Sample records for developing silicon-graphene anodes

  1. Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon-Graphene Anodes Technology available for licensing: Provides low-cost production process. Advanced gas phase deposition process yields anodes with five times the specific...

  2. Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material By Angela Hardin * February 25, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National...

  3. DOE-funded Silicon-Graphene Research Leads to Chicago-based Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE-funded Silicon-Graphene Research Leads to Chicago-based Technology Startup Graduate students at Northwestern University are commercializing a silicon (Si)-graphene technology...

  4. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    stability of Si-based anode. 4 Milestones * Synthesize and characterize TiO 2 Graphene and SnO 2 Graphene nano-composite as anode for Li-ion batteries. - on going *...

  5. Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational Management » HistoryAugustAreArgonne

  6. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  7. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  8. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E LGeothermalEnergy A NewLife Anodes

  9. Pyro-E | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University 31 likes SiNode Systems is a battery materials venture developing silicon-graphene anodes for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. SiNode anodes offer higher...

  10. Bioadhesive Alliance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University 31 likes SiNode Systems is a battery materials venture developing silicon-graphene anodes for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. SiNode anodes offer higher...

  11. Inviroment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University 31 likes SiNode Systems is a battery materials venture developing silicon-graphene anodes for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. SiNode anodes offer higher...

  12. SiNode Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University SiNode Systems is a battery materials venture developing silicon-graphene anodes for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. SiNode anodes offer higher...

  13. Bearing Analytics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University 31 likes SiNode Systems is a battery materials venture developing silicon-graphene anodes for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. SiNode anodes offer higher...

  14. Picasolar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University 31 likes SiNode Systems is a battery materials venture developing silicon-graphene anodes for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. SiNode anodes offer higher...

  15. Anode performance | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of batteries PNNL researchers have developed a hybrid anode made of graphite and lithium that could quadruple the lifespan of lithium-sulfur batteries. Image courtesy of...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Anode Material Development for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sinode Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy anode material...

  17. An Optical Streak Diagnostic for Observing Anode-Cathode Plasmas for Radiographic Source Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droemer, Darryl W. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Crain, Marlon D.; Lare, Gregory A. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Bennett, Nichelle L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Laboratories

    2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    National Security Technologies, LLC, and Sandia National Laboratories are collaborating in the development of pulsed power–driven flash x-ray radiographic sources that utilize high-intensity electron beam diodes. The RITS 6 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator at Sandia is used to drive a self magnetic pinch diode to produce a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The high electric fields and current densities associated with these short A-K gap pinch beam diodes present many challenges in diode development. Plasmas generated at both the anode and cathode affect the diode performance, which is manifested in varying spot (source) sizes, total dose output, and impedance profiles. Understanding the nature of these plasmas including closure rates and densities is important in modeling their behavior and providing insight into their mitigation. In this paper we describe a streak camera–based optical diagnostic that is capable of observing and measuring plasma evolution within the A-K gap. By imaging a region of interest onto the input slit of a streak camera, we are able to produce a time-resolved one-dimensional image of the evolving plasma. Typical data are presented.

  18. Development of Low Cost Carbonaceous Materials for Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsukov, Igor V.

    2002-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report on the US DOE CARAT program describes innovative R & D conducted by Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL, USA in cooperation with researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and defines the proper type of carbon and a cost effective method for its production, as well as establishes a US based manufacturer for the application of anodes of the Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer batteries of the Hybrid Electric and Pure Electric Vehicles. The three materials each representing a separate class of graphitic carbon, have been developed and released for field trials. They include natural purified flake graphite, purified vein graphite and a graphitized synthetic carbon. Screening of the available on the market materials, which will help fully utilize the graphite, has been carried out.

  19. SiNode Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SiNode Systems is a battery materials venture developing silicon-graphene anodes for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. SiNode anodes offer higher battery capacity and faster charging rates, all while being produced via a low cost solution chemistry-based manufacturing process.

  20. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

  1. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  2. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  3. Characterization of anodic bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tudryn, Carissa Debra, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodic bonding is a common process used in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) device fabrication and packaging. Polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) is emerging as a new MEMS device and ...

  4. Effect of Sulfur and Hydrocarbon Fuels on Titanate/Ceria SOFC Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, O.A.; Pedersen, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.

    2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project is to develop low-cost, high-performance anodes that offer low polarization resistance as well as improved tolerance for nonidealities in anode environment such as redox cycles, sulfur and other poisons, and hydrocarbons.

  5. California Lithium Battery, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California Lithium Battery (CaLBattery), based in Los Angeles, California, is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined with other advanced battery materials, it could effectively lower battery life cycle cost by up to 70 percent. Over the next year, CALBattery will be working with Argonne National Laboratory to combine their patented silicon-graphene anode material process together with other advanced ANL cathode and electrolyte battery materials.

  6. High Capacity Li Ion Battery Anodes Using Ge Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    High Capacity Li Ion Battery Anodes Using Ge Nanowires Candace K. Chan, Xiao Feng Zhang, and Yi Cui efficiency > 99%. Structural characterization revealed that the Ge nanowires remain intact and connected nanowire anodes are promising candidates for the development of high-energy-density lithium batteries

  7. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  8. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  9. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, Charles R. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rockett, Paul D. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray source having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events.

  10. Results from a pilot cell test of cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Strachan, D M; Henager, Jr, C H; Greenwell, E N [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Alcorn, T R [Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Mfg. Technology Lab.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal was to develop long-lasting, energy-efficient anodes for Hall-Heroult cells used to produce Al metal. The anodes were made from a ceramic/metal composite consisting of NiO and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and a Cu/Ni metal phase. Thirteen cermet anodes were tested at Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL. All anodes corroded severely during the pilot test. Electrolyte components were found deep within the anodes. However, there were many deficiencies in the pilot cell test, mainly the failure to maintain optimal operating conditions. It is concluded that there is a variety of fabrication and operational considerations that need to be addressed carefully in any future testing. 118 figs, 16 tabs, 17 refs.(DLC)

  11. Nickel anode electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Bethel, CT); Benedict, Mark (Monroe, CT)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  12. Adhesion of anodic films on aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skeldon, P.; Zhou, X.; Thompson, G.E.; Wood, G.C. (Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (United Kingdom). Corrosion and Protection Centre); Habazaki, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research); Shimizu, K. (Keio Univ., Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan). University Chemical Lab.)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During anodizing of certain binary Al alloys, the growing anodic oxide film detaches from the alloy substrate, subsequently allowing access of the electrolyte to the underlying bare metal and re-anodizing at a high current density. An Al-3% Li alloy was shown to reveal these phenomena, which are associated with the development of voids at the alloy/film interface as the film thickens. The development of voids, assisting the film detachment, was attributed to the reduced volume of lithium oxide (Li[sub 2]O) formed at the alloy/film interface and compared to that of alumina (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]).

  13. anode catalyst layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  14. anode buffer layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  15. anode cathodic protection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  16. anode interfacial layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  17. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  18. Inert Anode Life in Low Temperature Reduction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, Donald R.

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of aluminum metal by low temperature electrolysis utilizing metal non-consumable anodes and ceramic cathodes was extensively investigated. Tests were performed with traditional sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride composition electrolytes, potassium fluoride-- aluminum fluoride electrolytes, and potassium fluoride--sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride electrolytes. All of the Essential First-Tier Requirements of the joint DOE-Aluminum Industry Inert Anode Road Map were achieved and those items yet to be resolved for commercialization of this technology were identified. Methods for the fabrication and welding of metal alloy anodes were developed and tested. The potential savings of energy and energy costs were determined and potential environmental benefits verified.

  19. anodes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 25 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  20. anodization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 25 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  1. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those...

  2. Composite Electrolytes to Stabilize Metallic Linium Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    metal anode and its poor cycling as the fundamental problem for very high energy Li batteries. Hence, research takes the approach of completely isolating the anode from the...

  3. Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, E. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A short dc discharge with a thermionic cathode can be used as a current and voltage stabilizer, but is subject to current oscillation. If instead of one anode two anodes are used, the current oscillations can be reduced. We have developed a kinetic model of such a discharge with two anodes, where the primary anode has a small opening for passing a fraction of the discharge current to an auxiliary anode. The model demonstrates that the current-voltage relationship of the discharge with two anodes is characterized everywhere by positive slope, i.e., positive differential resistance. Therefore, the discharge with two anodes is expected to be stable to the spontaneous oscillation in current that is induced by negative differential resistance. As a result, such a discharge can be used in an engineering application that requires stable plasma, such as a current and voltage stabilizer.

  4. Report on the source of the electrochemical impedance on cermet inert anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Stice, N.D.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Inert Electrode Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes of the US Department of Energy and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (a) to evaluate the anode material in a scaled-up, pilot cell facility, (b) to investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anode surface, and (c) to develop sensors for monitoring anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report covers the results of a portion of the studies on anode reaction mechanisms. The electrochemical impedances of cermet inert anodes in alumina-saturated molten cryolite as a function of frequency, current density, and time indicated that a significant component of the impedance is due to the gas bubbles produced at the anode during electrolysis. The data also showed a connection between surface structure and impedance that appears to be related to the effects of surface structure on bubble flow. Given the results of this work, it is doubtful that a resistive film contributes significantly to the electrochemical impedances on inert anodes. Properties previously assigned to such a film are more likely due to the bubbles and those factors that affect the properties and dynamics of the bubbles at the anode surface. 12 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  6. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  7. Inert Anode/Cathode Program: Fiscal Year 1986 annual report. [For Hall-Heroult cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenden, B.B.; Davis, N.C.; Koski, O.H.; Marschman, S.C.; Pool, K.H.; Schilling, C.H.; Windisch, C.F.; Wrona, B.J.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose of the program is to develop long-lasting, energy-efficient anodes, cathodes, and ancillary equipment for Hall-Heroult cells used by the aluminum industry. The program is divided into four tasks: Inert Anode Development, Cathode Materials Evaluation, Cathode Bonding Development, and Sensor Development. To devise sensors to control the chemistry of Hall-Heroult cells using stable anodes and cathodes. This report highlights the major FY86 technical accomplishments, which are presented in the following sections: Management, Materials Development, Materials Evaluation, Thermodynamic Evaluation, Laboratory Cell Tests, Large-Scale Tests, Cathode Materials Evaluation, Cathode Bonding Development, and Sensor Development.

