, so

Boisvert, Jeff

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Development of a New Class of Low Cost, High Frequency Link Direct DC to AC Converters for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes to design and develop a new class of power converters (direct DC to AC) to drastically improve performance and optimize the cost, size, weight and volume of the DC to AC converter in SOFC systems. The proposed topologies employ a high frequency link; direct DC to AC conversion approach. The direct DC to AC conversion approach is more efficient and operates without an intermediate dc-link stage. The absence of the dc-link, results in the elimination of bulky, aluminum electrolytic capacitors, which in turn leads to a reduction in the cost, volume, size and weight of the power electronic converter. The feasibility of two direct DC to AC converter topologies and their suitability to meet SECA objectives will be investigated. Laboratory proto-type converters (3-5kW) will be designed and tested in Phase-1. A detailed design trade-off study along with the test results will be available in the form of a report for the evaluation of SECA Industrial partners. This project proposes to develop a new and innovative power converter technology suitable for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power systems in accordance with SECA objectives. The proposed fuel cell inverter (FCI) employs state of the art power electronic devices configured in two unique topologies to achieve direct conversion of DC power (24-48V) available from a SOFC to AC power (120/240V, 60Hz) suitable for utility interface and powering stand alone loads. The primary objective is to realize cost effective fuel cell converter, which operates under a wide input voltage range, and output load swings with high efficiency and improved reliability.

Prasad Enjeti; J.W. Howze

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Development of a low-cost, light-weight, efficient, 1. 5 kW inverter. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The effective use of low-voltage dc power sources, such as fuel cells and batteries, requires efficient power conversion equipment to provide ac voltages. The development of a silent, light-weight inverter is discussed in this paper. The inverter is capable of delivering 1.5 kW into a 0.8-1.0 power factor load at 120 or 240 Vac and at 60 or 400 Hz. (GRA)

Suelzle, L.R.; Suelzle, J.S.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Software Cost Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort required to develop a software system. Many estimation models have been proposed over the last 30 years. This paper provides a general overview of software cost estimation methods including the recent advances in the field. As a number of these models rely on a software size estimate as input, we first provide an overview of common size metrics. We then highlight the cost estimation models that have been proposed and used successfully. Models may be classified into 2 major categories: algorithmic and non-algorithmic. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. A key factor in selecting a cost estimation model is the accuracy of its estimates. Unfortunately, despite the large body of experience with estimation models, the accuracy of these models is not satisfactory. The paper includes comment on the performance of the estimation models and description of several newer approaches to cost estimation.

Hareton Leung Zhang; Zhang Fan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Low Cost Solar Array Project: large area silicon sheet task. Silicon web process development. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Silicon dendritic web is a ribbon form of silicon which grows directly from the melt without dies and can produce solar cells with AM1 conversion efficiency over 15%. The primary objective of this program is to develop the technology to produce silicon web at a cost compatible with the national goal of 50 cents per peak watt (70 cents per watt in 1980$) of photovoltaic output power. During the period covered by this report the dominant activities were directed at developing methods to increase the period of simultaneous growth of web crystal with melt replenishment. To further this work, an adjustable thermal trimmer to dynamically balance the thermal loads during melt replenishment was designed and tested. The highlights of the concept and initial tests are described. Further studies of growth geometries to enhance web output rate were performed, the economic analysis for web growth was performed, and a potentially lower cost solid state power supply for the growth furnace was tested. Results are reported. (WHK)

Duncan, C.S.; Seidensticker, R.; Hopkins, R.H.; McHugh, J.P.; Hill, F.E.; Skutch, M.E.; Driggers, J.M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Transmission line capital costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

Anklam, T

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

227

Reducing Energy Costs And Minimizing Capital Requirements: Case Studies of Thermal Energy Storage (TES)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large cooling systems typically represent substantial capital investments and incur high operating energy costs. Cooling loads tend to peak during times of year and times of day when high ambient temperatures create a maximum demand for power, and thus during those times when power has its highest cost or value. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) provides a means of de-coupling the generation of cooling from the provision of cooling to the peak cooling loads. In this manner, peak power demand is reduced, time-of day energy costs can be minimized, and real-time variations in power value can be used to the advantage of the energy consumer.

Andrepont, J. S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Decommissioning of Risø's nuclear facilities. Descriptions and cost assessment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nuclear facilities at Risø National Laboratory to be decommissioned and gives an assessment of the work to be done and the costs incurred. Three decommissioning scenarios were considered with decay times of 10, 25 and 40 years for the DR 3 reactor. The assessments conclude, however, that there will not be much to gain by allowing for the longer decay periods; some operations still will need to be performed remotely. Furthermore, the report describes some of the legal and licensing framework for the decommissioning and gives an assessment of the amounts of radioactive waste to be transferred to a Danish repository. ISBN 87-550-2844-6; 87-550-2846-2 (Internet)

Edited Kurt Lauridsen

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Modelling Dynamic Constraints in Electricity Markets and the Costs of Uncertain Wind Output  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III that we sub- sume supply technologies in different groups. To be more precise, we distinguish 16 supply technology groups (nuclear, three lignite, four hard coal, two combined cycle gas turbine, three open cycle gas turbine, two oil... shifts between periods. Finally, higher variable costs, incurred if power stations are operated below their optimal rating, are allocated to the locally lowest de- mand. For inflexible power stations like nuclear, combined cycle gas turbines or coal...

Musgens, Felix; Neuhoff, Karsten

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

230

USA oilgas production cost : recent changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During 1984-1989, oil development investment cost in the USA fell, but only because of lower activity. The whole cost curve shifted unfavorably (leftward). In contrast, natural gas cost substantially decreased, the curve ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Cost model for a small glass manufacturing enterprise.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The cost model developed is for small, glass-manufacturing enterprises to help themdetermine their product costs. It estimates the direct cost in glass manufacturing such as… (more)

Gopisetti, Swetha.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

SF6432-CR (02-01-12) Cost Reimbursement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2/01/12 2/01/12 Page 1 of 24 Printed copies of this document are uncontrolled. Retrieve latest version electronically. SANDIA CORPORATION SF 6432-CR (02/01/12) SECTION II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COST-REIMBURSEMENT CONTRACTS THE FOLLOWING CLAUSES APPLY TO THIS CONTRACT AS INDICATED UNLESS SPECIFICALLY DELETED, OR EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIED AS BEING CHANGED, SUPPLEMENTED, OR AMENDED IN WRITING ISSUED BY THE SANDIA CONTRACTING REPRESENTATIVE. (CTRL+CLICK ON A LINK BELOW TO ADVANCE DIRECTLY TO THAT SECTION) ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS (Ts&Cs) ALLOWABLE COSTS AND FEE APPLICABLE LAW ASSIGNMENT AUTHORIZED DISTRIBUTORS BANKRUPTCY CLAIM OF COSTS INCURRED DEFINITIONS DISPUTES EXCESS FREIGHT CHARGES

233

The Social-Cost Calculator (SCC): Documentation of Methods and Data, and Case Study of Sacramento  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

social costs and external costs for different transportationestimating social and external costs of transportation, thetransportation plans, I have developed an Excel Workbook, called the “Social Cost

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

THE SOCIAL-COST CALCULATOR (SCC): DOCUMENTATION OF METHODS AND DATA, AND CASE STUDY OF SACRAMENTO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

social costs and external costs for different transportationestimating social and external costs of transportation, thetransportation plans, I have developed an Excel Workbook, called the “Social Cost

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Heliostat production evaluation and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of ths study is to provide a factory cost for the production of heliostats in terms of 1979 dollars. Factory cost is defined as the sum of all direct labor, direct material and burden expenses that are incurred in the manufacture of a heliostat, and its packaging for shipment. Transportation, installation, taxes other than plant real taxes, profit, selling expenses, and all other profit and loss items are not included. Two production volumes are considered, 25,000 heliostat units per year and 250,000 heliostat units per year. The study concluded that the factory cost to manufacture heliostats is $95.99/m/sup 2/ at 25,000 units per year and $67.95/m/sup 2/ at 250,000 units per year. The Policy Analysis Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute estimates that this implies an installed price of $122.12/m/sup 2/ at the 25,000 unit per year volume.

None

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Heliostat production evaluation and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to provide a factory cost for the production of heliostats in terms of 1979 dollars. Factory cost is defined as the sum of all direct labor, direct material and burden expenses that are incurred in the manufacture of a heliostat, and its packaging for shipment. Transportation, installation, taxes other than plant real taxes, profit, selling expenses, and all other profit and loss items are not included. Two production volumes are considered, 25,000 heliostat units per year and 250,000 heliostat units per year. The study concluded that the factory cost to manufacture heliostats is $95.99/m/sup 2/ at 25,000 units per year and $67.95/m/sup 2/ at 250,000 units per year. The Policy Analysis Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute estimates that this implies an installed price of $122.12/m/sup 2/ at the 25,000 unit-per-year volume.

Britt, J. F.; Shulte, C. W.; Davey, H. L.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Back-end costs of alternative nuclear fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of its charter, the Alternate Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program (AFCEP) was directed to evaluate the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle in support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). The principal conclusion from this study is that the costs for recycling a broad range of reactor fuels will not have a large impact on total fuel cycle costs. For the once-through fuel cycle, the costs of fresh fuel fabrication, irradiated fuel storage, and associated transportation is about 1.2 to 1.3 mills/kWh. For the recycle of uranium and plutonium into thermal reactors, the back-cycle costs (i.e., the costs of irradiated fuel storage, transportation, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste disposal) will be from 3 to 3.5 mills/kWh. The costs for the recycle of uranium and plutonium into fast breeder reactors will be from 4.5 to 5 mills/kWh. Using a radioactive spikant or a denatured /sup 233/U-Th cycle will increase power costs for both recycle cases by about 1 mill/kWh. None of these costs substantially influence the total cost of nuclear power, which is in the range of 4 cents/kWh. The fuel cycle costs used in this study do not include costs incurred prior to fuel fabrication; that is, the cost of the uranium or thorium, the costs for enrichment, or credit for fissile materials in the discharged fuel, which is not recycled with the system.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

C. Jean Bustard

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous systems of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of projected DOE/EPA early cost estimates. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that was tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology injects a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. PG&E National Energy Group provided two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company provided a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company hosted a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the fifteenth reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) Test Sites--Final Reports for the two remaining plants are being written (Salem Harbor and Brayton Point). (2) Technology Transfer--Technical information about the project was presented to a number of organizations during the quarter including members of congress, coal companies, architect/engineering firms, National Mining Association, the North Carolina Department of Air Quality, the National Coal Council and EPA.

