Sample records for development based climate

  1. Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation-conceptual...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries AgencyCompany Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Sector: Climate, Energy, Land, Water Topics: Adaptation, Co-benefits assessment, -...

  2. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development Daniel H. Cole*THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE . ADAPTATIONCONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE . IV. A.

  3. Essays in climate and development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerrero Compeán, Roberto

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is a collection of three essays on environmental policy and empirical development economics, unified in their underlying inquiry of the welfare effects of climate in Mexico. The first chapter presents ...

  4. Climate-development-energy policy related seminars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    Paula Kivimaa (Finnish Environment Institute) From energy to climate policy in Finland Energy & climate Energy & Climate Tue 3rd Dec 18.00- 19.30 Large Jubilee Jeremy Leggett (SolarCentury) The EnergyClimate-development-energy policy related seminars Autumn term 2013 Date Time Location Speaker

  5. UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

  6. Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation Photo showing climate zone maps based on the IECC...

  7. Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Practitioners Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning: A Guide for Practitioners Agency...

  8. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climate change is coal gasification, which can make theworld leaders in coal gasification tech- nology, has beenexperimenting with "in situ" gasification, where the coal is

  9. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climate change is coal gasification, which can make thethe world leaders in coal gasification tech- nology, haswill not occur. If not coal gasification, then perhaps fuel

  10. Gambia-Support the Development of a National Climate Compatible...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name CDKN-Gambia-Support the Development of a National Climate Compatible Development Strategy AgencyCompany Organization Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN),...

  11. Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change Robert Socolow Princeton University socolow should provide at least one wedge. #12;"The Wedge Model is the iPod of climate change: You fill/yr, 30 miles per gallon b) Fly 10,000 miles/yr c) Heat home Natural gas, average house, average climate d

  12. Developing Models for Predictive Climate Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, John B [ORNL; Jones, Philip W [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Community Climate System Model results from a multi-agency collaboration designed to construct cutting-edge climate science simulation models for a broad research community. Predictive climate simulations are currently being prepared for the petascale computers of the near future. Modeling capabilities are continuously being improved in order to provide better answers to critical questions about Earth's climate. Climate change and its implications are front page news in today's world. Could global warming be responsible for the July 2006 heat waves in Europe and the United States? Should more resources be devoted to preparing for an increase in the frequency of strong tropical storms and hurricanes like Katrina? Will coastal cities be flooded due to a rise in sea level? The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), which archives all weather data for the nation, reports that global surface temperatures have increased over the last century, and that the rate of increase is three times greater since 1976. Will temperatures continue to climb at this rate, will they decline again, or will the rate of increase become even steeper? To address such a flurry of questions, scientists must adopt a systematic approach and develop a predictive framework. With responsibility for advising on energy and technology strategies, the DOE is dedicated to advancing climate research in order to elucidate the causes of climate change, including the role of carbon loading from fossil fuel use. Thus, climate science--which by nature involves advanced computing technology and methods--has been the focus of a number of DOE's SciDAC research projects. Dr. John Drake (ORNL) and Dr. Philip Jones (LANL) served as principal investigators on the SciDAC project, 'Collaborative Design and Development of the Community Climate System Model for Terascale Computers.' The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is a fully-coupled global system that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. The collaborative SciDAC team--including over a dozen researchers at institutions around the country--developed, validated, documented, and optimized the performance of CCSM using the latest software engineering approaches, computational technology, and scientific knowledge. Many of the factors that must be accounted for in a comprehensive model of the climate system are illustrated in figure 1.

  13. RISNEWS JUNE 2007 NO Energy, climate and sustainable development in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RISŘNEWSNO 12007PAGE1 RISŘNEWS JUNE 2007 NO 1 Energy, climate and sustainable development in the global fight for sustainable development ..................................................4 New partnerships encourage sustainable development

  14. Climate, Career Development, and Chairs: Some (Debatable) Thoughts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate, Career Development, and Chairs: Some (Debatable) Thoughts What Does "Climate" Mean and How Do We Recognize It? 1. Climate refers to those aspects of the professional working environment that enhance or detract from perceptions of "fit" and "appreciation" among colleagues. Climate shapes

  15. Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions Karen of modeling practice in the field of integrated assessment of climate change and ways forward. Past efforts assessments of climate change have concentrated on developing baseline emissions scenarios and analyzing

  16. Dominican Republic-Fast-Track Development of TransformativeClimate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fast-Track Development of Transformative Climate-Compatible Development Plans and Building of Regional and Local Capacities Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Dominican...

  17. User-orientated comparative analysis of climate compatible development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    private sector, NGO and country-led methodologies for climate compatible development strategy building and planning. There are many methodologies being developed and utilised...

  18. Experiences from the Danish "Climate and Development Action Programme"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and water provision, infrastructure, energy and health. The Danish Minister for Development Cooperation, Ms, Bolivia, and Nicaragua. Approach The Danish "Climate and Development Action Programme" follows

  19. UNEP Ris Centre Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNEP Risř Centre ­ Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development International and Danish research & Poverty · Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy · Energy Sector Reform · CDM & Carbon markets · Development · Development and Energy in Africa ­ analytical activities: ­ Examining energy-development linkages in existing

  20. A Struggle for Reconciliation of Development and Climate Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although developing countries are called to participate on the efforts of reducing CO2 emissions in order to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of CO2 reduction targets in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and - time dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Based on this empirical relation and three population scenarios extracted from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report, we calculate for the first time the cumulative CO2 emissions necessary for developing countries to achieve particular HDI thresholds. If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8) as defined in the United Nations Human Development Report. In particular, we estimate that at least 300Gt of cumulative CO2 emissions between 2000 and 2050 are ...

  1. Kenya-Supporting Low Carbon Development and Climate Resilient...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Strategies" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleKenya-SupportingLowCarbonDevelopmentandClimateResilientStrategiesinAfrica&oldid700...

  2. Making Development Climate Resilient: A World Bank Strategy for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Making Development Climate Resilient: A World Bank Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy,...

  3. Development of Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Development of Sea Level Rise...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W. Travis [Purdue University] [Purdue University; Groll, Eckhard A. [Purdue University] [Purdue University; Braun, James E. [Purdue University] [Purdue University

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goals of the proposed project were to develop, test, and evaluate a high performance and cost-effective vapor compression air-source heat pump for use in cold climate regions. Vapor compression heat pumps are a proven technology, and have been used for many years to meet heating requirements for buildings in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. However, in climate regions that experience very low outdoor ambient temperatures both the heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of traditional air-source vapor compression heat pumps drops dramatically with a decrease in the outdoor air temperature. The efficiency of heat pumping equipment has improved substantially over the past 20 years; however, the efficiencies of the highest rated equipment on the market are approaching practical limits that cannot be surpassed without modifications to the basic cycle and possibly the use of additional hardware. In this report, three technologies to improve the efficiency of vapor compression systems are described. These are a) vapor injected compression, b) oil flooded compression and c) hybrid flow control of the evaporator. Compressor prototypes for both, oil flooded and vapor injected compression were developed by Emerson Climate Technologies. For the oil flooded compressor, the oil injection port location was optimized and an internal oil separator was added using several design iterations. After initial testing at Emerson Climate Technologies, further testing was done at Purdue University, and compressor models were developed. These models were then integrated into a system model to determine the achievable improvement of seasonal energy efficiency (SEER) for Minneapolis (Minnesota) climate. For the oil flooded compression, a 34% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency was found while a 21% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency ratio was found for the vapor injected compression. It was found that one benefit of both tested compression technologies is a lower discharge temperature, which allows for continued operation at lower ambient temperatures. A bin analysis of the vapor injected prototype cold climate heat pump predicts a 6% improvement in HSPF for Minneapolis. This improvement is mainly a result of the increased capacity of the system for active vapor injection. For the oil flooded system, a slightly larger performance improvement is predicted, in this case mostly caused by an increase in heating COP. Based on an economic analysis of these results, the maximum additional cost of the system changes, for the Minneapolis location, are $430 for the vapor injected system and $391 for the oil flooded system. These estimates assume that a 3-year simple payback period is accepted by the customer. For the hybrid flow control of evaporators, a new type of balancing valve was developed together with Emerson Climate technologies to reduce the cost of the control scheme. In contrast to conventional stepper motor valves, this valve requires less cables and can be driven by a cheaper output circuit on the control board. The correct valve size was determined in a dedicated test stand in several design iterations. The performance benefits of the hybrid control of the evaporator coil were determined for clean coil conditions as well as with partial blockage of the air inlet grille and under frosting conditions. For clean coil conditions, the benefits in terms of COP and capacity are negligible. However, significant benefits were noted for severely air-maldistributed operating conditions. For the H2-test, the maximum COP improvement of 17% along with a capacity improvement of nearly 40% was observed. Overall, the hybrid control scheme leads to a significant amount of performance improvement, if the air inlet conditions to the evaporator are maldistributed.

  5. Assessing the Role of Energy in Development and Climate Policies in Large Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing the Role of Energy in Development and Climate Policies in Large Developing Countries Amit conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed

  6. Varying trends in surface energy fluxes and associated climate between 1960 and 2002 based on transient climate simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varying trends in surface energy fluxes and associated climate between 1960 and 2002 based have analyzed transient climate simulations from 1960 to 2002 with and without anthropogenic aerosols and associated climate between 1960 and 2002 based on transient climate simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L

  7. Development of Ensemble Neural Network Convection Parameterizations for Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M. S.; Krasnopolsky, V. M.

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The novel neural network (NN) approach has been formulated and used for development of a NN ensemble stochastic convection parametrization for climate models. This fast parametrization is built based on data from Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations initialized with and forced by TOGA-COARE data. The SAM (System for Atmospheric Modeling), developed by D. Randall, M. Khairoutdinov, and their collaborators, has been used for CRM simulations. The observational data are also used for validation of model simulations. The SAM-simulated data have been averaged and projected onto the GCM space of atmospheric states to implicitly define a stochastic convection parametrization. This parametrization is emulated using an ensemble of NNs. An ensemble of NNs with different NN parameters has been trained and tested. The inherent uncertainty of the stochastic convection parametrization derived in such a way is estimated. Due to these inherent uncertainties, NN ensemble is used to constitute a stochastic NN convection parametrization. The developed NN convection parametrization have been validated in a diagnostic CAM (CAM-NN) run vs. the control CAM run. Actually, CAM inputs have been used, at every time step of the control/original CAM integration, for parallel calculations of the NN convection parametrization (CAM-NN) to produce its outputs as a diagnostic byproduct. Total precipitation (P) and cloudiness (CLD) time series, diurnal cycles, and P and CLD distributions for the large Tropical Pacific Ocean for the parallel CAM-NN and CAM runs show similarity and consistency with the NCEP reanalysis. The P and CLD distributions for the tropical area for the parallel runs have been analyzed first for the TOGA-COARE boreal winter season (November 1992 through February 1993) and then for the winter seasons of the follow-up parallel decadal simulations. The obtained results are encouraging and practically meaningful. They show the validity of the NN approach. This constitutes an important practical conclusion of the study: the obtained results on NN ensembles as a stochastic physics parametrization show a realistic possibility of development of NN convection parametrization for climate (and NWP) models based on learning cloud physics from CRM/SAM simulated data.

  8. Developing fast and efficient climate models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Mark

    , based on the global model of Tim Lenton. The resulting package comprises an Earth System Model was closely integrated with the GENIE (Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system model) project, funded by the NERC

  9. Climate implications of algae-based bioenergy systems Andres Clarens, PhD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Climate implications of algae-based bioenergy systems Andres Clarens, PhD Assistant Professor Civil of algae and other nonconventional feedstocks, are being developed. This talk will explore several systems priorities. This is an especially challenging problem for algae-based biofuels because production pathways

  10. Accelerating development of a predictive science of climate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, John B [ORNL; Jones, Phil [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change and studies of its implications are front page news. Could the heat waves of July 2006 in Europe and the US be caused by global warming? Are increased incidences of strong tropical storms and hurricanes like Katrina to be expected? Will coastal cities be flooded due to sea level rise? The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) which archives all weather data for the nation reports that global surface temperatures have increased at a rate near 0.6 C over the last century but that the trend is three times larger since 1976 [Easterling, 2006]. Will this rate continue or will climate change be even more abrupt? Stepping back from the flurry of questions, scientists must take a systematic approach and develop a predictive framework. With responsibility for advising on energy and technology strategies, the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research has chosen to bolster the science of climate in order to get the story straight on the factors that cause climate change and the role of carbon loading from fossil fuel use.

  11. Development of regional climate scenarios in the Netherlands -involvement of users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    the impacts of climate change + for adaptation strategies To ensure that the developed climate scenarios required, because users' requirements can be very diverse and may change over time Meetings with climate of users and limitations to deliver certain types of climate data Adapt information and communication

  12. Rwanda-Project to Develop a National Strategy on Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for International Development, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Partner Smith School for Enterprise and Environment, University of Oxford Sector Climate, Energy,...

  13. NGOs & climate change campaigns : understanding variations in motivations and activities of environmental and development organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeve, Kara E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unequal distribution of climate change impacts exploits the existing vulnerabilities of developing nations. This inequity, coupled with an inadequate, climate mitigation-focused response, has prompted a growing movement ...

  14. Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) Feed | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin UrbanCity ofCityCleanInformation Climate and Development

  15. Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFund Jump to:Climate and Development

  16. Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kodra, Evan [Northeastern University; Ganguly, Auroop R [Northeastern University; Steinhaeuser, Karsten [University of Minnesota

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human populations are profoundly affected by water stress, or the lack of sufficient per capita available freshwater. Water stress can result from overuse of available freshwater resources or from a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We present a simple methodology developed to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios are used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes according to several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines are used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections are then combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by watershed and political unit. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, notably including the identification of the globe s most vulnerable regions in need of more detailed analysis and the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population change storylines.

  17. Development of Frameworks for Robust Regional Climate Modeling PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Moetasim Ashfaq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    goals of climate modeling. Water supports the ecosystems as well as a wide range of human activities to improve region- al predictions of the hydrologic cycle to address climate change impacts, adaptationDevelopment of Frameworks for Robust Regional Climate Modeling PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Moetasim

  18. Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy-makers, society and scientists?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy-makers, society and scientists B., Martinez C., Imbach P., 2009. Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy and livelihoods depend largely on ecosystem services, policies for adaptation to climate change should take

  19. Climate-development-energy policy related seminars Spring term 2013 (TB2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Max

    change Climate Change & Development Tue 19th Feb. 13.00- 14.30 Jubilee G31 John Kessels (IEA Clean Coal

  20. The Potential for a Nuclear Renaissance: The Development of Nuclear Power Under Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Potential for a Nuclear Renaissance: The Development of Nuclear Power Under Climate Change and Policy Program #12;#12;The Potential for a Nuclear Renaissance: The Development of Nuclear Power Under the Earth's climate, and will continue to change it for centuries if no action is taken. Nuclear power

  1. A Preliminary Proposal UWM Climate Change and Sustainable Development Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    . As these examples illustrate, the effects of global warming/climate change are wide-ranging, frightening, and continuing, which point to the critical need to understand human impact on climate change and what needs in issues associated with global warming can help address these complex issues. Institute Overview: Over

  2. Development of a High-Performance Office Building Simulation Model for a Hot and Humid Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

    -performance measures applicable to office buildings in hot and humid climates and to develop a high-performance (maximum energy-efficient) building model that only uses technologies readily available in the contemporary market. The high-performance model showed... requirements. This base-case model consumed a total of 7,721 GJ/yr. As shown in Figure 22, the implementation of occupancy sensors impacted the energy consumption the most, saving 11.2% of the total energy consumption. By this measure, indoor lights were...

  3. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: Work...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Institute (AISI) has developed a work plan based on AISI's commitment letter and the Climate Challenge Program which addresses the overall elements of the Climate VISION program...

  4. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Work...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Work Plans API has developed a work plan based on API's commitment letter and the Climate Challenge Program which addresses the overall elements of the Climate VISION program...

  5. Local Response to Global Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Himanshu

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change is possibly the greatest threat facing human society in this century. The response to this challenge has been dominated by international negotiations for controlling greenhouse gas emissions. More recently there are efforts...

  6. EcoAdapt Working Paper Series N1 Adaptation to climate change for local development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 EcoAdapt Working Paper Series N°1 Adaptation to climate change for local development Análisis in terms of employment, water situation and land use, at a quantitative and qualitative level, in three and summer pastures, due to the geographic and climatic conditions. hal-01059368,version1-30Aug2014 #12

  7. Analysing Climate Change Risk in Hydropower Development By Gareth P. Harrison and Bert W. Whittington,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    1 Analysing Climate Change Risk in Hydropower Development By Gareth P. Harrison and Bert W ABSTRACT The continuing and increased use of hydropower is a key part of the strategy to limit the extent a methodology for quantifying the potential impact of climate change on the financial performance of hydropower

  8. THE IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION/URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLIMATE OF PUERTO RICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    THE IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION/URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLIMATE OF PUERTO RICO Angel R. Torres Valcarcel MPH Ph.D José R. Acosta #380 Roosevelt, Hato Rey Puerto Rico atorresv09@gmail.com A detailed analysis of century-scale climate change for Puerto Rico was done to assess the degree to which some

  9. A Climate Network Based Stability Index for El Ni\\~no Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Qing Yi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the existing prediction methods gave a false alarm regarding the El Ni\\~no event in 2014. A crucial aspect is currently limiting the success of such predictions, i.e. the stability of the slowly varying Pacific climate. This property determines whether sea surface temperature perturbations will be amplified by coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks or not. The so-called Bjerknes stability index has been developed for this purpose, but its evaluation is severely constrained by data availability. Here we present a new promising background stability index based on complex network theory. This index efficiently monitors the changes in spatial correlations in the Pacific climate and can be evaluated by using only sea surface temperature data.

  10. The impact of climate change on ski resort operations and development : opportunities and threats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGill, Daniel D. D. (Daniel Dulany deButts)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis serves as a pedagogical guide to the ski resort industry, and presents a broad overview of the unique issues that accompany climate change. The paper also provides recommendations to resort developers as to ...

  11. Climate Change & Sustainable Development Academia Sinica, ITRI, NTHU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ming-Jye

    · Background Motivation (tutorial): ­ Essence of climate change & global warming ­ Essence of energy challenge Line core is saturated. With more CO2, line strength grows in the wings. #12;Global Warming: We% Wood 6% Biofuels 4% #12;Hard to Beat Coal or Natural Gas for Turbine Electricity Generation · Steam

  12. Developing a High-Resolution Texas Water and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    for hyperresolution: global food production; water resources sustainability; flood, drought, and climate change and vegetation; · landatmospheric interactions; soil moisture & evapotranspiration; · inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; · representation of human impacts from water management; · utilizing

  13. Building Climate Smart Agriculture in Africa through Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufts University

    ... stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production since 2004 Countries investing in agriculture in Africa include the United States, UK, Sweden, China

  14. Local Response to Global Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Himanshu

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    in managing threats from natural hazards (Berke & Beatley, 1992; Brody, 2003a; Nelson & Steven), managing land use distribution (Kent & Jones, 1990), enhancing ecosystem management (Brody, 2003c; Brody, Carrasco, & Highfield, 2003; Brody, Highfield... & Godschalk, 2008; Brody, 2003b; Brody, Carrasco, et al., 2003; Burby, 1999; Burby, French, & Nelson, 1998; Burby & May, 1997; Dalton & Burby, 1994; Godschalk, Beatley, Berke, Brower, & Kaiser, 1999). Similarly, climate change researchers have identified...

  15. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas, Christian E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S.  D.  (2010).  Climate Change, Agriculture, and Poverty.  climate change will be most severe for billions of vulnerable populations,  especially those whose livelihoods are based on agriculture 

  16. Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development in Bangladesh (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bangladesh is widely considered to be one of the nations most threatened by climate change. With two-thirds of the country less than 20 feet above sea level, the intrusion of salt into freshwater wells, frequent flooding, and the displacement of people from their homes is an ongoing threat. At the same time, the country's cities are rapidly growing, and the demand for energy is increasing at a corresponding rate.

  17. Promoting India's development: energy security and climate security are convergent goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, Gupta [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shankar, Harihar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joshi, Sunjoy [INDIA

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates three aspects of the energy-climate challenges faced by India. First, we examine energy security in light of anticipated growth in power generation in response to the national goal of maintaining close to 10% growth in GDP. Second, we examine possible options for mitigation and adaptation to climate change for India that it can take to the coming Copenhagen meeting on climate change. Lastly, we introduce an open web based tool for analyzing and planning global energy systems called the Global Energy Observatory (GEO).

  18. Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin UrbanCity ofCityCleanInformation Climate and

  19. Evaluating periodicities in peat-based climate proxy records Graeme T. Swindles a,*, R. Timothy Patterson b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Timothy

    Evaluating periodicities in peat-based climate proxy records Graeme T. Swindles a,*, R. Timothy). Palaeohydrological reconstructions from ombrotrophic peat- lands agree well with other proxy climate data (Baker et

  20. Kazakhstan-Integrated Approaches to the Development of Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Efficiency, Food Supply, Industry, People and Policy Topics - Energy Access, - Energy Security, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Market analysis, Pathways...

  1. Preparing Low-emission and Climate-Resilient Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    It provides a brief outline of the approach and methodologies that these materials treat in detail. About UNDP is assisting national and sub-national governments in developing...

  2. UNDP-Low Emission Climate Resilient Development Strategies (LECRDS...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to their development contexts in support of the preparation of LECRDS. In a flexible and non-prescriptive manner, they offer detailed step-by-step guidance for the...

  3. Changing Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    these data with predictions from the IPCC. Professor of geography at Texas State University, Dr. David Butler, does climate change research mainly in the Rocky Moun- tains with U.S. Geological Survey funding. He has also done research on how climate...://wiid.twdb.state.tx.us Detailed information about individual water wells. This system uses a geographic information system-based tool to show locations of water wells and download data on water levels and water quality. Reports that were developed about on-site conditions...

  4. Development of a High-Performance Office Building Simulation Model for a Hot and Humid Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applicable to office buildings in hot and humid climates and to develop a high-performance (maximum energy-efficient) building model that only uses technologies readily available in the contemporary market. The high-performance model showed 48% total energy...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  6. "Climate change in Massachusetts: What would Henry say?" A field trip-based course for Fall 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, Frank

    1 Syllabus "Climate change in Massachusetts: What would Henry say?" A field trip-based course and animals of Massachusetts, and his records are now being used to document the reality of climate change. If Thoreau were alive today, he could readily observe the impacts of climate change and other human

  7. Energy and Climate Breakthroughs in the Real World A Mixed Used Development in Ohio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillin, L.; Garforth, P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0 014 19/ 5 78 96 13 garforthp@cs.com Energy and Climate Breakthroughs in the Real World ? A Mixed Used Development in Ohio The Marina District development on the banks of the Maumee River in Toledo, Ohio, is a new high density..., the incremental construction costs are well within acceptable levels. On a final historical footnote, the precursor organization of the International District Energy Association was founded over a hundred years ago in?.Toledo, Ohio. In some ways, the Marina...

  8. IDS Climate Change and Development Centre Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua New Energy DevelopmentListI SolCaribbean |

  9. Develop a Web-Based Information System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop a Web-Based Information System Sam Jody Energy Systems Division DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review February 27, 2008 "This presentation does not contain...

  10. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  11. Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation-conceptual

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility DatabaseMichigan: EnergyKansas:DetroitOpen Energy1987)issues and

  12. Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population: Received 22 September 2011 Received in revised form 16 December 2011 Accepted 26 January 2012 Available availability a b s t r a c t Human populations are profoundly affected by water stress, or the lack

  13. Development of a criteria based strategic sourcing model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quińonez, Carlo G. (Carlo Gabriel)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strategic sourcing is a key factor in enhancing Nike's competitiveness and organizational and operational performances. As Nike faces increasing pressure to expand margins and reduce source base risk during a climate of ...

  14. The Influence on Climate Change of Differing Scenarios for Future Development Analyzed Using the MIT Integrated Global System Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    A wide variety of scenarios for future development have played significant roles in climate policy discussions. This paper presents projections of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, sea level rise due to thermal expansion ...

  15. Estimating present climate in a warming world: a model-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raeisaenen, J.; Ruokolainen, L. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Division of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysics

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Weather services base their operational definitions of 'present' climate on past observations, using a 30-year normal period such as 1961-1990 or 1971-2000. In a world with ongoing global warming, however, past data give a biased estimate of the actual present-day climate. Here we propose to correct this bias with a 'delta change' method, in which model-simulated climate changes and observed global mean temperature changes are used to extrapolate past observations forward in time, to make them representative of present or future climate conditions. In a hindcast test for the years 1991-2002, the method works well for temperature, with a clear improvement in verification statistics compared to the case in which the hindcast is formed directly from the observations for 1961-1990. However, no improvement is found for precipitation, for which the signal-to-noise ratio between expected anthropogenic changes and interannual variability is much lower than for temperature. An application of the method to the present (around the year 2007) climate suggests that, as a geographical average over land areas excluding Antarctica, 8-9 months per year and 8-9 years per decade can be expected to be warmer than the median for 1971-2000. Along with the overall warming, a substantial increase in the frequency of warm extremes at the expense of cold extremes of monthly-to-annual temperature is expected.

  16. Formulating Climate Change Scenarios to Inform Climate - Resilient...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Formulating Climate Change Scenarios to Inform Climate - Resilient Development Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Formulating Climate Change...