  8. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu [National Institute of Standards and Technology] National Institute of Standards and Technology; Crozier, Peter [Arizona State University] Arizona State University; Adams, James [Arizona State University] Arizona State University

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  9. The effects of microstructure on the corrosion of glycine/nitrate processed cermet inert anodes: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Chick, L A; Maupin, G D; Stice, N D

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Inert Electrodes Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes of the US Department of Energy and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under the study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (a) to evaluate the anode material in a scaled-up, pilot cell facility, (b) to investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anodes surface, and (c) to develop sensors for monitoring various anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report covers the results of a portion of the studies on anode reaction mechanisms. The anode mechanism studies were focused in four areas in FY 1990 and FY 1991: (a) the determination of whether a film formed on cermet inert anodes and (if it existed) the characterization of this film, (b) the determination of the sources of the anode impedance, (c) the evaluation of the effects of silica and a precorroded state on anode corrosion, and (d) a preliminary study on the effect of microstructure on the corrosion properties of the anodes. This report discusses the results of the microstructure studies. 6 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  11. The possibility of forming a sacrificial anode coating for Mg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mg is the most active engineering metal, and is often used as a sacrificial anode/coating to protect other engineering metals from corrosion attack. So far no sacrificial anode coating has been developed or considered for Mg. This study explores the possibility of forming a sacrificial coating for Mg. A lithiated carbon coating and a metaphosphated coating are applied on the Mg surface, respectively, and their open-circuit-potentials are measured in saturated Mg(OH)2 solution. They exhibit more negative potentials than bare Mg. SEM reveals that the metaphosphated coating offers more effective and uniform protection for Mg than the lithiated carbon coating. These preliminary results indicate that development of a sacrificial anode coating for Mg is indeed possible.

  12. Study of Sn-Coated Graphite as Anode Material for Secondary Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Study of Sn-Coated Graphite as Anode Material for Secondary Lithium-Ion Batteries Basker Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA Tin-graphite composites have been developed as an alternate anode material for Li-ion batteries using an autocatalytic deposition technique. The specific

  13. Coaxial Si/anodic titanium oxide/Si nanotube arrays for lithium-ion battery anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Nano Res 1 Coaxial Si/anodic titanium oxide/Si nanotube arrays for lithium-ion battery anode Titanium Oxide / Si Nanotube Arrays for Lithium-ion Battery Anode JiepengRong,,§Xin Fang Oxide / Si Nanotube Arrays for Lithium-ion Battery Anode Jiepeng Rong,1,§ Xin Fang,1,§ Mingyuan Ge,1

  14. NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Søren Primdahl #12;ii Primdahl, Søren Nickel/yttria-stabilised zirconia cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells Thesis as Risø-R-1137(EN) ISBN 87-550-2605-2 (internet) #12;iii NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES

  15. Retrofitting sacrificial anodes in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiefer, J.H.; Thomason, W.H.; Alansari, N.G.

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cathodic protection (CP) systems of 15 fixed offshore platforms were analyzed. These steel template structures, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, are in water depths between 125 and 185 ft (115 and 170 m). A systematic survey program exists to monitor the CP systems including assessment of sacrificial anode depletion, and measurement of anode and platform potentials. These data are used to design new anode retrofits for older structures to extend CP system life. An analysis of field survey measurements, the method used to evaluate new anode needs, and locations for retrofit anodes are described.

  16. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Huettig, F.R. (Ceramic Magnetics, Inc., Fairfield, NJ (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  17. Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    developments in the synthesis of inorganic materials have allowed chemists to create single-site catalysts these inorganic materials, mesoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes have received great attention.4 functionalized membrane material. To this end, we have explored the use of commercially available AAO membranes

  18. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst Jay Thunstrom, Su Ha, Oscar Flores are being developed. One of the most auspicious and the topic presented here is the solid oxide fuel cell hydrocarbons and have great resistance to poisoning. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation Three stages exist

  19. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  20. Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

  1. Microbial fuel cell with improved anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing a microbial fuel cell, wherein the method includes: (i) inoculating an anodic liquid medium in contact with an anode of the microbial fuel cell with one or more types of microorganisms capable of functioning by an exoelectrogenic mechanism; (ii) establishing a biofilm of the microorganisms on and/or within the anode along with a substantial absence of planktonic forms of the microorganisms by substantial removal of the planktonic microorganisms during forced flow and recirculation conditions of the anodic liquid medium; and (iii) subjecting the microorganisms of the biofilm to a growth stage by incorporating one or more carbon-containing nutritive compounds in the anodic liquid medium during biofilm formation or after biofilm formation on the anode has been established.

  2. anode-cathode microbial fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  3. Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the development of silicon based anodes will be considered.

  4. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  5. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  6. Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

  7. Nanotube Composite Anode Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    available for licensng: A composite material suitable for use in an anode for a lithium-ion battery Reduces manufacturing costs. Provides increase capacity, safety, long-term...

  8. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories News Events Find More Like This Return to Search Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries United States Patent Patent Number: 6,528,208 Issued: March 4, 2003...

  9. Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.

  10. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  11. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2000 25000 30000 35000 40000 1578 G Intensity Raman Shift cm -1 1340 D Two Raman scattering peaks at 1578 and 1340 cm -1 are assigned as G and D band, respectively. ...

  12. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Convergent development of anodic bacterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    treatment plant sample known to produce consistent power densities, a second wastewater treatment plant Joint Authority Wastewater Treatment Plant)) produced substantially less power. Denaturing gradient gel). The aerobic effluent (1.16 mW mÀ 2 ) and river water (1.14 mW mÀ 2 ) inocula produced a higher maximum power

  14. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    more than 1000 mAhg with poor cyleability. * The formation of Sn x Co y C z and MO composite could lead to the increase in the capacity, reduce the amount of cobalt in the...

  15. anodic oxide overlayer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    process, the anode Sadoway, Donald Robert 35 Advantages of Microwave Sintering in Manufacturing of Anode Support Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Engineering Websites Summary: -SEM...

  16. anodic aluminium oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  17. anodizing aluminum sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  18. anodic surface treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  19. anodic film formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  20. anode biofilm transcriptomics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  1. anodic iridium oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  2. anodized implant surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  3. area iridium anodes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  4. Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

  5. anodic protection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 27 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  6. anodic polarization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 32 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  7. anodic films formed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving the cycling stability of silicon nanowire anodes with conducting polymer coatings Yan Yao capacity lithium-ion battery anode material, improvements in cycling...

  8. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  9. anode current response: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and generate architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes. Application of MFCs for wastewater treatment will...

  10. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Abstract: Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed...

  11. Establish and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium-ion Batteries Establish and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode Materials...

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Clathrates for Anode Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries 2012 DOE...

  13. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  14. Test plan for the pilot cell test of inert anodes: Report on the June 1991 meeting at the Reynolds Metals Company facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Alcorn, T.R.; Tabereaux, A.T. (Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Mfg. Technology Lab.)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Inert Electrodes Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes (OIP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (1) evaluate the anode material in a pilot cell facility, (2) investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anodes surface, and (3) develop sensors for monitoring various anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report discusses a test plan that has been developed for the pilot cell test of the inert anodes. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Thermal Neutron Detectors with Discrete Anode Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu,B.; Schaknowski, N.A., Smith, G.C., DeGeronimo, G., Vernon, E.O.

    2008-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A new two-dimensional thermal neutron detector concept that is capable of very high rates is being developed. It is based on neutron conversion in {sup 3}He in an ionization chamber (unity gas gain) that uses only a cathode and anode plane; there is no additional electrode such as a Frisch grid. The cathode is simply the entrance window, and the anode plane is composed of discrete pads, each with their own readout electronics implemented via application specific integrated circuits. The aim is to provide a new generation of detectors with key characteristics that are superior to existing techniques, such as higher count rate capability, better stability, lower sensitivity to background radiation, and more flexible geometries. Such capabilities will improve the performance of neutron scattering instruments at major neutron user facilities. In this paper, we report on progress with the development of a prototype device that has 48 x 48 anode pads and a sensitive area of 24cm x 24cm.

  16. Improvement of four anode rods ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P. No. 13759 (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

  17. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 ?m or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  18. Fabrication and Performance of Ni-YSZ Anode Supported Cell for Coal Derived Syngas Application by Tape Casting and Spin Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Mingyang (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Jiang, Yinglu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Johnson, C.D.; Xingbo, Liu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni-YSZ anode supported cell has been developed for direct utilization of coal derived syngas as fuel in the temperature range of 700-850° C. The porous Ni-YSZ anode substrate was prepared based on processes of slip casting and lamination of anode tape. Then thin-film YSZ electrolyte was deposited on pre-sintered anode substrate via a colloidal spin coating technique and an optimized final sintering route. Dense and crackfree YSZ electrolyte was successfully obtained after sintering at 1440C for 4hrs. Processing factors like pre-sintering of anode, solvent, coating cycles and sintering route on the final properties of YSZ film was studied. A power density of 0.62W/cm2 has been achieved for the anode supported cell tested in 97%H2/3%H2O at 800°C. EIS test results indicated the cell performance was essentially influenced by interfacial resistance and charge transfer process.

  19. Borla Performance Industries, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  20. Element One, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  1. Woodmont Enterprises LLC | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  2. SH Coatings LP | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  3. SynchroPET LLC | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  4. 7AC Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  5. US e-Chromic | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  6. Umpqua Energy, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  7. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  8. Vorbeck Materials Corp. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  9. Teknikem, A Division of RockinBoat LLC | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  10. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  11. Secretary Chu Announces Winning Startup Companies for "America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  12. Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined...

  13. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  14. Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmon, John P; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Modified surfaces on metal anodes for batteries can help resist formation of malfunction-inducing surface defects. The modification can include application of a protective nanocomposite coating that can inhibit formation of surface defects. such as dendrites, on the anode during charge/discharge cycles. For example, for anodes having a metal (M'), the protective coating can be characterized by products of chemical or electrochemical dissociation of a nanocomposite containing a polymer and an exfoliated compound (M.sub.a'M.sub.b''X.sub.c). The metal, M', comprises Li, Na, or Zn. The exfoliated compound comprises M' among lamella of M.sub.b''X.sub.c, wherein M'' is Fe, Mo, Ta, W, or V, and X is S, O, or Se.

  15. Microwave processing of tantalum capacitor anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauf, R J; Hamby, C; Holcombe, C E [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vierow, W F [AVX Tantalum Corp., Biddeford, ME (United States)] [AVX Tantalum Corp., Biddeford, ME (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous tantalum anodes were sintered at temperatures from 1600 to 1900{degrees}C using a conventional high-vacuum furnace as well as both 2.45 GHz fixed-frequency and 4--8 GHz variable-frequency microwave furnaces. Various insulation and casketing techniques were used to couple the microwave power to the tantalum compacts. Several types of tantalum powder were used to assess the effect of microwave processing on sintered surface area and impurity levels. Some microwave sintered anodes have an unusual surface rippling not seen on conventionally fired parts. The rippling suggests that a microscopic arcing or plasma might have been generated. Two important effects could be exploited if this phenomenon can be controlled. First, the effective tantalum surface area could be increased, yielding higher capacitance per volume. Second, surface impurities might be cleaned away, allowing the formation of a better dielectric film during the anodization process and, ultimately, higher working voltage.