Jean Bustard; Richard Schlager

2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

240

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408) costs apply to those items that are consumed in production process and are roughly proportional to level in cash flow analysis and in the decision to use the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12

Boisvert, Jeff

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Costs of Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Withdrawal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years the area around Houston and Baytown, Texas, has been affected to an increasing degree by land subsidence. Sinking of the land surface has reached critical proportions in many areas, and subsidence of as much as eight feet has occurred. The severity of this phenomenon has been aggravated by the proximity of much of the affected area to bay waters, and tidal flooding has resulted in significant damages and property loss. Subsidence has been linked by engineers to the decline of subsurface water levels due to heavy ground water withdrawals in the area. An alternative source for water demands has been introduced, although price differentials have slowed its acceptance. Major objectives of this study included estimation of historical costs attributable to subsidence, projecting estimated costs, and examining the economics of the two alternatives for water supply. A study area of 300 square miles was identified and sampling of residences, businesses, and public officials was carried out. The cost data resulting from those samples formed the basis for economic analysis. Historical costs and property losses that were attributable to subsidence were estimated to be $60.7 million and $48.9 million, respectively, or $109.6 million total. Of the $109.6 million, $53.2 million were incurred in 1973, principally due to a six foot tide. Probability of the occurrence of a six foot tide in any one year is 20 percent. Given five additional feet of subsidence in the study area the occurrence of a six foot tide was projected to cause an estimated $63,5 million in costs and losses, $10.3 million more than were incurred in 1973. Estimated annual subsidence-related costs and losses of $14.6 million for the study area, based on 1969 to 1973 data, were used to evaluate total costs associated with supplying water needs from two alternative sources, A break-even analysis indicated that to minimize total water costs, pumping only that quantity of water that would result in no subsidence could be economically justified; i,e,, water needs or demand above that rate would need to be purchased from an alternative source. This implied that when pumping is continued to the point that subsidence occurs, the cost of pumping plus associated subsidence- related costs and losses exceed water costs from an alternative source, per unit of water.

Warren, J. P.; Jones, L. L.; Griffin, W. L.; Lacewell, R. D.

1974-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

17.2 - Cost Participation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

17.2 (June 2004) 17.2 (June 2004) 1 Cost Participation [Reference: FAR 35.003(b), DEAR 917.70] Overview This section discusses DOE treatment of cost participation by organizations performing research, development, and demonstration projects under DOE prime contracts. This section does not cover efforts and projects performed for DOE by other Federal agencies. Background Cost participation is a generic term denoting any situation where the Government does not fully reimburse the contractor for all allowable costs necessary to accomplish the project or effort under the contract. The term includes, but is not limited to: * Cost Sharing * Cost Matching * Cost Limitation, which may be direct or indirect * Participation in-kind

243

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

SciTech Connect

Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

244

Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW-AC solar tracking subarray for grid-connected PV power system applications. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report chronicles Utility Power Group's (UPG) successful two-year Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Phase 4A1 work effort which began in July, 1995. During this period, UPG completed design, fabrication, testing and demonstration of a modular and fully integrated 15-kW-ac, solar tracking PV power system sub-array. The two key and innovative components which were developed are a Modular Panel which optimizes factory assembly of PV modules into a large area, field-deployable, structurally-integrated PV panel, and an Integrated Power Processing Unit which combines all dc and ac power collection, conversion and control functions within a single, field-deployable structurally-integrated electrical enclosure. These two key sub-array elements, when combined with a number of other electrical, mechanical, and structural components, create a low-cost and high-performance PV power system. This system, or sub-array, can be deployed in individual units, or paralleled with any number of other sub-arrays, to construct multi-megawatt P fields. 21 figs.

Stern, M.; Duran, G.; Fourer, G.; Mackamul, K.; Whalen, W.; Loo, M. van; West, R. [Utility Power Group, Chatsworth, CA (US)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

246

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Background and Mission 3 Project Objectives * Overall Objective: Develop lower cost metal bipolar plates to meet performance target and 2015 cost target (<3kW) - Develop...

247

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

PAFC Cost Challenges  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ...

251

Audit of health benefit costs at the Department`s Management and Operating Contractors  

SciTech Connect

The audit disclosed that the Department and certain of its contractors had initiated several positive actions to contain health benefit costs: improving data collection, increasing training, reviewing changes to health plans, improving the language in one contract, increasing the employees, share of health costs at one contractor, and initiating self-insurance at another contractor. Despite these actions, further improvements are needed in the administration of the contractor employee health benefit plans. It was found that the Department did not have the policies and procedures necessary to ensure that the health benefit costs met the tests for reasonableness. The audit of $95 million in health benefit costs incurred at six Management and Operating contractors showed that $15.4 million of these costs were excessive compared to national norms.

1994-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

252

Survey of life-cycle costs of glass-paper HEPA filters  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted a survey of the major users of glass-paper HEPA filters in the DOE complex to ascertain the life cycle costs of these filters. Purchase price of the filters is only a minor portion of the costs; the major expenditures are incurred during the removal and disposal of contaminated filters. Through personal interviews, site visits and completion of questionnaires, we have determined the costs associated with the use of HEPA filters in the DOE complex. The total approximate life-cycle cost for a standard (2 in. {times} 2 in. {times} 1 in.) glass-paper HEPA filter is $3,000 for one considered low-level waste (LLW), $11,780 for transuranic (TRU) and $15,000 for high-level waste (HLW). The weighted-average cost for a standard HEPA filter in the complex is $4,753.

Moore, P.; Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gilbert, H. [Gilbert (Humphrey), McLean, VA (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Development of mullite substrates and containers. Silicon sheet growth development for the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar array Project. Quarterly report No. 1, October 6, 1977--November 14, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eight mullite bodies of varied compositions and microstructures have been prepared and are being characterized. These compositions will be submersed in molten silicon to study the impurity and surface effects. These various mullite materials will be analyzed for use as substrates for Honeywell Contract No. 954356, silicon on ceramic program and for use as a container of molten silicon. Low cost processing methods are being developed and evaluated for manufacturing large mullite sheets and mullite containers. At present, a state-of-the-art roll compaction process has shown promising initial results for substrates. However, these 0.5mm x 10cm x 1m are extremely fragile. Slip casting or iso pressing are anticipated for containers.

Wirth, D.G.; Sibold, J.D.

1977-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

254

US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Minimum Changeover Cost Arborescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

having minimum changeover cost, a cost that we now describe. ... We define the changeover cost at j, denoted by d(j), as the sum of the costs at j paid for each of  ...

256

Middle East Production Costs - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Persian Gulf Oil Production Capacity and Development Cost Forecast (without additional development to replace production) Based on Low-Case Weighted Average

257

Electric power substation capital costs  

SciTech Connect

The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Transparent Cost Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transparent Cost Database Transparent Cost Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Transparent Cost Database Agency/Company /Organization: Department of Energy Partner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar, Transportation Topics: Baseline projection, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Resource assessment, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Dataset, Lessons learned/best practices, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Web Application Link: en.openei.org/apps/TCDB/ Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Featured Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/united-states-transparent-cost-databa Language: English The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

259

Heliostat cost reduction study.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Updating MIT's cost estimation model for shipbuilding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis project will update the MIT ship cost estimation model by combining the two existing models (the Basic Military Training School (BMTS) Cost Model and the MIT Math Model) in order to develop a program that can ...

Smith, Matthew B., Lieutenant, junior grade

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

A.M. Gandrik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Research & Development Competitive Awards Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. Past Incubator awardee, Innovalight, is creating high-efficiency, low-cost

263

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Electricity Generation Plants  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This paper provides information on the cost of building new electricity power plants. These cost estimates are critical inputs in the development of energy projections and analyses.

Michael Leff

2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

264

The cost of agriculturally based greenhouse gas offsets in the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The broad objective of this thesis involves investigation of the role agriculture might play in a society wide greenhouse gas emissions reduction effort. Specifically, the breakeven price for carbon emission offsets is calculated for agriculturally based emission reducing practices. The practices investigated in the Texas High Plains involve reduced tillage use, reduced fallow use, reduced crop fertilization, cropland conversion to grassland, feedlot enteric fermentation management and digester based dairy manure handling. Costs of emission reductions were calculated at the producer level. The calculated offset prices are classified into four cost categories. They are: negative cost, low cost (less than $20 per ton of carbon saved), moderate cost ($20 through $100 per ton of carbon saved), and high cost (over $100 for tons of carbon saved). Negative cost implies that farmers could make money and reduce emissions by moving to alternative practices even without any carbon payments. Alternatives in the positive cost categories need compensation to induce farmers to switch to practices that sequester more carbon. All fallow dryland crop practices, dryland and irrigated cotton zero tillage, dryland and irrigated wheat zero tillage, irrigated corn zero tillage, cotton irrigated nitrogen use reduction under minimum tillage and dryland pasture for all systems, and anaerobic lagoon complete mix and plug flow systems fall in the negative cost category. Dryland and irrigated wheat under minimum tillage are found to be in the low cost category. Cotton dryland under minimum tillage and cotton irrigated with nitrogen use reduction under zero tillage fell into the moderate cost class. Both corn and cotton irrigated minimum tillage are found to be in the high cost category. This study only considers the producer foregone net income less fixed costs as the only cost incurred in switching to an alternative sequestering practice. More costs such as learning and risk should probably be included. This limitation along with other constraints such as use of short run budget data, lack of availability and reliability of local budgets, overlooking any market effects, and lack of treatment of costs incurred in selling carbon offsets to buyers are limitations and portend future work.

Chandrasena, Rajapakshage Inoka Ilmi

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Cost Study Manual  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

28, 2012 28, 2012 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a percent of payroll exceeds the comparator group by more than five percent. For example, if per capita benefit costs for the comparator group are $10,000 and the benefit costs as a percent of payroll for the comparator group are 20%, the threshold for the contractor's benefits as a

266

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define program characteristics In a technical baseline description document, identify the program's

267

Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

factors add 20 percent to liquefaction plant total installed cost 6 Distribution Pipeline Costs Collected historical Oil & Gas Journal data, and surveyed for current urban and...

268

Cost | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Cost Home Ocop's picture Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 18 April, 2013 - 13:41 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To normalize competing claims of LCOE, DOE has developed-for its own use-a standardized cost and performance data reporting process to facilitate uniform calculation of LCOE from MHK device developers. This standardization framework is only the first version in what is anticipated to be an iterative process that involves industry and the broader DOE stakeholder community. Multiple files are attached here for review and comment.Upload Files: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document icon device_performance_validation_data_request.docx application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon

269

Capital cost models for geothermal power plants  

SciTech Connect

A computer code, titled GEOCOST, has been developed at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, to rapidly and systematically calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. A description of the cost models in GEOCOST for the geothermal power plants is given here. Plant cost models include the flashed steam and binary systems. The data sources are described, along with the cost data correlations, resulting equations, and uncertainties. Comparison among GEOCOST plant cost estimates and recent A-E estimates are presented. The models are intended to predict plant costs for second and third generation units, rather than the more expensive first-of-a-kind units.

Cohn, P.D.; Bloomster, C.H.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Updated Costs for Decommissioning Nuclear Power Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This update of 1978 NRC cost estimates--in 1984 dollars--also estimates the costs of several special manpower and licensing options for decommissioning nuclear power facilities. The fully developed methodology offers utilities a sound basis on which to estimate the costs of decommissioning specific plants.