  17. Differentiating climatic and successional influences on long-term development of a marsh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, D.K.; Jackson, S.T. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Madsen, B.J.; Wilcox, D.A. [Great Lakes Science Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparison of long-term records of local wetland vegetation dynamics with regional, climate-forced terrestrial vegetation changes can be used to differentiate the rates and effects of autogenic successional processes and allogenic environmental change on wetland vegetation dynamics. We studied Holocene plant macrofossil and pollen sequences from Portage Marsh, a shallow, 18-ha marsh in northeastern Indiana. Between 10 000 and 5700 yr BP the basin was occupied by a shallow, open lake, while upland vegetation consisted of mesic forests of Pinus, Quercus, Ulmus, and Carya. At 5700 yr BP the open lake was replaced rapidly by a shallow marsh, while simultaneously Quercus savanna developed on the surrounding uplands. The marsh was characterized by periodic drawdowns, and the uplands by periodic fires. Species composition of the marsh underwent further changes between 3000 and 2000 yr BP. Upland pollen spectra at Portage Marsh and other sites in the region shifted towards more mesic vegetation during that period. The consistency and temporal correspondence between the changes in upland vegetation and marsh vegetation indicate that the major vegetational changes in the marsh during the Holocene resulted from hydrologic changes forced by regional climate change. Progressive shallowing of the basin by autogenic accumulation of organic sediment constrained vegetational responses to climate change but did not serve as the direct mechanism of change. 84 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  19. A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy flow to sustain the world's economy and population. We show that a feasible transition pathway requires that the rate of investment in renewable energy should accelerate approximately by an order of magnitude if we are to stay within the range of IPCC recommendations.

  20. Probabilistic Forecast for Twenty-First-Century Climate Based on Uncertainties in Emissions (Without Policy) and Climate Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model is used to make probabilistic projections of climate change from 1861 to 2100. Since the model’s first projections were published in 2003, ...

  1. Probabilistic Forecast for 21st Century Climate Based on Uncertainties in Emissions (without Policy) and Climate Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei P.

    The MIT Integrated Global System Model is used to make probabilistic projections of climate change from 1861 to 2100. Since the model's first projections were published in 2003 substantial improvements have been made to ...

  2. Tropical precipitation simulated by the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3): an evaluation based on TRMM satellite measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, Jonathan Craig

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the simulation of tropical precipitation by the Community Climate Model, Version 3, developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. For an evaluation of the annual cycle of precipitation, ...

  3. Negotiating future climates for public policy: a critical assessment of the development of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulme, Mike

    ) or of seasonal forecasting (a few months): Earth system models aim to simulate future climatic evolution over

  4. Russian naval bases due commercial development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Tecnogrid Group, New York, has signed a joint venture with the Russian Navy for commercial development of a wide range of sea dn land based assets owned by the former Soviet Navy. This paper reports that among other things, the venture aims for projects that will allow greater volumes of oil exports by revamping several naval bases. Tecnogrid's partner in the joint venture is AO Navicon, A Russian stock holding company that is the commercial arm of the Navy. Navicon has the sole right to commercially develop and deploy the Navy's assets. The Navy can no longer depend on the state for support, and Adm. Ig. Malhonin. With that in mind, the Navy is looking to become the leading force in moving toward a free market economy. Mahonin is Russia's second ranking naval official.

  5. Weather-based yield forecasts developed for 12 California crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobell, David; Cahill, Kimberly Nicholas; Field, Christopher

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Weather-based yield forecasts developed fordepend largely on the weather, measurements from existingpredictions. We developed weather-based models of statewide

  6. Development of a Bio-Based, Inexpensive, Noncorrosive, Nonflammable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Bio-Based, Inexpensive, Noncorrosive, Nonflammable Phenolic Foam for Building Insulation Development of a Bio-Based, Inexpensive, Noncorrosive, Nonflammable...

  7. Google Earth as a geospatial tool for development organisations: mapping climate change vulnerability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossley, Janet Ruth

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    needed to represent the issue of vulnerability, and Google Earth allows for users to explore and understand even more information. This study draws examples from a mapping project of climate change vulnerability in Niger, and discusses the lessons...Geographical Information Systems have not been as successful in the non-governmental humanitarian sector as GIS professionals had hoped. If geospatial tools are to become more widely used and valuable within the humanitarian sector, it is perhaps time for a new approach to be taken. A debate is currently underway about the potential role of Google Earth in emergency relief operations. This research extends the scope of this discussion into the wider development sector, and asks whether Google Earth has the potential to become a useful tool in various aspects of development NGO work. Information management tools need to have wide support within an organisation to be successful, and it seems that many are very interested in what can be done using compromise geospatial/geovisualisation tools such as Google Earth. However there is also scepticism about its usefulness. This research suggests practical applications and recommendations for good use so that actors within the development sector can take the research further....

  8. National climate change action plans: Interim report for developing and transition countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benioff, R.; Ness, E.; Hirst, J. [eds.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under its Support for National Action Plans (SNAP) initiative, the U.S. Country Studies Program is providing financial and technical assistance to 18 countries for the development of climate change action plans. Although most of the countries have not yet completed their plans, the important lessons learned thus far are valuable and should be shared with other countries and international institutions that have an interest in the process of action plan development. This interim report describes the experience of 11 countries that are the furthest along in their planning activity and who have offered to share their results to date with the larger community of interested nations. These action plans delineate specific mitigation and adaptation measures that the countries will implement and integrate into their ongoing development programs. This report focuses on the measures the countries have selected and the methods they used to prepare their action plans. This executive summary presents key lessons and common themes using a structure similar to that used in the individual country chapters.

  9. Development and Analysis of a Sustainable Low Energy House in a Hot and Humid Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chulsukon, P.; Haberl, J. S.; Degelman, L. O.; Sylvester, K. E.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling. In cold-climate countries, electricity is often used for space heating as well. Natural gas is mainly Energy Used in Building Demolition Demolition Removal Energy Used in Building Operation Space Cooling Lighting Equipment Water... Lifetime Building Energy Consumption Figure 1: Lifetime Building Energy Consumption Components for a Typical Residence in Thailand. used for only cooking for hot and humid climates such as Thailand. In cold climates, gas is also used for space...

  10. A case study of industrial building energy performance in a cold climate region in a developing country

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 A case study of industrial building energy performance in a cold climate region in a developing to analyze industrial building energy performance. A lack of communication, cultural differences in design of methods to evaluate building energy use, air leakage, condensation, thermal insulation, and indoor air

  11. Sustainable Development (20 credits) The carbon cycle, its impact on climate, and the need to change this by introducing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miall, Chris

    Sustainable Development (20 credits) The carbon cycle, its impact on climate, and the need of Government legislation on technology and the growth of sustainable businesses will be emphasised and building sustainable hydrogen industries. · Metals recycling. · Mass and energy balances on human

  12. Development and application of WRF3.3-CLM4crop to study of agriculture - climate interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yaqiong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global Climate Change and United-States Agriculture, Nature,climate modeling Land surface modeling Agriculture and climate interaction Land use change

  13. CLIMATE-BASED DAYLIGHT PERFORMANCE: BALANCING VISUAL AND NON-VISUAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT INPUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Andersen; J. Mardaljevic; Nicolas Roy; Jens Christoffersen

    This study uses a domestic dwelling as the setting to investigate and explore the applicability of daylighting metrics for residential buildings, including the formulation of metrics for nonvisual effects. The simulation approach used to generate the performance data from which the metrics are derived is called climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM). This approach delivers predictions of various luminous quantities using sun and sky conditions that are derived from standardised annual meteorological datasets. Although there are uncertainties regarding the precise calibration, there is now sufficient empirical data to parameterise models that also simulate the non-visual aspects of daylight, e.g. for circadian entrainment and a general sense of ?alertness?. For these non-visual aspects, vertical illuminance at the eye was predicted using a modified climate-based daylight modelling approach. In the paper, we consider what relation there might be between the three aspects of daylight provision and if these relations appear to be complementary or conflicting in nature: for task; to reduce electric lighting usage; and, for non-visual effects. The implications for future building guidelines for daylighting are also discussed.

  14. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard , A.

    2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values.

  15. Development of Lignin-Based Polyurethane Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Jackson, Daniel C [ORNL] [ORNL; Trammell, Neil E [ORNL] [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In our continued effort to develop value-added thermoplastics from lignin, here we report utilizing a tailored feedstock to synthesize mechanically robust thermoplastic polyurethanes at very high lignin contents (75 65 wt %). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of lignin were altered through cross-linking with formaldehyde. The cross-linked lignin was coupled with diisocyanate-based telechelic polybutadiene as a network-forming soft segment. The appearance of two Tg s, around 35 and 154 C, for the polyurethanes indicates the existence of two-phase morphology, a characteristic of thermoplastic copolymers. A calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of 7.71 also suggests phase immiscibility in the synthesized lignin polyurethanes. An increase in lignin loading increased the modulus, and an increase in crosslink-density increased the modulus in the rubbery plateau region of the thermoplastic. This path for synthesis of novel lignin-based polyurethane thermoplastics provides a design tool for high performance lignin-based biopolymers.

  16. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas, Christian E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climate change, and local economies:  Facilitating communication climate change, and local economies:  Facilitating communication 

  17. Composting projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: Sustainable contribution to mitigate climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogger, Cyrill [Department for Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Kreuzplatz 5, 8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Beaurain, Francois [South Pole Carbon Asset Management Ltd., Switzerland, Technoparkstr. 1, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmidt, Tobias S., E-mail: tobiasschmidt@ethz.ch [Department for Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Kreuzplatz 5, 8032 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and at the same time to assist these countries in sustainable development. While composting as a suitable mitigation option in the waste sector can clearly contribute to the former goal there are indications that high rents can also be achieved regarding the latter. In this article composting is compared with other CDM project types inside and outside the waste sector with regards to both project numbers and contribution to sustainable development. It is found that, despite the high number of waste projects, composting is underrepresented and a major reason for this fact is identified. Based on a multi-criteria analysis it is shown that composting has a higher potential for contribution to sustainable development than most other best in class projects. As these contributions can only be assured if certain requirements are followed, eight key obligations are presented.

  18. The potential for a nuclear renaissance : the development of nuclear power under climate change mitigation policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osouf, Nicolas

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are very likely to have already changed the Earth's climate, and will continue to change it for centuries if no action is taken. Nuclear power, a nearly carbon-free source of ...

  19. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into urban development : lessons from two South African cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Leanne A. (Leanne Andrea)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a risk that urban climate change adaptation planning - often led by city environmental agencies - will remain isolated from ongoing city decision-making processes, and thus irrelevant, unless adaptation is ...

  20. The uses and misuses of technology development as a component of climate policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The current misplaced focus on short-term climate policies is a product both of domestic political exigencies and badly flawed technical analyses. A prime example of the latter is a recent U.S. Department of Energy study, ...

  1. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  2. programs in climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change

  3. aqueous base developable: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 41 Community-Based Associations for Sustainable Tourism Development. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ?? Community-Based Tourism...

  4. Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology-Based Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology- Based Research Oceanyx Pharmaceuticals is a novel drug discovery and development company that leverages marine biology-based natural identified two lead candidates, largazole and apratoxin, as potential drug candidates for the treatment

  5. Water Poverty in Sub-Saharan African nation: GIS based index for assessing vulnerability in relation to climate change data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trakosa, Anastasia

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Access to safe water is currently a privilege for the citizens of many developing countries in Asia and Africa. In the last few decades changes in climate have increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses. The results of global warming have had a...

  6. Rural Community-Based Energy Development Act (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act aims to create new rural economic development opportunities through rural community-based energy development. The act supports C-BED wind development projects, which are defined as...

  7. Varying trends in surface energy fluxes and associated climatebetween 1960-2002 based on transient climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarenko, Larissa; Menon, Surabi

    2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The observed reduction in land surface radiation over the last several decades (1960-1990)---the so-called ''dimming effect''--- and the more recent evidence of a reversal in ''dimming'' over some locations beyond 1990 suggest several consequences on climate, notably on the hydrological cycle. Such a reduction in radiation should imply reduced surface temperature (Ts) and precipitation, which have not occurred. We have investigated the possible causes for the above climate features using a climate model coupled to a dynamic ocean model under natural and anthropogenic conditions. To isolate the aerosol influence on surface radiation trends, we have analyzed transient climate simulations from1960 to 2002 with and without anthropogenic aerosols. Based on a linear trend with aerosol effects included, the global mean change in the surface solar radiation absorbed over land is -0.021+-0.0033 Wm-2yr-1. Although the overall trend is negative, we do note a reversal in dimming after 1990, consistent with observations. Without aerosol effects, the surface solar radiation absorbed over land increases throughout 1960 to 2002, mainly due to the decrease in cloud cover associated with increased greenhouse warming. In spite of a simulated increase in Ts of 0.012 Kyr-1 for 1960 to 2002, the global mean latent heat flux and associated intensity of the hydrological cycle decrease overall, however with increases over some land locations due mainly to moisture advection. Simulated changes correspond more closely to observed changes when accounting for aerosol effects on climate.

  8. Ensemble climate predictions using climate models and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REVIEW Ensemble climate predictions using climate models and observational constraints BY PETER A. STOTT 1,* AND CHRIS E. FOREST 2 1 Hadley Centre for Climate Change (Reading Unit), Meteorology Building for constraining climate predictions based on observations of past climate change. The first uses large ensembles

  9. Development of an Atmospheric Climate Model with Self-Adapting Grid and Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, Joyce E. [University of Michigan] University of Michigan

    2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was targeting the development of a computational approach that would allow resolving cloud processes on small-scales within the framework of the most recent version of the NASA/NCAR Finite-Volume Community Atmospheric Model (FVCAM). The FVCAM is based on the multidimensional Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian (FFSL) dynamical core and uses a ?vertically Lagrangian? finite-volume (FV) representation of the model equations with a mass-conserving re-mapping algorithm. The Lagrangian coordinate requires a remapping of the Lagrangian volume back to Eulerian coordinates to restore the original resolution and keep the mesh from developing distortions such as layers with overlapping interfaces. The main objectives of the project were, first, to develop the 3D library which allows refinement and coarsening of the model domain in spherical coordinates, and second, to develop a non-hydrostatic code for calculation of the model variables within the refined areas that could be seamlessly incorporated with the hydrostatic finite volume dynamical core when higher resolution is wanted. We also updated the aerosol simulation model in CAM in order to ready the model for the treatment of aerosol/cloud interactions.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to address the most challenging and demanding climate-change issues. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) is designed to accel-erate the development and applica-tion of...

  11. The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) Software Development: Applications, Infrastructure, and Middleware/Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of and future plans for the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) hinge on software that PCMDI is either currently distributing or plans to distribute to the climate community in the near future. These software products include standard conventions, national and international federated infrastructures, and community analysis and visualization tools. This report also mentions other secondary software not necessarily led by or developed at PCMDI to provide a complete picture of the overarching applications, infrastructures, and middleware/networks. Much of the software described anticipates the use of future technologies envisioned over the span of next year to 10 years. These technologies, together with the software, will be the catalyst required to address extreme-scale data warehousing, scalability issues, and service-level requirements for a diverse set of well-known projects essential for predicting climate change. These tools, unlike the previous static analysis tools of the past, will support the co-existence of many users in a productive, shared virtual environment. This advanced technological world driven by extreme-scale computing and the data it generates will increase scientists’ productivity, exploit national and international relationships, and push research to new levels of understanding.

  12. Weather-based yield forecasts developed for 12 California crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobell, David; Cahill, Kimberly Nicholas; Field, Christopher

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate Change Center at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (M. Tyree, staff scientist, personal communication).

  13. Developing fundamentally based models for autoignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijaya, Catherina D. (Catherina Dewi)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is renewed interest in autoignition, especially due to the recent development of the homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, highly promising with its low Nox and particulate emissions and high efficiency. ...

  14. Development of Distributed Programming Developing Tool-Kit Based on Object Group Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Su-Chong

    Development of Distributed Programming Developing Tool-Kit Based on Object Group Model Jeong of the grouped distributed objects[10-14], as a logical unit of distributed application service, and developed a distributed programming developing tool-kit based on object group model(OGM-DPD Tool-Kit). This Tool- Kit can

  15. Development of a Robust Accelerometer-based Start of Combustion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    a Robust Accelerometer-based Start of Combustion Sensing System Development of a Robust Accelerometer-based Start of Combustion Sensing System Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office...

  16. An MDA approach to tame component based software development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FMCO'03 An MDA approach to tame component based software development Jean-Marc Jézéquel, Olivier- ture (MDA) can be used in relation with component based software engineer- ing. A software component

  17. Development of a cell-based stream flow routing model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Rajeev

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the development of a cell-based routing model. The model developed is a two parameter hydrological routing model that uses a coarse resolution stream network to route runoff from each cell in the watershed ...

  18. A platform based approach for embedded systems software development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Deepak

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A platform based approach for product development allows companies to eliminate redundancies, efficiently utilize its resources and provide products for a wider market. The basic idea is to develop and share key components ...

  19. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business and Technology Cooperation Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on renewable energy and clean coal development, is a coreentrepreneurs in India. The Clean Coal Business Development

  20. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, C.H.; Eide, S.A.

    1993-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure data base for the Savannah River Site (SRS). A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. This information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor) for each component failure mode.

  1. Development and evaluation of a convection scheme for use in climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel, K.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Program for Atmospheres, Oceans, and Climate] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Program for Atmospheres, Oceans, and Climate; Zivkovic-Rothman, M. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cumulus convection is a key process in controlling the water vapor content of the atmosphere, which is in turn the largest feedback mechanism for climate change in global climate models. Yet scant attention has been paid to designing convective representations that attempt to handle water vapor with fidelity, and even less to evaluating their performance. Here the authors attempt to address this deficiency by designing a representation of cumulus convection with close attention paid to convective water fluxes and by subjecting the scheme to rigorous tests using sounding array data. The authors maintain that such tests, in which a single-column model is forced by large-scale processes measured by or inferred from the sounding data, must be carried out over a period at least as long as the radiative-subsidence timescale--about 30 days--governing the water vapor adjustment time. The authors also argue that the observed forcing must be preconditioned to guarantee integral enthalpy conservation, else errors in the single-column prediction may be falsely attributed to convective schemes. Optimization of the new scheme`s parameters is performed using one month of data from the intensive flux array operating during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment, with the aid of the adjoint of the linear tangent of the single-column model. Residual root-mean-square errors, after optimization, are about 15% in relative humidity and .8 K in temperature. It is difficult to reject the hypothesis that the residual errors are due to noise in the forcing. Evaluation of the convective scheme is performed using Global Atmospheric Research Program Atlantic Tropical Experiment data. The performance of the scheme is compared to that of a few other schemes used in current climate models. It is also shown that a vertical resolution better than 50 mb in pressure is necessary for accurate prediction of atmospheric water vapor.

  2. Physically-Based Global Downscaling: Climate Change Projections for a Full Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A global atmosphere/land model with an embedded subgrid orography scheme is used to simulate the period 1977-2100 using ocean surface conditions and radiative constituent concentrations for a climate change scenario. Climate variables simulated for multiple elevation classes are mapping according to the high-resolution of topography in ten regions with complex terrain. Analysis of changes in the simulated climate lead to the following conclusions. Changes in precipitation vary widely, with precipitation increasing more with increasing altitude in some region, decreasing more with altitude in others, and changing little in still others. In some regions the sign of the precipitation change depends on surface elevation. Changes in surface air temperature are rather uniform, with at most a two-fold difference between the largest and smallest changes within a region. In most cases the warming increases with altitude. Changes in snow water are highly dependent on altitude. Absolute changes usually increase with altitude, while relative changes decrease. In places where snow accumulates, an artificial upper bound on snow water limits the sensitivity of snow water to climate change considerably. The simulated impact of climate change on regional mean snow water varies widely, with little impact in regions in which the upper bound on snow water is the dominant snow water sink, moderate impact in regions with a mixture of seasonal and permanent snow, and profound impacts on regions with little permanent snow.

  3. Physically-Based Global Downscaling Climate Change Projections for a Full Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A global atmosphere/land model with an embedded subgrid orography scheme is used to simulate the period 1977-2100 using ocean surface conditions and radiative constituent concentrations for a climate change scenario. Climate variables simulated for multiple elevation classes are mapping according to a high-resolution elevation dataset in ten regions with complex terrain. Analysis of changes in the simulated climate leads to the following conclusions. Changes in precipitation vary widely, with precipitation increasing more with increasing altitude in some region, decreasing more with altitude in others, and changing little in still others. In some regions the sign of the precipitation change depends on surface elevation. Changes in surface air temperature are rather uniform, with at most a two-fold difference between the largest and smallest changes within a region; in most cases the warming increases with altitude. Changes in snow water are highly dependent on altitude. Absolute changes usually increase with altitude, while relative changes decrease. In places where snow accumulates, an artificial upper bound on snow water limits the sensitivity of snow water to climate change considerably. The simulated impact of climate change on regional mean snow water varies widely, with little impact in regions in which the upper bound on snow water is the dominant snow water sink, moderate impact in regions with a mixture of seasonal and permanent snow, and profound impacts on regions with little permanent snow.

  4. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business and Technology Cooperation Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capacity of diesel based back-up generation in India may befactor (PLF) of diesel-based back-up generation plants isthe PLF of diesel-based back-up generation plants in Gujarat

  5. FY08 LDRD Final Report Regional Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, D C; Chin, H; Caldwell, P M

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated, multi-model capability for regional climate change simulation is needed to perform original analyses to understand and prepare for the impacts of climate change on the time and space scales that are critical to California's future environmental quality and economic prosperity. Our intent was to develop a very high resolution regional simulation capability to address consequences of climate change in California to complement the global modeling capability that is supported by DOE at LLNL and other institutions to inform national and international energy policies. The California state government, through the California Energy Commission (CEC), institutionalized the State's climate change assessment process through its biennial climate change reports. The bases for these reports, however, are global climate change simulations for future scenarios designed to inform international policy negotiations, and are primarily focused on the global to continental scale impacts of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. These simulations do not meet the needs of California public and private officials who will make major decisions in the next decade that require an understanding of climate change in California for the next thirty to fifty years and its effects on energy use, water utilization, air quality, agriculture and natural ecosystems. With the additional development of regional dynamical climate modeling capability, LLNL will be able to design and execute global simulations specifically for scenarios important to the state, then use those results to drive regional simulations of the impacts of the simulated climate change for regions as small as individual cities or watersheds. Through this project, we systematically studied the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling global model results with a regional mesoscale model to guide others, particularly university researchers, who are using the technique based on models with less complete parameterizations or coarser spatial resolution. Further, LLNL has now built a capability in state-of-the-science mesoscale climate modeling that complements that which it has in global climate simulation, providing potential sponsors with an end-to-end simulation and analysis program.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A MEVVA BASED BERYLLIUM7 PLASMA SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    DEVELOPMENT OF A MEVVA BASED BERYLLIUM­7 PLASMA SOURCE by David K. Olson A thesis submitted Dean College of Mathematics and Physical Sciences #12;ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT OF A MEVVA BASED BERYLLIUM­7 source designs. Our pri- mary intent with this MeVVA­type source is to create a confinable beryllium-7 (7

  7. Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.

    booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994 that will address climate change. Scientists tell us that the climate of the earth is warming, and that the warming into the foundation of the world economy and into the everyday things we do (driving) and use (electricity). Thus

  8. A 2000 year varve-based climate record from the central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, B.W.; Abbott, M.B.; Finney, B.P.; Kutchko, Barbara

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Varved minerogenic sediments from glacial-fed Blue Lake, northern Alaska, are used to investigate late Holocene climate variability. Varve thickness measurements track summer temperature recorded at Atigun Pass, located 41 km east at a similar elevation (r2 = 0.31, P = 0.08). Results indicate that climate in the Brooks Range from 10 to 730 AD (varve year) was warm with precipitation inferred to be higher than during the twentieth century. The varve-temperature relationship for this period was likely compromised and not used in our temperature reconstruction because the glacier was greatly reduced, or absent, exposing sub-glacial sediments to erosion from enhanced precipitation.

  9. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business and Technology Cooperation Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to optimize fuel efficiency of haul trucks Research anddevelopment support to haul truck manufacturers to develop

  10. Prediction-based estimating functions: review and new developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sørensen, Michael

    Prediction-based estimating functions: review and new developments Michael Sørensen University@math.ku.dk March 9, 2011 Abstract The general theory of prediction-based estimating functions for stochastic differential equations. The Pearson diffusions, for which explicit optimal prediction-based estimating func

  11. Editors Kirsten Halsns & Amit Garg ENERGY, CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Editors Kirsten Halsnćs & Amit Garg ENERGY, CLIMATE Sustainable Development, Energy and Climate Development, Energy and Climate Exploring Synergies and Tradeoffs Methodological Issues and Case Studies from Brazil, China, India, South Africa, Bangladesh and Senegal Editors Kirsten Halsnćs & Amit Garg ENERGY

  12. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  13. current issues in international rural development published by the swedish university of agricultural sciences december 2008 CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of agricultural sciences · december 2008 CLIMATE CHANGE LOCAL ADAPTATION UNDER FURTHER STRESS 44/45 #12;2 currents Climate change, but not turning warmer. other photos: Johan Toborn, unless stated otherwise. No direct link to the respective article is intended, but rather reminds us of our own imminent climate change

  14. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business and Technology Cooperation Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of captive power generation that often uses diesel fuel. Thegeneration. The total installed capacity of diesel based captive power

  15. The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central · Climate with enhanced cloud absorption Synthesis of models and aerosol observations: · Development

  16. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business and Technology Cooperation Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to optimize fuel efficiency of haul trucks Research andto haul truck manufacturers to develop more fuel-efficient

  17. Community-Based Energy Development (C-BED) Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Community-Based Energy Development (C-BED) Tariff, each public utility in Minnesota is required to file with the state Public Utilities Commission (PUC) to create a 20-year power purchase...