  16. Fuel cell system shutdown with anode pressure control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A venting methodology and pressure sensing and vent valving arrangement for monitoring anode bypass valve operating during the normal shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in vehicle propulsion systems. During a normal shutdown routine, the pressure differential between the anode inlet and anode outlet is monitored in real time in a period corresponding to the normal closing speed of the anode bypass valve and the pressure differential at the end of the closing cycle of the anode bypass valve is compared to the pressure differential at the beginning of the closing cycle. If the difference in pressure differential at the beginning and end of the anode bypass closing cycle indicates that the anode bypass valve has not properly closed, a system controller switches from a normal shutdown mode to a rapid shutdown mode in which the anode inlet is instantaneously vented by rapid vents.

  17. Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridgway, Paul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    graphite formulations in particular, are the current standard for battery anodes in electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries (

  18. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  19. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  20. Microstructure and Polarization Characteristics of Anode Supported Tubular SOFC with Co-precipitated and Mechanically Mixed Ni-YSZ Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    1 Microstructure and Polarization Characteristics of Anode Supported Tubular SOFC with Co SOFC is fabricated and the dependence of its polarization resistance on anode microstructural resistance of anode supported tubular SOFC using stereology and c-c theory is evaluated. Key Words: Solid

  1. A Patterned 3D Silicon Anode Fabricated by Electrodeposition on a Virus-Structured Current Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical methods were developed for the deposition of nanosilicon onto a 3D virus-structured nickel current collector. This nickel current collector is composed of self-assembled nanowire-like rods of genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys), chemically coated in nickel to create a complex high surface area conductive substrate. The electrochemically depo­sited 3D silicon anodes demonstrate outstanding rate performance, cycling stability, and rate capability. Electrodeposition thus provides a unique means of fabricating silicon anode materials on complex substrates at low cost.

  2. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

  3. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  4. Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Electrode Distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,2 Several types of MFCs with different electrode arrangements have been developed, including two-chamber, single-chamber, flat-plate, and stacked electrode reactors.3-6 Of these, the single-chamber air cathode,17 as well as in other electrolytic cells for ion removal.18-20 One advantage of the carbon felt anode over

  5. Nano-structured anode material for high-power battery system in electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amine, K.; Belharouak, I.; Chen, Z.; Taison, T.; Yumoto, H.; Ota, N.; Myung, S.-T.; Sun, Y.-K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Enerdel Lithium Power Systems); (Iwate Univ.); (Hanyang Univ.)

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A new MSNP-LTO anode is developed to enable a high-power battery system that provides three times more power than any existing battery system. It shows excellent cycle life and low-temperature performance, and exhibits unmatched safety characteristics.

  6. Microbial Power-Generating Capabilities on Micro-/Nano-Structured Anodes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an alternative electricity gen- erating technology and efficient method-/Nano-Structured Anode Materials, Microbial Fuel Cell 1 Introduction The last three decades have witnessed significant develop- ments and performance improvements in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology [1]. These advances

  7. Structural Analysis of Novel Lignin-derived Carbon Composite Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Keffer, David J [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of novel lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains motivates the understanding of a relationship of the structural properties characterizing these materials, such as crystallite size, intracrystallite dspacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density, with their pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering. A model for these composite materials is developed as a function of experimentally measurable parameters and realized in fifteen composite systems, three of which directly match all parameters of their experimental counterparts. The accurate reproduction of the experimental PDFs using the model systems validates the model. The decomposition of the simulated PDFs provides an understanding of each feature in the PDF and allows for the development of a mapping between the defining characteristics of the PDF and the material properties of interest.

  8. Fuel cell anode configuration for CO tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uribe, Francisco A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is designed to operate on a reformate fuel stream containing oxygen and diluted hydrogen fuel with CO impurities. A polymer electrolyte membrane has an electrocatalytic surface formed from an electrocatalyst mixed with the polymer and bonded on an anode side of the membrane. An anode backing is formed of a porous electrically conductive material and has a first surface abutting the electrocatalytic surface and a second surface facing away from the membrane. The second surface has an oxidation catalyst layer effective to catalyze the oxidation of CO by oxygen present in the fuel stream where at least the layer of oxidation catalyst is formed of a non-precious metal oxidation catalyst selected from the group consisting of Cu, Fe, Co, Tb, W, Mo, Sn, and oxides thereof, and other metals having at least two low oxidation states.

  9. Pulsed klystrons with feedback controlled mod-anode modulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jerry, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rees, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a fast rise and fall, totem-pole mod-anode modulators for klystron application. Details of these systems as recently installed utilizing a beam switch tube ''on-deck'' and a planar triode ''off-deck'' in a grid-catch feedback regulated configuration will be provided. The grid-catch configuration regulates the klystron mod-anode voltage at a specified set-point during switching as well as providing a control mechanism that flat-top regulates the klystron beam current during the pulse. This flat-topped klystron beam current is maintained while the capacitor bank droops. In addition, we will review more modern on-deck designs using a high gain, high voltage planar triode as a regulating and switching element. These designs are being developed, tested, and implemented for the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator refurbishment project, ''LANSCE-R''. An advantage of the planar triode is that the tube can be directly operated with solid state linear components and provides for a very compact design. The tubes are inexpensive compared to stacked semiconductor switching assemblies and also provide a linear control capability. Details of these designs are provided as well as operational and developmental results.

  10. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  11. Nanostructured Materials as Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,EnergyNanophosphateas Anodes Nanostructured

  12. Sodium Titanates as Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes  for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   Marca  M.  Doeff,  dual   intercalation   batteries   based   on   sodium  future   of   sodium  ion  batteries  will  be  discussed  

  13. anodal transcranial direct: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    duration between two consec- utive purge Stefanopoulou, Anna 119 Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry...

  14. anodic fenton treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate Rubloff, Gary W. 32 Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous...

  15. anode supported planar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Journal of Power Sources SUPPORTING INFORMATION Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading, PA 16802, USA *Corresponding Author: E-mail: blogan@psu.edu,...

  16. anodically oxidized titanium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mixed anatase and rutile phases. Under simulated AM 1.5 G illumination, the peak solar energy conversion Heller, Eric 7 Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms...

  17. anodic oxidized titanium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mixed anatase and rutile phases. Under simulated AM 1.5 G illumination, the peak solar energy conversion Heller, Eric 7 Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms...

  18. Degradation Mechanisms of SOFC Anodes in Coal Gas Containing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phosphorus. Abstract: The interaction of phosphorus in synthetic coal gas with the nickel-based anode of solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated. Tests with both...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about novel anode...

  20. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries. J. Power Sources 139,for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,nano-anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem.

  1. Parallel vacuum arc discharge with microhollow array dielectric and anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jinghua; Zhou, Lin; Fu, Yuecheng; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Rongkun; Chen, Faxin; Li, Linbo; Meng, Shijian, E-mail: mengshijian04@126.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode configuration with microhollow array dielectric and anode was developed to obtain parallel vacuum arc discharge. Compared with the conventional electrodes, more than 10 parallel microhollow discharges were ignited for the new configuration, which increased the discharge area significantly and made the cathode eroded more uniformly. The vacuum discharge channel number could be increased effectively by decreasing the distances between holes or increasing the arc current. Experimental results revealed that plasmas ejected from the adjacent hollow and the relatively high arc voltage were two key factors leading to the parallel discharge. The characteristics of plasmas in the microhollow were investigated as well. The spectral line intensity and electron density of plasmas in microhollow increased obviously with the decease of the microhollow diameter.

  2. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,EnergyNanophosphateas Anodes Nanostructuredby10

  3. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,EnergyNanophosphateas Anodes Nanostructuredby1009

  4. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need metal anodes. W hen interest in secondary lithium batteries began to emerge more than four decades ago1) accommodating the large change in electrode volume during cycling (unlike graphite and silicon anodes, where

  5. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); DiMilia, Robert A. (Baton Rouge, LA); Dynys, Joseph M. (New Kensington, PA); Phelps, Frankie E. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  6. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  7. anodized ti-6al-4v alloy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  8. anodically bonded glass-based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    loose communication Jain, Amit 16 ANODE WIRE SWELLING --A NEW PHENOMENON IN ANODE WIRE AGING UNDER HIGHACCUMUPATED DOSE Physics Websites Summary: -day practice of an...

  9. anodized ti-metal substrates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 33 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  10. The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis of graphene-based titanium dioxide nanocompositesLos Angeles The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based AnodeTHE THESIS The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode

  11. Perovskite anode electrocatalysis for direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.H.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation explores direct methanol fuel cells incorporating perovskite anode electrocatalysts. Preliminary electrochemical performance was addressed following incorporation of electrocatalysts into polymer electrolyte (Nafion 417) fuel cells. Perovskite electrocatalysts demonstrating activity towards direct methanol oxidation during cyclic voltammetry measurements included, respectively, SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrRu[sub 0.5]Pd[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrPdO[sub 3], SmCoO[sub 3], SrRuO[sub 3], La[sub 0.8]Ce[sub 0.2]CoC[sub 3],SrCo[sub 0.5]Ti[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], and La[sub 0.8]Sr[sub 0.2]CoO[sub 3] where SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]P[sub 3] gave methanol oxidation currents up to 28 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.45 V vs. SCE. Correlations were found between electrocatalyst solid-state and thermodynamic parameters corresponding to, respectively, molecular electronic polarizability, the optical dielectric constant, the perovskite spin-only magnetic moment, the number of d-electrons in perovskite A and B lattice sites, and the average metal-oxygen binding energy for the perovskite lattice, and corresponding fuel cell performance. This may have future merit for the prediction of new electrocatalyst family members for promoting direct methanol oxidation. Methanol diffusion from anode to cathode compartments appears to be a major obstacle to the development of polymer electrolyte methanol fuel cells.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

  13. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  14. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    of second-phase particles in the aluminium alloys substrates influences the anodic oxide films. They modifyFIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates. Design

  15. The primary components of a fuel cell are an ion conducting electrolyte, a cathode, and an anode, as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    The primary components of a fuel cell are an ion conducting electrolyte, a cathode, and an anode chemical driving force for the oxygen and the hydrogen to react to produce water. In the fuel cell, however for the many categories of fuel cells under development today. Desirable characteristics of fuel cell

  16. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University 200,000 Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer-Coated Layered SiO x -Graphene Nanocomposite Anodes J-G Zhang and J. Liu Pacific Northwest National Laboratory...

  17. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A 1,

  18. anode wire grids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray position detection, simulation study of the anode wire modulation effect of the detector was carried out with Garfield program. Different gas mixtures were used as the...