1985-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

271

Highly Insulating Windows - Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Cost The following is an estimate of the cost effective incremental cost of highly-insulating windows (U-factor=0.20 Btu/hr-ft2-F) compared to regular ENERGY STAR windows (U-factor 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F). Energy savings from lower U-factors were simulated with RESFEN over an assumed useful window life of 25 years. To determine the maximum incremental cost at which highly-insulating windows would still be cost-effective, we used a formula used by many utility companies to calculate the cost of saved energy from energy efficiency programs, based on the programs' cost and savings. We turned this formula around so that the cost of saved energy equals the present energy prices in the studied locations, whereas the program cost (the incremental cost of the windows) is the dependent variable. By entering 5%

272

Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hybrid incremental cost estimates were developed based onsizing . Final incremental cost estimates ranged from $1,786Energy Savings Estimates and Cost Benefit Calculations for

Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Biomass Power Project Cost Analysis Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of biomass power projects presents a variety of challenges that result in high capital costs associated with developing, engineering, procuring, constructing, and operating biomass power projects. Although projects that rely on more homogeneous fuels such as natural gas must still account for site-specific issues when estimating development and construction costs, the complexities are not comparable.Recognizing the difficulties in estimating the capital costs for ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

274

Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hide data for this chart (-)Show data for this chart (+) Loading data... Transparent Cost Database Generation Showing: Historical Projections Year Published: Release mouse to...

275

NETL: News Release - Favorable Supplies, Costs, Environmental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

environmental and cost profiles in comparison to other energy sources. The development of shale gas and other unconventional natural gas wells requires the use of technologies that...

276

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating...

277

Development of Low Cost Membranes (Ta, Nb & Cellulose Acetate) for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Separation in WGS Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The main aim of this work is to synthesize low temperature bimetallic nanocatalysts for Water Gas Shift reaction (WGS) for hydrogen production from CO and steam mixture; and develop low-cost metal (Nb/Ta)/ceramic membranes for H{sub 2} separation and Cellulose Acetate membranes for CO{sub 2} separation. Cu-Ni-Ce/alumina, Fe-Ni-Ce/alumina granular WGS catalysts incorporating metal oxide nanoparticles into alumina support were prepared using sol-gel/oil-drop methods. The catalysts were characterized by Powder X-ray Diffractometer (PXRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA), Thermal Gravitational Analyzer (TGA), and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) techniques. TGA shows sharp weight loss at approximately 215°C and DTA shows dehydration of metal hydroxides between 200°C and 250°C. The PXRD spectra show an increase in crystallinity as a result of heating to 1000°C, and indicating a fine dispersion of the metal oxide nanoparticles in alumina supports during the sol-gel synthesis and calcination at 450°C. BET analysis indicated a mesoporous structure of the granules with high surface area. A gas-phase dynamic flow reactor is used to optimize the reaction temperatures. A gas-phase batch reactor was used to obtain kinetic data and the parameters for maximum CO conversion. In Cu-Ni-Ce/alumina category, Cu(0%)Ni(10%)Ce(11%) was found to be the best WGS catalyst among six Low Temperature Shift (LTS) catalysts with optimum temperatures between 200-300�°C, while Ni(5%)Cu(5%)Ce(11%) was found to be the best among four High Temperature Shift (HTS) catalysts with optimum temperature between 350-400°C. In the Fe-Ni-Ce/alumina category catalysts, Fe(8%)Ni(0%)Ce(8%)/alumina and Fe(6%)Ni(2%)Ce(8%)/alumina catalysts showed optimum WGS reaction temperature below 150°C. All Ni(8-x%)Fe(x%)Ce(8%) had lower WGS reaction efficiencies compared to Ni(8-x%)Cu(x%)Ce(8%). Metal (Nb or Ta)/ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation from the WGS reaction gas products have been prepared using a) sputtering and b) aluminothermic techniques. A polyvinyl-glass permeability tester was used with a gas chromatograph (GC) for H{sub 2}/CO permeability testing. Nb films showed a higher permeability than Ta at a given disk porosity. The aluminothermically deposited membranes have higher H{sub 2} permeability compared to the sputtered films, and Nb-film coated disks showed lower H{sub 2} permeability than Ta-film. A three-stage prototype stainless steel reactor with integrated housing for 1) WGS reaction catalysts, 2) H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation metal/ceramic or metal/asbestos membranes, and 3) CO/CO{sub 2} separation cellulose acetate /filter-paper membranes has been designed and tested to have capabilities to perform WGS reactions at temperatures up to 400°C and withstand gas pressures up to 15 bars. The cracking of ceramic disks and gas leaks were successfully prevented by replacing ceramic disks with asbestos sheets that can easily withstand 400°C. Kinetic studies of H{sub 2} and CO permeabilities were performed through the single and double layer Nb and Ta membranes. Cellulose acetate (CA) films with 25% triethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticizer were prepared for H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} gas separation with varying thickness of the films by acetone solutions at different concentrations and by dip-coating onto filter papers. The AFM analysis of the CA membrane showed that the uniform coating had fewer and smaller pores as the film thickness increased, and corroborated by gas permeability studies. The CO{sub 2} permeability has decreased faster than CO permeability with the CA/TEC membrane thickness, and findings support that the CA membrane could be used to entrap CO{sub 2}. Several CA/TEC membranes were also staked to increase the separation efficiency. Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS) was used to estimate the micro-porosity (pore size and concentration) and fractional free volume changes of CA/TEC films, and used to understand the variations observed in the CO{sub 2}/CO permeabilities.

Naidu Seetala; Upali Siriwardane

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

278

Early Station Costs Questionnaire  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Early Station Costs Questionnaire Early Station Costs Questionnaire Marc Melaina Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center Market Readiness Workshop February 16-17th, 2011 Washington, DC Questionnaire Goals * The Early Station Costs questionnaire provides an anonymous mechanism for organizations with direct experience with hydrogen station costs to provide feedback on current costs, near-term costs, economies of scale, and R&D priorities. * This feedback serves the hydrogen community and government agencies by increasing awareness of the status of refueling infrastructure costs National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Questions for Market Readiness Workshop Attendees * Are these questions the right ones to be asking?

279

Cost objective PLM and CE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during the progression of the project of product development.

Nicolas Perry; Alain Bernard

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

280

Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications  

SciTech Connect

Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on (1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and (2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District{close_quote}s Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G. [Utility Power Group, 9410 G De Soto Avenue, Chatsworth, California 91311 (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Standardized Cost Structure for the Environmental Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The underlying key to developing successful estimates, tracking project costs, and utilizing historical project cost information is the development of standardized and well-defined hierarchical listing of cost categories. Committees within the U.S. Federal agencies have pioneered efforts toward developing the Environmental Cost Element Structure (ECES), which is key in achieving these goals. The ECES was developed using an iterative process with input from federal agencies and industry. Experts from several disciplines participated including engineers, cost estimators, project/program managers, and contract personnel. The ECES benefits from an intense analytical effort, the knowledge gained from the maturation of the environmental industry, and incorporation of past user's experiences. Building upon this foundation, the E06 committee of the ASTM International has now fully developed and published a standard (ASTM 2150-04) that provides standardized cost categories with complete cost category definitions. This standard affords environmental and nuclear D and D project managers the opportunity to have a well defined hierarchical listing of their estimates and actual costs, readily adapted to performing summations and roll-ups, supported by a multi-level dictionary specifically defining the content of the cost elements as well as the summations. Owing to the dynamic nature of the environmental technologies, efforts need to be made to continue to update this standard by adding new technologies and methods as they are developed and employed in the field. Lastly, the Environmental Cost Element Structure that is embodied in this standard also presents opportunities to develop historical cost databases and comprehensive life cycle cost estimates and standardized cost estimating tools. (authors)

Skokan, B.; Melamed, D.; Guevara, K. [US DOE, Office of Project Planning and Controls, EM-32, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Mallick, P. [US DOE, Office of Performance Assessment, EM-43, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Bierman, G. [Legin Group, Inc., P.O. Box 3788, Gaithersburg, MD 20885-3788 (United States); Marshall, H.E. [Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8603, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8603 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Development of Large High-Voltage PV Modules with Improved Reliability and Lower Cost: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2006--31 August 2007  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective was to provide NREL with technical results that enhance its capability to improve PV manufacturing technology by developing a PV module with specified characteristics.

Wohlgemuth, J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Additives for Reducing CO 2 Capture Costs Yang Li Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Presented at 2013 NETL CO 2 Capture Technology Meeting July 8-11, 2013 Lawrence...

284

The Effect of Transaction Costs on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation for Agriculture and Forestry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate change and its mitigation is rapidly becoming an item of social concern. Climate change mitigation involves reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations through emissions reduction and or sequestration enhancement (collectively called offsets). Many have asked how agriculture and forestry can participate in mitigation efforts. Given that over 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions arise from the energy sector, the role of agriculture and forestry depends critically on the costs of the offsets they can achieve in comparison with offset costs elsewhere in the economy. A number of researchers have examined the relative offset costs but have generally looked only at producer level costs. However there are also costs incurred when implementing, selling and conveying offset credits to a buyer. Also when commodities are involved like bioenergy feedstocks, the costs of readying these for use in implementing an offset strategy need to be reflected. This generally involves the broadly defined category of transaction costs. This dissertation examines the possible effects of transactions costs and storage costs for bioenergy commodities and how they affect the agriculture and forestry portfolio of mitigation strategies across a range of carbon dioxide equivalent prices. The model is used to simulate the effects with and without transactions and storage costs. Using an agriculture and forestry sector model called FASOMGHG, the dissertation finds that consideration of transactions and storage costs reduces the agricultural contribution total mitigation and changes the desirable portfolio of alternatives. In terms of the portfolio, transactions costs inclusion diminishes the desirability of soil sequestration and forest management while increasing the bioenergy and afforestation role. Storage costs diminish the bioenergy role and favor forest and sequestration items. The results of this study illustrate that transactions and storage costs are important considerations in policy and market design when addressing the reduction of greenhouse gas concentrations in climate change related decision making.

Kim, Seong Woo

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.

K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Operations Cost Allocation Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms OCP Cost Allocation Spreadsheets OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation - Questions and Answers - September 19 - 20, 2011 Additional Questions and Answers Customer Comments/Questions and Answers: Arizona Municipal Power Users Association Arizona Power Authority Central Arizona Project Colorado River Commission Colorado River Energy Distributors Association City of Gilbert, AZ Irrigation and Electrical Districts Association of Arizona Town of Marana, AZ City of Mesa, AZ Town of Wickenburg, AZ Western's Final Decision Regarding the Long-Term Cost Allocation Methodology for Operations Staff Costs

287

Minimum Cost Arborescences ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze the cost allocation problem when a group of agents or nodes have to be connected to a source, and where the cost matrix describing the cost of connecting each pair of agents is not necessarily symmetric, thus extending the well-studied problem of minimum cost spanning tree games, where the costs are assumed to be symmetric. The focus is on rules which satisfy axioms representing incentive and fairness properties. We show that while some results are similar, there are also significant differences between the frameworks corresponding to symmetric and asymmetric cost matrices.

Bhaskar Dutta; Debasis Mishra; We Thank Daniel Granot; Anirban Kar; Herve Moulin For Comments

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

289

Documents: Cost Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Search Documents: Search PDF Documents View a list of all documents Cost Analysis PDF Icon Summary of the Cost Analysis Report for the Long-term Management of Depleted UF6...

290

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs U.S. Petroleum Use, 1970-2010 Nearly 40% of the oil we use is imported, costing us roughly 300 billion annually. Increased domestic oil production from...