  18. Analyzing and Developing Role-Based Access Control Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Analyzing and Developing Role-Based Access Control Models by Liang Chen A thesis submitted-based access control (RBAC) has become today's dominant access control model, and many of its theoretical and practical aspects are well understood. However, certain aspects of more advanced RBAC models

  19. Development of a cell-based stream flow routing model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Rajeev

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the development of a cell-based routing model. The model developed is a two parameter hydrological routing model that uses a coarse resolution stream network to route runoff from each cell in the watershed to the outlet...

  20. Development of a Residential Code-Compliant Calculator for the Texas Climate Vision Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Marshall, K.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Gilman, D. R.; Stackhouse, R.; Cordes, J.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.; Morgan, R.; Montgomery, C.; Liu, Z.

    of a single-family house and how the web-based software collects, calculates and certifies above-code compliance for each home, while aggregating data and providing value to builders, inspectors and Austin Energy....

  1. The Masdar Development - Climate Engineering for a Carbon-neutral City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuler, M.; Fiedler, T.; Lauster, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    approach of defining sustainable urban development: The six square kilometer city, designed by Foster and Partner for the Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company, is eventually to house 50,000 people in accordance with WWF One Planet Living sustainability standards...

  2. Long-Term Climate Change Assessment Task for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program: Status through FY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US); Chatters, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized (Adams and Wing 1986) to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The goals of the Barrier Development Program are to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 years; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the barrier`s ability to meet its 1,000-year design life. The performance and stability of natural barrier analogs that have existed for several millennia and the reconstruction of climate changes during the past 10,000 to 125,000 years also will provide insight into bounding conditions of possible future changes and increase confidence in the barriers design. In the following discussion the term {open_quotes}long-term{close_quotes} references periods of time up to 1000`s of years, distinguishing it from {open_quotes}short-term{close_quotes} weather patterns covering a decade or less. Specific activities focus on planning and conducting a series of studies and tests required to confirm key aspects of the barrier design. The effort is a collaborative one between scientists and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to design barriers to limit movement of radionuclides and other contaminants to the accessible environment for at least 1,000 years. These activities have been divided into 14 groups of tasks that aid in the complete development of protective barrier and warning marker system.

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Moving UBC Food Outlets Beyond Climate Neutral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Moving UBC Food Outlets ..................................................................................................................................... 27 Abstract With the increase in global energy use there has been a subsequent increase in greenhouse of qualitative interviews with key stakeholders. Key findings include the low supply of local food, the need

  4. Climate Change and Place Roundtable Discussion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Urban Development and Climate Change,” 2007. The fullThink about what runaway climate change would mean where youWorld Changing Seattle, WA Climate change is global in scale

  5. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  6. South Africa-Developing Climate Policy Capacity within the South African

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteelSolarSolkar SolarSomontDeveloping Countries

  7. Predicting the future of forests in the Mediterranean under climate change, with niche-and process-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keenan, Trevor

    Predicting the future of forests in the Mediterranean under climate change, with niche- and process important future climatic changes are expected. Here, we assess and compare two commonly used modeling, 2004), and the potential response of these distributions to future climatic change (e.g. Thomas et al

  8. Global climatic catastrophes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budyko, M.I.; Golitsyn, G.S.; Izrael, A

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work inquires into global climatic catastrophes of the past, presenting data not easily available outside of the Socialist Countries, and applies these results to the study of future climatic developments, especially as they threaten in case of Nuclear Warfare - Nuclear Winter. The authors discuss probable after effects from the Soviet point of view on the basis of research, stressing the need to avoid all conflict which might lead to the next and final Global Climatic Catastrophy.

  9. Development of the design climatic data for the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook -- Fundamentals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colliver, D.G.; Burks, T.F.; Gates, R.S.; Zhang, H.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the process used to revise the design weather data tables in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. Design conditions were determined for 509 US, 134 Canadian, 339 European, 293 Asian, and 169 other worldwide locations. Thirty-three years of hourly weather data were used for approximately half of the US and all of the Canadian locations. Twelve years of data were used for the other locations. The data went through quality checking and short-term linear interpolation filling processes. Months that had sufficient data were then used in the analysis. The data were analyzed to produce annual frequency-of-occurrence design dry-bulb (DB), wet-bulb (WB), and dew-point (DP) temperatures with mean coincident values at the design conditions. A comparison with the previous design values indicated that the new dry-bulb and wet-bulb design conditions are slightly less extreme than the values previously published. However, the new design dew-point values indicate the potential for significantly more extreme dehumidification design conditions than would be found by using the old extreme dry-bulb temperature with mean coincident wet-bulb temperature. Software was also developed so users could extract the design values, cumulative frequencies, and DB/DP, DB/WB, DB/H, and DB/WS coincident matrices for 1444 locations from a CD-ROM.

  10. Density Functional Theory-Based Database Development and CALPHAD Automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Density Functional Theory-Based Database Development and CALPHAD Automation YI WANG,1,2 SHUNLI, the integration of first-principles calculations, CALPHAD modeling, and the automation of phase diagram, and the automated calculation of a phase diagram for the Al- Mg system. INTRODUCTION In thermodynamics, a phase

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Network for Development of Electroporation-Based Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubljana, University of

    of medicine, biotechnology and environmental preservation. Keywords Electroporation Á Cancer treatment ÁORIGINAL ARTICLES Network for Development of Electroporation-Based Technologies and Treatments August 2012 Ó The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract

  12. Computational Study of the Development of Graphene Based Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellido Sosa, Edson

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    are needed. In this work, a series of studies are performed in order to develop graphene based devices. First, using MD simulations we study the effects of irradiating graphene with a carbon ion atom at several positions and energies from 0.1 eV to 100 ke...

  13. WREN--An Environment for Component-Based Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Hoek, André

    WREN-- An Environment for Component-Based Development Chris Lüer David S. Rosenblum Institute in software environments focused on three impor- tant problems-- tool integration, artifact management, and process guidance. The context for that research, and hence the orientation of the resulting environments

  14. Towards an MDA-based development methodology for distributed applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pires, LuĂ­s Ferreira

    71 Towards an MDA-based development methodology for distributed applications Anastasius Gavras1 and concepts of the Model-Driven Architecture (MDA). The paper identifies phases and activities of an MDA the applicability and potential of MDA in the context of telecom services and applications. This paper also

  15. Validating a physics-based back-of-the-envelope climate model with state-of-the-art data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benestad, Rasmus E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An old conceptual physics-based back-of-the-envelope model for greenhouse effect is revisited and validated against state-of-the-art reanalyses. Untraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture, for which the state of earth's climate is constrained by well-known physical principles, such as energy balance, flow and, conservation. Greenhouse gas concentrations affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place without being re-absorbed. Such increase is seen in the reanalyses. There has also been a reduction in the correlation between the spatial structure of outgoing long-wave radiation and surface temperature, consistent with increasingly more processes interfering with the upwelling infrared light before it reaches the top of the atmosphere. State-of-the-art reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical e...

  16. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  17. UNEP Rise Centre Energy, Climate and Sustainable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNEP Risře Centre ­ Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development Organisational set;UNEP Risře Centre ­ Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development International and Danish research team by an International Scientific Advisory Panel · Risř - Programme on Energy, Environment & Development Planning #12

  18. Evaluation of Climate-Based Daylight Performance in Tropical Office Buildings- A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szu-Cheng, CHIEN; King Jet, TSENG

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Z. Rogers, Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics forof interior design on the daylight availability in open plan2002. [14] Z. Rogers, Daylight metric development using

  19. Utilization of Science-Based Information on Climate Change in Decision Making and the Public Policy Process - Phase 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vedlitz, Arnold; Lindquist, Eric; Liu, Xinsheng; Zahran, Sammy; Wood, B. Dan; Alston, Letitia T.; North, Gerald

    2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    . Public?s Views about the Impact of Climate Change ....................................................... 4 Figure 2. Time Frame for Global Warming/Climate Change to Exert Significant Impact on the US... Negative?Health?Impact Negative?Economic? Impact Negative?Environmental? Impact Institute for Science, Technology and Public Policy ? The Bush School ? Texas A&M University 5 When surveyed as to the time frame for global warming/climate change to exert a...

  20. Development of Sensors for Automotive PEM-based Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FC Series 200 - 50 kW PEM #12;2 Development of Sensors for Automotive PEM-based Fuel Cells ­ Program Thermal Management System Cabin safety / H2 sensor Fuel Cell Stack / CO, H2 , RH, O2 , pressure sensors streams: before, in, and after reformer, before and in fuel cell stack: CO, H2, O2, H2S, NH3. ­Safety [H2

  1. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

  2. White paper on "Speleothem-based climate proxy records" Dominik Fleitmann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., 2002). 2. Oxygen (!18 O) isotope ratio: interpreted as variations in cave temperature and properties downstream of the source caused by equilibration of aqueous CO2 with cave air is also recognised, and in some in speleothem-based research. This has led to focused and high-quality research that has utilised many

  3. Uncertainty in Simulating Wheat Yields Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J.W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Ruane, Alex; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, Peter; Rotter, R.P.; Cammarano, D.; Brisson, N.; Basso, B.; Martre, P.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, AJ; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grant, Robert; Heng, L.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Mueller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.O.; Olesen, JE; Osborne, T.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Travasso, M.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments1,2. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change has been increasingly described in the literature3,4 while assessments of the uncertainty in crop responses to climate change are very rare. Systematic and objective comparisons across impact studies is difficult, and thus has not been fully realized5. Here we present the largest coordinated and standardized crop model intercomparison for climate change impacts on wheat production to date. We found that several individual crop models are able to reproduce measured grain yields under current diverse environments, particularly if sufficient details are provided to execute them. However, simulated climate change impacts can vary across models due to differences in model structures and algorithms. The crop-model component of uncertainty in climate change impact assessments was considerably larger than the climate-model component from Global Climate Models (GCMs). Model responses to high temperatures and temperature-by-CO2 interactions are identified as major sources of simulated impact uncertainties. Significant reductions in impact uncertainties through model improvements in these areas and improved quantification of uncertainty through multi-model ensembles are urgently needed for a more reliable translation of climate change scenarios into agricultural impacts in order to develop adaptation strategies and aid policymaking.

  4. A review and development of correlations for base pressure and base heating in supersonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, J.P. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oberkampf, W.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive review of experimental base pressure and base heating data related to supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles has been completed. Particular attention was paid to free-flight data as well as wind tunnel data for models without rear sting support. Using theoretically based correlation parameters, a series of internally consistent, empirical prediction equations has been developed for planar and axisymmetric geometries (wedges, cones, and cylinders). These equations encompass the speed range from low supersonic to hypersonic flow and laminar and turbulent forebody boundary layers. A wide range of cone and wedge angles and cone bluntness ratios was included in the data base used to develop the correlations. The present investigation also included preliminary studies of the effect of angle of attack and specific-heat ratio of the gas.

  5. Towards climate change adaptation, sustainable development and conflict resolution the Cinturn Andino Biosphere Reserve in Southern Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borsdorf, Axel

    Andino Biosphere Reserve in Southern Colombia Axel Borsdorf, Falk Borsdorf & Luis Alfonso Ortega Keywords: biosphere reserve, Seville Strategy, climate change adaptation, organic farming, Colombia Abstract Cinturón Andino is the largest biosphere reserve of Colombia, located in the south- ernmost region of the state

  6. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The UBC Food System:To Infinity and Beyond Climate Neutral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    :To Infinity and Beyond Climate Neutral Rachel Yeh, Yasaman Arbabian, Neda Rahimi-Aliabadi, Jacob Siegel, Jing as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind

  7. Detection of CO sub 2 -Induced climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We will assemble and analyse instrumental climate data and to develop simple climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models. In addition to variations in greenhouse gas concentrations, climate responds to a number of other forcing factors, changes in ocean circulation, volcanic activity, solar irradiance, etc. To detect the greenhouse effect, its signal must be isolated from the noise'' of natural climatic variability, a significant part of which is due to these other factors. A high quality, spatially extensive data base is required to define the noise and its spatial characteristics. Available land and marine data bases will updated and expanded, and differences between different data sets will be reconciled where possible. The data will be analysed to determine the potential effects on climate of greenhouse gas concentration changes and other factors. Analyses will be guided by simple energy balance climate models. These analyses are oriented toward obtaining early evidence of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change that would lead either to confirmation, rejection or modification of model projections, and toward the statistical validation of General Circulation Model control runs. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Recent Developments in Mems-Based Micro Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pichonat, T

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro fuel cells ($\\mu$-FC) represent promising power sources for portable applications. Today, one of the technological ways to make $\\mu$-FC is to have recourse to standard microfabrication techniques used in the fabrication of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). This paper shows an overview on the applications of MEMS techniques on miniature FC by presenting several solutions developed throughout the world. It also describes the latest developments of a new porous silicon-based miniature fuel cell. Using a silane grafted on an inorganic porous media as the proton-exchange membrane instead of a common ionomer such as Nafion, the fuel cell achieved a maximum power density of 58 mW cm-2 at room temperature with hydrogen as fuel.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    limit economic development, impact interdependent infrastructure (such as energy and agriculture), and are a fundamental source of ... Climate Security On May 13, 2011, in...

  10. Climate shocks: Natural and anthropogenic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondratyev, K.Ya.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much recent climate research has focused on the effects of CO{sub 2} and radiatively important trace species, volcanic eruptions, and nuclear exchanges on our future climate. These studies suggest that anthropogenic influence will alter our present climate. The reliability of the climate models are a subject of debate, yet valid information derived from climate models is critical for policy-makers and politicians to make decisions regarding energy use and development and defense strategies. K.Ya. Kondratyev, a leading Soviet climate scientist, addresses the role of the greenhouse effect, nuclear winter, and volcanic eruptions on our climate in a recently published book entitled Climate Shocks: Natural and Anthropogenic. The book provides a detailed survey of the literature on these fields, including the pertinent Soviet literature that is often not surveyed by Western scientists.

  11. Utilization of Science-Based Information on Climate Change in Decision Making and the Public Policy Process - Phase 2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vedlitz, Arnold; Lindquist, Eric; Liu, Xinsheng; Zahran, Sammy; Wood, B. Dan; Alston, Letitia T.; North, Gerald

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Media ......................................................................................... 19 Figure 10. Number of News Articles Linking Climate Change to Other Issues .......................... 20 Figure 11. Solutions Proposed in News Articles... 1. Concern about Climate Change Compared to Other Key Issues ISSUE Level of Concern War in Iraq/Afghanistan 8.33 Energy 7.90 Environment 7.80 Moral Values 7.77 Terrorism 7.66 Social Security 7.59 U.S. Economy 7.45 Global Warming...

  12. Global climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

  13. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  14. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Electric Power: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leaders Climate Leaders is a voluntary industry-government partnership that encourages companies to develop long-term, comprehensive climate change strategies and set greenhouse...

  16. New Project is the ACME of Addressing Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Sciences Department at Berkeley Lab. Image: Roy Kaltschmidt High performance computing (HPC) will be used to develop and apply the most complete climate and Earth...

  17. Guyana-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Resilience Framework AgencyCompany Organization Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), United Kingdom...

  18. Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual for Development Planning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Adaptation to Climate Variability and...

  19. animations climate change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994 that will address climate...

  20. Use of ARM Data to address the Climate Change Further Development and Applications of A Multi-scale Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Randall; Marat Khairoutdinov

    2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Colorado State University (CSU) Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) is a new type of general circulation model (GCM) that replaces the conventional parameterizations of convection, clouds and boundary layer with a cloud-resolving model (CRM) embedded into each grid column. The MMF that we have been working with is a “super-parameterized” version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). As reported in the publications listed below, we have done extensive work with the model. We have explored the MMF’s performance in several studies, including an AMIP run and a CAPT test, and we have applied the MMF to an analysis of climate sensitivity.

  1. Evaluating Ocean Management Systems to Facilitate the Development of Ecosystem-Based Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Oran R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Development of Ecosystem-Based Management Preparergovernance to assist ecosystem-based management initiativesCurrent Large Marine Ecosystem. This geographic scope

  2. Constraining Climate Model Parameters from Observed 20th Century Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest, Chris Eliot

    We present revised probability density functions for climate model parameters (effective climate sensitivity, the rate of deep-ocean heat uptake, and the strength of the net aerosol forcing) that are based on climate change ...

  3. MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/climate LONDON'S GLOBAL of climatic change and to develop adaptation strategies. The UCL MSc Climate Change provides rigorous scientific and vocational training for the next generation of climate change professionals. Students

  4. Development Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Background "Timber is an environmentally friendly, versatile and cost-effective building material in high net value end markets, particularly construction. Towards this end, key objectives, priority and timber based products in construction to help reduce the impact of climate change. The TDP will help us

  5. A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century Miche`le B; accepted 30 November 2006; published 10 January 2007. [1] A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural

  6. Clean energy for development and economic growth: Biomass and other renewable options to meet energy and development needs in poor nations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilley, Art; Pandey, Bikash; Karstad, Elsen; Owen, Matthew; Bailis, Robert; Ribot, Jesse; Masera, Omar; Diaz, Rodolpho; Benallou, Abdelahanine; Lahbabi, Abdelmourhit

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document explores the linkages between renewable energy, poverty alleviation, sustainable development, and climate change in developing countries. In particular, the paper places emphasis on biomass-based energy systems. Biomass energy has a number of unique attributes that make it particularly suitable to climate change mitigation and community development applications.

  7. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas, Christian E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    development, and understand  how an energy project could support local development discourse surrounding  renewable energy, as well as the importance of local 

  8. The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change Marie Lynn Miranda, Douglas A. Hastings to mitigate the severe impacts of climate change predicted to occur in the twenty-first century. Many with climate change. This study investigates the varying degrees to which developing and developed nations

  9. Changing Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and a wide range of academic areas are investigating the different compo- nents. More recently, they are taking information gleaned from the global climate models and applying them to research questions pertaining to Texas. Dr. Bruce Mc...Carl, Regents Professor of agricultural economics at Texas A&M University, has researched the economics of climate change for the last 20 years. McCarl, as a lead CHANGING CLIMATES tx H2O | pg. McCarl ] tx H2O | pg. 4 Changing Climates author...

  10. AutoMoDe - Model-Based Development of Automotive Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegenbein, Dirk; Freund, Ulrich; Bauer, Andreas; Romberg, Jan; Schatz, Bernhard

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes first results from the AutoMoDe (Automotive Model-Based Development) project. The overall goal of the project is to develop an integrated methodology for model-based development of automotive control software, based on problem-specific design notations with an explicit formal foundation. Based on the existing AutoFOCUS framework, a tool prototype is being developed in order to illustrate and validate the key elements of our approach.

  11. Risk Management in Component-based Development: A Separation of Concerns Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risk Management in Component-based Development: A Separation of Concerns Perspective Awais Rashid development stages. We propose a risk management mechanism based on identifying risk management techniques of the risks involved and their management. In fact component-based development poses significant risks

  12. Effort minimization in UI development by reusing existing DGML based UI design for qualitative software development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suri, P K

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the methodology for achieving the user interface design reusability of a qualitative software system and effort minimization by applying the inference on the stored design documents. The pictorial design documents are stored in a special format in the form of keyword text [DGML tag based design]. The design document storage mechanism will expose the keywords per design stored. This methodology is having an inference engine. Inference mechanism search for the requirements and find the match for them in the available design repository. A match found will success in reusing it after checking the quality parameters of the found design module in the result set. DGML notations produces qualitative designs which helps in minimizing the efforts of software development life cycle.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to address the most challenging and demanding climate-change issues. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) is designed to accel-erate the development and applica-tion of...

  14. ENERGY, CLIMATE AND SUSTAINABLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENERGY, CLIMATE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NAMAs and the Carbon Market Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions of developing countries PersPectives series 2009 #12;NAMAs and the Carbon MarketPPrOPriate MitigatiON actiONs: china's experience and Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Fei

  15. Wall Drying in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, K.; Weston, T.; Pascual, X.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WALL DRYING IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES Kimdolyn Boone Theresa Weston, PhD Xuaco Pascual Product Development Engineer Building Scientist Field Services Engineer E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Richmond, VA ABSTRACT... time based on the varying weather conditions. Constant interior conditions of 70?F and 55% RH were chosen. This corresponds to typical interior temperatures and a high level of moisture production within the house. This was chosen as a worse...

  16. BEE299. Sustainable Development: A Web-Based Course Spring Semester 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    BEE299. Sustainable Development: A Web-Based Course Spring Semester 2008 Credit: 3 hours Catalogue description: Sustainable development is the dominant economic, environmental, and social issue of the twenty-first century. This web-based course develops the concepts of sustainable development as an evolutionary process

  17. Developing daily precipitation scenarios for climate change impact studies in the Guadiana and theTejo basins Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(1), 11611173, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    @agr.gc.ca Abstract Hydrological models to evaluate the impacts of climate change in the water resources sector or changed climate. Furthermore, management of the water resources of these trans-boundary international a climate change scenario and, in the case of the Tejo, on municipal water supply for Lisbon. Future daily

  18. DEPARTMENT OF SPACE AND CLIMATE PHYSICS PhD Position in the analysis of intensive care medicine data and development of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saunders, Mark

    UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE AND CLIMATE PHYSICS PhD Position in the analysis of intensive care medicine-Space and Climate Physics Applications are invited for a PhD position at UCL to study the evolution of critically or medicine. Applications should be made to UCL-Space and Climate Physics at http://www.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/www_phd

  19. A model-based systems engineering framework for concept development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    London, Brian (Brian N.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of increasingly complex, innovative systems under greater constraints has been the trend over the past several decades. In order to be successful, organizations must develop products that meet customer needs ...

  20. Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs’ capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in physics parameterizations in both GCMs and RCMs remain a priority for climate modeling community.

  1. Development of a Robust Accelerometer-based Start of Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Accelerometer-based Start of Combustion Sensing System Jim Huang Westport Innovations February 27 th 2008 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential...

  2. Climate Change Impacts on Streamflow, Water Quality, and Best Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    -efficient technologies A1B: a world with rapid economic growth based upon a balance of various energy sources Development locations Study Objectives: #12;Location of the Columbus, NE and Sioux City, IA climate stations Hydrologic Balance #12;Plant Growth Soil Temperature Pesticide Dynamics Nutrient Cycling Sedimentation Crop

  3. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Climatic Changes Based on a Multiproxy Lacustrine Sediment Record from Northeast Siberia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokorowski, H D; Anderson, P M; Sletten, R S; Lozhkin, A V; Brown, T A

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Palynological (species assemblage, pollen accumulation rate), geochemical (carbon to nitrogen ratios, organic carbon and biogenic silica content), and sedimentological (particle size, magnetic susceptibility) data combined with improved chronology and greater sampling resolution from a new core from Elikchan 4 Lake provide a stronger basis for defining paleoenvironmental changes than was previously possible. Persistence of herb-dominated tundra, slow expansion of Betula and Alnus shrubs, and low percentages of organic carbon and biogenic silica suggest that the Late-Glacial transition (ca. 16,000-11,000 cal. yr BP) was a period of gradual rather than abrupt vegetation and climatic change. Consistency of all Late-Glacial data indicates no Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. A dramatic peak in pollen accumulation rates (ca. 11,000-9800 cal. yr BP) suggests a possible summer temperature optimum, but finer grain-sizes, low magnetic susceptibility, and greater organic carbon and biogenic silica, while showing significant warming at ca. 11,000 cal. yr BP, offer no evidence of a Holocene thermal maximum. When compared to trends in other paleo-records, the new Elikchan data underscore the apparent spatial complexity of climatic responses in Northeast Siberia to global forcings between ca. 16,000-9000 cal. yr BP.

  4. Software-Based Challenges of Developing the Future Distribution Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Emma; Kiliccote, Sila; McParland, Charles

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The software that the utility industry currently uses may be insufficient to analyze the distribution grid as it rapidly modernizes to include active resources such as distributed generation, switch and voltage control, automation, and increasingly complex loads. Although planners and operators have traditionally viewed the distribution grid as a passive load, utilities and consultants increasingly need enhanced analysis that incorporates active distribution grid loads in order to ensure grid reliability. Numerous commercial and open-source tools are available for analyzing distribution grid systems. These tools vary in complexity from providing basic load-flow and capacity analysis under steady-state conditions to time-series analysis and even geographical representations of dynamic and transient events. The need for each type of analysis is not well understood in the industry, nor are the reasons that distribution analysis requires different techniques and tools both from those now available and from those used for transmission analysis. In addition, there is limited understanding of basic capability of the tools and how they should be practically applied to the evolving distribution system. The study reviews the features and state of the art capability of current tools, including usability and visualization, basic analysis functionality, advanced analysis including inverters, and renewable generation and load modeling. We also discuss the need for each type of distribution grid system analysis. In addition to reviewing basic functionality current models, we discuss dynamics and transient simulation in detail and draw conclusions about existing software?s ability to address the needs of the future distribution grid as well as the barriers to modernization of the distribution grid that are posed by the current state of software and model development. Among our conclusions are that accuracy, data transfer, and data processing abilities are key to future distribution grid modeling, and measured data sources are a key missing element . Modeling tools need to be calibrated based on measured grid data to validate their output in varied conditions such as high renewables penetration and rapidly changing topology. In addition, establishing a standardized data modeling format would enable users to transfer data among tools to take advantage of different analysis features. ?

  5. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunlea, Edward; Elfring, Chris

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate models are the foundation for understanding and projecting climate and climate-related changes and are thus critical tools for supporting climate-related decision making. This study developed a holistic strategy for improving the nationâ??s capability to accurately simulate climate and related Earth system changes on decadal to centennial timescales. The committeeâ??s report is a high level analysis, providing a strategic framework to guide progress in the nationâ??s climate modeling enterprise over the next 10-20 years. This study was supported by DOE, NSF, NASA, NOAA, and the intelligence community.