  19. anodic tantala films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diodes Materials Science Websites Summary: to be an efficient anode for organic light-emitting diode OLED X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong an ultrathin...

  20. New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture for High Capacity, High-Rate Li-ion Batteries Xin Zhao, Cary Hayner, Mayfair Kung, and Harold Kung, Northwestern...

  1. anodic materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode materia.l1-9 These materials have been showed large-14 the use of metal and carbon composites,15-20 and the introduction of nano- sized metals,21-25 have been Cho,...

  2. advanced anodic materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode materia.l1-9 These materials have been showed large-14 the use of metal and carbon composites,15-20 and the introduction of nano- sized metals,21-25 have been Cho,...

  3. Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance Technology available for licensing: Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with...

  4. anode supported solid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    membranes deposited on solid substrates. Such systems Boyer, Edmond 30 Anode-supported thin-film fuel cells operated in a single chamber configuration 2T-I-12 Energy Storage,...

  5. Breakdown Anodization (BDA) for hierarchical structures of titanium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Soon Ju, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Breakdown Anodization (BDA) of titanium dioxide is a very promising, fast fabrication method to construct micro-scale and nano-scale structures on titanium surfaces. This method uses environmentally friendly electrolytes, ...

  6. Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) can be created with pores that self-assemble into ordered configurations. Nanostructured metal oxides have proven to be very useful as scaffolds for growth of nanowires and nanotubes ...

  7. Anode Materials DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804355

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    in High-Perfor- mance Lithium Secondary Batteries** Hyunjung Kim, Byunghee Han, Jaebum Choo, and Jaephil the capacity of graphite (ca. 372 mAhgÀ1 ),[1] which is currently used as an anode material. In spite

  8. Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus assembled silicon anode is reported. This electrode combines genetically modified virus templates for the production of high aspect ratio nanofeatured surfaces with electroless deposition to produce an integrated nickel current collector followed by physical vapor deposition of a silicon layer to form a high capacity silicon anode. This composite silicon anode produced high capacities (3300 mAh/g), excellent charge?discharge cycling stability (0.20% loss per cycle at 1C), and consistent rate capabilities (46.4% at 4C) between 0 and 1.5 V. The biological templated nanocomposite electrode architecture displays a nearly 10-fold increase in capacity over currently available graphite anodes with remarkable cycling stability.

  9. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  10. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, E.

    1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  11. Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode Catalysis Ken Ellis-Guardiola PCCM REU 2010 #12 EtOH+3H2O 12H+ +2CO2+ 12e- Pt C 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O O2 Anode Cathode The Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell #12 Fuel Cell Test ~ 1.5 mg Pt loading. 1.0 M Ethanol flowing at 1 ml/min. O2 flowing at 100 ml/min. Cells

  12. Process for anodizing a robotic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, William T. (Weston, MA)

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  13. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chamoun, Mylad [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hertzberg, Benjamin J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Gupta, Tanya [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Davies, Daniel [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bhadra, Shoham [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Van Tassell, Barry. [City College of New York, NY (United States); Erdonmez, Can [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Steingart, Daniel A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The low cost, significant reducing potential, and relative safety of the zinc electrode is a common hope for a reductant in secondary batteries, but it is limited mainly to primary implementation due to shape change. In this work we exploit such shape change for the benefit of static electrodes through the electrodeposition of hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam. Electrodeposition of zinc foam resulted in nanoparticles formed on secondary dendrites in a three-dimensional network with a particle size distribution of 54.1 - 96.0 nm. The nanoporous zinc foam contributed to highly oriented crystals, high surface area and more rapid kinetics in contrast to conventional zinc in alkaline mediums. The anode material presented had a utilization of ~ 88% at full depth-of-discharge at various rates indicating a superb rate-capability. The rechargeability of Zn?/Zn²? showed significant capacity retention over 100 cycles at a 40% depth-of-discharge to ensure that the dendritic core structure was imperforated. The dendritic architecture was densified upon charge-discharge cycling and presented superior performance compared to bulk zinc electrodes.

  14. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chamoun, Mylad; Hertzberg, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Tanya; Davies, Daniel; Bhadra, Shoham; Van Tassell, Barry.; Erdonmez, Can; Steingart, Daniel A.

    2015-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The low cost, significant reducing potential, and relative safety of the zinc electrode is a common hope for a reductant in secondary batteries, but it is limited mainly to primary implementation due to shape change. In this work we exploit such shape change for the benefit of static electrodes through the electrodeposition of hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam. Electrodeposition of zinc foam resulted in nanoparticles formed on secondary dendrites in a three-dimensional network with a particle size distribution of 54.1 - 96.0 nm. The nanoporous zinc foam contributed to highly oriented crystals, high surface area and more rapid kinetics in contrastmore »to conventional zinc in alkaline mediums. The anode material presented had a utilization of ~ 88% at full depth-of-discharge at various rates indicating a superb rate-capability. The rechargeability of Zn?/Zn²? showed significant capacity retention over 100 cycles at a 40% depth-of-discharge to ensure that the dendritic core structure was imperforated. The dendritic architecture was densified upon charge-discharge cycling and presented superior performance compared to bulk zinc electrodes.« less

  15. Basic properties of a liquidt in anode solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Abernathy; RandallGemmen; KirkGerdes; Mark Koslowske; ThomasTao

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An unconventional high temperature fuel cell system, the liquidt in anode solid oxide fuel cell(LTA-SOFC), is discussed. A thermodynamic analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell with a liquid metal anode is developed. Pertinent thermo chemical and thermo physical properties of liquid tin in particular are detailed. An experimental setup for analysis of LTA-SOFC anode kinetics is described, and data for a planar cell under hydrogen indicated an effective oxygen diffusion coefficient of 5.3×10?5 cm2 s?1 at 800 ?C and 8.9×10?5 cm2 s?1 at 900 ?C. This value is similar to previously reported literature values for liquid tin. The oxygen conductivity through the tin, calculated from measured diffusion coefficients and theoretical oxygen solubility limits, is found to be on the same order of thatofyttria-stabilizedzirconia(YSZ), a traditional SOFC electrolyte material. As such,the ohmicloss due to oxygen transport through the tin layer must be considered in practical system cell design since the tin layer will usually be at least as thick as the electrolyte.

  16. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  17. Development of Si-based High Capacity Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. Developing A New High Capacity Anode With Long Cycle Life

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    more than 1000 mAhg with poor cyleability. * The formation of Sn x Co y C z and MO composite could lead to the increase in the capacity, reduce the amount of cobalt in the...

  19. NETL SOFC: Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate -AdvancedMIRTBD525AdaptingWaterTerry

  20. Develop Improved Methods for Making Intermetallic Anodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E LGeothermal *abuse | Department

  1. Develop Improved Methods of Making Intermetallic Anodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E LGeothermal *abuse | DepartmentEnergy

  2. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Anil V. Virkar

    2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

  3. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  4. The dependence of natural graphite anode performance on electrode density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of electrode density for lithium intercalation and irreversible capacity loss on the natural graphite anode in lithium ion batteries was studied by electrochemical methods. Both the first-cycle reversible and irreversible capacities of the natural graphite anode decreased with an increase in the anode density though compression. The reduction in reversible capacity was attributed to a reduction in the chemical diffusion coefficient for lithium though partially agglomerated particles with a larger stress. For the natural graphite in this study the potentials for Li (de)insertion shifted between the first and second formation cycles and the extent of this shift was dependent on electrode density. The relation between this peak shift and the irreversible capacity loss are probably both due to the decrease in graphite surface area with compression.

  5. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niksa, Marilyn J. (Painesville, OH); Pohto, Gerald R. (Mentor, OH); Lakatos, Leslie K. (Mentor, OH); Wheeler, Douglas J. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Niksa, Andrew J. (Painesville, OH); Schue, Thomas J. (Huntsburg, OH)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  6. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niksa, Marilyn J. (Painesville, OH); Pohto, Gerald R. (Mentor, OH); Lakatos, Leslie K. (Mentor, OH); Wheeler, Douglas J. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Niksa, Andrew J. (Painesville, OH); Schue, Thomas J. (Huntsburg, OH); Turk, Thomas R. (Mentor, OH)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  7. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  8. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  9. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, Gary P. (Plum Borough, PA); Gavasto, Thomas M. (New Kensington, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO.sub.2 and/or Cu.sub.2 O.

  10. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

    1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

  11. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  12. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion...

  13. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  14. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries....

  15. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  16. A Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tube Based Wavelength-Shifting-Fiber Detector for neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Kevin D [ORNL; Clonts, Lloyd G [ORNL; Crow, Lowell [ORNL; Diawara, Yacouba [ORNL; Funk, Loren L [ORNL; Hannan, Bruce W [ORNL; Hodges, Jason P [ORNL; Riedel, Richard A [ORNL; Wang, Cai-Lin [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber scintillator neutron detectors were developed for two time-of-flight (TOF) neutron powder diffractometers (POWGEN, VULCAN) at Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). In a recent module (v3.0), however, there are 32 1-inch-diameter photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) which are bulky and expensive. We built a new detector module (v3.1) based on four multi-anode (MA) PMTs, and tested its performance including detection efficiency, count rate capability, spatial resolution, ghosting properties, and gamma-ray sensitivity. The v3.1 module was compared with two prior v3.0 modules, and 3He tube detectors.

  17. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

  18. Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridgway, Paul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    graphite formulations in particular, are the current standard for lithium-ion anodes for electric vehicle batteries(

  19. In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells D.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane under methane-to-oxygen ratio (Rmix) of 2. Anode-supported fuel cells are investigated regarding

  20. Supporting information for Vertically Grown Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ion etch (DRIE) process the 50 µm deep anode chamber was etched into the silicon over a 5 mm × 5 mm. Summarized fabrication process flow The anode chamber and contact area were constructed on a 4" P was sputtered and patterned using a lift-off process to be only inside the etched anode chamber (Figure S1.d

  1. Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells Anode off-gas recycle a b s t r a c t The recycle of anode depleted gas has been employed in solid oxide fuel cell systems for the advantage of reusing a fraction of the exhaust rich in steam

  2. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  3. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as an Anode for Lithium Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as an Anode for Lithium Ion Battery Fei YAO LPICM-École Polytechnique POLYTECHNIQUE Spécialité: Physique Par Fei YAO Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as an Anode for Lithium Ion Battery #12;I ABSTRACT In this thesis work, carbon-based nanomaterials using as an anode for lithium ion

  4. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Sylwester, Alan P. (Washington, DC); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  5. Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brolo, Alexandre G.

    Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy during the construction of a model biofuel cell anode. The model anode was a layered structure formedDH to the CB layer confirmed successful enzyme immobilization. 1. Introduction Biofuel cells use microorganisms

  6. Effect of Sn and Ca doping on the corrosion of Pb anodes in lead acid batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Effect of Sn and Ca doping on the corrosion of Pb anodes in lead acid batteries Dragan Slavkova of lead anodes used in lead acid batteries. However, one drawback of these materials is their increased reserved. Keywords: Corrosion; Pb anodes; Lead acid batteries; Doping tin; Calcium 1. Introduction

  7. Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system Module in samples collected after 12/1/01 have been determined by XRF analysis using a Cu-anode tube as the source/1/05 will be reported with an added indicator of the Cu- anode XRF system used in analysis, the first (1) or the second

  8. Posting type Advisory Subject Shifts in Mo-anode XRF element calibration factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Advisory Subject Shifts in Mo-anode XRF element calibration factors Module/Species A@crocker.ucdavis.edu Supporting information A molybdenum-anode XRF instrument is used to analyze the heavier elements (Ni, Cu, Zn with lighter deposits were acquired and used in the Mo-anode XRF system. The new calibration foils resulted

  9. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Atomic Crystals as Stable Interfacial Layer for Improvement of Lithium Metal Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    nature of graphite22 and Si anodes3,4 in lithium ion batteries that confine lithium ions inside nitride, graphene Lithium ion batteries have been a great success as the power source for portable battery chemistry such as Si anodes,3,4 Li-S, and Li- air.5 Li metal anode has the highest specific

  10. Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA); Kozarek, Robert L. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

  11. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  12. Dynamics of Finite Dust Clouds in a Magnetized Anodic Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piel, A.; Pilch, I.; Trottenberg, T. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Koepke, M. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505-6315 (United States)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The response to an external modulation voltage of small dust clouds confined in an anodic plasma is studied. Dust density waves are excited when the cloud is larger than a wavelength, whereas a sloshing and stretching motion is found for smaller clouds. The wave dispersion shows similarities with waveguide modes.

  13. anode electrode materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode electrode materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Nanostructured Electrode...

  14. Novel carbonaceous materials used as anodes in lithium ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to synthesize disordered carbons used as anodes in lithium ion batteries, where the porosity and surface area are controlled. Both parameters are critical since the irreversible capacity obtained in the first cycle seems to be associated with the surface area (an exfoliation mechanism occurs in which the exposed surface area continues to increase).

  15. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are aerogel and xerogel composite materials suitable for use as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

  16. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  17. Polymer graphite composite anodes for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Polymer graphite composite anodes for Li-ion batteries Basker Veeraraghavan, Bala Haran, Ralph for the graphite particles by in-situ polymerization #12;Experimental Preparation of PPy/Graphite composites Dropwise addition of pyrrole into aqueous slurry of graphite at 0 °C with nitric acid acting as an oxidizer

  18. OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

    2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

  19. Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, John R.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC's performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell's microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

  20. Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC’s performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell’s microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

  1. Experiments in anodic film effects during electrorefining of scrap U-10Mo fuels in support of modeling efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Kleeck, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Willit, J.; Williamson, M.A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fentiman, A.W. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic uranium molybdenum alloy clad in zirconium has been proposed as a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel option for research and test reactors, as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. Scrap from the fuel's manufacture will contain a significant portion of recoverable LEU. Pyroprocessing has been identified as an option to perform this recovery. A model of a pyroprocessing recovery procedure has been developed to assist in refining the LEU recovery process and designing the facility. Corrosion theory and a two mechanism transport model were implemented on a Mat-Lab platform to perform the modeling. In developing this model, improved anodic behavior prediction became necessary since a dense uranium-rich salt film was observed at the anode surface during electrorefining experiments. Experiments were conducted on uranium metal to determine the film's character and the conditions under which it forms. The electro-refiner salt used in all the experiments was eutectic LiCl/KCl containing UCl{sub 3}. The anodic film material was analyzed with ICP-OES to determine its composition. Both cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic scans were conducted at operating temperatures between 475 and 575 C. degrees to interrogate the electrochemical behavior of the uranium. The results show that an anodic film was produced on the uranium electrode. The film initially passivated the surface of the uranium on the working electrode. At high over potentials after a trans-passive region, the current observed was nearly equal to the current observed at the initial active level. Analytical results support the presence of K{sub 2}UCl{sub 6} at the uranium surface, within the error of the analytical method.

  2. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

  3. Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

  4. Position-sensitive proportional counter with low-resistance metal-wire anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit is provided which allows the use of a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) proportional counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode of the counter. A pair of specially designed active-capacitance preamplifiers are used to terminate the anode ends wherein the anode is treated as an RC line. The preamplifiers act as stabilized active capacitance loads and each is composed of a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier, a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction and handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10.sup.6 counts/sec).

  5. Final report on DSA methods for monitoring alumina in aluminum reduction cells with cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sensors Development Program was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Processes. The work was performed in conjunction with the Inert Electrodes Program at PNL. The objective of the Sensors Development Program in FY 1990 through FY 1992 was to determine whether methods based on digital signal analysis (DSA) could be used to measure alumina concentration in aluminum reduction cells. Specifically, this work was performed to determine whether useful correlations exist between alumina concentration and various DSA-derived quantification parameters, calculated for current and voltage signals from laboratory and field aluminum reduction cells. If appropriate correlations could be found, then the quantification parameters might be used to monitor and, consequently, help control the alumina concentration in commercial reduction cells. The control of alumina concentration is especially important for cermet anodes, which have exhibited instability and excessive wear at alumina concentrations removed from saturation.

  6. Anode-supported tubular SOFC at low temperature using Ni, Fe, GDC, and YSZ based anode support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, B.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fujishiro, Y.; Awano, M.; Ingram, B. J.; Carter, J. D. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NiO-GDC, NiO-YSZ, NiO-Fe2O3-GDC, NiO-Fe2O3-YSZ anode tube supported tubular fuel cells was fabricated at the co-sintering temperature from 1250 C to 1400 C to investigate how the co-sintering temperature affect the open-circuit voltage. To focus on the changing of anode tube, all the tubular fuel cells support a ScSZ electrolyte layer and a LSCF cathode layer. The microstructure of the electrolyte layer sintered under 1300 C included pores inside it, and the densification of the electrolyte completed at the sintering temperatures above 1300 C. Furthermore, the shrinkage both in length and in diameter of a tubular fuel cell reaches as much as 20% at co-sintering temperature of 1400 C. The densification of ScSZ electrolyte layer and shrinkage of anode tube will result in the changing of open-circuit voltage of fuel cell from 1.0 V to 1.1 V.

  7. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  8. Process and apparatus for recovery of fissionable materials from spent reactor fuel by anodic dissolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Wolson, Raymond D. (Lockport, IL); Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent metal clad fuel pins is disclosed. The process uses secondary reactions between U.sup.+4 cations and elemental uranium at the anode to increase reaction rates and improve anodic efficiency compared to prior art processes. In another embodiment of the process, secondary reactions between Cd.sup.+2 cations and elemental uranium to form uranium cations and elemental cadmium also assists in oxidizing the uranium at the anode.

  9. STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF THE SUBSTRATE INTERFACE FOR GERMANIUM AND SILICON LITHIUM ION BATTERY ANODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    AND SILICON LITHIUM ION BATTERY ANODES235 SEM/FIB, microstructure characterization, and local electron atom probe........................................................................................................................16 1.1 Lithium Ion Batteries

  10. A MORE EFFICIENT ANODE MICROSTRUCTURE FOR SOFCs BASED ON PROTON CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainwater, Ben H; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Meilin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the desired microstructure of the state-of-the-art Ni-YSZ anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based on YSZ is well known, the anode microstructure for a SOFC based on a proton conductor is yet to be optimized. In this study, we examined the effect of anode porosity on the performance of a SOFC based on BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.1}Yb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3??} (BZCYYb), a mixed ion (proton and oxygen anion) conductor with high ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. Three cells with Ni-BZCYYb cermet anodes of different porosities (37%, 42%, and 50%) and identical electrolytes and cathode components were fabricated and tested. Under typical fuel cell operating conditions, the cell with anode of the lowest porosity (37%), prepared without pore former, achieved the highest performance, demonstrating a peak power density of 1.2 W/cm{sup 2} at 750 °C. This is radically different from the results of Ni-YSZ anodes for YSZ based cells, where high anode porosity (?55%) is necessary to achieve high performance. The observed increase in performance (or electrocatalytic activity for anode reactions) is attributed primarily to the unique microstructure of the anode fabricated without the use of pore forming precursors.

  11. Titania-graphene anode electrode paper | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Titania-graphene anode electrode paper Re-direct Destination: A method for forming a nanocomposite material, the nanocomposite material formed thereby, and a battery made using the...

  12. anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the duration between two consec- utive purge Stefanopoulou, Anna 92 Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry...

  13. Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  14. Optimization design of electrodes for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells via genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, J.; Xue, X.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous electrode is the critical component of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and provides a functional material backbone for multi-physicochemical processes. Model based electrode designs could significantly improve SOFC performance. This task is usually performed via parameter studies for simple case and assumed property distributions for graded electrodes. When nonlinearly coupled multiparameters of electrodes are considered, it could be very difficult for the model based parameter study method to effectively and systematically search the design space. In this research, the optimization approach with a genetic algorithm is demonstrated for this purpose. An anode-supported proton conducting SOFC integrated with a fuel supply system is utilized as a physical base for the model development and the optimization design. The optimization results are presented, which are difficult to obtain for parametric study method.

  15. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Ni/YSZ Anode Interactions with Impurities in Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coffey, Greg W.

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with nickel/zirconia anodes on synthetic coal gas in the presence of low levels of phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, hydrogen chloride, and antimony impurities were evaluated. The presence of phosphorus and arsenic led to the slow and irreversible SOFC degradation due to the formation of secondary phases with nickel, particularly close to the gas inlet. Phosphorus and antimony surface adsorption layers were identified as well. Hydrogen chloride and sulfur interactions with the nickel were limited to the surface adsorption only, whereas selenium exposure also led to the formation of nickel selenide for highly polarized cells.