291

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Presented by: J.M. Hieb, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company CHPRC1204-04 Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Everyone is trying to stretch a...

292

Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the electricity generated by the power reactors that have produced the waste. Of course, the current international situation is that no nation is currently willing to take any radioactive waste from another nation for deep disposal. This means that every nation will ultimately need to develop its own deep repository. This makes no sense, however--many nations have only a modest amount of waste, or do not have appropriate geological settings for a repository, or both. Ultimately, the need for one or more multi-national or international repositories will emerge, although so far this has not happened.

Budnitz, R J

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

293

DC Drive Ride-Through Technology Alternatives and Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adjustable speed drive (ASD) ride-through issues have caused increased concerns due to drive susceptibility to power disturbances and the costly results of process disruptions. Losses incurred due to DC drive trips can be avoided for critical production processes by employing ride-through alternatives. The purpose of this study is to determine the DC drive ride-through requirements of industrial customers and match those ride-through needs with possible solutions.

1998-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cost Estimation Recommendations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...D.P. Hoult and C.L. Meador, Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

295

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Low-cost CuInSe{sub 2} submodule development. Final subcontract report, 9 July 1990--31 January 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aim of this project is development and demonstration of processing steps necessary for fabrication of high efficiency CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells and sub-modules by the two-stage technique (also called the selenization method.) During this period, we have optimized the processing parameters of this method and demonstrated CuInSe{sub 2}/CdS/ZnO devices with a 1{endash}4 cm{sup 2} area and up to 12.4% active area efficiency. We have also developed a novel approach for the preparation of Cu/In precursors that improved the stoichiometric and morphological uniformity in these films. We have developed processing steps and tooling for handling up to 1 ft{sup 2} size substrates and as a result of these efforts demonstrated our first monolithically integrated sub-module of 1 ft{sup 2} area. 16 figs, 1 tab, 15 refs.

Basol, B.M.; Kapur, V.K.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. [International Solar Electric Technology, Inglewood, CA (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Dataset Summary Description The calculator provides information on the assumptions behind foodborne illness cost estimates and gives you a chance to make your own assumptions and calculate your own cost estimates. This interactive web-based tool allows users to estimate the cost of illness due to specific foodborne pathogens. The updated ERS cost estimate for Shiga-toxin producing E. coli O157 (STEC O157) was added to the Calculator in spring, 2008. Calculator users can now review and change the assumptions behind the ERS cost estimates for either STEC O157 or Salmonella. The assumptions that can be modified include the annual number of cases, the distribution of cases by severity, the use or costs of medical care, the amount or value of time lost from work, the costs of premature death, and the disutility costs for nonfatal cases. Users can also update the cost estimate for inflation for any year from 1997 to 2007.

298

High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development. Quarterly technical progress and schedule report for the period ending December 31, 1980. CDRL 4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The scope of the contract covers the development and evaluation of forming solar cell collector grid contacts by the MIDFILM process. This is a proprietary process developed by the Ferro Corporation which is a subcontractor for the program. The MIDFILM process attains line resolution characteristics of photoresist methods with processing related to screen printing. The surface to be processed is first coated with a thin layer of photoresist material. Upon exposure to ultraviolet light through a suitable mask, the resist in the non-pattern area cross-links and becomes hard. The unexposed pattern areas remain tacky. The conductor material is applied in the form of a dry mixture of metal and frit particles which adher to the tacky pattern area. The assemblage is then fired to ash the photo-polymer and sinter the fritted conductor powder. Progress is reported. (WHK)

Garcia, A.

1981-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

299

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHASTAN: USING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY-PRODUCT SULFUR FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SECONDARY END-USE PRODUCTS.  

SciTech Connect

The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for by-product sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a low-value industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The research and development to deploy Kazakhstan recycled sulfur for secondary applications described in this paper is being conducted with support from the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (DOE IPP).

KALB, P.D.; VAGIN, S.; BEALL, P.W.; LEVINTOV, B.L.

2004-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

300

Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated PV Systems: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-239  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this CRADA, NREL's Silicon group members performed the following research activities: (1) investigation of the role of hydrogen in growth of a mixed-phase nc-Si:H/a-Si:H material; (2) role of hydrogen in light-induced degradation of a-Si:H and development of Staebler-Wronski effect resistive a-Si:H; and (3) performing characterizations of UniSolar's a-Si:H and nc-Si materials, with goal to help optimizing large-area uniformity and quality of the UniSolar's nanocrystalline Si:H.

Stradins, P.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction  

SciTech Connect

The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

Zotos, G. [Division of Business Studies, Dept. of Economics, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karagiannidis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Zampetoglou, S. [Municipal Development Company of Kalamaria, GR-55132 (Greece); Malamakis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: amalama@aix.meng.auth.gr; Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Tchobanoglous, G. [Department of civil and environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Low Cost High Efficiency InP-Based Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-344  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL will develop a method of growing and fabricating single junction InP solar cells on 2-inch InP substrates on which a release layer has been deposited by MicroLink Devices. NREL will transfer to MicroLink the details of the InP solar cell layer structure and test results in order that the 2-inch results can be replicated on 4-inch InP substrates. NREL will develop a method of growing and fabricating single junction InP solar cells, including a metamorphic layer, on 2-inch GaAs substrates on which a release layer has been deposited by MicroLink Devices. NREL will transfer to MicroLink the details of the InP solar cell layer structure and test results in order that the 2-inch results can be replicated on 6-inch GaAs substrates. NREL will perform characterization measurements of the solar cells, including I-V and quantum efficiency measurements at AM1.5 1-sun.

Wanlass, M.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

NETL: Turbine Projects - Cost Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Reduction Cost Reduction Turbine Projects Cost Reduction Single Crystal Turbine Blades Enhancing Gas Turbine Efficiency Data/Fact Sheets Enabling and Information Technologies to Increase RAM of Advanced Powerplants Data/Fact Sheets Development of NDE Technology for Environmental Barrier Coating and Residual Life Estimation Data/Fact Sheets Welding and Weld Repair of Single Crystal Gas Turbine Alloy Data/Fact Sheets Combustion Turbine Hot Section Coating Life Management Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating [PDF] Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle RAM Data/Fact Sheets Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine [PDF]

304

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution  

SciTech Connect

A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

Not Available

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Cost Study for Large Wind Turbine Blades  

SciTech Connect

The cost study for large wind turbine blades reviewed three blades of 30 meters, 50 meters, and 70 meters in length. Blade extreme wind design loads were estimated in accordance with IEC Class I recommendations. Structural analyses of three blade sizes were performed at representative spanwise stations assuming a stressed shell design approach and E-glass/vinylester laminate. A bill of materials was prepared for each of the three blade sizes using the laminate requirements prepared during the structural analysis effort. The labor requirements were prepared for twelve major manufacturing tasks. TPI Composites developed a conceptual design of the manufacturing facility for each of the three blade sizes, which was used for determining the cost of labor and overhead (capital equipment and facilities). Each of the three potential manufacturing facilities was sized to provide a constant annual rated power production (MW per year) of the blades it produced. The cost of the production tooling and overland transportation was also estimated. The results indicate that as blades get larger, materials become a greater proportion of total cost, while the percentage of labor cost is decreased. Transportation costs decreased as a percentage of total cost. The study also suggests that blade cost reduction efforts should focus on reducing material cost and lowering manufacturing labor, because cost reductions in those areas will have the strongest impact on overall blade cost.

ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

FY 1996 cost savings report  

SciTech Connect

Cost savings are an integral part of Hanford site operations. Congressional actions towards establishing a balanced budget have resulted in reductions to funding for all federal agencies, including the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission. In September 1994 the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) approved the FY 1995 multi-year baseline that included a cost estimate of $1.9 billion for FY 1996. However, Congress only appropriated $1.3 billion for that year. The shortfall of $600 million resulted in a significant challenge to accomplish the required workscope. Therefore, RL initiated an aggressive cost savings program to eliminate the shortfall by deleting workscope that was unnecessary and performing the remaining workscope more efficiently. RL initiated baseline planning actions (including deletions, deferrals, transfers, and additions) during the FY 1996 multi-year baseline development process to match workscope and anticipated funding and identified $205 million of workscope deletions. CFR (Contract Finance and Review Division) then reviewed over 200 cost baseline change requests during FY 1996 and documented an additional $95 million of FY 1996 cost savings. This included $73 million of workscope deletions and $22 million of efficiencies. Total savings as a result of FY 1996 initiatives, including baseline planning actions and current year initiatives, were $300 million.

Andrews-Smith, K.L.

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. 25242 Arctic Ocean Drive Lake Forest, CA 92630 Phone: (949) 399-4584 Email: mleavitt@qtww.com DOE Managers HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov GO: Jesse Adams Phone: (720) 356-1421 Email: Jesse.Adams@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-08GO18055 Subcontractors: * Boeing Research and Technology, Seattle, WA * Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA Project Start Date: September 1, 2008 Project End Date: March 31, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV

309

Low cost MCFC anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.

Erickson, D.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

What solar heating costs  

SciTech Connect

Few people know why solar energy systems cost what they do. Designers and installers know what whole packages cost, but rarely how much goes to piping, how much for labor and how much for the collectors. Yet one stands a better chance of controlling costs if one can compare where the money is going against where it should be going. A detailed Tennessee Valley Authority study of large solar projects shows how much each component contributes to the total bill.

Adams, J.A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Cost analysis guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

Strait, R.S.

1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

312

CAES Updated Cost Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems (CAES) for bulk energy storage applications have been receiving renewed interest. Increased penetration of large quantities of intermittent wind generation are requiring utilities to re-examine the cost and value of CAES systems. New second generation CAES cycles have been identified which offer the potential for lower capital and operating costs. This project was undertaken to update and summarize the capital and operating costs and performance features of second ge...

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

313

NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Target Cost Management Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

Okano, Hiroshi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Cost Affordable Titanium IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Enhancing the Cost Effectiveness of High Performance Titanium Alloy Component Production by Powder Metallurgy · Evolution of Texture in ...

316

Petroleum well costs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This is the first academic study of well costs and drilling times for Australia?s petroleum producing basins, both onshore and offshore. I analyse a substantial… (more)

Leamon, Gregory Robert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

COST REVIEW and ESTIMATING  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Programming Guide. OMB Circular A-94, Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs, dated October 29, 1992 Page | 41 APPENDIX A ICRICE...