  6. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  7. Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

  8. X-MAN: An MDE Tool for Component-based System Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Kung-Kiu

    the complete life cycle for component-based system development [10]. The X-MAN tool has been successfully, and prior to system V&V. A. The W Model The life cycle for component-based system development is thus system, and are therefore repository components developed in a component life cycle, separately from

  9. Knowledge-based cluster development in India : opportunities and challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singla, Chandan Dev

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge-based industries tend to cluster. The nature of activities illustrate the importance of networks and virtual and proximity aspects of clustering. Review of existing literature brings out the advantages of clustering ...

  10. Towards the Development of a Web-based Alignment Platform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnober, Carsten

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a platform is developed that makes existing sentence and word alignment tools available as web services. The tools implemented are Hunalign and GIZA++; after creating wrappers and format converters, they are embedded into a pipeline...

  11. Climate change and water supply, management and use: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, L.H.; Draves, J.D.; Hunsaker, C.T.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is evidence that atmospheric concentrations Of C0{sub 2}, tropospheric 0{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4}, among other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect, have increased in recent decades, and that these changes may induce changes in global air temperatures and regional climate features in coming years. A literature review was conducted to sample the literature base on which our understanding of the water resource impacts of climate change rests. Water resource issues likely to be important include hydrologic response to climate change, the resilience of water supply systems to changing climatic and hydrologic conditions, and the effects of climate change on water quality and water uses (such as navigation and energy generation). A computer-assisted search of literature on the effects of climate change on these subjects was conducted. All studies were classified by type of paper (e.g., review, discussion, case study), region, water resource variable studied, and source of climate scenario. The resulting bibliography containing more than 200 references was largely annotated. Case studies of potential hydrologic impacts have been more common than studies of impacts on water management or water use, but this apparent research gap is decreasing. Case studies demonstrating methods of incorporating potential risks of climate change into water project planning and management have been performed. Considerable variability in regional coverage exists; the Great Lakes basin and California receive relatively more attention than such regions as New England and the Missouri River basin. General circulation model-based and hypothetical climate scenarios have been the dominant sources of climate scenarios used in case studies, although a variety of other methods for developing climate scenarios have been developed.

  12. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data, A New Data Product for Climate Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); McCoy, Renata B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Cederwall, Richard T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Wiscombe, Warren J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Clothiaux, Eugene E. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Gaustad, Krista L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Golaz, Jean-Christophe [NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Princeton, NJ; Shamblin, Stefanie H [ORNL; Jensen, Michael P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Johnson, Karen L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Lin, Yanluan [NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Princeton, NJ; Long, Charles N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Mather, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); McCord, Raymond A [ORNL; McFarlane, Sally A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL; Shi, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Turner, David D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (www.arm.gov) was created in 1989 to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. A central activity is the acquisition of detailed observations of clouds and radiation, as well as related atmospheric variables for climate model evaluation and improvement. Since 1992, ARM has established six permanent ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites and deployed an ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) in diverse climate regimes around the world (Fig. 1) to perform long-term continuous field measurements. The time record of ACRF data now exceeds a decade at most ACRF fixed sites and ranges from several months to one year for AMF deployments. Billions of measurements are currently stored in millions of data files in the ACRF Data Archive. The long-term continuous ACRF data provide invaluable information to improve our understanding of the interaction between clouds and radiation, and an observational basis for model validation and improvement and climate studies. Given the huge number of data files and current diversity of archived ACRF data structures, however, it can be difficult for an outside user such as a climate modeler to quickly find the ACRF data product(s) that best meets their research needs. The required geophysical quantities may exist in multiple data streams, and over the history of ACRF operations, the measurements could be obtained by a variety of instruments, reviewed with different levels of data quality assurance, or derived using different algorithms. In addition, most ACRF data are stored in daily-based files with a temporal resolution that ranges from a few seconds to a few minutes, which is much finer than that sought by some users. Therefore, it is not as convenient for data users to perform quick comparisons over large spans of data, and this can hamper the use of ACRF data by the climate community. To make ACRF data better serve the needs of climate studies and model development, ARM has developed a data product specifically tailored for use by the climate community. The new data product, named the Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) dataset, assembles those quantities that are both well observed by ACRF over many years and are often used in model evaluation into one single dataset. The CMBE product consists of hourly averages and thus has temporal resolution comparable to a typical resolution used in climate model output. It also includes standard deviations within the averaged hour and quality control flags for the selected quantities to indicate the temporal variability and data quality. Since its initial release in February 2008, the new data product has quickly drawn the attention of the climate modeling community. It is being used for model evaluation by two major U.S. climate modeling centers, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of CMBE data and a few examples that demonstrate the potential value of CMBE data for climate modeling and in studies of cloud processes and climate variability and change.

  13. 3, 11331166, 2007 Glacier-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the Past Reconstructing glacier-based climates of LGM Europe and Russia ­ Part 1: Numerical modelling for climate change the LGM is a popular time period for testing the ability of GCMs to simulate past cli-25CPD 3, 1133­1166, 2007 Glacier-climate model for recosntructing palaeoclimates R. Allen et al

  14. OUR CHANGING CLIMATE Research that matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucarini, Valerio

    , for the benefit of society. The Institute spans a range of disciplines including weather and climate, agriculture | 3 The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) has used results from our work, on the impacts key advice to the UK Government on avoiding dangerous climate change. Our input was based on research

  15. Holocene blanket peat development in south west Scotland : the roles of human activity, climate change and vegetation change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flitcroft, Catherine Esther

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the role of autogenic and allogenic forces in determining the timing and development of blanket peat initiation and how the occurrence and growth of blanket peat subsequently constrains human activities. A number of factors...

  16. Climate System Model Plan (2000-2005)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Community Climate System Model Plan (2000-2005) Prepared by the CCSM Scientific Steering Committee Development of the Climate System Model B. 300-Year Fully Coupled Control Simulation C. Simulation System Model Plan (2000-2005). The evolution of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) from an atmosphere

  17. WP1 Climate services for road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    WP1 Climate services for road authorities Janette Bessembinder et al. #12;2 A1: review, analysis and assessment of existing climate change projections regarding TEN-T needs A2: Development of a common methodology for the production of regional climate projections to provide consistent input data for risk

  18. CLIMATE ACTION PLAN NOVEMBER 10, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    CLIMATE ACTION PLAN NOVEMBER 10, 2009 SANDY DEJOHN PHYSICAL FACILITIES DEPARTMENT #12;~ i ~ TABLE the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment, I believe strongly in working to achieve its helped shape and develop the information contained in this Climate Action Plan: (Names listed

  19. Development of a GIS Based Dust Dispersion Modeling System.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutz, Frederick C.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Crandall, Duard W.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2004-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    With residential areas moving closer to military training sites, the effects upon the environment and neighboring civilians due to dust generated by training exercises has become a growing concern. Under a project supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense, a custom application named DUSTRAN is currently under development that integrates a system of EPA atmospheric dispersion models with the ArcGIS application environment in order to simulate the dust dispersion generated by a planned training maneuver. This integration between modeling system and GIS application allows for the use of real world geospatial data such as terrain, land-use, and domain size as input by the modeling system. Output generated by the modeling system, such as concentration and deposition plumes, can then be displayed upon accurate maps representing the training site. This paper discusses the development of this integration between modeling system and Arc GIS application.

  20. The Game Development Process Slides: largely based on Mark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a game, design and documentation ­ Create 2-d animated sprite and select supporting content ­ Implement Evaluation and Testing ­ Evaluate and compare existing games · Project 3: Game-based Learning ­ Show how to have that next razor blade from Gillette!" ­ Games generate · emotional responses - fulfill fantasies

  1. A Market Based Strategy for Rural Development In Northwest Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlosky-Project Overview, Methodology x Paul Chance-Study Overview, Resource Assessment, Industry Development Resource Assessment #12;Are there ample timber resources to support value-added secondary forest, growth/removals, sawtimber, diameter classes, species, etc. Key Questions Resource Assessment #12

  2. Radioisotope-based Nuclear Power Strategy for Exploration Systems Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, George R.; Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear power will play an important role in future exploration efforts. Its benefits pertain to practically all the different timeframes associated with the Exploration Vision, from robotic investigation of potential lunar landing sites to long-duration crewed missions on the lunar surface. However, the implementation of nuclear technology must follow a logical progression in capability that meets but does not overwhelm the power requirements for the missions in each exploration timeframe. It is likely that the surface power infrastructure, particularly for early missions, will be distributed in nature. Thus, nuclear sources will have to operate in concert with other types of power and energy storage systems, and must mesh well with the power architectures envisioned for each mission phase. Most importantly, they must demonstrate a clear advantage over other non-nuclear options (e.g., solar power, fuel cells) for their particular function. This paper describes a strategy that does this in the form of three sequential system developments. It begins with use of radioisotope generators currently under development, and applies the power conversion technology developed for these units to the design of a simple, robust reactor power system. The products from these development efforts would eventually serve as the foundation for application of nuclear power systems for exploration of Mars and beyond.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A MYOELECTRIC CONTROLLER BASED ON KNEE ANGLE ESTIMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Joăo Luiz

    , Prosthesis control, Microcontrolled bioinstrumentation, Feature extraction, Dimensionality reduction, Neural the development of an active leg prosthesis prototype (Figure 1). The prosthesis has three degrees of freedom: one. The prosthesis will receive control commands through digital signal processing, feature extraction, and pattern

  4. A Web-Based Curriculum Development on Nontraditional Manufacturing with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    . For example, laser is widely accepted as an economical, high-throughput tool for metal/ ceramics cutting and drilling. Recent developments in MEMS and rapid prototyping manufacturing (RPM) would be impossible without collaborated on nontraditional material machining processes such as laser machining processes (LMP), electrical

  5. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas, Christian E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biogas  There have been a number of studies demonstrating the economic benefits that rural  users can attain through the incorporation of agricultural agricultural residues.  The system design costs and production values are  based on a recently constructed biogas 

  6. Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, Arpad

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the global warming effect associated with electricityin Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potentialin Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential

  7. Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    Novim Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies Jason J. Blackstock David S. Battisti Santa Barbara, California #12;Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies This report should, A. A. N. Patrinos, D. P. Schrag, R. H. Socolow and S. E. Koonin, Climate Engineering Responses

  8. Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    Hot Topics Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change Green Building Hydraulic Fracturing Nuclear to global warming. The UKgovernment has just announced it is investing $1 billion in their development Green Living Industry Regulation Remediation Research and Technology Sustainability Waste Water Products

  9. Development of Power-head based Fan Airflow Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    related to the measured fan speed. Actually the measured fan speed is assumed to equal the motor synchronous speed, which is proportional to the VFD frequency. Theoretically it is not true. The difference between the synchronous speed and motor speed... the basic theory, experiment and results of the power-head based airflow station. Theory Figure 1 shows variable speed fan connection schematic. VFD is normally installed on the motor to adjust the motor speed by modulating frequency. Typically...

  10. Development of a CAN Based Electric Vehicle Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Stephen Andrew

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    along with increased reliability resulted in a sharp decline of electric vehicle popularity. Much later, in the 1960s, interest in electric vehicles re-emerged due to rising oil prices and concerns about the output of harmful emissions from gasoline... was mostly dead, with the exception of a few niche markets. Increasing gasoline prices along with increased concerns about vehicle emissions led to a resurgence in interest toward electric vehicles. Many electric vehicles being developed at the time were...

  11. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Empowering eaters to make climate-friendly choices: A public education initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    focus on food choice as a solution to reducing human impact on climate (Neff, Chan, & Clegg, 2008). Our of the food system's contribution to climate change. Recognizing that greenhouse gas contributes to global warming and changing personal food choices can significantly decrease food system emissions. #12;4 of 24

  12. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, July 1, 1994--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1995-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to assembly and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and validation of General Circulation Models. In addition to changes due to variations in anthropogenic forcing, including greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes, the global climate system exhibits a high degree of internally-generated and externally-forced natural variability. To detect the anthropogenic effect, its signal must be isolated from the ``noise`` of this natural climatic variability. A high quality, spatially extensive data base is required to define the noise and its spatial characteristics. To facilitate this, available land and marine data bases will be updated and expanded. The data will be analyzed to determine the potential effects on climate of greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes and other factors. Analyses will be guided by a variety of models, from simple energy balance climate models to coupled atmosphere ocean General Circulation Models. These analyses are oriented towards obtaining early evidence of anthropogenic climatic change that would lead either to confirmation, rejection or modification of model projections, and towards the statistical validation of General Circulation Model control runs and perturbation experiments.

  13. Climate Vision: Presidential Statements - November 28, 2007

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    set in 2002 to reduce greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by 2012. My Administration's climate change policy is science-based, encourages research breakthroughs that lead to...

  14. Develop a Web-Based Information System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E LGeothermal *abuseDepartmenta Web-Based

  15. Progress Report 2008: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, John B [ORNL; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jones, Phil [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project employs multi-disciplinary teams to accelerate development of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), based at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). A consortium of eight Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories collaborate with NCAR and the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). The laboratories are Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL) Los Alamos (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore (LLNL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), Pacific Northwest (PNNL) and Sandia (SNL). The work plan focuses on scalablity for petascale computation and extensibility to a more comprehensive earth system model. Our stated goal is to support the DOE mission in climate change research by helping ... To determine the range of possible climate changes over the 21st century and beyond through simulations using a more accurate climate system model that includes the full range of human and natural climate feedbacks with increased realism and spatial resolution.

  16. The Role of Asia in Mitigating Climate Change: Results from the Asia Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Krey, Volker; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Jiang, Kejun; Kainuma, M.; Kriegler, Elmar; Luderer, Gunnar; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2010, Asia accounted for 60% of global population, 39% of Gross World Product, 44% of global energy consumption and nearly half of the world’s energy system CO2 emissions. Thus, Asia is an important region to consider in any discussion of climate change or climate change mitigation. This paper explores the role of Asia in mitigating climate change, by comparing the results of 23 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. We focus our analysis on seven key areas: base year data, future energy use and emissions absent climate policy, the effect of urban and rural development on future energy use and emissions, the role of technology in emissions mitigation, regional emissions mitigation, and national climate policies

  17. Development of a system dynamics based management flight simulator for new product development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacInnis, Daniel V., 1964-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All firms in any mature product development industry are being pressured into performing 'better, faster, and cheaper' by both customers and competitors. In short, firms are being tasked with doing more, with less, faster. ...

  18. "Managing Department Climate Change"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    "Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

  19. Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMS-BASED MICRO FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMS-BASED MICRO FUEL CELLS Tristan Pichonat ABSTRACT Micro fuel cells (µ-FC) represent promising power sources for portable applications. Today, one describes the latest developments of a new porous silicon- based miniature fuel cell. Using a silane grafted

  20. \\Development, implementation and veri cation of a physics-based Si/SiGe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paper I \\Development, implementation and veri#12;cation of a physics-based Si/SiGe HBT model and verification of a physics­based Si/SiGe HBT model for millimeter­wave non­ linear circuit simulations. S. Bruce thermal dependence has been developed for Si/SiGe HBTs. The model takes into account several effects

  1. Development, implementation and verification of a physics-based Si/SiGe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development, implementation and verification of a physics-based Si/SiGe HBT model for millimeter Abstract A physics-based large-signal model including thermal dependence has been developed for Si/SiGe HBTs. The model takes into account several effects that are important for the operation of Si/SiGe HBTs

  2. Cr{sub 2}Nb-based alloy development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.T.; Horton, J.A.; Carmichael, C.A.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes recent progress in developing Cr{sub 2}Nb/Cr(Nb) alloys for structural use in advanced fossil energy conversion systems. Alloy additions were added to control the microstructure and mechanical properties. Two beneficial elements have been identified among all alloying additions added to the alloys. One element is effective in refining the coarse eutectic structure and thus substantially improves the compressive strength and ductility of the alloys. The other element enhances oxidation resistance without sacrificing the ductility. The tensile properties are sensitive to cast defects, which can not be effectively reduced by HIPping at 1450-1580{degrees}C and/or directionally solidifying via a floating zone remelting method.

  3. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Textile Engineering Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  4. Sensitivity of North American agriculture to ENSO-based climate scenarios and their socio-economic consequences: Modeling in an integrated assessment framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Brown, R.A.; Sands, R.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Legler, D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Ocean Atmosphere Prediction Studies; Srinivasan, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Blacklands Research Center; Tiscareno-Lopez, M.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A group of Canadian, US and Mexican natural resource specialists, organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under its North American Energy, Environment and Economy (NA3E) Program, has applied a simulation modeling approach to estimating the impact of ENSO-driven climatic variations on the productivity of major crops grown in the three countries. Methodological development is described and results of the simulations presented in this report. EPIC (the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) was the agro-ecosystem model selected-for this study. EPIC uses a daily time step to simulate crop growth and yield, water use, runoff and soil erosion among other variables. The model was applied to a set of so-called representative farms parameterized through a specially-assembled Geographic Information System (GIS) to reflect the soils, topography, crop management and weather typical of the regions represented. Fifty one representative farms were developed for Canada, 66 for the US and 23 for Mexico. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) scenarios for the EPIC simulations were created using the historic record of sea-surface temperature (SST) prevailing in the eastern tropical Pacific for the period October 1--September 30. Each year between 1960 and 1989 was thus assigned to an ENSO category or state. The ENSO states were defined as El Nino (EN, SST warmer than the long-term mean), Strong El Nino (SEN, much warmer), El Viejo (EV, cooler) and Neutral (within {+-}0.5 C of the long-term mean). Monthly means of temperature and precipitation were then calculated at each farm for the period 1960--1989 and the differences (or anomalies) between the means in Neutral years and EN, SEN and EV years determined. The average monthly anomalies for each ENSO state were then used to create new monthly statistics for each farm and ENSO-state combination. The adjusted monthly statistics characteristic of each ENSO state were then used to drive a stochastic-weather simulator that provided 30 years of daily-weather data needed to run EPIC. Maps and tables of the climate anomalies by farm show climatic conditions that differ considerably by region, season and ENSO state.

  5. PLC-Based Safety Critical Software Development for Nuclear Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PLC-Based Safety Critical Software Development for Nuclear Power Plants Junbeom Yoo1 , Sungdeok Cha development technique for nuclear power plants'I&C soft- ware controllers. To improve software safety, we in developing safety-critical control software for a Korean nuclear power plant, and experience to date has been

  6. The development of a fullerene based hydrogen storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, E.L.; Davey, J.R.; Garzon, F.H.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate hydrogen uptake by fullerene substrates and to probe the potential of the hydrogen/fullerene system for hydrogen fuel storage. As part of this project, the authors have completed and tested a fully automated, computer controlled system for measuring hydrogen uptake that is capable of handling both a vacuum of 1 x 10{sup -6} torr and pressures greater than 200 bars. The authors have first established conditions for significant uptake of hydrogen by fullerenes. Subsequently, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of pure and catalyst-doped C60 was further studied to probe suitability for hydrogen storage applications. C60 {center_dot} H18.7 was prepared at 100 bar H2 and 400 C, corresponding to hydrogen uptake of 2.6 wt%. Dehydrogenation of C60 {center_dot} H18.7 was studied using thermogravimetric and powder x-ray diffraction analysis. The C60 {center_dot} H18.7 molecule was found to be stable up to 430 C in Ar, at which point the release of hydrogen took place simultaneously with the collapse of the fullerene structure. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on C60 {center_dot} H18.7 samples dehydrogenated at 454 C, 475 C, and 600 C showed an increasing volume fraction of amorphous material due to randomly oriented, single-layer graphine sheets. Evolved gas analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy confirmed the presence of both H{sub 2} and methane upon dehydrogenation, indicating decomposition of the fullerene. The remaining carbon could not be re-hydrogenated. These results provide the first complete evidence for the irreversible nature of fullerene hydrogenation and for limitations imposed on the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycle by the limited thermal stability of the molecular crystal of fullerene.

  7. Erica Crawford (Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions and BC Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative) and Rachelle Beveridge (PhD Candidate University of Victoria)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    's Agriculture Sector in the Face of Climate Change #12;PACIFIC INSTITUTE FOR CLIMATE SOLUTIONS University ofErica Crawford (Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions and BC Agriculture & Food Climate Action is enabling ongoing independent research aimed at developing innovative climate change solutions

  8. Climate Modeling using High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirin, A A

    2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) and the LLNL Climate and Carbon Science Group of Energy and Environment (E and E) are working together to improve predictions of future climate by applying the best available computational methods and computer resources to this problem. Over the last decade, researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a number of climate models that provide state-of-the-art simulations on a wide variety of massively parallel computers. We are now developing and applying a second generation of high-performance climate models. Through the addition of relevant physical processes, we are developing an earth systems modeling capability as well.

  9. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)���¢��������s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9�������°��������2.5�������° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1�������° x 1�������°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 �������µm. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4�������º by 5�������º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ���¢��������clean marine���¢������� aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

  10. UNDP-Catalysing Climate Finance: A Guidebook on Policy and Financing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNDP-Catalysing Climate Finance: A Guidebook on Policy and Financing Options to Support Green, Low-Emission and Climate-Resilient Development Jump to: navigation, search Tool...

  11. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those projected under climate change this century, projections of climate and vegetation change in this region need to consider these climate-vegetation interactions.

  12. A Web-based Method for Exploring Early Child Development Trends in British Columbia, Canada 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trafford, Katherine L E

    2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    British Columbian policy-makers, researchers and community organizations make use of maps describing trends in Early Child Development (ECD) to make program decisions and funding allocation based upon the geography of need. ...

  13. Development of an Event Detection System Based on a Wireless Sensor Network 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Louise

    2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research is to develop an event detection system for groundwater flooding. The groundwater monitoring infrastructure is based on a Wireless Sensor Network, which can often lead to corrupted data values. The event detection system...

  14. PEM fuel cellstack development based on membrane-electrode assemblies of ultra-low platinum loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempt is made to scale-up single cell technology, based on ultra-low platinum loadings, to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for stationary power generation.

  15. Managed Evolution of a Model Driven Development Approach to Software-based Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieman, James M.

    Driven Architecture (MDA) initiative from the Object Management Group (OMG) is a well-known example of model-based development as framed by the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) [MDA2001]. The MDA advocates

  16. Development of an infrared absorption spectroscope based on linear variable filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira, Felipe Guimaraes

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a low-cost infrared absorption spectroscope based on linear variable filter (LVF) technology for the automated detection of gases and vapors, and the semi-automated detection of liquids. This instrument...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MonitoringClimate Security Climate Security Climate Security Global reductions in greenhouse gases will eventually be motivated by an international climate treaty and will entail...

  18. Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data (CMBE) products: Satellite data over the ARM permanent and AMF sites: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, B; Dong, X; Xie, S

    2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the LLNL ARM infrastructure team Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) data development, the University of North Dakota (UND)'s group will provide the LLNL team the NASA CERES and ISCCP satellite retrieved cloud and radiative properties for the periods when they are available over the ARM permanent research sites. The current available datasets, to date, are as follows: the CERES/TERRA during 200003-200812; the CERES/AQUA during 200207-200712; and the ISCCP during 199601-200806. The detailed parameters list below: (1) CERES Shortwave radiative fluxes (net and downwelling); (2) CERES Longwave radiative fluxes (upwelling) - (items 1 & 2 include both all-sky and clear-sky fluxes); (3) CERES Layered clouds (total, high, middle, and low); (4) CERES Cloud thickness; (5) CERES Effective cloud height; (6) CERES cloud microphysical/optical properties; (7) ISCCP optical depth cloud top pressure matrix; (8) ISCCP derived cloud types (r.g., cirrus, stratus, etc.); and (9) ISCCP infrared derived cloud top pressures. (10) The UND group shall apply necessary quality checks to the original CERES and ISCCP data to remove suspicious data points. The temporal resolution for CERES data should be all available satellite overpasses over the ARM sites; for ISCCP data, it should be 3-hourly. The spatial resolution is the closest satellite field of view observations to the ARM surface sites. All the provided satellite data should be in a format that is consistent with the current ARM CMBE dataset so that the satellite data can be easily merged into the CMBE dataset.

  19. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    roads, the boreholes, the water pipes, the textbooks, andissues like local air and water pollution that may help themthat reducing local air and water pollution would enhance

  20. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    adaptive efficiency in some LDC economies. At this point,capacity-building" in LDC parties. 22 Addition- ally, twoof the over-dependence of many LDC economies on sectors that

  1. Recent Developments in Climate Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittner, Andreas

    first, then global temperature Also: without CO2 increases models cannot reproduce deglacial warming the ocean where it leads to acidification (drop in pH). It is a greenhouse gas and causes warming. ! Other and temperatures (isotopes) More from Ed Brook tomorrow 8:30 #12;Ice Age Cycles Caused by changes in Earth's orbit

  2. Recent Developments in Climate Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittner, Andreas

    deglacial warming (not shown) CO2 Antarctic T Global T #12;Lessons from the Past · CO2 is an important and causes warming. ! Other greenhouse gases have increased too. #12;What about the sun? #12;http://www, CH4 measurements and temperatures (isotopes) #12;Ice Age Cycles Caused by changes in Earth's orbit

  3. Development of Quality Assurance Methods for Performance-Based Maintenance Contracts for Roadway Assets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton, Debora Brooke

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE METHODS FOR PERFORMANCE- BASED MAINTENANCE CONTRACTS FOR ROADWAY ASSETS A Thesis by DEBORA BROOKE SHELTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2010 Major Subject: Civil Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE METHODS FOR PERFORMANCE- BASED MAINTENANCE CONTRACTS FOR ROADWAY ASSETS A Thesis...