  17. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  18. Nano-structured Materials as Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,Energy NRELNamrata Kolachalam About UsAnodes

  19. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiencies greater than 50 percent (higher heating value) have been projected for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems fueled with gasified coal, even with carbon sequestration. Multiple minor and trace components are present in coal that could affect fuel cell performance, however, which vary widely depending on coal origin and type. Minor and trace components have been classified into three groups: elements with low volatility that are likely to remain in the ash, elements that will partition between solid and gas phases, and highly volatile elements that are unlikely to condense. Those in the second group are of most concern. In the following, an overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic coal gas. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  20. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a reinforced rigid anode monolith and fuel and product of such method. The method includes providing a solution of organic aerogel or xerogel precursors including at least one of a phenolic resin, phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol(1,3-dihydroxybenzene), or catechol(1,2-dihydroxybenzene); at least one aldehyde compound selected from the group consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and furfuraldehyde; and an alkali carbonate or phosphoric acid catalyst; adding internal reinforcement materials comprising carbon to said precursor solution to form a precursor mixture; gelling said precursor mixture to form a composite gel; drying said composite gel; and pyrolyzing said composite gel to form a wettable aerogel/carbon composite or a wettable xerogel/carbon composite, wherein said composites comprise chars and said internal reinforcement materials, and wherein said composite is suitable for use as an anode with the chars being fuel capable of being combusted in a molten salt electrochemical fuel cell in the range from 500 C to 800 C to produce electrical energy. Additional methods and systems/compositions are also provided.

  1. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    on larger scales. Im- provement of the safety of lithium-ion batteries must occur if they are to be utilized in aqueous cells. However, the choice of a suitable anode material for an aqueous lithium-ion battery is moreSynthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion

  2. Carbon Supported Polyaniline as Anode Catalyst: Pathway to Platinum-Free Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabrodskii, A G; Malyshkin, V G; Sapurina, I Y

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of carbon supported polyaniline as anode catalyst in a fuel cell (FC) with direct formic acid electrooxidation is experimentally demonstrated. A prototype FC with such a platinum-free composite anode exhibited a maximum room-temperature specific power of about 5 mW/cm2

  3. A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas.brault@univ-orleans.fr Abstract Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest due to their high energy efficiency, low, a mathematical model of a co - flow planar anode - supported solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming

  4. Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode Jason B. Siegel,a, *,z, Maryland 20899, USA The operation and accumulation of liquid water within the cell structure of a polymer, accumulation of liquid water in the anode gas distribution channels was observed in most tested conditions

  5. Controlling the occurrence of power overshoot by adapting microbial fuel cells to high anode potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Controlling the occurrence of power overshoot by adapting microbial fuel cells to high anode 2012 Accepted 11 October 2012 Available online 6 November 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Power overshoot Polarization Anode potential Power density curves for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show power

  6. Hard templating synthesis of mesoporous and nanowire SnO2 lithium battery anode materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Hard templating synthesis of mesoporous and nanowire SnO2 lithium battery anode materials Hyesun materials for lithium batteries were prepared using KIT-6 and SBA-15 SiO2 templates as an anode material for lithium batteries due to its high capacity (>600 mAh gÀ1 ) compared with graphite

  7. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo, Seung Sae Hong as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance for higher specific energy lithium ion batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, next generation

  8. Graphenesponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel Xing Xie,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Graphene­sponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel cells Xing Xie,ab Guihua Yu February 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ee03583a A high-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was con- structed. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of exoelec- trogens, microorganisms that mediate

  9. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, D.O.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

  10. Analysis of Mass Transport of Methanol at the Anode of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Analysis of Mass Transport of Methanol at the Anode of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell C. Xu,a Y. L. He transport of methanol at the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC and show that the overall mass current density of an in-house-fabricated DMFC with different flow fields for various methanol

  11. Coulomb blockade effects in anodically oxidized titanium wires V. Schollmann,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    Coulomb blockade effects in anodically oxidized titanium wires V. Scho¨llmann,a) J. Johansson, K properties of narrow titanium Ti wires which are anodically oxidized through a resist mask. At temperatures- stricted to the temperature range where the charging energy is sufficiently large such that thermal

  12. Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microstructural Degradation of Ni- YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Karl Thydén Risø-PhD-32(EN 2008 #12;Author: Karl Thydén Title: Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Department: Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø-PhD-32(EN) March 2008 This thesis

  13. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    -performance advanced lithium-ion batteries Bin Liu1 , Xianfu Wang1 , Haitian Chen3 , Zhuoran Wang1 , Di Chen1 , Yi and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial

  14. ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE BY FOILS simpler, and low cost method to fabricate porous pattern of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) based on the aluminum foils laminate approach were carried out. During our experiments, it was found that the pores

  15. Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

  16. Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

  17. Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Ramsey, James A. (The Dalles, OR)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

  18. Corrosion of metals and alloys : anodic test for evaluation of intergranular corrosion susceptibility of heat-treatable aluminium alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of metals and alloys : anodic test for evaluation of intergranular corrosion susceptibility of heat-treatable aluminium alloys

  19. A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells Yvonne Krämer*[a] , Claudia Birkenmaier[b] , Julian Feinauer[a,c] , Andreas lithium-ion cells is presented. Graphite anode samples were extracted from pristine and differently aged lithium-ion cells. The samples present a variety of anodes with various states of lithium plating

  20. Anode-supported thin-film fuel cells operated in a single chamber configuration 2T-I-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    on the anode, producing a complex response in fuel cell power output. Under optimized gas compositions and flowAnode-supported thin-film fuel cells operated in a single chamber configuration 2T-I-12 Zongping of anode-supported, thin-film, single chamber fuel cells (SCFCs) have been investigated. Cells, in which Ni

  1. Fiscal year 1989 annual report for the Sensors Development Program: Inert Electrodes Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Koski, O.H.; Stice, N.D.; Morgan, L.G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Nikias, C.L. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sensors Development Program is conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Programs (OIP). The work is being performed in conjunction with the Inert Electrodes Program at PNL. The objectives of the Sensors Development Program are to (1) investigate and develop methods of process monitoring/control for operating electrolytic cells and (2) determine safe operating conditions for the inert anodes. The majority of work in FY 1989 involved (1) evaluating Digital Signal Analysis (DSA) methods to monitor inert anode operation and to determine alumina concentration in both PNL bench-scale laboratory cells and the Prototype Inert Anode Test and (2) developing the reference anode against which inert anode voltage signals could be measured by the DSA-based or other methods. 3 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

  3. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  4. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity production through the integration of coal gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) may potentially be an efficient technique for clean energy generation. However, multiple minor and trace components are naturally present in coals. These impurities in coal gas not only degrade the electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ anode used in SOFCs, but also severely endanger the structural integrity of the Ni-YSZ anode. In this paper, effect of the trace impurity of the coal syngases on the mechanical degradation of Ni-YSZ anode was studied by using an integrated experimental/modeling approach. Phosphorus is taken as an example of impurity. Anode-support button cell was used to experimentally explore the migration of phosphorous impurity in the Ni-YSZ anode of SOFCs. X-ray mapping was used to show elemental distributions and new phase formation. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual microstructure of the anode to illustrate the degradation mechanism. It was found that volume expansion induced by the Ni phase change produces high stress level such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode is possible under the operating conditions

  5. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

  6. Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

  7. A study of certain trace metals in sea water using anodic stripping voltammetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, William Francis, 1926-

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a thin film mercury composite graphite electrode has been evaluated and applied for the direct analysis of the metals, Zn,J Cu, Pb, and Cd in sea water. The electrode was observed to ...

  8. Investigation on Aluminum-Based Amorphous Metallic Glass as New Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    Aluminum based amorphous metallic glass powders were produced and tested as the anode materials for the lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Ground Al??Ni₁?La₁? was found to have a ...

  9. Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa , Naoki Shikazonoa Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has attracted more and more attentions in the last few decades

  10. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickelzirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly...

  11. Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosquera, Martín A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current, and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus ($\\phi^2$) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit fun...

  12. Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Alex and Aerospace Engineering Background Solid oxide fuel cells lose mechanical stability and functionality when

  13. Stability of Iridium Anode in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for Ironmaking: Influence of Slag Basicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hojong

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-neutral, electrochemical technique to decompose metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas upon use of an inert anode. What sets MOE apart from other technologies is ...

  14. P-230 / X. Yu P-230: Novel Electrical-Chemically Polished Stainless Steel Anode Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    time, top emission OLEDs with evaporated aluminum anode on glass (called Devices AA) were fabricated be widely used in ceiling lighting illuminator and automotive application in the future. High work

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Si Alloy Anode: Sudden Fade Challenge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 3M at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Si alloy anode: sudden fade challenge.

  16. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  17. Anode protection system for shutdown of solid oxide fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bob X; Grieves, Malcolm J; Kelly, Sean M

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An Anode Protection Systems for a SOFC system, having a Reductant Supply and safety subsystem, a SOFC anode protection subsystem, and a Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem. The Reductant Supply and safety subsystem includes means for generating a reducing gas or vapor to prevent re-oxidation of the Ni in the anode layer during the course of shut down of the SOFC stack. The underlying ammonia or hydrogen based material used to generate a reducing gas or vapor to prevent the re-oxidation of the Ni can be in either a solid or liquid stored inside a portable container. The SOFC anode protection subsystem provides an internal pressure of 0.2 to 10 kPa to prevent air from entering into the SOFC system. The Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem provides a catalyst converter configured to treat any residual reducing gas in the slip stream gas exiting from SOFC stack.

  18. Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Song, Xueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

    2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we report the micro-structural and chemical evolution of anode grain boundaries and triple phase boundary (TPB) junctions of Ni/YSZ anode supported solid oxide fuel cells. A NiO phase was found to develop along the Ni/YSZ interfaces extending to TPBs in the operated cells. The thickness of the NiO ribbon phase remains constant at ~ 5 nm in hydrogen for operating durations up to 540 h. When operating on synthesis gas, an increase in interphase thickness was observed from ~ 11 nm for 24 h of operation to ~ 51 nm for 550 h of operation. YSZ phases are observed to be stable in H{sub 2} over 540 h of operation. However, for the cell operated in syngas for 550 h, a 5–10 nm tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) interfacial layer was identified that originated from the Ni/YSZ interfaces. Yttrium species seem to segregate to the interfaces during operation, leading to the formation of t-YSZ in the Y-depleted regions.

  19. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and further confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.

  20. Designer carbons as potential anodes for lithium secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Thiyagarajan, P. [and others

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbons are the material of choice for lithium secondary battery anodes. Our objective is to use designed synthesis to produce a carbon with a predictable structure. The approach is to pyrolyze aromatic hydrocarbons within a pillared clay. Results from laser desorption mass spectrometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small angle neutron scattering suggest that we have prepared disordered, porous sheets of carbon, free of heteroatoms. One of the first demonstrations of template-directed carbon formation was reported by Tomita and co-workers, where polyacrylonitrile was carbonized at 700{degrees}C yielding thin films with relatively low surface areas. More recently, Schwarz has prepared composites using polyfurfuryl alcohol and pillared clays. In the study reported here, aromatic hydrocarbons and polymers which do not contain heteroatoms are being investigated. The alumina pillars in the clay should act as acid sites to promote condensation similar to the Scholl reaction. In addition, these precursors should readily undergo thermal polymerization, such as is observed in the carbonization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Utility-Scale Silicon Carbide Semiconductor: Monolithic Silicon Carbide Anode Switched Thyristor for Medium Voltage Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: GeneSiC is developing an advanced silicon-carbide (SiC)-based semiconductor called an anode-switched thyristor. This low-cost, compact SiC semiconductor conducts higher levels of electrical energy with better precision than traditional silicon semiconductors. This efficiency will enable a dramatic reduction in the size, weight, and volume of the power converters and electronic devices it's used in.GeneSiC is developing its SiC-based semiconductor for utility-scale power converters. Traditional silicon semiconductors can't process the high voltages that utility-scale power distribution requires, and they must be stacked in complicated circuits that require bulky insulation and cooling hardware. GeneSiC's semiconductors are well suited for high-power applications like large-scale renewable wind and solar energy installations.