318

The Cost of Debt ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimate firm-specific marginal cost of debt functions for a large panel of companies between 1980 and 2007. The marginal cost curves are identified by exogenous variation in the marginal tax benefits of debt. The location of a given company’s cost of debt function varies with characteristics such as asset collateral, size, book-to-market, asset tangibility, cash flows, and whether the firm pays dividends. By integrating the area between benefit and cost functions we estimate that the equilibrium net benefit of debt is 3.5 % of asset value, resulting from an estimated gross benefit of debt of 10.4 % of asset value and an estimated cost of debt of 6.9%. We find that the cost of being overlevered is asymmetrically higher than the cost of being underlevered and that expected default costs constitute approximately half of the total ex ante cost of debt. We thank Rick Green (the Acting Editor), and an anonymous referee, Heitor Almeida, Ravi Bansal,

Jules H. Van Binsbergen; John R. Graham; Jie Yang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

320

Reducing Energy Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy expense is becoming increasingly dominant in the operating costs of high-performance computing (HPC) systems. At the same time, electricity prices vary significantly at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Government Accountability Office is responsible for, among other things, assisting the Congress in its oversight of the federal government, including agencies ’ stewardship of public funds. To use public funds effectively, the government must meet the demands of today’s changing world by employing effective management practices and processes, including the measurement of government program performance. In addition, legislators, government officials, and the public want to know whether government programs are achieving their goals and what their costs are. To make those evaluations, reliable cost information is required and federal standards have been issued for the cost accounting that is needed to prepare that information. 1 We developed the Cost Guide in order to establish a consistent methodology that is based on best practices and that can be used across the federal government for developing, managing, and evaluating capital program cost estimates. For the purposes of this guide, a cost estimate is the summation of individual cost elements, using established methods and valid data, to estimate the future costs of a program, based on what is known today. 2 The management of a cost estimate involves continually updating the estimate with actual data as they become available, revising the estimate to reflect changes, and analyzing differences between estimated and actual costs—for example, using data from a reliable earned value management (EVM) system. 3 The ability to generate reliable cost estimates is a critical function, necessary to support the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) capital programming process. 4 Without this ability, agencies are at risk of experiencing cost overruns, missed deadlines, and performance shortfalls—all recurring problems that our program assessments too often reveal. Furthermore, cost increases often mean that the government

Best Practices For Developing

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Pollution prevention cost savings potential  

SciTech Connect

The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

Celeste, J.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Heat exchanger-ingot casting/slicing process. Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Eighth quarterly progress report, July 1, 1977--September 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Graded crucibles have been developed which are dense enough to avoid penetration of the molten silicon and weak enough to fracture during the cool-down cycle. These crucibles have been used to cast crack-free silicon ingots up to 3.3 kg. Significant progress has been made in the crystallinity of the samples cast. Solar cells made from one of the ingots have yielded over 9% conversion efficiency. The source of silicon carbide in the cast silicon has been identified, both theoretically and experimentally, to be associated with the use of graphite retainers in contact with the crucible. Both 45 ..mu..m and 30 ..mu..m diamonds can be used for efficient slicing of silicon. Wafers sliced with 45 ..mu..m diamond plated wire show a surface roughness of +-0.5 ..mu..m and extent of damage of 3 ..mu..m. In an effort to avoid diamond pullout from impregnated wire it was found that a layer of 0.3 mil thick plating is sufficient to encapsulate the diamonds. A projected cost analysis has shown that the add-on cost of casting and slicing of silicon is $11.57 per square meter.

Schmid, F.; Khattak, C.P.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Cost Reduction Strategies for Mixed Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential for generating mixed waste is a reality at all nuclear power plants. The report provides utilities with a means for developing cost reduction strategies to minimize the volume of waste generated, optimize treatment and disposal options, and maximize overall cost savings.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

325

Automotive System Cost Modeling Tool (ASCM)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technology vehicles (i.e., diesel, hybrid, and fuel cell) developed for improved fuel economy remains either be done through Argonne National laboratory's hybrid vehicle cost model algorithm (adapted the Tool Can Help Answer · What is the life cycle cost of today's midsize hybrid vehicle? · How does

326

Comparing cost prediction models by resampling techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate software cost prediction is a research topic that has attracted much of the interest of the software engineering community during the latest decades. A large part of the research efforts involves the development of statistical models based ... Keywords: Accuracy measure, Bootstrap, Confidence interval, Permutation test, Software cost estimation

Nikolaos Mittas; Lefteris Angelis

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Aerogel commercialization: Technology, markets and costs  

SciTech Connect

Commercialization of aerogels has been slow due to several factors including cost and manufacturability issues. The technology itself is well enough developed as a result of work over the past decade by an international-community of researchers. Several extensive substantial markets appear to exist for aerogels as thermal and sound insulators, if production costs can keep prices in line with competing established materials. The authors discuss here the elements which they have identified as key cost drivers, and they give a prognosis for the evolution of the technology leading to reduced cost aerogel production.

Carlson, G.; Lewis, D.; McKinley, K.; Richardson, J.; Tillotson, T.

1994-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

328

U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ''U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries'' (NUREG/CR-6577, Supp. 2) report has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants during 2000-2001. Costs incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, which represent fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications, which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operations summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from operating reports submitted by the licensees, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) database for enforcement actions, and outage reports.

Reid, RL

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

329

Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Available...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Available to US Manufacturers for Market Development and Demonstration Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is making available market development quantities...

330

Lookin g for data personnel costs, indirect costs, equipment costs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Negotiating Group Question/Answer Sessions November 19, 2009 Q: What happens now? A: The negotiation process starts tomorrow [November 20, 2009], when DOE will be sending the Awardees an e-mail with information about which website to go to for clarification and direction, information from the Office of Civil Rights, and answers to some of the questions that came up in the meeting. DOE will be gathering information about the questions concerning cyber requirements, metrics, and reporting requirements and will be getting back to the awardees about those issues the week after Thanksgiving. We have done a review of the budgets, and emails will be sent giving opportunities to address any issues. We will also re-review technical and cost proposals.

331

Cost and benefit of energy efficient buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A common misconception among developers and policy-makers is that "sustainable buildings" may not be financially justified. However, this report strives to show that building green is cost-effective and does make financial ...

Zhang, Wenying, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Cost Development Guidelines Table of Contents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table of Contents..................................................................................................... ii Table of Exhibits...................................................................................................... v Approval.................................................................................................................. vi

unknown authors

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Development of Low Cost Titanium Matrix Composite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 1, 2004... excellent wear resistance for an alpha-beta Ti-6A1-4V matrix MMC comparable to that for Stellite No.6 a well known wear-resistant material.

334

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- CREST Cost of Renewable Energy...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

CREST Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool: A Model for Developing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; User Manual Version 4, August 2009 - March 2011 (Updated July...

335

Analytic framework for TRL-based cost and schedule models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many government agencies have adopted the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale to help improve technology development management under ever increasing cost, schedule, and complexity constraints. Many TRL-based cost and ...

El-Khoury, Bernard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Solicitation to Address High Purchase Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Solicitation to Address High Purchase Costs and Disposal Impacts of PEV Battery Packs PON-12-501 http://www.energy.ca.gov/contracts/index.html State of California California.......................................................................................... 19 COST OF DEVELOPING APPLICATION

337

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objectives · Overall Objective: Develop lower cost metal bipolar plates to meet performance target and 2015 cost target (usage Electrical Conductivity S /cm >100 >100 Resistivity ohm.cm 25

338

APT cost scaling: Preliminary indications from a Parametric Costing Model (PCM)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Parametric Costing Model has been created and evaluate as a first step in quantitatively understanding important design options for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) concept. This model couples key economic and technical elements of APT in a two-parameter search of beam energy and beam power that minimizes costs within a range of operating constraints. The costing and engineering depth of the Parametric Costing Model is minimal at the present {open_quotes}entry level{close_quotes}, and is intended only to demonstrate a potential for a more-detailed, cost-based integrating design tool. After describing the present basis of the Parametric Costing Model and giving an example of a single parametric scaling run derived therefrom, the impacts of choices related to resistive versus superconducting accelerator structures and cost of electricity versus plant availability ({open_quotes}load curve{close_quotes}) are reported. Areas of further development and application are suggested.

Krakowski, R.A.

1995-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

339

Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

340

Aquifer thermal energy storage costs with a seasonal heat source.  

SciTech Connect

The cost of energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system from a seasonal heat source was investigated. This investigation considers only the storage of energy from a seasonal heat source. Cost estimates are based upon the assumption that all of the energy is stored in the aquifer before delivery to the end user. Costs were estimated for point demand, residential development, and multidistrict city ATES systems using the computer code AQUASTOR which was developed specifically for the economic analysis of ATES systems. In this analysis the cost effect of varying a wide range of technical and economic parameters was examined. Those parameters exhibiting a substantial influence on ATES costs were: cost of purchased thermal energy; cost of capital; source temperature; system size; transmission distance; and aquifer efficiency. ATES-delivered energy costs are compared with the costs of hot water heated by using electric power or fuel-oils. ATES costs are shown as a function of purchased thermal energy. Both the potentially low delivered energy costs available from an ATES system and its strong cost dependence on the cost of purchased thermal energy are shown. Cost components for point demand and multi-district city ATES systems are shown. Capital and thermal energy costs dominate. Capital costs, as a percentage of total costs, increase for the multi-district city due to the addition of a large distribution system. The proportion of total cost attributable to thermal energy would change dramatically if the cost of purchased thermal energy were varied. It is concluded that ATES-delivered energy can be cost competitive with conventional energy sources under a number of economic and technical conditions. This investigation reports the cost of ATES under a wide range of assumptions concerning parameters important to ATES economics. (LCL)

Reilly, R.W.; Brown, D.R.; Huber, H.D.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

cost | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cost cost Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

342

Vehicle Cost Calculator  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

343

COSTS OF NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

The discussion on the costs of nuclear power from stationary plants, designed primarily for the generation of electricity. deals with those plants in operation, being built, or being designed for construction at an early date. An attempt is made to consider the power costs on the basis of consistent definitions and assumptions for the various nuclear plants and for comparable fossil-fuel plants. Information on several new power reactor projects is included. (auth)

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Chemical Additives for Reducing CO 2 Capture Costs Yang Li Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Presented at 2013 NETL CO 2 Capture Technology Meeting July 8-11, 2013 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley Lab at a Glance 13 - Nobel Laureates; 55 - Nobel Laureates trained here; 13 - National Medal of Science members; 900 - University students trained each year; 4,200 - Employees; 202 - Site acreage Bringing Science Solutions to the World Research areas Climate Change and Environmental Sciences Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Energy Biological Sciences for Energy Research and Health Computational Science and Networking Matter and Force in the Universe Soft X-Ray Science for Discovery Project Status * Funding: DOE $ 1,250 K * Project period: 6/1/08 - 5/31/13 * Participants: Ted Chang - PI Participants: Y. Li - Chemist Project Scientist/Engr Participants: C. Y. Liao -

346

Heat exchanger-ingot casting/slicing process. Silicon sheet growth development for the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Final report, Phase I, November 20, 1975--November 20, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proof of concept for silicon casting by the Heat Exchanger Method has been established. One of the major hurdles of ingot cracking has been eliminated with the development of graded crucibles. Such crucibles are compatible with the casting process in that the integrity of the container is maintained at high temperature; however, during the cool-down cycle the crucible fails, thereby leaving a crack-free boule. The controlled growth, heat-flow and cool-down has yielded silicon with a high degree of single crystallinity. Even when the seed melted out, very large grains formed. Solar cell samples made from cast material have yielded conversion efficiency of over 9% (AMI). Representative characterizations of silicon grown has demonstrated a dislocation density of less than 100/cm/sup 2/ and a minority carrier diffusion length of 31 ..mu..m. Excellent surface quality, i.e., surface smoothness and 3 to 5 ..mu..m surface damage, was achieved by multiple wire slicing with fixed diamond abrasive. To achieve this, the silicon workpiece was non-synchronously rocked to produce a radial cut profile and minimize wire contact length. Wire wander was reduced an order of magnitude over the original results by supporting and guiding the wires with grooved rollers. Commercially available impregnated wires that were used failed due to diamond pull-out. Plating after impregnation or electroplating diamonds directly on the core minimized diamond pull-out and corresponding loss in cutting effectiveness. Tungsten wire was the best core material tested because of its high strength, high Young's modulus, and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. A lighter and longer blade carriage can be used for slicing with wire. This will allow the blade carriage to be reciprocated more rapidly to increase the surface speed. A projected add-on cost calculation shows that these methods will yield silicon for solar cell applications within ERDA/JPL cost goals.