  4. Development of an Fe efficiency screening procedure for sorghum based on realistic soil parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Francisco

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN FE EFFICIENCY SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR SORGHUH BASED ON REAl ISTIC SOIL PARAHETERS A Thesis by FRANCISCO HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of HASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Hajor Subject: Agronomy DEVELOPMENT OF AN FE EFFICIENCY SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR SORGHUM BASED ON REALISTIC SOIL PARAMETERS A Thesis by Francisco Hernandez Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

  5. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  6. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  7. Climate change action plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

  8. A Server-Client-Based Graphical Development Environment for Physics Analyses (VISPA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdmann, Martin

    A Server-Client-Based Graphical Development Environment for Physics Analyses (VISPA) H.-P. Bretz, M-)designing, executing, and verifying an analysis. We present the new server-client-based web application of the VISPA, and execute analyses on a server via the web interface. 1. Introduction The use of distributed resources

  9. The ASF+SDF Meta-Environment: a Component-Based Language Development Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klint, Paul

    The ASF+SDF Meta-Environment: a Component-Based Language Development Environment M.G.J. van den and Computer Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 14, 2584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract. The ASF+SDF The ASF+SDF Meta-Environment [12] is an interactive development environment for the automatic gen- eration

  10. The ASF+SDF MetaEnvironment: a ComponentBased Language Development Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klint, Paul

    The ASF+SDF Meta­Environment: a Component­Based Language Development Environment M.G.J. van den and Computer Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 14, 2584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract. The ASF+SDF The ASF+SDF Meta­Environment [12] is an interactive development environment for the automatic gen­ eration

  11. Function Test Framework for Testing IO-Blocks in a Model-Based Rapid Prototyping Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Function Test Framework for Testing IO-Blocks in a Model-Based Rapid Prototyping Development -- Testing and verification are important methods for gaining confidence in the reliability of a software changing development cycles or that is tar- geted at many platforms. In this paper we present a test

  12. An Integrated Development Environment for Building Predictable Component-Based Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Steffen

    Save-IDE An Integrated Development Environment for Building Predictable Component-Based Embedded-- In this paper we present an Integrated Development Environment Save-IDE, a toolset that embraces several tools-time properties, such as timing properties, and transforming the components to real-time execution elements. Save

  13. Implications of simultaneously mitigating and adapting to climate change: Initial experiments using GCAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically climate impacts research and climate mitigation research have been two separate and independent domains of inquiry. Climate mitigation research has investigated greenhouse gas emissions assuming that climate is unchanging. At the same time climate mitigation research has investigated the implications of climate change on the assumption that climate mitigation will proceed without affecting the degree of climate impacts or the ability of human and natural systems to adapt. The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has largely been employed to study climate mitigation. Here we explore the development of capabilities to assess climate change impacts and adaptation within the GCAM model. These capabilities are being developed so as to be able to simultaneously reconcile the joint implications of climate change mitigation, impacts and adaptive potential. This is an important step forward in that it enables direct comparison between climate mitigation activities and climate impacts and the opportunity to understand interactions between the two.

  14. Climate Past, Climate Present, Climate Future Douglas Nychka,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    series and an energy balance model. 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 -1.5-1.0-0.50.00.5 Year Degree. Supported by US NSF 7th World Congress Prob. and Stat., Singapore July 2008 #12;What is climate? Climate will use statistics to talk about the "known un- knowns" for the Earth's climate Statistics uses

  15. A tropical grammar : an architectural grammar for hot humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beamish, Anne, 1954-

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers the viability of an architectural grammar based on traditional Caribbean architecture as an aid to designing climatically responsive architecture in hot humid climates. It argues that since traditional ...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: most complete climate and Earth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to address the most challenging and demanding climate-change issues. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) is designed to accel-erate the development and applica-tion of...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: accurate climate-change prediction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to address the most challenging and demanding climate-change issues. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) is designed to accel-erate the development and applica-tion of...

  18. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects, we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.

  19. Climate Action Plan (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To better understand the current and future vulnerabilities and risks to climate change, DNREC Secretary Collin O’Mara directed the Division of Energy and Climate to conduct a statewide climate...

  20. Climate Data Operators (CDO)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Data Operators (CDO) Climate Data Operators (CDO) Description and Overview CDO is a large tool set for working on climate data. NetCDF 34, GRIB including SZIP compression,...

  1. Protecting climate with forests.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing feedbacks in the climate–biosphere system Front.313–32 Bonan G B 2008 Forests and climate change: forcings,feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests Science

  2. Climate Code Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Nick; Jones, David

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate Code Foundation - who are we? A non-profit organisation founded in August 2010; our goal is to promote the public understanding of climate science, by increasing the visibility and clarity of the software used in climate science...

  3. Climate-Energy Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Sayler; Randall Gentry; Jie Zhuang

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 140-page published proceedings of the workshop include individual articles and PowerPoint slides for all workshop presentations. The proceedings also contain pertinent background information on the China-US Joint Research Center, partnering organizations, and workshop goals and objectives. Overall, the workshop increased the understanding of the impacts of climate change on energy use and renewable energy production as well as the complex relationships among land use, energy production, and ecological restoration. The workshop served as an international platform for scientists and students of different research backgrounds to develop a unified perspective on energy and climate relationships. Such understanding will benefit future cooperation between China and the US in mitigating global climate change. The workshop’s agenda, which is highly interdisciplinary, explored many potential opportunities for international collaboration in ecosystem management, climate modeling, greenhouse gas emissions, and bioenergy sustainability. International research groups have been suggested in the areas of genomes and biotechnology of energy plants, sustainable management of soil and water resources, carbon sequestration, and microbial processes for ecological cycles. The project has attracted considerable attention from institutes beyond the China-US Joint Research Center partners, and several of them (such as Institute of Qing-Tibet Plateau Research, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Institute of Applied Ecology, CAS) have expressed interest in joining the partnership. In addition, the workshop played a significant role in facilitating establishment of private-public partnerships between government and private bioenergy companies (such as L.R. Shugarts and Associates, Inc.), including seed providers (Blade Energy Crops, Thousand Oaks, CA), pilot demonstration projects at coal-producing cities (e.g., Huaibei, Anhui province, China), and the development of methodology for assessment of the sustainable production of biofuels (such as life-cycle analysis, sustainability metrics, and land-use policy). Establishment of two US-China scientific research networks in the area of bioenergy and environmental science is a significant result of the workshop.

  4. Study Of The Fundamental Physical Principles in Atmospheric Modeling Based On Identification Of Atmosphere - Climate Control Factors: Bromine Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Iudin

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena of the Arctic bromine explosion and their role in the functioning of the biotic Earth. We rationalize the empirical expression of the bromine influx into atmospheric boundary layer and calculate total amounts of the tropospheric BrO and Bry of the Arctic origin. Based on the quantities and partitioning of the reactive bromine species, we estimate the biogeochemical parametric constraint on the surface ozone field of the springtime NH. The constraint expresses strong relationship between atmosphere-climate control factors of the Earth's life and of external energy source. Physical atmosphere can be seen as a complex network of maximum complexity. Henceforth, we analyze the network context of the Arctic bromine pollution. We suggest that demonstrated attitudinal approach to the distributed surface flux would be successfully used in the innovative atmospheric modeling. The analysis is illustrated by GEM model results which stay in a good agreement with the observational data and support the original idea of the global NH effect of bromine chemistry.

  5. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Empowering Eaters to Make Climate Friendly Choices Carbon Smart Food Guide: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Friendly Choices Carbon Smart Food Guide: A Public Education Initiative Rose Hsu, Lindsay Jang, Katherine Jassmann, Shaheen Jivanjee, Pavan Johal, Meline Johan, Cherie Kao University of British Columbia status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report

  6. Idaho National Laboratory/Nuclear Power Industry Strategic Plan for Light Water Reactor Research and Development An Industry-Government Partnership to Address Climate Change and Energy Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Electric Power Research

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dual issues of energy security and climate change mitigation are driving a renewed debate over how to best provide safe, secure, reliable and environmentally responsible electricity to our nation. The combination of growing energy demand and aging electricity generation infrastructure suggests major new capacity additions will be required in the years ahead.

  7. Climate VISION: Contact Us

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy Office of Climate Change Policy and Technology (PI-50) 202-586-8339 Mining - Contacts Association Climate VISION Lead Constance Holmes Senior Economist, Director...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate A Model for the Nation: Promoting Education and Innovation in Vermont's Electricity Sector On May 8, 2012, in Climate, Customers & Partners, Energy, Energy Surety,...

  9. Climate Action Plan (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recognizing the profound implications that global warming and climate variation could have on the economy, environment and quality of life in Montana, the Climate Change Advisory Committee (CCAC)...

  10. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...

  11. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...

  12. Climate Change Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Interior Climate Change Response "From the Everglades to the Great Lakes to Alaska and everywhere in between, climate change is a leading threat to natural and cultural...

  13. Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Kim, Son H.; Dirks, James A.; Jensen, Erik A.; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.; Schmidt, Laurel C.; Seiple, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into climate policy and regional energy system planning. In this study, we presented a detailed building energy model with a U.S. state-level representation, nested in the GCAM integrated assessment framework. We projected state-level building energy demand and its spatial pattern over the century, considering the impact of climate change based on the estimates of heating and cooling degree days derived from downscaled USGS CASCaDE temperature data. The result indicates that climate change has a large impact on heating and cooling building energy and fuel use at the state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (ranges from -10% to +10%). The sensitivity analysis reveals that the building energy demand is subject to multiple key factors, such as the magnitude of climate change, the choice of climate models, and the growth of population and GDP, and that their relative contributions vary greatly across the space. The scale impact in building energy use modeling highlights the importance of constructing a building energy model with the spatially-explicit representation of socioeconomics, energy system development, and climate change. These findings will help the climate-based policy decision and energy system, especially utility planning related to building sector at the U.S. state and regional level facing the potential climate change.

  14. Climate Change Policies for the XXIst Century: Mechanisms, Predictions and Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Khmelinskii; Peter Stallinga

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental works demonstrated that the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) hypothesis, embodied in a series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global climate models, is erroneous. These works prove that atmospheric carbon dioxide contributes only very moderately to the observed warming, and that there is no climatic catastrophe in the making, independent on whether or not carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced. In view of these developments, we discuss climate predictions for the XXIst century. Based on the solar activity tendencies, a new Little Ice Age is predicted by the middle of this century, with significantly lower global temperatures. We also show that IPCC climate models can't produce any information regarding future climate, due to essential physical phenomena lacking in those, and that the current budget deficit in many EU countries is mainly caused by the policies promoting renewable energies and other AGW-motivated measures. In absence of any predictable adverse climate consequences of carbon dioxide emissions, and with no predictable shortage of fossil fuels, we argue for recalling of all policies aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions and usage of expensive renewable energy sources. The concepts of carbon credits, green energy and green fuels should be abandoned in favor of productive, economically viable and morally acceptable solutions.

  15. A Hierarchical Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ringler, Todd; Collins, William D.; Taylor, Mark; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tools for predicting the evolution of the climate system. Through decades of development, GCMs have demonstrated useful skill in simulating climate at continental to global scales. However, large uncertainties remain in projecting climate change at regional scales, which limit our ability to inform decisions on climate change adaptation and mitigation. To bridge this gap, different modeling approaches including nested regional climate models (RCMs), global stretch-grid models, and global high-resolution atmospheric models have been used to provide regional climate simulations (Leung et al. 2003). In previous efforts to evaluate these approaches, isolating their relative merits was not possible because factors such as dynamical frameworks, physics parameterizations, and model resolutions were not systematically constrained. With advances in high performance computing, it is now feasible to run coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs at horizontal resolution comparable to what RCMs use today. Global models with local refinement using unstructured grids have become available for modeling regional climate (e.g., Rauscher et al. 2012; Ringler et al. 2013). While they offer opportunities to improve climate simulations, significant efforts are needed to test their veracity for regional-scale climate simulations.

  16. Climate Leadership Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted and organized by the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO), Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES), and the Climate Registry, the three-day conference will showcase how new business opportunities, current policies, technologies, climate solutions and energy transformation will drive our low-carbon future.

  17. AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHWARTZ, S.E.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

  18. Predicting Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Modes with a Climate Modeling Hierarchy -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Ghil, UCLA; Andrew W. Robertson, IRI, Columbia Univ.; Sergey Kravtsov, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Padhraic Smyth, UC Irvine

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the project was to determine midlatitude climate predictability associated with tropical-extratropical interactions on interannual-to-interdecadal time scales. Our strategy was to develop and test a hierarchy of climate models, bringing together large GCM-based climate models with simple fluid-dynamical coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere models, through the use of advanced probabilistic network (PN) models. PN models were used to develop a new diagnostic methodology for analyzing coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions in large climate simulations made with the NCAR Parallel Climate Model (PCM), and to make these tools user-friendly and available to other researchers. We focused on interactions between the tropics and extratropics through atmospheric teleconnections (the Hadley cell, Rossby waves and nonlinear circulation regimes) over both the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and the ocean’s thermohaline circulation (THC) in the Atlantic. We tested the hypothesis that variations in the strength of the THC alter sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic, and that the latter influence the atmosphere in high latitudes through an atmospheric teleconnection, feeding back onto the THC. The PN model framework was used to mediate between the understanding gained with simplified primitive equations models and multi-century simulations made with the PCM. The project team is interdisciplinary and built on an existing synergy between atmospheric and ocean scientists at UCLA, computer scientists at UCI, and climate researchers at the IRI.

  19. Virginia Tech Comprehensive Power-based Fuel Consumption Model: Model Development and Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakha, Hesham A.

    The transportation sector consumes approximately 30% of the total energy in the United States, which is mostlyVirginia Tech Comprehensive Power-based Fuel Consumption Model: Model Development and Testing, Moran, Saerens, and Van den Bulck 2 ABSTRACT Existing fuel consumption and emission models suffer from

  20. A Web-Based OO Platform for the Development of Didactic Multimedia Collaborative Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Luis

    A Web-Based OO Platform for the Development of Didactic Multimedia Collaborative Applications David recognize two different kinds of objects: those supporting didactic multimedia information and those's layer encapsulates the behavior of both didactic and collaborative objects. Aspects such as objects

  1. Model based methodology development for energy recovery in flash heat exchange systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, John E.

    Model based methodology development for energy recovery in flash heat exchange systems Problem with a condensing heat exchanger can be used when heat exchange is required between two streams and where at leastH, consistency etc.). To increase the efficiency of heat exchange, a cascade of these units in series can be used

  2. A Model-Based Framework for Developing and Deploying Data Aggregation Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    A Model-Based Framework for Developing and Deploying Data Aggregation Services Ramakrishna Soma1 , Amol Bakshi2 , V.K.Prasanna2 , Will Da Sie3 1 Dept of Computer Science, USC, Los Angeles, CA 2 Dept of Electrical Engineering, USC, Los Angeles, CA {rsoma, amol, prasanna}@usc.edu 3 Chevron Corporation, San Ramon

  3. GIS-based Multi-Criteria Analysis of Wind Farm Development Henning Sten Hansen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    GIS-based Multi-Criteria Analysis of Wind Farm Development Henning Sten Hansen National on the environment of traditional power- generating methods, especially coal and oil-fired power stations wind power. A project ­ Wind Energy in the Baltic Sea Region - financed by EU / INTERREG III B was initiated in order

  4. Developing a TeraGrid Based Land Surface Hydrology and Weather Modeling Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Wen

    Developing a TeraGrid Based Land Surface Hydrology and Weather Modeling Interface Hsin-I Chang1 iclimate@purdue.edu -------------------- -------------------- 1 INTRODUCTION Real world hydrologic cyberinfrastructure (CI) has been articulated in many workshops and meetings of the environmental and hydrologic

  5. Community-Based Electric Micro-Grids Can Contribute to Rural Development: Evidence from Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    an ability to charge and enforce cost-reflective tariffs and when electricity consumption is closely linked and distribute electricity in rural areas (Government of Kenya, 2006). As an incentive measure, systems below 3Community-Based Electric Micro-Grids Can Contribute to Rural Development: Evidence from Kenya

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A NETWORK-BASED SHARED AUTOMATED VEHICLE MODEL IN AUSTIN, TEXAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A NETWORK-BASED SHARED AUTOMATED VEHICLE MODEL IN AUSTIN, TEXAS automated vehicle (SAV), combining features of short term rentals with the vehicles' powerful automated self. INTRODUCTION Vehicle automation appears poised to revolutionize the way in which we interface

  7. Development of Educational System for Automotive Engineering based on Augmented Reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Jee-Hwan

    Development of Educational System for Automotive Engineering based on Augmented Reality Ildar for automotive engineering education is introduced. Main objective of the system is teaching disassemble/assemble procedure of automatic transmission of a vehicle to students, who study automotive engineering. System

  8. Researchers are developing novel zeolite-based materials with 1-D nanopores for automotive applications.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Researchers are developing novel zeolite-based materials with 1-D nanopores for automotive configuration. The calculations also demonstrate the important role of zeolite aluminum location and the relative aluminum arrangement in that site, current calculations are evaluating the catalytic activity

  9. Towards an MDA-based development methodology1 Anastasius Gavras1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pires, LuĂ­s Ferreira

    Towards an MDA-based development methodology1 Anastasius Gavras1 , Mariano Belaunde2 , LuĂ­s and concepts of the Model-Driven Architecture (MDA). The paper identifies phases and activities of an MDA the applicability and potential of MDA in the context of telecom services and applications. The paper claims

  10. BPM Electronics based on Compensated Diode Detectors – Results from development Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasior, M; Steinhagen, RJ

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution beam position monitor (BPM) electronics based on diode peak detectors is being developed for processing signals from button BPMs embedded into future LHC collimators. Its prototypes were measured in a laboratory as well as with beam signals from the collimator BPM installed on the SPS and with LHC BPMs. Results from these measurements are presented and discussed.

  11. Developing Grid-based Systems for Microbial Genome Comparisons: The Microbase Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    Developing Grid-based Systems for Microbial Genome Comparisons: The Microbase Project Anil Wipat, University of Newcastle upon Tyne Abstract Comparative analysis of genomes allows the rich source of biological genome sequence data to be most efficiently exploited. However, the rate at which microbial

  12. Simulated effects of climate change on the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Agnese, F.A.; O`Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; San Juan, C.A.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional flow system as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. As part of the hydrologic investigation, regional, three-dimensional conceptual and numerical ground-water-flow models have been developed to assess the potential effects of past and future climates on the regional flow system. A simulation that is based on climatic conditions 21,000 years ago was evaluated by comparing the simulated results to observation of paleodischarge sites. Following acceptable simulation of a past climate, a possible future ground-water-flow system, with climatic conditions that represent a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, was simulated. The steady-state simulations were based on the present-day, steady-state, regional ground-water-flow model. The finite-difference model consisted of 163 rows, 153 columns, and 3 layers and was simulated using MODFLOWP. Climate changes were implemented in the regional ground-water-flow model by changing the distribution of ground-water recharge. Global-scale, average-annual, simulated precipitation for both past- and future-climate conditions developed elsewhere were resampled to the model-grid resolution. A polynomial function that represents the Maxey-Eakin method for estimating recharge from precipitation was used to develop recharge distributions for simulation.

  13. Climate Change Lecture (ID:180) This lecture will give an overview of climate changes that have occurred in the past and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    Climate Change Lecture (ID:180) Outline This lecture will give an overview of climate changes to understand climate changes that have occurred in the past. This is a lecture based activity with opportunities to ask questions. Further details Students will learn: 1. Different time-scales of climate changes

  14. IT IS 5 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT Entangled histories: Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    : Climate science and nuclear weapons research Paul N. Edwards Abstract Climate science and nuclear weapons models developed to trace fallout from weapons tests. Tracing radioactive carbon as it cycles through intersection between climate science and nuclear affairs. Without the work done by nuclear weapons designers

  15. Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polz, Martin

    Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

  16. Presented by Climate End Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . White III (Trey) National Center for Atmospheric Research #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U-scale processes on large-scale climate can be more closely evaluated (clouds, convection, radiation, boundary the energy and moisture budgets of MJO based on cloud resolving simulations using WRF and to improve cloud

  17. Long-Term Regional Climate Simulations Driven by Two Global Reanalyses and a GCM for the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai R.; Bian, Xindi; Qian, Yun

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To take advantage of recent development in the NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5), an effort has been organized to develop and evaluate an MM5-based community regional climate model. Several modifications such as the implementation of the PNNL subgrid parameterization of orographic precipitation, representation of cloud-radiation interaction, and additional output capabilities have been made to the recently released MM5 Version 3.4. To evaluate the model, several long-term simulations have been performed over the western U.S. These simulations were driven by the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses respectively for 20 and 13 years beginning at 1980. The western U.S. is marked by diverse topographic features and varied climate conditions such as the maritime climate in the coastal area and the semi-arid climate in the southwest. We will present results based on two domain configurations: a nested domain with a fine domain covering the western U.S. at 40 km resolution, and a single domain at 60 km resolution with the subgrid orographic precipitation scheme applied in the western U.S. Analyses are being performed to evaluate the simulations of the averaged climate and interannual variability and examine the model sensitivity to different boundary conditions. Our analyses focus on the relationships between large-scale circulation and regional climate features, surface energy and water budgets, orographic precipitation, and hydrologic conditions within selected river basins. Regional simulations are also being performed using large-scale conditions simulated by the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM). The regional model was used to downscale the ensemble PCM climate change scenarios for periods of 10-20 years in the current and future climate. Results will be analyzed to study the impacts of greenhouse warming on regional water resources in the western U.S.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  19. Climate change risk and response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Changeand Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.

  20. Climate change risk and response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.Sea Level. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.

  1. Climate Change and National Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alyson, Fleming; Summer, Kelly; Summer, Martin; Lauren, Franck; Jonathan, Mark

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CLIMATE CHANGE Multiplying Threats to National Securityfor the impacts of climate change on national security. Pagea warming world. Page 11 “Climate change acts as a threat

  2. Climate change risk and response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    net impact of climate change on agriculture in California,of Climate Change on California Agriculture. ” PresentationEffects of Climate Change on California Agriculture Positive

  3. Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsidered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Anthony

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009 Paper 1080 Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsideredby author(s). Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsideredimpact of climate change on agriculture, there still exists

  4. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesser, W.A.; Daling, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Baynes, P.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies.

  5. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Cement - Results

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    time in terms of greenhouse gas intensity reductions, given the recent start-up of the Climate VISION program and evolving industry commitments. As the program develops and the...

  6. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Automobile Manufacturers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    time in terms of greenhouse gas intensity reductions, given the recent start-up of the Climate VISION program and evolving industry commitments. As the program develops and the...

  7. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: Results

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Results At this time, given the recent start-up of the Climate VISION program, and the evolving industry commitments, there are no measured results. As the program develops and the...

  8. Directed Technical Change and Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otto, Vincent M.

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of climate policy if there are technology externalities. For this purpose, we develop a forward-looking CGE model that captures empirical links between CO2 emissions associated ...

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Sarma V. Pisupati; Chunshan Song; Ronald S. Wasco; Ronald T. Wincek; Xiaochun Xu; Alan W. Scaroni; Richard Hogg; Subhash Chander; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Mark S. Klima; Peter T. Luckie; Adam Rose; Richard L. Gordon; Jeffrey Lazo; A. Michael Schaal

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The third phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for US Department of Defense (DOD) facilities was completed. The objectives of the project were to: decrease DOD's dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase III activities were focused on evaluating deeply-cleaned coals as fuels for industrial boilers and investigating emissions control strategies for providing ultra-low emissions when firing coal-based fuels. This was addressed by performing coal beneficiation and preparation studies, and bench- to demonstration-scale emissions reduction studies. In addition, economic studies were conducted focused on determining cost and market penetration, selection of incentives, and regional economic impacts of coal-based technologies.

  10. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  11. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability? Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come? This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management in Wisconsinin Wisconsin NASECA February 3, 2011 David S. Liebl #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts · Adaptation strategies #12;Visible Light Energy in = Energy out Absorbed

  14. assessing climate change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have rendered Debinski, Diane M. 23 Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change University of...

  15. assessment climate change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have rendered Debinski, Diane M. 23 Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change University of...

  16. Development of rapid microbial methods for lysine quantification in feed ingredients based on green fluorescent protein fluorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalova-Zhekova, Vesela I.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    -determination of bioavailable lysine in feedstuffs is important. An optical density (OD) based microbiological assay for lysine determination using E. coli lysine auxotroph has been previously developed. However, because the assay is based on bacterial growth response...

  17. ICT and the Environment in Developing Countries: A Review of Opportunities and Developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Communication Technology (ICT), The Environment, Climate Change, Mitigation, Adaptation, Developing Countries technologies and applications. This review focuses on the role of ICTs in climate change mitigation, mitigating other environmental pressures and climate change adaptation, providing an overview and pointing

  18. THE IDENTIFICATION OF A SOLAR SIGNAL IN CLIMATE RECORDS OF THE LAST 500 YEARS USING PROXY AND MODEL-BASED ANALYSIS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    for their help with acquiring solar data and figures, as well as helping me to interpret them. Jay Lawrimore there is no consensus as to the best method for estimating past variations in solar output, it seems likely that overTHE IDENTIFICATION OF A SOLAR SIGNAL IN CLIMATE RECORDS OF THE LAST 500 YEARS USING PROXY AND MODEL

  19. Development of an Fe efficiency screening procedure for sorghum based on realistic soil parameters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Francisco

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , are considered to be good indicators of Fe use efficiency in plants, and thus were the basis determining Fe-efficiency of the sorghum cultivars. Rodriguez de Cianzio et al. (1979) reported that visual chlorosis ratings weze highly correlated (r=0. 90...DEVELOPMENT OF AN FE EFFICIENCY SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR SORGHUH BASED ON REAl ISTIC SOIL PARAHETERS A Thesis by FRANCISCO HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  20. Development of a Web-based Emissions Reduction Calculator for Solar Thermal and Solar Photovoltaic Installations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Gilman, D.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED EMISSIONS REDUCTION CALCULATOR FOR SOLAR THERMAL AND SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATIONS Juan-Carlos Baltazar Research Associate Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. Professor/Associate Director Don R. Gilman, P.E. Senior... the potential emission reductions due to the electricity savings from the application of some of the most common solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. The methodology to estimate the potential NOx emission reduction integrates legacy analysis tools...