  2. Final report on DSA methods for monitoring alumina in aluminum reduction cells with cermet anodes. Inert Electrodes Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sensors Development Program was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Processes. The work was performed in conjunction with the Inert Electrodes Program at PNL. The objective of the Sensors Development Program in FY 1990 through FY 1992 was to determine whether methods based on digital signal analysis (DSA) could be used to measure alumina concentration in aluminum reduction cells. Specifically, this work was performed to determine whether useful correlations exist between alumina concentration and various DSA-derived quantification parameters, calculated for current and voltage signals from laboratory and field aluminum reduction cells. If appropriate correlations could be found, then the quantification parameters might be used to monitor and, consequently, help control the alumina concentration in commercial reduction cells. The control of alumina concentration is especially important for cermet anodes, which have exhibited instability and excessive wear at alumina concentrations removed from saturation.

  3. Lithium diffusion at Si-C interfaces in silicon-graphene composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); McNutt, N. W. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Nicholson, D. M. [Computational Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Department of Physics, University of North Carolina, Asheville, North Carolina 28804 (United States); Rios, O. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Keffer, D. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of intercalated Li and its diffusion in Si-Graphene interfaces are investigated using density functional theory. Results suggest that the presence of interfaces alters the energetics of Li binding and diffusion significantly compared to bare Si or Graphene surfaces. Our results show that cavities along reconstructed Si surface provide diffusion paths for Li. Diffusion barriers calculated along these cavities are significantly lower than penetration barriers to bulk Si. Interaction with Si surface results in graphene defects, creating Li diffusion paths that are confined along the cavities but have still lower barrier than in bulk Si.

  4. Lithium diffusion at Si-C interfaces in Silicon-Graphene composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; McNutt, Nichiolas William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nicholson, Donald M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of intercalated Li and its diffusion in Si-Graphene interfaces are investigated using Density Functional Theory. Results suggest that the presence of interfaces alters the energetics of Li binding and diffusion significantly compared to bare Si or Graphene surfaces. Our results show that cavities along reconstructed Si surface provide diffusion paths for Li. Diffusion barriers calculated along these cavities are significantly lower than penetration barriers to bulk Si. Interaction with Si surface results in graphene defects, creating Li diffusion paths that are confined along the cavities but have still lower barrier than in bulk Si.

  5. Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xilin; Li, Xiaolin; Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Yuliang; Meduri, Praveen; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A cost effective and scalable method is developed to prepare a core-shell structured Si/B4C composite with graphite coating with high efficiency, exceptional rate performance and long-term stability. In this material, conductive B4C with high Mohs hardness serves not only as micro-/nano- millers in the ball-milling process to break down micron-sized Si but also as the conductive rigid skeleton to support the in-situ formed sub-10 nm Si particles to alleviate the volume expansion during charge/discharge. The Si/B4C composite is coated with a few graphitic layers to further improve the conductivity and stability of the composite. The Si/B4C/graphite (SBG) composite anode shows excellent cyclability with a specific capacity of ~822 mAh?g-1 (based on the weight of the entire electrode, including binder and conductive carbon) and ~94% capacity retention over 100 cycles at 0.8C rate. This new structure has the potential to provide adequate storage capacity and stability for practical applications, and good opportunity for large scale manufacturing using commercially available materials and technologies.

  6. Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wels, B.R.

    1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A.; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The entropy changes (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

  8. Method for providing uranium articles with a corrosion resistant anodized coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Washington, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium articles are provided with anodized oxide coatings in an aqueous solution of an electrolyte selected from the group consisting of potassium phosphate, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and a mixture of potassium tetraborate and boric acid. The uranium articles are anodized at a temperature greater than about 75.degree. C. with a current flow of less than about 0.036 A/cm.sup.2 of surface area while the pH of the solution is maintained in a range of about 2 to 11.5. The pH values of the aqueous solution and the low current density utilized during the electrolysis prevent excessive dissolution of the uranium and porosity in the film or watering. The relatively high temperature of the electrolyte bath inhibits hydration and the attendant deleterious pitting so as to enhance corrosion resistance of the anodized coating.

  9. Breathing oscillations in enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China) [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fu, R. K. Y. [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Breathing oscillations in the discharge of an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator are investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Different from the traditional breathing mode in a circular Hall plasma accelerator, the bulk plasma oscillation here is trigged by the potential barrier generated by the concentrated ion beam and substantial enough to compete with the anode voltage. The electric field near the anode is suppressed by the potential barrier thereby decreasing the electron density by {approx}36%. The discharge is restored to the normal level after the concentrated beam explodes and then it completes one cycle of electro-driven breathing oscillation. The breathing mode identified by the PIC simulation has a frequency range of {approx}156 kHz-{approx}250 kHz and does not vary monotonically with the discharge voltage.

  10. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung, E-mail: hkiee3@konkuk.ac.kr [School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hosik [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jaewook [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 300 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 300 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer ?-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719?mAh?g{sup ?1}/2032?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, much greater than the values of ?372?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?818?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, ?1117?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?1589?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, and ?744?mAh?g{sup ?1} for graphite, graphynes, and ?-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer ?-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  11. Triple stack glass-to-glass anodic bonding for optogalvanic spectroscopy cells with electrical feedthroughs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daschner, R.; Kübler, H.; Löw, R.; Pfau, T., E-mail: t.pfau@physik.uni-stuttgart.de [5. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Baur, H.; Frühauf, N. [Institut für Großflächige Mikroelektronik, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the use of an anodic bonding technique for building a vacuum tight vapor cell for the use of Rydberg spectroscopy of alkali atoms with thin film electrodes on the inside of the cell. The cell is fabricated by simultaneous triple stack glass-to-glass anodic bonding at 300?°C. This glue-free, low temperature sealing technique provides the opportunity to include thin film electric feedthroughs. The pressure broadening is only limited by the vapor pressure of rubidium and the lifetime is at least four months with operating temperatures up to 230?°C.

  12. Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Chun (Monroeville, PA)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

  13. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  14. Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial Suqin Ci a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial fuel cells Suqin Ci, Nanchang 330063, PR China b Department of Mechanical, University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer November 2011 Available online 20 November 2011 Keywords: Carbon nanotubes Nitrogen doping Anode Microbial

  15. Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge Scheduling in Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge, and (2) accumulation and transport of liquid water in the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) originally presented experimentally iden- tified parameter to match the rate of liquid water accumulation in the anode channel

  16. Tin Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries Using Natural Wood Fiber as a Mechanical Buffer and Electrolyte Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    Tin Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries Using Natural Wood Fiber as a Mechanical Buffer and Electrolyte Information ABSTRACT: Sodium (Na)-ion batteries offer an attractive option for low cost grid scale storage due to the abundance of Na. Tin (Sn) is touted as a high capacity anode for Na-ion batteries with a high theoretical

  17. Effects of Nitrogen and Water Accumulation in the Dead-Ended-Anode Operation of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    in the literature. Once properly calibrated, models can be used for fuel cell diagnostic and anode purge schedulingEffects of Nitrogen and Water Accumulation in the Dead-Ended-Anode Operation of PEM Fuel Cells S operation and associated hydrogen starvation on voltage measurements and fuel cell life are scarce

  18. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  19. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioelectrochemical Microbial fuel cell Biofuels Separators a b s t r a c t The combined use of brush anodes and glass was 75 ± 1 W/m3 . Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power into the anode chamber. The use of a cloth separator (J-cloth, JC) substan- tially improved power generation

  20. Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries. Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and...

  1. EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes and Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been

  2. Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  3. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries M. Marcinek, L. J.Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic

  4. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphiticKeywords: Sn/C; Lithium Batteries; Anode; Plasma; Microwave

  5. Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia-Xin Sun,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia (TOLED) with pure aluminum metal layer as the bottom anode has been fabricated. The brightness as high as that of the TOLED with additional high work function silver deposited on aluminum as the anode

  6. Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the laboratory scale Li-S cells. Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Project Objectives * Develop a unique electrolyte providing two liquid phases...

  7. -Supporting information-Improving Startup Performance with Carbon Mesh Anodes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA b State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090, China, with values between ca. +0.2 and 0 V (Fig. S1). When the reactors are operated with a set anode potential

  8. Improving the cycling stability of silicon nanowire anodes with conducting polymer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    capacity lithium-ion battery anode material, improvements in cycling stability are required. Here we show become electrically isolated during volume changes. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been identified as the most promising energy storage technology for portable electronics and electric vehicles.1

  9. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neudecker, Bernd J. (Knoxville, TN); Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  10. Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material­14 the use of metal and carbon composites,15­20 and the introduction of nano- sized metals,21­25 have been reported. Studies involving hollow lithium reactive metal, however, have yet to be reported, although

  11. Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO Anne in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS mechanism 1. Introduction In the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the largest overpotential

  12. MicroScale Modeling of an AnodeSupported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Micro­Scale Modeling of an Anode­Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell P. Chinda1 , W. Wechsatol A micro ­ scale model of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) involving the mass transfer together the available literatures. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Micro ­ Scale Model, Mass Transfer, Electrochemical

  13. Use of Carbon Mesh Anodes and the Effect of Different Pretreatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Use of Carbon Mesh Anodes and the Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Power Production, China, and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Penn State University, 231Q Sackett electrode spacing improves power generation. Carbon cloth and carbon paper materials typically used

  14. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split hydrocarbons, pollutant emissions reduction hal-01056363,version1-21Aug2014 #12;1. Introduction Solid oxide

  15. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes Nian Liu1 lithium-ion batteries and in more recent Li­O2 and Li­S batteries as a replacement for the dendrite to the level of commercial lithium-ion batteries (3.7 mAh cm22 ). Particle fracture and loss of electrical

  16. Porous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Porous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life Mingyuan Ge material in a lithium ion battery. Even after 250 cycles, the capacity remains stable above 2000, 1600 in energy storage has stimulated significant interest in lithium ion battery research. The lithium ion

  17. ORIGINAL Open Access Immobilization of anode-attached microbes in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL Open Access Immobilization of anode-attached microbes in a microbial fuel cell Rachel C for exoelectrogenic activity on electrodes in BESs. Keywords: microbial fuel cell, microbial electrolysis cell. A single layer of airbrushed coating did not reduce the voltage produced by a biofilm in a microbial fuel

  18. Impact of Initial Biofilm Growth on the Anode Impedance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    . Ramasamy,1 Zhiyong Ren,2 Matthew M. Mench,1 John M. Regan2 1 Fuel Cell Dynamics and Diagnostics LaboratoryARTICLE Impact of Initial Biofilm Growth on the Anode Impedance of Microbial Fuel Cells Ramaraja P: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the behavior of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) during

  19. A Prototype RICH Detector Using Multi-Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes and Hybrid Photo-Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Albrecht; G. Barber; J. H. Bibby; N. H. Brook; G. Doucas; A. Duane; S. Easo; L. Eklund; M. French; V. Gibson; T. Gys; A. W. Halley; N. Harnew; M. John; D. Piedigrossi; J. Rademacker; B. Simmons; N. Smale; P. Teixeira-Dias; L. Toudup; D. Websdale; G. Wilkinson; S. A. Wotton; .