Schmid, F; Khattak, C P

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:25am Addthis After determining the best greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction strategies using renewable energy, a Federal agency should estimate the cost of implementing them in a building or buildings. There are several cost factors that need to be considered when developing a renewable energy project. Capital costs, fixed and variable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs and in the case of biomass and waste-to-energy projects, fuel costs all contribute to the total cost of operating a renewable energy system. The levelized system cost takes into account these

348

Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes US Department of Energy Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Kickoff Meeting, Washington DC, February 13, 2007 Michel Fouré Project Objectives z To develop a low cost (vs. perfluorosulfonated ionomers), durable membrane. z To develop a membrane capable at 80°C at low relative humidity (25-50%). z To develop a membrane capable of operating at 120°C for brief periods of time. z To elucidate membrane degradation and failure mechanisms. U:jen/slides/pres.07/FC kickoff Washington DC 2-13-07 2 Technical Barriers Addressed z Membrane Cost z Membrane Durability z Membrane capability to operate at low relative humidity. z Membrane capability to operate at 120ºC for brief period of times.

349

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: The outlook for heating oil costs this winter, due to high crude oil costs and tight heating oil supplies, breaks down to an expected increase in heating expenditures for a typical oil-heated household of more than $200 this winter, the result of an 18% increase in the average price and an 11% increase in consumption. The consumption increase is due to the colder than normal temperatures experienced so far this winter and our expectations of normal winter weather for the rest of this heating season. Last winter, Northeast heating oil (and diesel fuel) markets experienced an extremely sharp spike in prices when a severe weather situation developed in late January. It is virtually impossible to gauge the probability of a similar (or worse) price shock recurring this winter,

350

PRISM 2.0: Regional Energy and Economic Model Development and Initial Application: Phase 2: Electric Sector CO2 Reduction Options to 2050: Dimensions of Technology, Energy Costs, and Environmental Scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI conducted an analysis of electric sector CO2 reduction options to 2050 across a range of scenarios covering dimensions of technology costs and availability, energy costs, and CO2 constraints.  Using its U.S. Regional Economy, Greenhouse Gas, and Energy (US-REGEN) model, EPRI calculated the impact of changes in generation portfolio, generation capacity, expenditures, and electricity prices on power sector costs. This analysis estimates different levels of ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

351

Marginal cost of electricity 1980-1995: an approximation based on the cost of new coal and nuclear generating plants  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of the costs of new coal and nuclear base-load generating capacity which is either currently under construction or planned by utilities to meet their load-growth expectations during the period from 1980 to 1995. These capacity cost estimates are used in conjunction with announced plant capacities and commercial-operation dates to develop state-level estimates of busbar costs of electricity. From these projected busbar costs, aggregated estimates of electricity costs at the retail level are developed for DOE Regions. The introductory chapter explains the rationale for using the cost of electricity from base-load plants to approximate the marginal cost of electricity. The next major section of the report outlines the methodology and major assumptions used. This is followed by a detailed description of the empirical analysis, including the equations used for each of the cost components. The fourth section presents the resultant marginal cost estimates.

Nieves, L.A.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Emery, J.C.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Economic analysis of geothermal energy costs  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the computer program, GEOCOST, and its application to some analyses of the economics of geothermal energy. GEOCOST combines both technical and economic factors into one systematic cost accounting framework. The program, which simulates production of electricity from most types of geothermal resources, is composed of two parts: a reservoir model which simulates the costs associated with the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir; and a power-plant model which simulates the costs associated with the design, construction, and operation of the power plant. The costs from the reservoir model become the energy supply costs to the power plant. The combined reservoir and power plant models represent the complete energy production system. (LBS)

Bloomster, C.H.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Development of advanced methods for continuous Czochralski growth. Silicon sheet growth development for the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Third quarterly progress report, March 18--July 14, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Six batch melt-replenishment runs were performed. In the most recent, five crystals were grown with a total through-put of 48 kg. In addition to its stated purpose of developing the growth and recharge process for continuous silicon production, this experimentation has served to prove completely both the concept of charging with granular (viz., niblet) feed and the design of the pellet-feeder/isolation-lock assembly. The design of the prototype Czochralski puller was begun on schedule. Layouts of all major components have been prepared, and detailing is currently in progress; bills of material for long-delivery items were released to Manufacturing in June. Two critical components have already undergone advance trials: the recharging mechanism, which has been in use for four months, and the crystal lift mechanism, which has been bench-tested and is to be mounted on the laboratory Varian 2850 puller. Further, the fabrication of the transducer/control assembly - the automation system - has been accelerated in order to permit testing and preliminary process development on the 2850 furnace prior to the completion of the prototype puller. The SAMICS analysis of ingot growth and wafering has been completely revised and has been extended to 1986.

Wolfson, R.G.; Sibley, C.B.; Chartier, C.P.

1978-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays. Low-cost solar array project, silicon materials task. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program has been established at Westinghouse to develop a high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant will be injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction is expected to occur and proceed essentially to completion, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon will be developed using standard engineering approaches, and the salt vapor will later be electrolytically separated into its elemental constituents for recycle. Preliminary technical evaluations and economic projections indicate not only that this process appears to be feasible, but that it also has the advantages of rapid, high capacity production of good quality molten silicon at a nominal cost. The program consists of a four-phase effort directed to the development and implementation of this technology. The initial phase of the program, Phase I, was an eleven-month study funded by JPL which was completed in September, 1977. Phase I was defined as a comprehensive feasibility and engineering review of the reaction process, and a formulation of the design for a test system to experimentally verify the high temperature reaction. Phase II, currently underway, involves a multi-task approach including (1) a detailed engineering analysis of the entire process; (2) design, fabrication, and assembly of the experimental system; (3) experimental testing of the reduction reaction to produce silicon and (4) complementary research programs to augment the experimental system design. The Phase II effort was initiated in October, 1977, and work is described in detail on the various stages of this effort.

Reed, W.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Simple cost model for EV traction motors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

Cuenca, R.M.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation CTS 21st Annual Transportation Research Conference costs #12;Potential Applications · Roadway Project Feasibility Studies ­ Identified potential roadway infrastructure improvement ­ Documentation of estimated project costs ­ Determine property assessments

Minnesota, University of

357

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which needs to be 44% or better along with relatively high wind speeds. Along with low production costs, however, delivery and storage costs will also factor into the final cost...

358

Silicon-on ceramic process. Silicon sheet growth and device development for the large-area silicon sheet and cell development tasks of the low-cost solar array project. Quarterly report No. 12, April 2, 1979-June 29, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon. We plan to do this by coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. During the quarter, significant progress was demonstrated in several areas: (1) a 10-cm/sup 2/ cell having 9.9 percent conversion efficiency (AM1, AR) was fabricated; (2) the Honeywall-sponsored SCIM coating development succeeded in producing a 225-cm/sup 2/ layer of sheet silicon (18 inches x 2 inches); and (3) 100 ..mu..m-thick coatings at pull speed of 0.15 cm/sec wer$obta9ned, although apoproximately 50 percent of the layer exhibited dendritic growth. Other results and accomplishments during the quarter are reported in detail. (WHK)

Chapman, P.W.; Zook, J.D.; Heaps, J.D.; Grung, B.L.; Koepke, B.; Schuldt, S.B.

1979-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plant Cycling Costs Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-55433 July 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Prepared under Subcontract No. NFT-1-11325-01

360

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

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361

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

362

Production Cost Optimization Assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The benefits of improved thermal performance of coal-fired power plants continue to grow, as the costs of fuel rise and the prospect of a carbon dioxide cap and trade program looms on the horizon. This report summarizes the efforts to date of utilities committed to reducing their heat rate by 1.0% in the Production Cost Optimization (PCO) Project. The process includes benchmarking of plant thermal performance using existing plant data and a site-specific performance appraisal. The appraisal determines po...

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

363

Uncertainty Quantification and Calibration in Well Construction Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The feasibility and success of petroleum development projects depend to a large degree on well construction costs. Well construction cost estimates often contain high levels of uncertainty. In many cases, these costs have been estimated using deterministic methods that do not reliably account for uncertainty, leading to biased estimates. The primary objective of this work was to improve the reliability of deterministic well construction cost estimates by incorporating probabilistic methods into the estimation process. The method uses historical well cost estimates and actual well costs to develop probabilistic correction factors that can be applied to future well cost estimates. These factors can be applied to the entire well cost or to individual cost components. Application of the methodology to estimation of well construction costs for horizontal wells in a shale gas play resulted in well cost estimates that were well calibrated probabilistically. Overall, average estimated well cost using this methodology was significantly more accurate than average estimated well cost using deterministic methods. Systematic use of this methodology can provide for more accurate and efficient allocation of capital for drilling campaigns, which should have significant impacts on reservoir development and profitability.

Valdes Machado, Alejandro

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Silicon-on ceramic process: silicon sheet growth and device development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Quarterly report NO. 15, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to investigate the technical feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon which could meet the DOE cost goals. The Honeywell approach is to coat one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. Results and accomplishments which occurred during the quarter can be summarized as follows: (1) two major problems associated with SCIM-coating wide (10-cm) substrates were identified and solved; (2) the longitudinal temperature profile in SCIM-II has been improved to prevent substrate warping, buckling, and cracking; (3) the transverse temperature profile in SCIM II has been improved to produce more uniform coatings; (4) a strategy to eliminate effects of thermal stress has been developed; (5) the best SOC cell has a total-area conversion efficiency of 10.5% (AM1, AR), for a cell area of 5 cm/sup 2/; (6) a number of experiments are being investigated for improving cell efficiency; (7) for the slow-cooldown experiment, the average efficiency of 29 AR-coated cells was 9.9%, with a standard deviation of 0.3%; (8) encouraging results were obtained on SOC material that had been treated in a hydrogen plasma at Sandia; and (9) thermal modeling has proven to be beneficial in designing modifications of SCIM II.

Whitehead, A B; Zook, J D; Grung, B L; McHenry, K; Schuldt, S B; Chapman, P W

1980-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Continuous Czochralski growth: silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Second annual progress report, October 1-September 30, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the growth of at least 100 kilograms of mono crystalline ingot from one crucible by the Czochralski (CZ) method. The approach to the continuous growth process being pursued in this effort relies on conventional CZ technology combined with new equipment designs which allow repeated alternate cycles of crystal growth and hot melt replenishment by methods which are suitable for use in a high volume production facility. A Hamco Model CG2000 crystal grower was modified with a special chamber for the storage of a supply of polycrystalline silicon and a vacuum-tight isolation valve to permit retrieval of crystals and melt replenishment without contamination. A number of additional modifications to the facility have been completed in the program, and the process study phase is now under way, with a number of multi-ingot runs having been performed. It is the purpose of this contract extension to describe a program aimed at a more accurate cost analysis of the continuous growth of silicon into material and also an investigative program for the purpose of defining and solving problems which may hinder the development of continuous Czochralski growth. Progress is reported.