  1. Development of simplified design aids based on the results of simulation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Load Ratio method for estimating the performance of passive solar heating systems is described. It is a simplified technique which is based on correlating the monthly solar savings fraction in terms of the ratio of monthly solar radiation absorbed by the building to total monthly building thermal load. The effect of differences between actual design parameters and those used to develop the correlations is estimated afterwards using sensitivity curves. The technique is fast and simple and sufficiently accurate for design purposes.

  2. Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Developing Countries: Policy Options for Innovations and Technology Diffusion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agricultural Technologies for Climate...

  3. Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable transport: a sourcebook for policy-makers in developing cities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  4. Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and...

  5. Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Management Under the New Climate Change Agreement-A Case Study in Cambodia AgencyCompany Organization United States Agency for International Development, Global...

  6. Climate, Earth system project draws on science powerhouses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    advance for an already vibrant high-performance computing community. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy, or ACME, is designed to accelerate the development and application...

  7. Financing Climate Adaptation and Mitigation in Rural Areas of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Financing Climate Adaptation and Mitigation in Rural Areas of Developing Countries AgencyCompany...

  8. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: Work Plans

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnesium Association has developed a work plan for achieving the industry's Climate VISION commitment. Read the International Magnesium Association Work Plan (PDF 92 KB)...

  9. Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

  10. Low Carbon Green Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    scarcity and climate change and how adopting Low Carbon Green Growth can provide win-win solutions for fostering inclusive sustainable development while mitigating and...

  11. Study and Development of Anti-Islanding Control for Synchronous Machine-Based Distributed Generators: November 2001--March 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the study and development of new active anti-islanding control schemes for synchronous machine-based distributed generators, including engine generators and gas turbines.

  12. Workshop on the preparation of climate change action plans. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 130 participants from more than 27 countries shared experiences of developing and transition countries in preparation and development of their climate change national action plans. International experts guided countries in preparation of their climate change national action plans.

  13. ORIGAMIX, a CdTe-based spectro-imager development for nuclear applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubos, S; Schanne, S; Limousin, O; Carrel, F; Schoepff, V; Blondel, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Astrophysics Division of CEA Saclay has a long history in the development of CdTe based pixelated detection planes for X and gamma-ray astronomy, with time-resolved imaging and spectrometric capabilities. The last generation, named Caliste HD, is an all-in-one modular instrument that fulfills requirements for space applications. Its full-custom front-end electronics is designed to work over a large energy range from 2 keV to 1 MeV with excellent spectroscopic performances, in particular between 10 and 100 keV (0.56 keV FWHM and 0.67 keV FWHM at 13.9 and 59.5 keV). In the frame of the ORIGAMIX project, a consortium based on research laboratories and industrials has been settled in order to develop a new generation of gamma camera. The aim is to develop a system based on the Caliste architecture for post-accidental interventions or homeland security, but integrating new properties (advanced spectrometry, hybrid working mode) and suitable for industry. A first prototype was designed and tested to acquire fee...

  14. Climate WorkshopsClimate Workshops for Department Chairsp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilbury, Dawn

    Climate WorkshopsClimate Workshops for Department Chairsp University of Wisconsin ADVANCE-IT Slides) #12;Why focus on departmental climate? Individuals experience climate in their immediate workplace negative climate than male faculty Improving department climate is critical for retention and advancement

  15. Climate change is not "a problem" wait-ing for "a solution". It is an environ-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulme, Mike

    41 Climate change is not "a problem" wait- ing for "a solution". It is an environ- mental, cultural humanity's place on Earth. My new book, Why We Disagree About Climate Change, dissects this idea of climate about it. It also develops a different way of approaching the idea of climate change and of working

  16. Climate change impacts and vulnerability of the southern populations of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    vulnerability to climate change in Mediterranean mountain forests is not well developed. Climate change impactsClimate change impacts and vulnerability of the southern populations of Pinus nigra subsp-sensitive species. Trees will adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased extreme

  17. Climate Leadership Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Climate Leadership Conference is your annual exchange for addressing global climate change through policy, innovation, and business solutions. Forward-thinking lead­ers from busi­ness, gov­ern...

  18. The Climate Policy Dilemma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent GHG abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists over the likelihood of ...

  19. The Climate Policy Dilemma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists concerning ...

  20. Solar magnetic fields and terrestrial climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgieva, Katya; Kirov, Boian

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar irradiance is considered one of the main natural factors affecting terrestrial climate, and its variations are included in most numerical models estimating the effects of natural versus anthropogenic factors for climate change. Solar wind causing geomagnetic disturbances is another solar activity agent whose role in climate change is not yet fully estimated but is a subject of intense research. For the purposes of climate modeling, it is essential to evaluate both the past and the future variations of solar irradiance and geomagnetic activity which are ultimately due to the variations of solar magnetic fields. Direct measurements of solar magnetic fields are available for a limited period, but can be reconstructed from geomagnetic activity records. Here we present a reconstruction of total solar irradiance based on geomagnetic data, and a forecast of the future irradiance and geomagnetic activity relevant for the expected climate change.

  1. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  2. Next generation aerosol-cloud microphysics for advanced high-resolution climate predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennartz, Ralf; Hamilton, Kevin P; Phillips, Vaughan T.J.; Wang, Yuqing; Brenguier, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The three top-level project goals are: -We proposed to develop, test, and run a new, physically based, scale-independent microphysical scheme for those cloud processes that most strongly affect greenhouse gas scenarios, i.e. warm cloud microphysics. In particular, we propsed to address cloud droplet activation, autoconversion, and accretion. -The new, unified scheme was proposed to be derived and tested using the University of Hawaii's IPRC Regional Atmospheric Model (iRAM). -The impact of the new parameterizations on climate change scenarios will be studied. In particular, the sensitivity of cloud response to climate forcing from increased greenhouse gas concentrations will be assessed.

  3. Climate Science and Climate Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Anthony

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on catastrophe: The social cost of carbon under non-linearmodels, and also the social cost of carbon (SCC), calculatedprinciple based on the social cost of carbon (SCC), in turn

  4. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic Using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassano, John [Principal Investigator

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary research task completed for this project was the development of the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). This involved coupling existing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land models using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) coupler (CPL7). RACM is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean model, the CICE sea ice model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land model. A secondary research task for this project was testing and evaluation of WRF for climate-scale simulations on the large pan-Arctic model domain used in RACM. This involved identification of a preferred set of model physical parameterizations for use in our coupled RACM simulations and documenting any atmospheric biases present in RACM.

  5. The Climate Change Action Plan: Technical supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Technical Annex documents the assumptions and parameters used in developing the supporting analysis for the Climate Change Action Plan (the Plan) issued by President Clinton on October 19, 1993. The Annex is intended to meet the needs of independent energy and environmental analysts who wish to better understand the Plan, its analytical underpinnings, and the events that need to transpire for the emissions reductions called for in the Plan to be realized. The Plan documented in this Annex reflects the outcome of a wide-ranging effort by Government agencies and interested members of the public to develop and implement actions that can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions in the year 2000 to their aggregate 1990 level. Based on agency and public input, the Climate Change Mitigation Group, chaired by the White House Office on Environmental Policy, developed the Plan`s content. Many of the actions called for in the Plan are now underway, while others are in advanced planning pending congressional action on the fiscal year 1995 budget. The analysis supporting the Plan represents the results of an interagency effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) was responsible for the integrated analysis of energy-related options, based on the analysis of individual energy-related options by DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Transportation (DOT). EPA led in providing analysis for actions related to methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) led the analysis of carbon sequestration actions and cooperated with EPA in the analysis of actions to reduce nitrous oxide emissions.

  6. Climate Change Economics and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, Daniela

    AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

  7. Process Development for CIGS Based Thin Film Photovoltaics Modules, Phase II Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, J.; Wiedeman, S.; Albright, S.

    2000-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    As a technology partner with NREL, Global Solar Energy (GSE) has initiated an extensive and systematic plan to accelerate the commercialization of thin-film photovoltaics (PV) based on copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). The distinguishing feature of the GSE manufacturing process is the exclusive use of lightweight, flexible substrates. GSE has developed the technology to fabricate CIGS photovoltaics on both stainless-steel and polymer substrates. CIGS deposited on flexible substrates can be fabricated into either flexible or rigid modules. Low-cost, rigid PV panels for remote power, bulk/utility, telecommunication, and rooftop applications have been produced by affixing the flexible substrate to an inexpensive rigid panel by lamination or adhesive. Stainless-steel-based PV modules are fabricated by a novel interconnect method that avoids the use of wires or foils and soldered connections. In the case of polymer-based PV modules, the continuous roll is not sectioned into individual panels until the module buss and power leads are attached. Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition has several advantages that translate directly to reduced capital costs, greater productivity, improved yield, greater reliability, lower maintenance, and a larger volume of PV material. In combination with roll-to-roll processing, GSE has developed evaporation deposition operations that enable low-cost and high-efficiency CIGS modules. The CIGS deposition process relies heavily on effusion source technology developed at GSE, and solving numerous problems was an integral part of the source development effort. Cell interconnection for thin-film CIGS modules on a polyimide substrate presents a considerable challenge.

  8. METEOROLOGICAL Journal of Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Ming

    AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Journal of Climate EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary PDF it is available. © 201 American Meteorological Society1 #12;Sun et al. climate downscaling of the Australian currents 1 Marine downscaling of a future climate scenario for Australian boundary currents Chaojiao Sun

  9. Campus Climate Camden Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Stephen José

    Campus Climate Report Camden Campus New Brunswick/Piscataway Campus Newark Campus Student Survey #12;I. INTRODUCTION Executive Summary The Rutgers Campus Climate Survey was designed to determine how University, the campus climate surveys revealed strong areas of satisfaction with the Rutgers University

  10. Forest Research: Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

  11. Climate Change Workshop 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

  12. Regional-Scale Climate Change: Observations and Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaborative proposal addressed key issues in understanding the Earthâ??s climate system, as highlighted by the U.S. Climate Science Program. The research focused on documenting past climatic changes and on assessing future climatic changes based on suites of global and regional climate models. Geographically, our emphasis was on the mountainous regions of the world, with a particular focus on the Neotropics of Central America and the Hawaiian Islands. Mountain regions are zones where large variations in ecosystems occur due to the strong climate zonation forced by the topography. These areas are particularly susceptible to changes in critical ecological thresholds, and we conducted studies of changes in phonological indicators based on various climatic thresholds.

  13. Climate Models from the Joint Global Change Research Institute

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Staff at the Joint Institute develop and use models to simulate the economic and physical impacts of global change policy options. The GCAM, for example, gives analysts insight into how regional and national economies might respond to climate change mitigation policies including carbon taxes, carbon trading, and accelerated deployment of energy technology. Three available models are Phoenix, GCAM, and EPIC. Phoenix is a global, dynamic recursive, computable general equilibrium model that is solved in five-year time steps from 2005 through 2100 and divides the world into twenty-four regions. Each region includes twenty-six industrial sectors. Particular attention is paid to energy production in Phoenix. There are nine electricity-generating technologies (coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal) and four additional energy commodities: crude oil, refined oil products, coal, and natural gas. Phoenix is designed to answer economic questions related to international climate and energy policy and international trade. Phoenix replaces the Second Generation Model (SGM) that was formerly used for general equilibrium analysis at JGCRI. GCAM is the Global Change Assessment Model, a partial equilibrium model of the world with 14 regions. GCAM operates in 5 year time steps from 1990 to 2095 and is designed to examine long-term changes in the coupled energy, agriculture/land-use, and climate system. GCAM includes a 151-region agriculture land-use module and a reduced form carbon cycle and climate module in addition to its incorporation of demographics, resources, energy production and consumption. The model has been used extensively in a number of assessment and modeling activities such as the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF), the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and IPCC assessment reports. GCAM is now freely available as a community model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) Model is a process-based agricultural systems model composed of simulation components for weather, hydrology, nutrient cycling, pesticide fate, tillage, crop growth, soil erosion, crop and soil management and economics. Staff at PNNL have been involved in the development of this model by integrating new sub-models for soil carbon dynamics and nitrogen cycling.

  14. The evaluation within the development and deployment of IMS LD-based didactic materials: The MD2 + runtime adaptation approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The evaluation within the development and deployment of IMS LD-based didactic materials: The MD2 in the didactic materials creation since it allows developers to check if the features of created material satisfy]. They have been applied to asses IMS LD based didactic material in conjunction with the experience provided

  15. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011 J. Hansen, M. Sato, coincident with increased global warming. The most dramatic and important change of the climate dice change is the natural variability of climate. How can a person discern long-term climate change, given

  16. The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Focusing Technologies on Climate Datasets and Resource Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a project that used prototyping technology to access and analyze climate data. This project was initially funded under the DOE’s Next Generation Internet (NGI) program, with follow-on support from BER and the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) office. In this prototype, we developed Data Grid technologies for managing the movement and replication of large datasets, and applied these technologies in a practical setting (i.e., an ESG-enabled data browser based on current climate data analysis tools), achieving cross-country transfer rates of more than 500 Mb/s. Having demonstrated the potential for remotely accessing and analyzing climate data located at sites across the U.S., we won the “Hottest Infrastructure” award in the Network Challenge event. While the ESG I prototype project substantiated a proof of concept (“Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources”), the SciDAC Earth System Grid (ESG) II project made this a reality. Our efforts targeted the development of metadata technologies (standard schema, XML metadata extraction based on netCDF, and a Metadata Catalog Service), security technologies (Web-based user registration and authentication, and community authorization), data transport technologies (GridFTPenabled OPeNDAP-G for high-performance access, robust multiple file transport and integration with mass storage systems, and support for dataset aggregation and subsetting), as well as web portal technologies to provide interactive access to climate data holdings. At this point, the technology was in place and assembled, and ESG II was poised to make a substantial impact on the climate modelling community.

  17. Final Progress Report: Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M; Cote, J

    2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and applications important for the U.S. and Canadian public, business and policy decision makers, as well as for international collaborations on regional, and especially climate related issues.

  18. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wei (Wendy) [Wendy; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and visualization techniques of the Piceance Basin structure spatial distribution of the oil shale resources. The sur- face water/groundwater models quantify the water shortage and better understanding the spatial distribution of the available water resources. The energy resource development systems model reveals the phase shift of water usage and the oil shale production, which will facilitate better planning for oil shale development. Detailed descriptions about the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research will be given in the sec- tion of “ACCOMPLISHMENTS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION” of this report.

  19. Application and development of technologies for engine-condition-based maintenance of emergency diesel generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K. H.; Sang, G.; Choi, L. Y. S.; Lee, B. O. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company Central Research Institue, 70, 1312 -gil Yuseong-daero Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergency diesel generator (EDG) of a nuclear power plant has the role of supplying emergency electric power to protect the reactor core system in the event of the loss of offsite power supply. Therefore, EDGs should be subject to periodic surveillance testing to verify their ability to supply specified frequencies and voltages at design power levels within a limited time. To maintain optimal reliability of EDGs, condition monitoring/diagnosis technologies must be developed. Changing from periodic disassemble maintenance to condition-based maintenance (CBM) according to predictions of equipment condition is recommended. In this paper, the development of diagnosis technology for CBM and the application of a diesel engine condition-analysis system are described. (authors)

  20. Microstructural developments in TLP bonds using thin interlayers based on Ni-B coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, R.K. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Khan, T.I., E-mail: tkhan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA 758 was transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded using thin interlayers based on Ni-B electrodeposited coatings and the microstructural developments across the joint region were studied. The bonding surfaces were electrodeposited with a coat thickness of 2-9 {mu}m and microstructural features were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The homogeneity of the joint was assessed performing micro-hardness test. The results showed that the coating thickness as well as the amount of melting point depressants (boron) in the coatings had a significant effect on the microstructural developments within the joint region. TLP bonds made using a 2 {mu}m thick coating interlayer produced a joint with no visible precipitate formation and parent metal dissolution, and the absence of precipitates was attributed to the lower volume concentration of boron in the 2 {mu}m thick coating interlayer.

  1. Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

  2. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  3. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ahrens, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Brown, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chervenak, A. L. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Cinquini, L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fox, P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Harper, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Hook, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, D. E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Miller, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nienhouse, E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Shipman, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, W. G. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilcox, H. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  4. Climate system modeling on massively parallel systems: LDRD Project 95-ERP-47 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirin, A.A.; Dannevik, W.P.; Chan, B.; Duffy, P.B.; Eltgroth, P.G.; Wehner, M.F.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming, acid rain, ozone depletion, and biodiversity loss are some of the major climate-related issues presently being addressed by climate and environmental scientists. Because unexpected changes in the climate could have significant effect on our economy, it is vitally important to improve the scientific basis for understanding and predicting the earth`s climate. The impracticality of modeling the earth experimentally in the laboratory together with the fact that the model equations are highly nonlinear has created a unique and vital role for computer-based climate experiments. However, today`s computer models, when run at desired spatial and temporal resolution and physical complexity, severely overtax the capabilities of our most powerful computers. Parallel processing offers significant potential for attaining increased performance and making tractable simulations that cannot be performed today. The principal goals of this project have been to develop and demonstrate the capability to perform large-scale climate simulations on high-performance computing systems (using methodology that scales to the systems of tomorrow), and to carry out leading-edge scientific calculations using parallelized models. The demonstration platform for these studies has been the 256-processor Cray-T3D located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our plan was to undertake an ambitious program in optimization, proof-of-principle and scientific study. These goals have been met. We are now regularly using massively parallel processors for scientific study of the ocean and atmosphere, and preliminary parallel coupled ocean/atmosphere calculations are being carried out as well. Furthermore, our work suggests that it should be possible to develop an advanced comprehensive climate system model with performance scalable to the teraflops range. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  5. A Right to Enjoy Culture in Face of Climate Change: Implications for “Climate Migrants”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wewerinke, Margaretha

    sustainability while allowing for global economic development. This includes strategies for carbon emissions reduction, sequestration of carbon in vegetation and improved resilience of the built environment, economies and social institutions to climate impacts...

  6. A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Riahi, Keywan; Moss, Richard H.; Edmonds, James A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Kram, Tom; Berkhout, Frans; Swart, Robert; Janetos, Anthony C.; Rose, Steven K.; Arnell, Nigel

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we propose a scenario framework that could provide a scenario thread through the different climate research communities (climate change vulnerability, impact, and adaptation (VIA) and mitigation) in order to provide assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies and other VIA challenges. The scenario framework is defined across two main axes. One is defined by the radiative forcing levels (climate signal) of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The second axis is defined by socio-economic development and comprises elements that affect the capacity for adaptation and mitigation but also exposure to climate impacts. The proposed set of scenarios derived from this framework are limited in number, allow for comparison across various mitigation and adaptation levels, address a range of vulnerability characteristics, provide information across climate forcing and vulnerability states and spans a full century time scale. Scenario assessment based on the proposed framework would strengthen cooperation between integrated-assessment modelers, climate modelers and the VIA research community, and most importantly, facilitate the development of more consistent and comparable research within and across communities.

  7. Development of a hydrogen generator based on the partial oxidation of natural gas integrated with PEFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recupero, V.; Pino, L.; Di Leonardo, R.; Lagana, M. [Inst. CNR-TAE, Messina (Italy)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As is well known, the most acknowledged process for generation of hydrogen for fuel cells is based upon the steam reforming of methane or natural gas. A valid alternative could be a process based on partial oxidation of methane, since the process is mildly exothermic and therefore not energy intensive. Consequently, great interest is expected from conversion of methane into syngas, if an autothermal, low energy intensive, compact and reliable process could be developed. This paper covers the activities, performed by CNR Institute Transformation and Storage of Energy, Messina, Italy, on theoretical and experimental studies for a compact hydrogen generator, via catalytic selective partial oxidation of methane, integrated with a PEFC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell). In particular, the project focuses the attention on methane partial oxidation via heterogeneous selective catalysts, in order to: demonstrate the basic Catalytic Selective Partial Oxidation of Methane (CSPOM) technology in a subscale prototype, equivalent to a nominal output of 5 kWe; develop the CSPOM technology for its application in electric energy production by means of fuel cells; assess, by a balance of plant analysis, and a techno-economic evaluation, the potential benefits of the CSPOM for different categories of fuel cells.

  8. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for cement manufacturing plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing the plant performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing plants can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the cement manufacturing industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for assembly plants that produce a variety of products, including Portland cement and other specialty cement products, in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for cement manufacturing plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  9. ORIGAMIX, a CdTe-based spectro-imager development for nuclear applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Dubos; H. Lemaire; S. Schanne; O. Limousin; F. Carrel; V. Schoepff; C. Blondel

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Astrophysics Division of CEA Saclay has a long history in the development of CdTe based pixelated detection planes for X and gamma-ray astronomy, with time-resolved imaging and spectrometric capabilities. The last generation, named Caliste HD, is an all-in-one modular instrument that fulfills requirements for space applications. Its full-custom front-end electronics is designed to work over a large energy range from 2 keV to 1 MeV with excellent spectroscopic performances, in particular between 10 and 100 keV (0.56 keV FWHM and 0.67 keV FWHM at 13.9 and 59.5 keV). In the frame of the ORIGAMIX project, a consortium based on research laboratories and industrials has been settled in order to develop a new generation of gamma camera. The aim is to develop a system based on the Caliste architecture for post-accidental interventions or homeland security, but integrating new properties (advanced spectrometry, hybrid working mode) and suitable for industry. A first prototype was designed and tested to acquire feedback for further developments. In this study, we particularly focused on spectrometric performances with high energies and high fluxes. Therefore, our device was exposed to energies up to 700 keV (133Ba, 137Cs) and we measured the evolution of energy resolution (0.96 keV at 80 keV, 2.18 keV at 356 keV, 3.33 keV at 662 keV). Detection efficiency decreases after 150 keV, as Compton effect becomes dominant. However, CALISTE is also designed to handle multiple events, enabling Compton scattering reconstruction, which can drastically improve detection efficiencies and dynamic range for higher energies up to 1408 keV (22Na, 60Co, 152Eu) within a 1-mm thick detector. In particular, such spectrometric performances obtained with 152Eu and 60Co were never measured before with this kind of detector.

  10. Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour;1 Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour? Thomas D. Lowe 1 these kinds of messages (which have recently been dubbed `climate porn' (Ereaut and Segnit, 2006)), can

  11. Climate history and paleoclimate -HS 2011 Climate proxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Climate history and paleoclimate - HS 2011 Climate proxies 18O Climate History & Paleoclimate ­ September 30, 2011 #12;How do we know about the past? Instrumental Historical Through proxies Climate proxies Climate history and paleoclimate - HS 2011 #12;What is a `proxy'? "Proxy, as used here

  12. Climate history and paleoclimate -HS 2011 Future climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Climate history and paleoclimate - HS 2011 Future climate Climate History & Paleoclimate - December 9, 2011 1 #12;Climate history and paleoclimate - HS 2011 IPCC 2007 4th Assessment report (AR4) More information can be found: http://www.ipcc.ch/ Remark: 5th assessment report is due in 2013/2014 2 #12;Climate

  13. Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulme, Mike

    Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

  14. A fair compromise to break the climate impasse. A major economies forum approach to emissions reductions budgeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, Marco [Univ. of Milan-Bicocca (Italy). International Environmental Policy; J. Roberts, Timmons [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Environmental Studies and Sociology; The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Key messages of the study are: Given the stalemate in U.N. climate negotiations, the best arena to strike a workable deal is among the members the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF); The 13 MEF members—including the EU-27 (but not double-counting the four EU countries that are also individual members of the MEF)—account for 81.3 percent of all global emissions; This proposal devises a fair compromise to break the impasse to develop a science-based approach for fairly sharing the carbon budget in order to have a 75 percent chance of avoiding dangerous climate change; To increase the likelihood of a future climate agreement, carbon accounting must shift from production-based inventories to consumption-based ones; The shares of a carbon budget to stay below 2 deg C through 2050 are calculated by cumulative emissions since 1990, i.e. according to a short-horizon polluter pays principle, and national capability (income), and allocated to MEF members through emission rights. This proposed fair compromise addresses key concerns of major emitters; According to this accounting, no countries have negative carbon budgets, there is substantial time for greening major developing economies, and some developed countries need to institute very rapid reductions in emissions; and, To provide a 'green ladder' to developing countries and to ensure a fair global deal, it will be crucial to agree how to extend sufficient and predictable financial support and the rapid transfer of technology.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Accelerated Climate Modeling for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy New Project Is the ACME of Computer Science to Address Climate Change On December 3, 2014, in Analysis, Climate, Global Climate & Energy,...

  16. Our goal is to develop physically based lighting models and percep-tually based rendering procedures for computer graphics that will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferwerda, James A.

    be a major paradigm shift for the computer graphics industry, but would have much broader applicability thanAbstract Our goal is to develop physically based lighting models and percep- tually based rendering framework is subdivided into three sub-sections: the local light reflection model, the energy transport

  17. Development of a Mechanistic-Based Healing Model for Self-Healing Glass Seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wei; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-healing glass, a recent development of hermetic sealant materials, has the ability to effectively repair damage when heated to elevated temperatures; thus, able to extend its service life. Since crack healing morphological changes in the glass material are usually temperature and stress dependent, quantitative studies to determine the effects of thermo-mechanical conditions on the healing behavior of the self-healing glass sealants are extremely useful to accommodate the design and optimization of the sealing systems within SOFCs. The goal of this task is to develop a mechanistic-based healing model to quantify the stress and temperature dependent healing behavior. A two-step healing mechanism was developed and implemented into finite element (FE) models through user-subroutines. Integrated experimental/kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation methodology was taken to calibrate the model parameters. The crack healing model is able to investigate the effects of various thermo-mechanical factors; therefore, able to determine the critical conditions under which the healing mechanism will be activated. Furthermore, the predicted results can be used to formulate the continuum damage-healing model and to assist the SOFC stack level simulations in predicting and evaluating the effectiveness and the performance of various engineering seal designs.

  18. Feasibility of developing risk-based rankings of pressure boundary systems for inservice inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vo, T.V.; Smith, B.W.; Simonen, F.A.; Gore, B.F.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of the Evaluation and Improvement of Non-destructive Examination Reliability for the In-service Inspection of Light Water Reactors Program sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to (1) assess current ISI techniques and requirements for all pressure boundary systems and components, (2) determine if improvements to the requirements are needed, and (3) if necessary, develop recommendations for revising the applicable ASME Codes and regulatory requirements. In evaluating approaches that could be used to provide a technical basis for improved inservice inspection plans, PNL has developed and applied a method that uses results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to establish piping system ISI requirements. In the PNL program, the feasibility of generic ISI requirements is being addressed in two phases. Phase I involves identifying and prioritizing the systems most relevant to plant safety. The results of these evaluations will be later consolidated into requirements for comprehensive inservice inspection of nuclear power plant components that will be developed in Phase II. This report presents Phase I evaluations for eight selected plants and attempts to compare these PRA-based inspection priorities with current ASME Section XI requirements for Class 1, 2 and 3 systems. These results show that there are generic insights that can be extrapolated from the selected plants to specific classes of light water reactors.

  19. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

  20. Climate Modeling using High-Performance Computing The Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) and the LLNL Climate and Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and NCAR in the development of a comprehensive, earth systems model. This model incorporates the most-performance climate models. Through the addition of relevant physical processes, we are developing an earth systems modeling capability as well. Our collaborators in climate research include the National Center

  1. Turning Renewable Resources into Recyclable Polymer: Development of Lignin-Based Thermoplastic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Rebecca H [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Pickel, Deanna L [ORNL; Pickel, Joseph M [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Productive uses of lignin, the third most abundant natural polymer, have been sought for decades. One especially attractive possibility is that of developing value-added products including thermoplastics based on lignin. This possibility warrants special attention due to growth of the modern biofuel industries. However, the polydisperse molecular weight and hyper-branched structure of lignin has hindered the creation of high-performance biopolymers. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of novel lignin-based, partially carbon-neutral thermoplastics. We first altered the molecular weight of lignin, either by fractionation with methanol, or by formaldehyde crosslinking. A crosslinking of lignin increases the molecular weight, exhibiting Mn = 31000 g/mol, whereas that of native lignin is 1840 g/mol. Tuning the molecular weight of lignin enabled successful preparation of novel lignin-derived thermoplastics, when coupled with telechelic polybutadiene soft-segments at proper feed ratios. Characteristic to thermoplastic rubbers, free-standing films of the resulting copolymers exhibit two-phase morphology and associated relaxations in the dynamic mechanical loss spectrum. To our knowledge this article is the first report to demonstrate phase immiscibility, melt-processibility, and biphasic morphology of soft and hard segments in a lignin-based copolymer for all feed ratios of two macromolecular components. The use of higher molecular weight lignin enhanced the resulting shear modulus due to efficient network formation of telechelic polybutadiene bridges. The storage modulus in the rubbery plateau region increased with increasing lignin content. The successful synthesis of novel lignin-based thermoplastics will open a new pathway to biomass utilization and will help conserve petrochemicals.

  2. The Climate Impacts LINK Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    The Climate Impacts LINK Project The Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia Funded by the UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Contract Ref EPG 1/1/68 The Climate Impacts LINK Project: Applying Results from the Hadley Centre's Climate Change Experiments for Climate

  3. Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

  4. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  5. Conservation and Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

  6. Biofuels: A Solution for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, S.

    1999-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Our lives are linked to weather and climate, and to energy use. Since the late 1970s, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has invested in research and technology related to global climate change. DOE's Office Fuels Development (OFD) manages the National Biofuels Program and is the lead technical advisor on the development of biofuels technologies in the United States. Together with industry and other stakeholders, the program seeks to establish a major biofuels industry. Its goals are to develop and commercialize technologies for producing sustainable, domestic, environmentally beneficial, and economically viable fuels from dedicated biomass feedstocks.

  7. The Faculty of Science and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Future Development of Climate and Earth System Models for Scientific and Policy Use Warren M. Washington of climate and Earth system models has been regarded primarily as the making of scientific tools to study, the development of climate and Earth system models became intimately linked to the need to not only improve our

  8. Climate Action Plan (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Governor Timothy M. Kaine established the Governor's Commission on Climate Change in December 2007. The commission prepared a plan for Virginia that identified ways to reduce greenhouse gas...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from improved climate models to performance models for underground waste storage to 3D printing and digital rock physics. Marianne Walck (Director ... NASA Award for Marginal...

  10. Climate Change, Drought & Environment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Afternoon Plenary Session: Current Trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Climate Change, Drought, and Environment—Michael Champ, Executive Director, The Sustainable Water Challenge

  11. Climate Vision: Presidential Statements

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Remarks by the President at Major Economies Meeting on Energy Security and Climate Change September 28, 2007 THE PRESIDENT: Good morning. Thank you. Welcome to the State...

  12. Protecting climate with forests.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    much more than carbon sequestration does, and often in abiophysics, carbon sequestration, climate change, climatethe accompanying carbon sequestration does—and sometimes in

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Management On January 27, 2011, in A growing consensus exists among climate scientists, economists, and policy makers that the link between man-made emissions of greenhouse...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protected: White House Water Roundtable: Question 4 On September 20, 2011, in Climate, Water There is no excerpt because this is a protected post. Protected: White House Water...

  15. Welcome to Climate VISION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Mission Private Sector Initiatives Asia Pacific Partnership ClimateTechnology.gov Resources and Links 1605(b) Site Map Technology Pathways Contact Us News and Events How...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Lighting Developments to 2030

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ClimateLighting Developments to 2030 Lighting Developments to 2030 videobanner Lighting Technologies, Costs, and Energy Demand: Global Developments to 2030 V iew Slides: Lighting...

  17. Development of an electron gun for an ERL based light source in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimori, N.; Nagai, R.; Iijima, H.; Hajima, R. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Honda, Y.; Muto, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kuriki, M. [Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Yamamoto, M.; Okumi, S.; Nakanishi, T. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a prototype DC photoemission electron gun for a future energy recovery linac (ERL) based light source in Japan. The prototype gun is operated at up to 250 kV and is designed to deliver up to 50 mA beam current. A diagnostic beam line for emittance and bunch length measurements has been constructed. We have also designed a new 500 kV DC gun which is capable of producing up to 10 mA electron current with emittance lower than 1 mm-mrad. The high voltage terminal will be isolated by ten ceramics stacked in series. The new gun will satisfy performance required as an injector for the compact ERL, which will be constructed at KEK site as a prototype of the future ERL light source.

  18. Renewable energy-based electricity for rural social and economic development in Ghana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weingart, J.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a project whose goals include the establishment of a pilot renewable energy-based rural energy services enterprise to serve communities in the Mamprusi East District, focused on: economically productive activities; community services; household non-thermal energy. The program also seeks to establish the technical, economic, financial, institutional, and socio-cultural requirements for sustainability, to demonstrate bankability and financial sustainability, as a pre-investment prelude to commercial growth of such projects, and to establish technical, financial, and service performance standards for private sector rural energy service companies. This project is being implemented now because the government is undergoing structural reform, including privatization of the power sector, there is active foreign capital available for international development, and the government and people are committed to and able to pay for renewable energy services.

  19. Developing a circumstance-based innovation strategy for a midsized aerospace manufacturer : fostering intrapreneurship, opening boundaries, and seeding disruption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brylawski, Michael M. (Michael Mills), 1972-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis derives a seven-stage methodology and presents a case study for developing an actionable innovation strategy for manufacturing firms. The methodology is based around a careful examination of their firm's ...

  20. Feedback loops in educational environments using web-based survey tools : new technology development and three implementation case studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spead, Benjamin, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents lessons from the development of an on-line, web-based feedback system and preliminary analysis of the socio-technical interactions associated with the specification, design and use of this system. The ...

  1. Promoting young adolescents򠨹pothesis-development performance in a computer-supported and problem-based learning environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hye Jeong

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the study, young adolescents’ hypothesis development in a computer-supported and problem-based learning environment was examined in terms of two empirical studies. The first study examined the effect of metacognitive scaffolds to strengthening...

  2. Three Non-Technical Challenges in the Development of Biomass-based Energy (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Savage, Steve

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Steve Savage from Cirrus Partners on "Three Non-Technical Challenges in the Development of Biomass-based Energy" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  3. CAD AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN THE US AUTOMOBILE Based on Visits to Chrysler, General Motors, and Ford in the summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitney, Daniel

    07/25/95 1 CAD AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN THE US AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY Based on Visits to Chrysler to create concepts and details of automobiles by America's Big 3. Some of the organizational issues

  4. Generic vehicle speed models based on traffic simulation: Development and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margiotta, R.; Cohen, H.; Elkins, G.; Rathi, A.; Venigalla, M.

    1994-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the findings of a research project to develop new methods of estimating speeds for inclusion in the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) Analytical Process. The paper focuses on the effects of traffic conditions excluding incidents (recurring congestion) on daily average ed and excess fuel consumption. A review of the literature revealed that many techniques have been used to predict speeds as a function of congestion but most fail to address the effects of queuing. However, the method of Dowling and Skabardonis avoids this limitation and was adapted to the research. The methodology used the FRESIM and NETSIM microscopic traffic simulation models to develop uncongested speed functions and as a calibration base for the congested flow functions. The chief contributions of the new speed models are the simplicity of application and their explicit accounting for the effects of queuing. Specific enhancements include: (1) the inclusion of a queue discharge rate for freeways; (2) use of newly defined uncongested flow speed functions; (3) use of generic temporal distributions that account for peak spreading; and (4) a final model form that allows incorporation of other factors that influence speed, such as grades and curves. The main limitation of the new speed models is the fact that they are based on simulation results and not on field observations. They also do not account for the effect of incidents on speed. While appropriate for estimating average national conditions, the use of fixed temporal distributions may not be suitable for analyzing specific facilities, depending on observed traffic patterns. Finally, it is recommended that these and all future speed models be validated against field data where incidents can be adequately identified in the data.

  5. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  6. Development of a hydrogen generator for fuel cells based on the partial oxidation of methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recupero, V.; Torre, T.; Saija, G.; Fiordano, N. [Institute CNR-TAE, Lucia, Messina (Italy)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As well known, the most acknowledged process for generation of hydrogen for fuel cells is based upon the steam reforming of methane or natural gas (SRM). The reaction is endothermic ({Delta}H{sub 298}= 206 kJ/mole) and high H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratios are required in order to limit coke formation at T higher than 1000 K. Moreover, it is a common practice that the process`s fuel economy is highly sensitive to proper heat fluxes and reactor design (tubular type) and to operational conditions. Efficient heat recovery can be accomplished only on large scale units (> 40,000 Nm{sup 3}/h), far from the range of interest of {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} fuel cells. Even if, to fit the needs of the fuel cell technology, medium sized external reforming units (50-200 Nm{sup 3} H{sub 2}/h) have been developed and/or planned for integration with both the first and the second generation fuel cells, amelioration in their heat recovery and efficiency is at the expense of an increased sophistication and therefore at higher per unit costs. In all cases, SRM requires an extra {open_quotes}fuel{close_quotes} supply (to substain the endothermicity of the reaction) in addition to stoichiometric requirements ({open_quotes}feed{close_quotes} gas). A valid alternative could be a process based on catalytic partial oxidation of CH{sub 4} (CSPOM), since the process is mildly exothermic ({Delta}H{sub 298}= -35.6 kJ/mole) and therefore not energy intensive. Consequently, great interest is expected from conversion of methane into syngas, if an autothermal, low energy intensive, compact and reliable process could be developed.

  7. Transient climate change and potential croplands of the world in the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Xiangming.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David.; Tian, Hanqin.; Pan, Yude.; Vörösmarty, Charles, J.; Yang, Zili.

    A cropland distribution model, which is based on climate, soil and topography, is applied to estimate the area and spatial distribution of global potential croplands under contemporary climate and to assess the effect of ...

  8. ClimateChangeLIVE Webcast: Join the Climate Conversation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join ClimateChangeLIVE's webcast, bringing together students and climate experts for a discussion about climate change and what students and classes around the country are doing to be part of the climate solution. Students will be able to interact with climate scientists and experts online through Facebook and Twitter. A GreenWorks! grant will be offered to help schools with climate action projects.

  9. 1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK AnAlysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011Alysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;4 DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE

  10. Development of a Dry Sorbent-based Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Thomas; Coleman, Luke; Anderson, Matthew; Gupta, Raghubir; Herr, Joshua; Kalluri, Ranjeeth; Pavani, Maruthi

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research and development (R&D) project was to further the development of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process based on sodium carbonate (i.e. the Dry Carbonate Process) that is capable of capturing>90% of the CO2 as a nearly pure stream from coal-fired power plant flue gas with <35% increase in the cost of electrictiy (ICOE).

  11. Using climate policies and carbon markets to save tropical forests : the case of Costa Rica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arpels, Marisa (Marisa Carina)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, advocates for forest conservation thought that climate change could provide a lever to motivate developing countries to reduce deforestation. Fifteen years after the first climate change ...

  12. The Complexity of Adaptation to Climate Change. Exploring adaptation in Rio Grande, Ecuador 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argudo, Cristina

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging problems in terms of development, having adverse effects in populations that are already vulnerable to other stressors. At present, the importance of adaptation to climate change has been widely...

  13. Development of Advanced LED Phosphors by Spray-based Processes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabot Corporation

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching goal of the project was to develop luminescent materials using aerosol processes for making improved LED devices for solid state lighting. In essence this means improving white light emitting phosphor based LEDs by improvement of the phosphor and phosphor layer. The structure of these types of light sources, displayed in Figure 1, comprises of a blue or UV LED under a phosphor layer that converts the blue or UV light to a broad visible (white) light. Traditionally, this is done with a blue emitting diode combined with a blue absorbing, broadly yellow emitting phosphor such as Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce (YAG). A similar result may be achieved by combining a UV emitting diode and at least three different UV absorbing phosphors: red, green, and blue emitting. These emitted colors mix to make white light. The efficiency of these LEDs is based on the combined efficiency of the LED, phosphor, and the interaction between the two. The Cabot SSL project attempted to improve the over all efficiency of the LED light source be improving the efficiency of the phosphor and the interaction between the LED light and the phosphor. Cabot's spray based process for producing phosphor powders is able to improve the brightness of the powder itself by increasing the activator (the species that emits the light) concentration without adverse quenching effects compared to conventional synthesis. This will allow less phosphor powder to be used, and will decrease the cost of the light source; thus lowering the barrier of entry to the lighting market. Cabot's process also allows for chemical flexibility of the phosphor particles, which may result in tunable emission spectra and so light sources with improved color rendering. Another benefit of Cabot's process is the resulting spherical morphology of the particles. Less light scattering results when spherical particles are used in the phosphor layer (Figure 1) compared to when conventional, irregular shaped phosphor particles are used. This spherical morphology will result in better light extraction and so an improvement of efficiency in the overall device. Cabot is a 2.5 billion dollar company that makes specialized materials using propriety spray based technologies. It is a core competency of Cabot's to exploit the spray based technology and resulting material/morphology advantages. Once a business opportunity is clearly identified, Cabot is positioned to increase the scale of the production to meet opportunity's need. Cabot has demonstrated the capability to make spherical morphology micron-sized phosphor powders by spray based routes for PDP and CRT applications, but the value proposition is still unproven for LED applications. Cabot believes that the improvements in phosphor powders yielded by their process will result in a commercial advantage over existing technologies. Through the SSL project, Cabot has produced a number of different compositions in a spherical morphology that may be useful for solid state lights, as well as demonstrated processes that are able to produce particles from 10 nanometers to 3 micrometers. Towards the end of the project we demonstrated that our process produces YAG:Ce powder that has both higher internal quantum efficiency (0.6 compared to 0.45) and external quantum efficiency (0.85 compared to 0.6) than the commercial standard (see section 3.4.4.3). We, however, only produced these highly bright materials in research and development quantities, and were never able to produce high quantum efficiency materials in a reproducible manner at a commercial scale.

  14. Development of the Ultra-Clean Dry Cleanup Process for Coal-Based Syngases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) has proposed a novel scheme for polishing sulfur species, halides, and particulate from syngas to meet stringent cleaning requirements, the ''Ultra-Clean syngas polishing process.'' The overall development objective for this syngas polishing process is to economically achieve the most stringent cleanup requirements for sulfur species, halide species and particulate expected for chemical and fuel synthesis applications (total sulfur species < 60 ppbv, halides < 10 ppbv, and particulate < 0.1 ppmw). A Base Program was conducted to produce ground-work, laboratory test data and process evaluations for a conceptual feasibility assessment of this novel syngas cleaning process. Laboratory testing focused on the identification of suitable sulfur and halide sorbents and operating temperatures for the process. This small-scale laboratory testing was also performed to provide evidence of the capability of the process to reach its stringent syngas cleaning goals. Process evaluations were performed in the Base Program to identify process alternatives, to devise process flow schemes, and to estimate process material & energy balances, process performance, and process costs. While the work has focused on sulfur, halide, and particulate control, considerations of ammonia, and mercury control have also been included.

  15. Development of novel graphene and carbon nanotubes based multifunctional polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, S. N., E-mail: naguib@mie.utoronto.ca; Khan, M. O., E-mail: naguib@mie.utoronto.ca; Naguib, H. E., E-mail: naguib@mie.utoronto.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates strategies to alter the nano-and-microstructures of carbon-based filler-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The matrix materials being studied in this work include polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) and liquid crystal polymer (LCP). A set of experiments were performed to investigate various strategies (i) to fabricate a morphological structure within the polymer matrix; (ii) to develop a thermally and electrically conductive network of nano-scaled fillers; and (iii) to produce a thermally conductive but electrically insulative network of hybrid fillers of nano-and-micro scales. The PMCs' structure-to-property relationships, including electrical and thermal properties, were revealed. In particular, the composites' effective thermal conductivities could be increased by as much as 10-folded over the neat polymers. By structuring the embedded electrically conductive pathways in the PMCs, their electrical conductivities could be tailored to levels that ranged from those of electrical insulators to those of semi-conductors. These multifunctional carbon-based filler-reinforced PMCs are envisioned to be potential solutions of various engineering problems. For example, light-weight thermally conductive PMCs with tailored electrical conductivities can serve as a new family of materials for electronic packaging or heat management applications.

  16. Development of an accelerator-based BNCT facility at the Berkeley Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Bleuel, D.; Chu, W.T.; Donahue, R.J.; Kwan, J.; Reginato, L.L.; Wells, R.P.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accelerator-based BNCT facility is under construction at the Berkeley Lab. An electrostatic-quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator is under development for the production of neutrons via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction at proton energies between 2.3 and 2.5 MeV. A novel type of power supply, an air-core coupled transformer power supply, is being built for the acceleration of beam currents exceeding 50 mA. A metallic lithium target has been developed for handling such high beam currents. Moderator, reflector and neutron beam delimiter have extensively been modeled and designs have been identified which produce epithermal neutron spectra sharply peaked between 10 and 20 keV. These. neutron beams are predicted to deliver significantly higher doses to deep seated brain tumors, up to 50% more near the midline of the brain than is possible with currently available reactor beams. The accelerator neutron source will be suitable for future installation at hospitals.

  17. Development of Advanced CdTe Solar Cells Based on High Temperature Corning Glass Substrates: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-373

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, T.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has developed advanced processes for CdTe solar cells, but because of the temperature limitations of conventional soda lime glass, many of these processes have not been transferred to manufacturing. Corning is developing high temperature substrate glasses that are believed to be manufacturable and will lead to lower $/watt modules costs. The purpose of this CRADA is to evaluate these glasses in the advanced NREL processes. In addition, the CRADA seeks to develop manufacturable processes for transparent conductive oxide layers based on cadmium stannate.

  18. Methodology to Develop and Test an Easy-to-use Procedure for the Preliminary Selection of High-performance Systems for Office Buildings in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sool Yeon

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    the energy savings, while the comfort level was maintained based on the ASHRAE comfort zone. In addition to the 14 high-performance measures, solar thermal and solar PV system analysis were integrated with the SGDOE-2.1e simulation model to further reduce...

  19. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to perform detailed hourly impact studies of building adaptation and mitigation strategies on energy use and electricity peak demand within the context of the entire grid and economy.

  20. Global air quality and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of Chemistry- Climate Models 5, 2010. 320 S. Wu,and R. Van Dorland, in Climate Change 2007: The PhysicalInter- governmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. D. Qin, M.

  1. Climate Change at Annual Timescales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stine, Alexander Robin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1900–93, Journal of Climate, 10 (5), 1004–1020, 1997. Zhou,University of East Anglia’s Climate Research Unit (Jones etand those from WCRP “Climate of the Twentieth Century”

  2. MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

  3. Development of a Calibration Methodology for Code-compliant Simulation of a Case Study House in a Hot and Humid Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K. H.; Haberl, J. S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a comparison of the results between a code-compliant DOE-2 simulation and monthly utility bills for a case study house in College Station, Texas. The comparison of the results is a preliminary step toward the development...

  4. Development of a Calibration Methodology for Code-compliant Simulation of a Case Study House in a Hot and Humid Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K. H.; Haberl, J. S.

    This paper describes a comparison of the results between a code-compliant DOE-2 simulation and monthly utility bills for a case study house in College Station, Texas. The comparison of the results is a preliminary step toward the development...

  5. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, J.N.; Sheffield, J.W.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the Convention to undertake inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport, and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, the energy sector will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planning analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention`s commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy end uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more mitigation scenario. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates the events assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy interventions.

  6. The development of potassium tantalate niobate thin films for satellite-based pyroelectric detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherry, H B.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) pyroelectric detectors are expected to provide detectivities, of 3.7 x 10{sup 11} cmHz {sup {1/2}}W{sup {minus}1} for satellite-based infrared detection at 90 K. The background limited detectivity for a room-temperature thermal detector is 1.8 x 10{sup 10} cmHz{sup {1/2}}W{sup {minus}1}. KTN is a unique ferroelectric for this application because of the ability to tailor the temperature of its pyroelectric response by adjusting its ratio of tantalum to niobium. The ability to fabricate high quality KTN thin films on Si-based substrates is crucial to the development of KTN pyroelectric detectors. Si{sub x}N{sub y} membranes created on the Si substrate will provide the weak thermal link necessary to reach background limited detectivities. The device dimensions obtainable by thin film processing are expected to increase the ferroelectric response by 20 times over bulk fabricated KTN detectors. In addition, microfabrication techniques allow for easier array development. This is the first reported attempt at growth of KTN films on Si-based substrates. Pure phase perovskite films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrRuO{sub 3}/Pt/Ti/Si{sub x}N{sub y}/Si and SrRuO{sub 3}/Si{sub x}N{sub y}/Si structures; room temperature dielectric permittivities for the KTN films were 290 and 2.5, respectively. The dielectric permittivity for bulk grown, single crystal KTN is {approximately}380. In addition to depressed dielectric permittivities, no ferroelectric hysteresis was found between 80 and 300 K for either structure. RBS, AES, TEM and multi-frequency dielectric measurements were used to investigate the origin of this apparent lack of ferroelectricity. Other issues addressed by this dissertation include: the role of oxygen and target density during pulsed laser deposition of KTN thin films; the use of YBCO, LSC and Pt as direct contact bottom electrodes to the KTN films, and the adhesion of the bottom electrode layers to Si{sub x}N{sub y}/Si.

  7. Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2009-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative forcing induced by soot on snow is a major anthropogenic forcing affecting the global climate. However, it is uncertain how the soot-induced snow albedo perturbation affects regional snowpack and the hydrological cycle. In this study we simulated the deposition of soot aerosol on snow and investigated the resulting impact on snowpack and the surface water budget in the western United States. A yearlong simulation was performed using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) to determine an annual budget of soot deposition, followed by two regional climate simulations using WRF in meteorology-only mode, with and without the soot-induced snow albedo perturbations. The chemistry simulation shows large spatial variability in soot deposition that reflects the localized emissions and the influence of the complex terrain. The soot-induced snow albedo perturbations increase the net solar radiation flux at the surface during late winter to early spring, increase the surface air temperature, reduce snow water equivalent amount, and lead to reduced snow accumulation and less spring snowmelt. These effects are stronger over the central Rockies and southern Alberta, where soot deposition and snowpack overlap the most. The indirect forcing of soot accelerates snowmelt and alters stream flows, including a trend toward earlier melt dates in the western United States. The soot-induced albedo reduction initiates a positive feedback process whereby dirty snow absorbs more solar radiation, heating the surface and warming the air. This warming causes reduced snow depth and fraction, which further reduces the regional surface albedo for the snow covered regions. Our simulations indicate that the change of maximum snow albedo induced by soot on snow contributes to 60% of the net albedo reduction over the central Rockies. Snowpack reduction accounts for the additional 40%.