Lane, R.L.; Roberts, E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Low Cost, High Performance, 50-year Electrode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an extremely durable, highly active, conductive, and inexpensive electrode for flow batteries. Flow batteries offer one of the most exciting opportunities for affordable grid storage, however electrodes are costly and are the single largest cost component in a well integrated design. Grid storage can yield numerous benefits in utility and customer- owned applications:  renewable firming  peak load reduction  load shifting  capital deferral  frequency regulation By incorporating volume production practices from the chlorine, filter media, and electroplating industries, Primus Power will effectively reduce electrode costs to exceed GRIDS cost targets while providing the durability essential for widespread grid-scale adoption.

367

Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool) Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool) Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Climate Smart Planning Platform Sector: Climate, Energy Topics: Analysis Tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Complexity/Ease of Use: Simple Website: climatesmartplanning.org/node/33 Cost: Free Related Tools Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment (GRAPE) Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) Model MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS A spreadsheet tool for building marginal abatement cost curves, and for calculating break-even carbon prices. Supports comparison of costs and

368

Cost update technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to update the cost estimates developed in a previous report, NUREG/CR-1757 (Elder 1980) for decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant from the original mid-1981 dollars to values representative of January 1993. The cost updates were performed by using escalation factors derived from cost index trends over the past 11.5 years. Contemporary price quotes wee used for costs that have increased drastically or for which is is difficult to find a cost trend. No changes were made in the decommissioning procedures or cost element requirements assumed in NUREG/CR-1757. This report includes only information that was changed from NUREG/CR-1757. Thus, for those interested in detailed descriptions and associated information for the reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant, a copy of NUREG/CR-1757 will be needed.

Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Cost estimation and analysis for government contract pricing in china  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software cost estimation methods and their applications in government contract pricing have been developed and practiced for years. However, in China, the government contract process has been questioned in some aspects. It is largely based on analogy ... Keywords: cost analysis., cost estimation, government contract pricing

Mei He; Ye Yang; Qing Wang; Mingshu Li

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

A greedy strategy for detecting negative cost cycles in networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we develop a greedy strategy for the problem of checking whether a network (directed graph) with positive and negative costs on its edges has a negative cost cycle. We call our approach the Vertex Contraction algorithm; it is the first ... Keywords: Bellman-Ford, Negative cost cycle detection, Relaxation, Vertex Contraction

K. Subramani; L. Kovalchick

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling  

SciTech Connect

Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

COST FUNCTION STUDIES FOR POWER REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

A function to evaluate the cost of electricity produced by a nuclear power reactor was developed. The basic equation, revenue = capital charges + profit + operating expenses, was expanded in terms of various cost parameters to enable analysis of multiregion nuclear reactors with uranium and/or plutonium for fuel. A corresponding IBM 704 computer program, which will compute either the price of electricity or the value of plutonium, is presented in detail. (auth)

Heestand, J.; Wos, L.T.

1961-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Service Provider Competition: Delay Cost Structure, Segmentation, and Cost Advantage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We model competition between two providers who serve delay-sensitive customers. We compare a generalized delay cost structure, where a customer's delay cost depends on her service valuation, with the traditional additive delay cost structure, where the ... Keywords: delay cost structure, service competition, value-based market segmentation

Maxim Afanasyev; Haim Mendelson

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Long-run marginal costs lower than average costs  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this article is that the long-run marginal costs of electricity are not always greater than the present average costs, as is often assumed. As long as short-run costs decrease with new plant additions, the long-run marginal cost is less than long-run average cost. When average costs increase with new additions, long-run marginal costs are greater than long-run average costs. The long-run marginal costs of a particular utility may be less than, equal to, or greater than its long-run average costs - even with inflation present. The way to determine which condition holds for a given utility is to estimate costs under various combinations of assumptions: probable load growth, zero load growth, and load growth greater than expected; and changes in load factor with attendant costs. Utilities that can demonstrate long-run marginal costs lower than long-run average costs should be encouraged to build plant and increase load, for the resulting productivity gains and slowing of inflation. Utilities that face long-run marginal costs greater than long-run average costs should discourage growth in sales through any available means.

Hunter, S.R.

1980-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

375

Light-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9. D. Jones, "Development Cost Estimates for Fuel Economy ofExhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-PricingExhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing

Wang, Quanlu; Kling, Catherine; Sperling, Daniel

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

UNDP-Energy Costing Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP-Energy Costing Tool UNDP-Energy Costing Tool (Redirected from UNDP Energy Costing Tool) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNDP Energy Costing Tool Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme Sector: Energy Topics: Pathways analysis, Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.undp.org/energy/mdg-serv.htm Cost: Free Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/energy-costing-tool Language: English References: UNDP MDG Support Services [1] The Energy Costing Tool is an Excel-based model designed to help countries estimate the costs of increasing access to energy services to support the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MGD). More information is available on the

377

SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment National Laboratory Research & Development

378

Percent of 2010 Luminaire Cost LED Luminaire Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LEDs promise to change the world, and few doubt that they will, but a key limiter to more rapid adoption is the cost of the LED themselves. The cost breakdown of LED luminaires vary, but it is safe to put the cost of the LED at around 25% to 40 % of the total luminaire cost. It is projected to remain a significant cost of the total luminaire for many years.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

Sanford, P.C. [1129 Business Parkway South, Westminister, MD (United States); Skokan, B. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Estimating demolition cost of plutonium buildings for dummies  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Rocky Flats Field Office of the US Department of Energy is to decommission the entire plant. In an effort to improve the basis and the accuracy of the future decommissioning cost, Rocky Flats has developed a powerful but easy-to-use tool to determine budget cost estimates to characterize, decontaminate, and demolish all its buildings. The parametric cost-estimating tool is called the Facilities Disposition Cost Model (FDCM).

Tower, S.E.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

ONTOCOM: A Cost Estimation Model for Ontology Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This paper introduces ONTOCOM, a parametric cost estimation model for Semantic Web ontologies. After analyzing established, general-purpose cost estimation methodologies we propose a methodology, which can be applied to develop cost models for ontology engineering. We examine the particularities of this engineering field on the basis of the proposed methodology, in order to identify cost factors which influence the effort invested in ontology building, reuse and maintenance. 1

Elena Paslaru Bontas; Malgorzata Mochol; Freie Universität

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

A fresh look at cost estimation, process models and risk analysis”, EDSER-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliable cost estimation is indispensable for industrial software development. A detailed analysis shows why the existing cost models are unreliable. Cost estimation should integrate software process modelling and risk analysis. A novel approach based on probability theory is proposed. A probabilistic cost model could provide a solid basis for cost-benefit analyses. 1

Frank Padberg

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Generalized linear model-based expert system for estimating the cost of transportation projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Timely effective cost management requires reliable cost estimates at every stage of project development. While underestimation of transportation costs seems to be a global trend, improving early cost prediction accuracy in estimates is difficult. This ... Keywords: Cost management, Expert system, Generalized linear model, Relational database, Transportation projects

Jui-Sheng Chou

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Improved Solar Power Plant Efficiency: Low Cost Solar Irradiance Sensor  

A University of Colorado research group led by Fernando Mancilla-David has developed a low cost irradiance sensor using a network modeled on a neural ...

385

Report on Transmission Cost Allocation for RTOs and Others (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes in summary fashion some present transmission cost allocation methods, especially as this relates to the development of utility-scale renewable power sources.

Coles, L.; Porter, K.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

August 31, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop and validate a predictive transport model that * enables efficiency maximization at conditions that meet DOE cost...

387

Design of small, low-cost, underwater fin manipulator.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis details the development of a small, low cost, underwater manipulator for use on the XAUV. At this time, there are no cheap underwater… (more)

Roberts, Megan Johnson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Buildings Buildings Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:09am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 4 When estimating the cost of implementing the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies, Federal agencies should consider the life-cycle costs and savings of the efforts. The major cost elements associated with developing and implementing a project are identified in Table 1. Table 1. Major Costs for Project Development and Implementation Cost Element Description Variables Project planning costs Preparatory work by building owners and design team. Benchmarking activities. Building audits. Developing statements of work for subcontractors. Selecting contractors. Integrated design process (for major renovations). Type of project; previous team experience; local markets; number of stakeholders

389

ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves for the Non-Annex I region (NAMAC) Agency/Company /Organization: Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Resource assessment, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Website: www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2006/e06060.pdf References: GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves for the Non-Annex I region[1] GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves for the Non-Annex I region (NAMAC) (1999-present) ECN has developed a Marginal Abatement Cost curve containing detailed information on mitigation technologies and abatement costs in developing countries. * The MAC was first developed for the Dutch Ministry of Foreign

390

Slicing of silicon into sheet material. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Fifth quarterly report, March 21, 1977--May 27, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The multiblade slurry technique capable of slicing 10 cm ingot into wafers 0.25 mm thick with only 0.20 mm kerf loss and 98% yield has been demonstrated. The total silicon requirement represents an ingot to sheet conversion of 0.95 m/sup 2//kg. Full production slicing tests have demonstrated the cost of MS slicing to contribute $40 to $50/m/sup 2/, with ''best effort'' estimates for today's configuration to be $30 to $35/m/sup 2/. By reducing material cost, and increasing the specific capacity of a saw to slice 900 wafers simultaneously, the long-term cost of MS slicing is estimated to be less than $10/m/sup 2/. The conversion of ingot to sheet is shown to be the most valuable contribution of slicing technology. At today's ingot costs, and with the thin wafer, low kerf loss slicing techniques demonstrated, the silicon material represents 5 to 10 times the cost of the wafering process in finished silicon wafers. Increasing the number of blades used in MS slicing from 100 to 150 to 225 to 300 has resulted in a reduction of yield to 33 to 70% for thin slicing, or an increase in wafer thickness to 0.30 mm slices. The limitation is intrinsic misalignment of multiple blades. A technique to correct this condition is presented and forms a key element in low cost slicing. Analysis of blade material accuracy shows that straightness and flatness specifications can be relaxed. The success of the blade alignment technique will allow lower thickness accuracy requirements. The goal is to use blade materials 50% as costly as used presently, reducing the cost of this expendible material.

Holden, S.C.; Fleming, J.R.

1977-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

391

Hydrogen production costs -- A survey  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen, produced using renewable resources, is an environmentally benign energy carrier that will play a vital role in sustainable energy systems. The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of cost-effective technologies for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen in the energy infrastructure. International interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier is high. Research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of hydrogen energy systems are in progress in many countries. Annex 11 of the International Energy Agency (IEA) facilitates member countries to collaborate on hydrogen RD and D projects. The United States is a member of Annex 11, and the US representative is the Program Manager of the DOE Hydrogen R and D Program. The Executive Committee of the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in its June 1997 meeting decided to review the production costs of hydrogen via the currently commercially available processes. This report compiles that data. The methods of production are steam reforming, partial oxidation, gasification, pyrolysis, electrolysis, photochemical, photobiological, and photoelectrochemical reactions.

Basye, L.; Swaminathan, S.

1997-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

392

costs | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7 7 Varnish cache server costs Dataset Summary Description This dataset represents a historical repository of all the numerical data from the smartgrid.gov website condensed into spreadsheets to enable analysis of the data. Below are a couple of things worth noting: Source Smartgrid.gov Date Released March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Date Updated March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Keywords AMI costs distribution smart grid transmission Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 4Q12 (xlsx, 112.1 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 3Q12 (xlsx, 107.9 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 2Q12 (xlsx, 111.9 KiB)

393

Geothermal probabilistic cost study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Waste management facilities cost information: System cost model product description. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors developed the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life-cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, transuranic, and mixed transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The SCM also provides transportation costs for DOE wastes. Transportation costs are provided for truck and rail and include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation`s generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction costs, operation management, and decommissioning these waste management facilities.

Lundeen, A.S.; Hsu, K.M.; Shropshire, D.E.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Experimental program for the development of peat gasification. Process designs and cost estimates for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu/day SNG from peat by the PEATGAS Process. Interim report No. 8  

SciTech Connect

This report presents process designs for the manufacture of 250 billion Btu's per day of SNG by the PEATGAS Process from peats. The purpose is to provide a preliminary assessment of the process requirements and economics of converting peat to SNG by the PEATGAS Process and to provide information needed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to plan the scope of future peat gasification studies. In the process design now being presented, peat is dried to 35% moisture before feeding to the PEATGAS reactor. This is the basic difference between the Minnesota peat case discussed in the current report and that presented in the Interim Report No. 5. The current design has overall economic advantages over the previous design. In the PEATGAS Process, peat is gasified at 500 psig in a two-stage reactor consisting of an entrained-flow hydrogasifier followed by a fluidized-bed char gasifier using steam and oxygen. The gasifier operating conditions and performance are necessarily based on the gasification kinetic model developed for the PEATGAS reactor using the laboratory- and PDU-scale data as of March 1978 and April 1979, respectively. On the basis of the available data, this study concludes that, although peat is a low-bulk density and low heating value material requiring large solids handling costs, the conversion of peat to SNG appears competitive with other alternatives being considered for producing SNG because of its very favorable gasification characteristics (high methane formation tendency and high reactivity). As a direct result of the encouraging technical and economic results, DOE is planning to modify the HYGAS facility in order to begin a peat gasification pilot plant project.

Arora, J.L.; Tsaros, C.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin goals.

Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

397

Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. Memo regarding Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Technical Standards, Newsletter-June 1999 Build...

398

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways -costs are compared with cost estimates of similar stationsHydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Pennsylvania life cycle costing manual  

SciTech Connect

Until the 1970s, it was commonplace for institutions and governments to purchase equipment based on lowest initial (first) costs. Recurring costs such as operational, maintenance, and energy costs often were not considered in the purchase decision. If an agency wanted to buy something, it published specifications and requested bids from several manufacturers. Often, the lowest bidder who met the specifications won the job, with no consideration given to the economic life of the equipment or yearly recurring costs such as energy and maintenance costs. The practice of purchasing based on lowest initial costs probably did not make good economic sense prior to 1970, and it certainly does not make good sense now. The wise person will consider all costs and benefits associated with a purchase, both initial and post-purchase, in order to make procurement decisions that are valid for the life of the equipment. This describes a method of financial analysis that considers all pertinent costs: life cycle costing (LCC).

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Cost-sensitive classifier evaluation using cost curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaluation of classifier performance in a cost-sensitive setting is straightforward if the operating conditions (misclassification costs and class distributions) are fixed and known. When this is not the case, evaluation requires a method of visualizing ...

Robert C. Holte; Chris Drummond

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "development costs incurred" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

UNDP-Energy Costing Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP-Energy Costing Tool UNDP-Energy Costing Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNDP Energy Costing Tool Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme Sector: Energy Topics: Pathways analysis, Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.undp.org/energy/mdg-serv.htm Cost: Free Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/energy-costing-tool Language: English References: UNDP MDG Support Services [1] The Energy Costing Tool is an Excel-based model designed to help countries estimate the costs of increasing access to energy services to support the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MGD). More information is available on the Energy

402

AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

403

Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options 2012 System Cost Benchmarking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on the current capital and lifecycle costs estimates of electric energy storage options for a variety of grid and end-user applications. Data presented in this report update 2010 data provided in EPRI Technical Report 1020676. The goal of this research was to develop objective and consistent installed costs and operational and maintenance costs for a set of selected energy storage systems in the identified applications. Specific objectives included development of ...

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

404

Process Developments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Although melt loss had become the major cost factor in ingot production, it was the soaring cost of energy during the 1973 energy crisis that triggered the search for more-efficient remelt processes. This effort also sought to develop process that were less labor intensive and more...

405

Cost Sensitive Conditional Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While POMDPs provide a general platform for conditional planning under a wide range of quality metrics they have limited scalability. On the other hand, uniform probability conditional planners scale very well, but many lack the ability to optimize plan quality metrics. We present an innovation to planning graph based heuristics that helps uniform probability conditional planners both scale and generate high quality plans when using actions with non uniform costs. We make empirical comparisons with two state of the art planners to show the benefit of our techniques.

Daniel Bryce; Subbarao Kambhampati

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Estimation of the social costs of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This study determines the extent to which it is possible to develop monetary estimates of the marginal social cost of fuels, using natural gas to test a methodology that could be applied to other fuels. This requires review of previous estimates of both market and nonmarket costs to the extent that such are available. For some components of social cost, calculation of estimates from secondary data is required. The feasibility of using these estimates to develop marginal social-cost estimates for the country and for states or regions must then be evaluated. In order to develop estimates of marginal social cost for use in determining minimum life-cycle costs of building space conditioning, economic theory is used to develop a conceptual model of the market cost of fuel extraction and conversion. Then, estimation methodologies for each component of nonmarket costs are examined to assess the applicability and validity of each methodology. On the basis of this analysis, empirical estimates of both market and nonmarket components of social cost are aggregated to calculate a social-cost estimate for natural gas. 38 references.

Nieves, L.A.; Lemon, J.R.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Transaction Costs and Tradable Permit Markets: The United  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We econometrically estimate the effect of transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of the tradable permit market created during the US lead phasedown. We develop a methodology to identify transaction costs in the absence of price data. We find that refineries generally trade efficiently. We also, however, find evidence that transaction costs affect trading. We find evidence that refineries are less likely to trade in cases where theory suggests they will face high transaction costs. The data were collected from 30 major oil companies and include the trading partners and quantities traded for all permit trades carried out by each of 87 refineries over 8 quarters. 2 1

Suzi Kerr; David Maré

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies  

SciTech Connect

To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Cost and Impacts of Policies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Policies RESULTS 2010-2025 and long-run impacts 2010-2025 GovernmentIndustry Costs Hydrogen production, infrastructure & cost HyTrans merges the early transition...

411

Cost-sensitive classifier evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaluating classifier performance in a cost-sensitive setting is straightforward if the operating conditions (misclassification costs and class distributions) are fixed and known. When this is not the case, evaluation requires a method of visualizing ...

Robert C. Holte; Chris Drummond

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

3800 Green Series Cost Elements  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Stoller - Legacy ManagementSustainable Acquisition (formerly EPP) Program 3800 Series Cost Elements01/30/2012 (Rev. 4)

414

Empirical Methods of Cost Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...D.P. Hoult and C.L. Meador, Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

415

Bifacial Efficiency at Monofacial Cost  

solar cells; photovoltaics; PV; bifacial efficiency; Monofacial Cost, Bifacial Cells; bifacial Modules; industry growth forum; gamma solar Created ...

416

doi:10.1155/2011/926812 Research Article Energetic Cost of Ichthyophonus Infection in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2011 Johanna J. Vollenweider et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The energetic costs of fasting and Ichthyophonus infection were measured in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) inalab setting at three temperatures. Infected herring incurred significant energetic costs, the magnitude of which depended on fish condition at the time of infection (fat versus lean). Herring that were fed continually and were in relatively good condition at the time of infection (fat) never stored lipid despite ad libitum feeding. In feeding herring, the energetic cost of infection was a 30% reduction in total energy content relative to controls 52 days post infection. Following food deprivation (lean condition), infection caused an initial delay in the compensatory response of herring. Thirty-one days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 32 % reduction in total energy content relative to controls. Body composition of infected herring subsequently recovered to some degree, though infected herring never attained the same energy content as their continuously fed counterparts. Fifty-two days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 6 % reduction in total energy content relative to controls. The greatest impacts of infection occurred in colder temperatures, suggesting Ichthyophonusinduced

Johanna J. Vollenweider; Jake L. Gregg; Ron A. Heintz; Paul K. Hershberger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

COST SHARING ON SPONSORED PROJECTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COST SHARING ON SPONSORED PROJECTS 1 California Institute of Technology Issuing Authority: Office is that portion of the total cost of an externally funded project that is not funded by the sponsor. Depending as a demonstration of its commitment to the project. When voluntary cost sharing is included in the proposal budget

Tai, Yu-Chong

418

Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW ac solar tracking sub- array for grid-connected PV power system applications. Phase 1, Annual technical report, 11 July 1995--31 July 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this effort is to reduce the installed cost of utility scale grid connected photovoltaic power systems. The focus of the effort is on ``BOS`` (Balance-Of-System) component manufacturing technology, which essentially involves all PV power system engineering, manufacturing, assembly and construction tasks from the receipt of a PV module to the deliver of grid connected electricity.

Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G. [Utility Power Group, Chatsworth, CA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Life cycle cost and risk estimation of environmental management options  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation process is demonstrated in this paper through comparative analysis of two alternative scenarios identified for the management of the alpha-contaminated fixed low-level waste currently stored at INEL. These two scenarios, the Base Case and the Delay Case, are realistic and based on actual data, but are not intended to exactly match actual plans currently being developed at INEL. Life cycle cost estimates were developed for both scenarios using the System Cost Model; resulting costs are presented and compared. Life cycle costs are shown as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Although there are some short-term cost savings for the Delay Case, cumulative life cycle costs eventually become much higher than costs for the Base Case over the same period of time, due mainly to the storage and repackaging necessary to accommodate the longer Delay Case schedule. Life cycle risk estimates were prepared using a new risk analysis method adapted to the System Cost Model architecture for automated, systematic cost/risk applications. Relative risk summaries are presented for both scenarios as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Relative risk of the Delay Case is shown to be higher than that of the Base Case. Finally, risk and cost results are combined to show how the collective information can be used to help identify opportunities for risk or cost reduction and highlight areas where risk reduction can be achieved most economically.

Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

New tools to cut labor costs  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute is developing new techniques that will reduce the labor costs of building and maintaining power-distribution systems. The new tools include a cable plow for underground cables, concrete cutters, an underground borer, tree growth retardants, and other devices which reduce labor requirements and cause less environmental disruption. 2 references. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Kendrew, T.; Rodenbaugh, T.; Steiner, R.; Tackaberry, R.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z