  8. Developing a Phonemic and Syllabic Frequency Inventory for Spontaneous Spoken Castilian Spanish and their Comparison to Text-Based Inventories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Developing a Phonemic and Syllabic Frequency Inventory for Spontaneous Spoken Castilian Spanish and their Comparison to Text-Based Inventories *Antonio Moren Sandoval, *Doroteo T. Toledano, *RaĂşl de la Torre, *Marta In this paper we present our recent work to develop phonemic and syllabic inventories for Castilian Spanish

  9. Development of Fuzzy Logic-Based Lead Acid Battery Management Techniques with Applications to 42V Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    on changing battery conditions. Finally, the fuzzy logic methodology lends itself well to rapid system designDevelopment of Fuzzy Logic-Based Lead Acid Battery Management Techniques with Applications to 42V volt systems is being phased into commercial vehicles, the battery technology is being developed

  10. Spatial-temporal event detection in climate parameter imagery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenna, Sean Andrew; Gutierrez, Karen A.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously developed techniques that comprise statistical parametric mapping, with applications focused on human brain imaging, are examined and tested here for new applications in anomaly detection within remotely-sensed imagery. Two approaches to analysis are developed: online, regression-based anomaly detection and conditional differences. These approaches are applied to two example spatial-temporal data sets: data simulated with a Gaussian field deformation approach and weekly NDVI images derived from global satellite coverage. Results indicate that anomalies can be identified in spatial temporal data with the regression-based approach. Additionally, la Nina and el Nino climatic conditions are used as different stimuli applied to the earth and this comparison shows that el Nino conditions lead to significant decreases in NDVI in both the Amazon Basin and in Southern India.

  11. Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http

  12. Methodology to Develop and Test an Easy-To-Use Procedure for the Preliminary Selection of High-Performance Systems for Office Buildings in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.

    -performance measures iv were implemented including the energy savings, while the comfort level was maintained based on the ASHRAE comfort zone. In addition to the 14 high-performance measures, solar thermal and solar PV system analysis were integrated... Program ............................................................ 16? 2.3.2? F-Chart Solar Thermal Systems Analysis Program ............................. 18? 2.3.3? PV F-Chart Solar PV Systems Analysis Program ............................... 19? viii...

  13. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

  14. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET): A Data Infrastructure for Data-Intensive Climate Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), the ESG-CET team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultrascale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (e.g., Couple Model Intercomparison Project, Community Earth System Model), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, and so forth), and analysis and visualization tools, all of which serve a diverse community of users. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as LANL, LBNL, LLNL, NCAR, and ORNL) as well as at unfunded partners sites such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate Computing Centre, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory. More recently, ESG-CET has been extending services beyond data-file access and delivery to develop more detailed information products (scientific graphics, animations, etc.), secure binary data-access services (based upon the OPeNDAP protocol), and server-side analysis capabilities. These will allow users to request data subsets transformed through commonly used analysis and intercomparison procedures. As we transition from development activities to production and operations, the ESG-CET team is tasked with making data available to all users seeking to understand, process, extract value from, visualize, and/or communicate it to others. This ongoing effort, though daunting in scope and complexity, will greatly magnify the value of numerical climate model outputs and climate observations for future national and international climate-assessment reports. Continued ESGF progress will result in a production ultrascale data system for empowering scientists who attempt new and exciting data exchanges that could ultimately lead to breakthrough climate-science discoveries.

  15. A multi-resolution method for climate system modeling: application of Spherical Centroidal A multi-resolution method for climate system modeling: Application of Spherical Centroidal Voroni Tessellations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringler, Todd D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gunzburger, Max [FLORIDA STATE UNIV; Ju, Lili [UNIV OF SOUTH CAROLINA

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the next decade and beyond, climate system models will be challenged to resolve scales and processes that are far beyond their current scope. Each climate system component has its prototypical example of an unresolved process that may strongly influence the global climate system, ranging from eddy activity within ocean models, to ice streams within ice sheet models, to surface hydrological processes within land system models, to cloud processes within atmosphere models. These new demands will almost certainly result in the develop of multi-resolution schemes that are able, at least regional to faithfully simulate these fine-scale processes. Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations (SCVTs) offer one potential path toward the development of robust, multi-resolution climate system component models, SCVTs allow for the generation of high quality Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations through the use of an intuitive, user-defined density function, each of the examples provided, this method results in high-quality meshes where the quality measures are guaranteed to improve as the number of nodes is increased. Real-world examples are developed for the Greenland ice sheet and the North Atlantic ocean. Idealized examples are developed for ocean-ice shelf interaction and for regional atmospheric modeling. In addition to defining, developing and exhibiting SCVTs, we pair this mesh generation technique with a previously developed finite-volume method. Our numerical example is based on the nonlinear shallow-water equations spanning the entire surface of the sphere. This example is used to elucidate both the potential benefits of this multi-resolution method and the challenges ahead.

  16. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ? 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  17. Research and Development of Non-Spectroscopic MEMS-Based Sensor Arrays for Targeted Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loui, A; McCall, S K

    2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to monitor the integrity of gas volumes is of interest to the stockpile surveillance community. Specifically, the leak detection of noble gases, at relevant concentration ranges and distinguished from other chemical species that may be simultaneously present, is particularly challenging. Aside from the laboratory-based method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where samples may be collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) or cryofocusing, the other major approaches for gas-phase detection employ lasers typically operating in the mid-infrared wavelength region. While mass spectrometry can readily detect noble gases - the helium leak detector is an obvious example - laser-based methods such as infrared (IR) or Raman spectroscopy are completely insensitive to them as their monatomic nature precludes a non-zero dipole moment or changes in polarizability upon excitation. Therefore, noble gases can only be detected by one of two methods: (1) atomic emission spectroscopies which require the generation of plasmas through laser-induced breakdown, electrical arcing, or similar means; (2) non-spectroscopic methods which measure one or more physical properties (e.g., mass, thermal conductivity, density). In this report, we present our progress during Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) in the research and development of a non-spectroscopic method for noble gas detection. During Fiscal Year 2010 (FY10), we demonstrated via proof-of-concept experiments that the combination of thermal conductivity detection (TCD) and coating-free damped resonance detection (CFDRD) using micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) could provide selective sensing of these inert species. Since the MEMS-based TCD technology was directly adapted from a brassboard prototype commissioned by a previous chemical sensing project, FY11 efforts focused on advancing the state of the newer CFDRD method. This work, guided by observations previously reported in the open literature, has not only resulted in a substantially measureable increase in selectivity but has also revealed a potential method for mitigating or eliminating thermal drift that does not require a secondary reference sensor. The design of an apparatus to test this drift compensation scheme will be described. We will conclude this report with a discussion of planned efforts in Fiscal Year 2012 (FY12).

  18. Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Fisk, William J.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background - The goal of this project, with a focus on commercial buildings in California, was to develop a new framework for evidence-based minimum ventilation rate (MVR) standards that protect occupants in buildings while also considering energy use and cost. This was motivated by research findings suggesting that current prescriptive MVRs in commercial buildings do not provide occupants with fully safe and satisfactory indoor environments. Methods - The project began with a broad review in several areas ? the diverse strategies now used for standards or guidelines for MVRs or for environmental contaminant exposures, current knowledge about adverse human effects associated with VRs, and current knowledge about contaminants in commercial buildings, including their their presence, their adverse human effects, and their relationships with VRs. Based on a synthesis of the reviewed information, new principles and approaches are proposed for setting evidence-based VRs standards for commercial buildings, considering a range of human effects including health, performance, and acceptability of air. Results ? A review and evaluation is first presented of current approaches to setting prescriptive building ventilation standards and setting acceptable limits for human contaminant exposures in outdoor air and occupational settings. Recent research on approaches to setting acceptable levels of environmental exposures in evidence-based MVR standards is also described. From a synthesis and critique of these materials, a set of principles for setting MVRs is presented, along with an example approach based on these principles. The approach combines two sequential strategies. In a first step, an acceptable threshold is set for each adverse outcome that has a demonstrated relationship to VRs, as an increase from a (low) outcome level at a high reference ventilation rate (RVR, the VR needed to attain the best achievable levels of the adverse outcome); MVRs required to meet each specific outcome threshold are estimated; and the highest of these MVRs, which would then meet all outcome thresholds, is selected as the target MVR. In a second step, implemented only if the target MVR from step 1 is judged impractically high, costs and benefits are estimated and this information is used in a risk management process. Four human outcomes with substantial quantitative evidence of relationships to VRs are identified for initial consideration in setting MVR standards. These are: building-related symptoms (sometimes called sick building syndrome symptoms), poor perceived indoor air quality, and diminished work performance, all with data relating them directly to VRs; and cancer and non-cancer chronic outcomes, related indirectly to VRs through specific VR-influenced indoor contaminants. In an application of step 1 for offices using a set of example outcome thresholds, a target MVR of 9 L/s (19 cfm) per person was needed. Because this target MVR was close to MVRs in current standards, use of a cost/benefit process seemed unnecessary. Selection of more stringent thresholds for one or more human outcomes, however, could raise the target MVR to 14 L/s (30 cfm) per person or higher, triggering the step 2 risk management process. Consideration of outdoor air pollutant effects would add further complexity to the framework. For balancing the objective and subjective factors involved in setting MVRs in a cost-benefit process, it is suggested that a diverse group of stakeholders make the determination after assembling as much quantitative data as possible.

  19. Dealing in Doubt: The Climate Denial Industry and Climate Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairchild, Mark D.

    Dealing in Doubt: The Climate Denial Industry and Climate Science A Brief History of Attacks action on climate change has become more likely. This time, though, there is a difference. In recent, despite its lack of evidence or scientific support. The last peak in the climate denial campaign

  20. Climate simulators and climate projections Jonathan Rougier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Peter

    Climate simulators and climate projections Jonathan Rougier1 Department of Mathematics University;Abstract We provide a statistical interpretation of current practice in climate mod- elling. This includes: definitions for weather and climate; clarifying the relationship between simulator output and simulator

  1. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT RANKING AND PRIORITIZING THE DEPLOYMENT OF COMMUNITY- SCALE ENERGY MEASURES BASED ON THEIR INDIRECT EFFECTS IN CALIFORNIA'S CLIMATE ZONES MARCH 2013 CEC-500-2013-122 ALTOSTRATUS Prepared for: California Energy Commission Prepared by

  2. Development of a Calicum-Based Sorbent for Hot Gas Cleanup.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheelock, T.W.; Constant, K.; Doraiswamy, L.K.; Akiti, T.; Zhu, J.; Amanda, A.; Roe, R.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Further review of the technical literature has provided additional information which will support the development of a superior calcium-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in IGCC systems. Two general methods of sorbent preparation are being investigated. One method involves impregnating a porous refractory substrate with calcium while another method involves pelletizing lime or other calcium containing materials with a suitable binder. Several potential substrates, which are made of alumina and are commercially available, have been characterized by various methods. The surface area and apparent density of the materials have been measured, and it has been shown that some of the high surface area materials (i.e., 200-400 m{sub 2}/g) undergo a large decrease in surface area when heated to higher temperatures. Some of the lower surface area materials (i.e., 1-30 m{sub 2}/g) have been successfully impregnated with calcium by soaking them in a calcium nitrate solution and then heat treating them to decompose the nitrate. Potentially useful sorbents have also been prepared by pelletizing type I Portland cement and mixtures of cement and lime.

  3. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  4. Development of High Precision Timing Counter Based on Plastic Scintillator with SiPM Readout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo W. Cattaneo; Matteo De Gerone; Flavio Gatti; Miki Nishimura; Wataru Ootani; Massimo Rossella; Yusuke Uchiyama

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    High-time-resolution counters based on plastic scintillator with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout have been developed for applications to high energy physics experiments for which relatively large-sized counters are required. We have studied counter sizes up to $120\\times40\\times5$ mm^3 with series connection of multiple SiPMs to increase the sensitive area and thus achieve better time resolution. A readout scheme with analog shaping and digital waveform analysis is optimized to achieve the highest time resolution. The timing performance is measured using electrons from a Sr-90 radioactive source, comparing different scintillators, counter dimensions, and types of near-ultraviolet sensitive SiPMs. As a result, a resolution of $\\sigma =42 \\pm 2$ ps at 1 MeV energy deposition is obtained for counter size $60\\times 30 \\times 5$ mm^3 with three SiPMs ($3\\times3$ mm^2 each) at each end of the scintillator. The time resolution improves with the number of photons detected by the SiPMs. The SiPMs from Hamamatsu Photonics give the best time resolution because of their high photon detection efficiency in the near-ultraviolet region. Further improvement is possible by increasing the number of SiPMs attached to the scintillator.

  5. DEFINING AND EXPERIENCING DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE An Editorial Essay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulme, Mike

    DEFINING AND EXPERIENCING DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE An Editorial Essay SURAJE DESSAI1, W. NEIL ADGER. Understanding what constitutes dangerous climate change is of critical importance for future concerted action and somewhat arbitrary definitions of danger based on a variety of assumptions and assessments generally

  6. The Role of "Citizen Science" in Weather and Climate Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Role of "Citizen Science" in Weather and Climate Research Presented at PPSR 2012 August 4, 2012 50 years of weather records Early Traditions in Citizen Science #12;Benjamin Franklin #12;Joseph stations to help document Climate resources of the country And provide science-based weather forecasts

  7. Climate change and land use in Florida: Interdependencies and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    a comprehensive greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, which the Florida Department of Environmental Protection will develop over the next year. In addition to a GHG inventory and mitigation tools, a state climate action to increasingly dominate urban climate. · Florida ranks sixth in the US for total GHG emissions. The agricultural

  8. Reducing Our Carbon Footprint: Frontiers in Climate Forecasting (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Collins, Bill

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Bill Collins directs Berkeley Lab's research dedicated to atmospheric and climate science. Previously, he headed the development of one of the leading climate models used in international studies of global warming. His work has confirmed that man-made greenhouse gases are probably the main culprits of recent warming and future warming poses very real challenges for the environment and society. A lead author of the most recent assessment of the science of climate change by the United Nations' Integovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Collins wants to create a new kind of climate model, one that will integrate cutting-edge climate science with accurate predictions people can use to plan their lives

  9. Biological Impacts of Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarty, John P.

    Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may

  10. Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gvirtzman, Haim

    climate and cultural changes are observed in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East [e.g., Bookman et1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes and Implications of Climatic Change ISSN 0165-0009 Volume 112 Combined 3-4 Climatic Change (2012) 112:769-789 DOI

  11. Technology and international climate policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  12. Modernizing systems engineering : cognitive systems and model-based approaches for spacecraft architecture development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlow, Brandon (Brandon James)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems engineering exists as a discipline to enable organizations to control and manage the development of complex hardware and software. These methods are particularly essential in the development of space systems, which ...

  13. The Development of Multimedia Hypermedia Applications as Evolutionary, Prototyping-Based Requirements Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Daniel M.

    The Development of Multimedia Hypermedia Applications as Evolutionary, Prototyping in building multimedia hypermedia applications is that of understanding what is needed, i.e., of understanding the requirements and (2) that the development of multimedia hypermedia is essentially the engineering

  14. Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This course provides an introduction to planning for climate change impacts, with examples of tribes that have been going through the adaptation planning process. The course is intended for tribal...

  15. Cool Farming: Climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    Cool Farming: Climate impacts of agriculture and mitigation potential greenpeace.org Campaigningfor meat categories as well as milk and selected plant products for comparison. 36 Figure 1: Total global

  16. Climate Action Plan (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a growing scientific consensus that increasing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are affecting the temperature and variability of the Earth’s climate. Recognizing the...

  17. Climate Action Plan (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 14, 2007, Governor Jennifer M. Granholm issued Executive Order No. 2007-42 establishing the Michigan Climate Action Council (MCAC). The Council is comprised of members representing...

  18. Refining climate models

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  19. Climate Action Plan (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recognizing the implications that global climate change may have on the economy, environment and quality of life in Minnesota, Governor Tim Pawlenty signed into law the 2007 Next Generation Energy...

  20. Refining climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  1. Climate VISION: Events

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficiency and CO2 Intensity Improvement (PDF 24 KB) October 24-26, 2005 12th Annual EPA Natural Gas STAR Workshop September 28-30, 2005 Climate RESOLVE GHG Management Workshop...

  2. Developing a narrow-line laser spectrometer based on a tunable continuous-wave dye laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chun; Lv, Shasha; Bi, Jin [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Fang [College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Liufeng; Chen, Lisheng [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan 430071, China and Laboratory of Atomic Frequency Standards, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the development of a dye-laser-based spectrometer operating at 550–600 nm. The spectrometer will be used to detect an ultra-narrow clock transition ({sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0}) in an Ytterbium optical lattice clock and perform high-resolution spectroscopy of iodine molecules trapped in the sub-nanometer channels of zeolite crystal (AlPO{sub 4}-11). Two-stage Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization is implemented on the tunable continuous-wave dye laser to obtain a reliable operation and provide stable laser radiations with two different spectral linewidths. In the first-stage frequency locking, a compact home-built intracavity electro-optic modulator is adopted for suppressing fast frequency noise. With an acquisition time of 0.1 s the 670-kHz linewidth of the free-running dye laser is reduced to 2 kHz when locked to a pre-stabilization optical cavity with a finesse of 1170. When the pre-stabilized laser is locked to a high-finesse optical cavity, a linewidth of 1.4 Hz (2 s) is observed and the frequency stability is 3.7 × 10{sup ?15} (3 s). We also measure and analyze the individual noise contributions such as those from residual amplitude modulation and electronic noise. The ongoing upgrades include improving long-term frequency stability at time scales from 10 to 100 s and implementing continuous frequency scan across 10 GHz with radio-frequency precision.

  3. EXTREME VALUE ANALYSIS FOR CLIMATE TIME SERIES Institute for Mathematics Applied to Geosciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    Approach (Extremes + Non-Extremes) (8) Risk Communication under Climate Change #12;4 (1) Background · Use.isse.ucar.edu/staff/katz/ Lecture: ···/staff/katz/docs/pdf/banffrwk.pdf #12;2 Quote "Climate change undermines a basic assumption Cycles (annual, diurnal) Trends (global climate change) Physically-based covariates (e. g., El Niño

  4. High resolution RCM simulation of eastern Mediterranean climate and its expected changes to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    High resolution RCM simulation of eastern Mediterranean climate and its expected changes to 2050. Modern global climate change evaluations usually based on application of coupled atmosphere-ocean global by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A number of different anthropogenic emission scenarios have been

  5. SCALE, CONTEXT, AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risbey, James S.

    SCALE, CONTEXT, AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE of climate variability and change in agricultural adaptation, and developed for a case study of Australian, agriculture, climate change, decision-making, variability 1. Introduction The global agricultural industry

  6. Century Climate Change Scenario for the Mediterranean using a coupled Atmosphere-Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    21st Century Climate Change Scenario for the Mediterranean using a coupled Atmosphere The SAMM (Sea Atmosphere Mediterranean Model) has been developed to study the climate evolution significantly amplifies the climate change signal over large parts of Europe with respect to the corresponding

  7. Climate Science and Drought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas Climate Change and Drought Wendy Gordon, Ph.D. The University of Texas ? Austin Environmental Science Institute Texas Wildfires 2011 From the beginning of the fire season on November 15, 2010 to October 31, 2011 nearly 28,000 fires had... have been particularly severe due to the ongoing 2011 Southern US drought, and exacerbating the problem is land management practices, the unusual convergence of strong winds, unseasonably warm temperatures, and low humidity. Climate...

  8. CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of climate warming on energy prices. California's EnergyBased Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM to energy generation, energy spills, reservoir energy storage, and average shadow prices of energy generat WITH CONSIDERATION OF WARMING IMPACTS ON ELECTRICITY DEMAND AND PRICING A White Paper from the California

  9. SEMINAR SERIES Towards a climate sensitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in an Earth System Model presented by Peter Hess Associate Professor, Biological and Environmental Engineering are crudely represented in Earth System Models and do not respond changes in climate. Here I present a first interactive parameterization of ammonia emissions in an Earth System Model based on model physics and discuss

  10. Detection of CO sub 2 -induced climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1990-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aims of the US Department of Energy's CO{sub 2} Climate Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. We propose to continue earlier work in five areas: updating, improvement and analysis of our global (land and marine) temperature data set; the development and use of multivariate techniques for the detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change; the further development and use of simple transient-response climate models in order to elucidate the responses of the climate system to external and internal forcing; validation of General Circulation Models using a variety of test statistics, and the use of regression methods to produce sub-grid-scale information from GCM output. The present project addresses all of these questions. This document contains information of the progress in each area. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. A multi-resolution method for climate system modeling: application of spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ju, Lili [University of South Carolina; Gunzburger, Max [Florida State University

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the next decade and beyond, climate system models will be challenged to resolve scales and processes that are far beyond their current scope. Each climate system component has its prototypical example of an unresolved process that may strongly influence the global climate system, ranging from eddy activity within ocean models, to ice streams within ice sheet models, to surface hydrological processes within land system models, to cloud processes within atmosphere models. These new demands will almost certainly result in the develop of multiresolution schemes that are able, at least regionally, to faithfully simulate these fine-scale processes. Spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellations (SCVTs) offer one potential path toward the development of a robust, multiresolution climate system model components. SCVTs allow for the generation of high quality Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations through the use of an intuitive, user-defined density function. In each of the examples provided, this method results in high-quality meshes where the quality measures are guaranteed to improve as the number of nodes is increased. Real-world examples are developed for the Greenland ice sheet and the North Atlantic ocean. Idealized examples are developed for ocean–ice shelf interaction and for regional atmospheric modeling. In addition to defining, developing, and exhibiting SCVTs, we pair this mesh generation technique with a previously developed finite-volume method. Our numerical example is based on the nonlinear, shallow water equations spanning the entire surface of the sphere. This example is used to elucidate both the potential benefits of this multiresolution method and the challenges ahead.

  12. Issued March 2004 Global Climate & Energy Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    University Objective The objective of this project is to develop optimized nanocomposite materials for high of the project Design of Nanotube-Metal Nanocluster Complex Meeting the Hydrogen Storage Material RequirementsIssued March 2004 Global Climate & Energy Project STANFORD UNIVERSITY Nanomaterials Engineering

  13. The Thermodynamic Influence of Subgrid Orography in a Global Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Bian, Xindi; Hunt, Allen G.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessments of the impacts of climate change typically require information at scales of 10 km or less. Such a resolution will not be achieved by global climate models for many years. We have developed an alternative to explicit resolution that can meet the needs of climate change impact assessment now. We have applied to a global climate model a physically-based subgrid-scale treatment of the influence of orography on temperature, clouds, precipitation, and land surface hydrology. The treatment represents subgrid variations in surface elevation in terms of fractional area distributions of discrete elevation classes. For each class it calculates the height rise/descent of air parcels traveling through the grid cell, and applies the influence of the rise/descent to the temperature and humidity profiles of the elevation class. Cloud, radiative, and surface processes are calculated separately for each elevation class using the same physical parameterizations used by the model without the subgrid parameterization. The simulated climate fields for each elevation class can then be distributed in post-processing according to the spatial distribution of surface elevation within each grid cell. Parallel 10-year simulations with and without the subgrid treatment have been performed. The simulated temperature, precipitation and snow water are mapped to 2.5 minute (~5 km) resolution and compared with gridded analyses of station measurements. The simulation with the subgrid scheme produces a much more realistic distribution of snow water and significantly more realistic distributions of temperature and precipitation than the simulation without the subgrid scheme. Moreover, the grid cell means of most other fields are virtually unchanged by the subgrid scheme. This suggests that the tuning of the climate model without the subgrid scheme is also applicable to the model with the scheme.

  14. Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate (CSSEFARMBE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Gaustad, Krista L.; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project is working to improve the representation of the hydrological cycle in global climate models, critical information necessary for decision-makers to respond appropriately to predictions of future climate. In order to accomplish this objective, CSSEF is building testbeds to implement uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques to objectively calibrate and diagnose climate model parameterizations and predictions with respect to local, process-scale observations. In order to quantify the agreement between models and observations accurately, uncertainty estimates on these observations are needed. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program takes atmospheric and climate related measurements at three permanent locations worldwide. The ARM VAP called the ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) [Xie et al., 2010] collects a subset of ARM observations, performs quality control checks, averages them to one hour temporal resolution, and puts them in a standard format for ease of use by climate modelers. ARMBE has been widely used by the climate modeling community as a summary product of many of the ARM observations. However, the ARMBE product does not include uncertainty estimates on the data values. Thus, to meet the objectives of the CSSEF project and enable better use of this data with UQ techniques, we created the CSSEFARMBE data set. Only a subset of the variables contained in ARMBE is included in CSSEFARMBE. Currently only surface meteorological observations are included, though this may be expanded to include other variables in the future. The CSSEFARMBE VAP is produced for all extended facilities at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site that contain surface meteorological equipment. This extension of the ARMBE data set to multiple facilities at SGP allows for better comparison between model grid boxes and the ARM point observations. In the future, CSSEFARMBE may also be created for other ARM sites. As each site has slightly different instrumentation, this will require additional development to understand the uncertainty characterization associated with instrumentation at those sites. The uncertainty assignment process is implemented into the ARM program’s new Integrated Software Development Environment (ISDE) so that many of the key steps can be used in the future to screen data based on ARM Data Quality Reports (DQRs), propagate uncertainties when transforming data from one time scale into another, and convert names and units into NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) standards. These processes are described in more detail in the following sections.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Integrated Research and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ClimateEnergy InfrastructureAdvanced Electric SystemsIntegrated Research and Development Integrated Research and Development Sandia's Renewable Systems and Energy Infrastructure...

  16. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  17. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  18. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  19. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  20. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.