    2000-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of a prototype Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector is studied using a charged particle beam. The detector performance, using CF4 and air as radiators, is described. Cherenkov angle precision and photoelectron yield using hybrid photo-diodes and multi-anode PMTs agree with simulations and are assessed in terms of the requirements of the LHCb experiment.

  20. Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries of the composite. The composite material has been studied for specific discharge capacity, coulombic efficiency for the Li-ion battery. Of various carbon materials that have been tried, graphite is favored because it (i

  1. Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Jixin Chen,*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations Jixin Chen,*,z Jason B. Siegel on the electrode carbon corrosion of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A reduced order isothermal model. This model explains, and can be used to quantify, the carbon corrosion behavior dur- ing DEA operation

  2. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Cheng; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Zheng, Jianming; Bennett, Wendy D.; Lu, Dongping; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ji, Liwen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Xiaolin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently attracted extensive attention due to the high theoretical energy density and potential low cost. Even so, significant challenges prevent widespread adoption, including continuous dissolution and consumption of active sulfur during cycling. Here we present a fundamentally new design using electrically connected graphite and lithium metal as a hybrid anode to control undesirable surface reactions on the anode. The lithiated graphite placed in front of the lithium metal functions as an artificial self-regulated solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer to actively control the electrochemical reaction while minimizing the deleterious side reactions on the surface and bulk lithium metal. Continuous corrosion and contamination of lithium anode by dissolved polysulfides is largely mitigated. Excellent electrochemical performance has been observed. Li-S cell incorporating the hybrid design retain a capacity of more than 800 mAh g-1 for 400 cycles, corresponding to only 11% fade and a Coulombic efficiency above 99%. This simple hybrid concept may also provide new lessons for protecting metal anodes in other energy storage devices.

  3. Band gap structure modification of amorphous anodic Al oxide film by Ti-alloying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canulescu, S., E-mail: stec@fotonik.dtu.dk; Schou, J. [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Rechendorff, K.; Pleth Nielsen, L. [Danish Technological Institute, Kongsvang Alle 29, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Borca, C. N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Bordo, K.; Ambat, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The band structure of pure and Ti-alloyed anodic aluminum oxide has been examined as a function of Ti concentration varying from 2 to 20 at.?%. The band gap energy of Ti-alloyed anodic Al oxide decreases with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that Ti atoms are not located in a TiO{sub 2} unit in the oxide layer, but rather in a mixed Ti-Al oxide layer. The optical band gap energy of the anodic oxide layers was determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the energy range from 4.1 to 9.2?eV (300–135?nm). The results indicate that amorphous anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a direct band gap of 7.3?eV, which is about ?1.4?eV lower than its crystalline counterpart (single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Upon Ti-alloying, extra bands appear within the band gap of amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mainly caused by Ti 3d orbitals localized at the Ti site.

  4. Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell Jeff Lillibridge Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Advisor: Mikko Haataja #12;What is a solid oxide fuel cell microstructuralcoarsening processes to electrochemical performancein solid oxide fuel cells: An integrated modeling approach

  5. Phase transformations and microstructural design of lithiated metal anodes for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limthongkul, Pimpa, 1975-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been great recent interest in lithium storage at the anode of Li-ion rechargeable battery by alloying with metals such as Al, Sn, and Sb, or metalloids such as Si, as an alternative to the intercalation of graphite. ...

  6. Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Taeseup Song, Jianliang Xia ABSTRACT Silicon is a promising candidate for electrodes in lithium ion batteries due to its large reversible capacity and long-term cycle stability. KEYWORDS Lithium ion battery, silicon, nanotubes

  7. Journal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 117124 Pressure drop behavior in the anode flow field of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -house fabricated direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The anode flow field consisted of a single serpentine flow PEM fuel cells, a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), using a solid polymer membrane for portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and other mobile and stationery ap- plications. Driven

  8. GaN Based Nanomaterials Fabrication with Anodic Aluminium Oxide by MOCVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yadong

    A highly self-ordered hexagonal array of cylindrical pores has been fabricated by anodizing a thin film of Al on substrate and subsequent growth of GaN and InGaN in these nanoholes has been performed. This AAO template-based ...

  9. Nanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    density.1 The graphite generally used in lithium rechargeable batteries has a capacity of 372 mNanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son School of Materials rechargeable batteries. The electrochemical properties of the nanoparticle iron phosphates were characterized

  10. Edge-Enriched Graphitic Anodes by KOH Activation for Higher Rate Capability Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UG-36 Edge-Enriched Graphitic Anodes by KOH Activation for Higher Rate Capability Lithium Ion Batteries D. Zakhidov,1,2 R. Sugamata,3 T. Yasue,3 T. Hayashi,3 Y. A. Kim,3 and M. Endo4 1 for Exotic Nanocarbons (JST), Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan\\ Natural graphite is the most commercially

  11. Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries Mijung Graphite can store 372 mAh/g corresponding to LiC6, and tin can store 970 mAh/g corresponding to Li4.4Sn close to graphite. The reason for failure is believed to be the inhomogeneous volume expansion

  12. Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Coating Hardware System Development 2. Gel Polymer Electrolyte Coating Process Optimization 3. Large 2.5 Ah Format Cell Design, Optimization and Cell Manufacturing 5 6...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Silicon-based High Capacity Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the...

  14. Developing A New High Capacity Anode With Long Cycle Life | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E LGeothermalEnergy A New High Capacity

  15. Developing High Capacity, Long Life, and High Power Anodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E LGeothermalEnergy A NewLife

  16. Developing a new high capacity anode with long life | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E LGeothermalEnergy Aa new high

  17. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I

  18. Development of Si-based High Capacity Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries with WideNOxSi-based High Capacity

  19. Electrodes for energy applications Development of improved high-performance electrodes is critically important to the efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    , longer and safer operation. Further developments of coking- and contaminant- tolerant anodes for solid of a wide variety of fuels, including hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels, coal gas, and bio-derived fuels

  20. Anode microbial communities produced by changing from microbial fuel cell to microbial electrolysis cell operation using two different wastewaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    libraries, anode communities in reactors fed acetic acid decreased in species richness and diversity), as well as water desalination (Cao et al., 2009). The production of hydrogen from non-fermentable sub

  1. Chemisorption and anodic oxidation of aromatic molecules on Pd electrode surfaces: studies by UHV-EC-STM 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiaole

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemisorption and anodic oxidation of hydroquinone (H2Q) and benzoquinone (BQ) at palladium electrode surfaces was studied by a combination of electrochemistry (EC), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), ...

  2. Ni coarsening in the three-phase solid oxide fuel cell anode - a phase-field simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hsun-Yi; Cronin, J Scott; Wilson, James R; Barnett, Scott A; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni coarsening in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell anodes is considered a major reason for anode degradation. We present a predictive, quantative modeling framework based on the phase-field approach to systematically examine coarsening kinetics in such anodes. The initial structures for simulations are experimentally acquired functional layers of anodes. Sample size effects and error analysis of contact angles are examined. Three phase boundary (TPB) lengths and Ni surface areas are quantatively identified on the basis of the active, dead-end, and isolated phase clusters throughout coarsening. Tortuosity evolution of the pores is also investigated. We find that phase clusters with larger characteristic length evolve slower than those with smaller length scales. As a result, coarsening has small positive effects on transport, and impacts less on the active Ni surface area than the total counter part. TPBs, however, are found to be sensitive to local morphological features and are only i...

  3. Chemisorption and anodic oxidation of aromatic molecules on Pd electrode surfaces: studies by UHV-EC-STM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiaole

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemisorption and anodic oxidation of hydroquinone (H2Q) and benzoquinone (BQ) at palladium electrode surfaces was studied by a combination of electrochemistry (EC), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), high-resolution electron...

  4. Three-phase model for the reversible lithiation/delithiation of SnO anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a microscopic model to explain the reversible lithiation/delithiation of tin-oxide anodes in lithium-ion batteries. When the irreversible regime ends, the anode grains consist of layers of Li-oxide separated by Sn bilayers. During the following reversible lithiation, the Li-oxide undergoes two phase transformations that give rise to a Li-enrichment of the oxide and the formation of a SnLi composite. The anode grain structure stays layered and ordered with an effective theoretical reversible capacity of 4.5 Li per Sn atom. The predicted anode volume expansion and voltage profile agree well with experiments, contrary to existing models.

  5. Synthesis and Morphological, Electrochemical Characterization of Sn92Co8 Nanoalloys for Anode Materials in Li Secondary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Materials in Li Secondary Batteries Hyunjung Kim and Jaephil Cho*,z Department of Applied Chemistry, Kumoh the capacity limits of graphite materials, Sn and Si anode materials have been investigated.1-3 However

  6. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  7. High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Anqiang; Wang, Yaping; Xu, Wu; Nie, Zhiwei; Liang, Shuquan; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Chong M.; Cao, Guozhong; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, two-dimensional, Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs are prepared using a hydrothermal method without surfactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed to characterize the structural properties. As revealed by the SEM and TEM experiments, the thickness of our as-fabricated Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs is about 20 nm, and the pore diameters range from several nanometers to 30 nm. As an anode for lithium-ion batteries, porous Co3O4 nanodiscs exhibit an average discharge voltage of ~1 V (Vs. Li/Li+) and a high specific charge capacity of 1161 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. They also demonstrate excellent rate performance and high Coloumbic efficiency at various rates. These results indicate that porous Co3O4 nanodiscs are good candidates as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  9. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Mauro, A. De Girolamo; Ricciardi, R.; Montanino, M.; Morvillo, P.; Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Portici Research Centre, p.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 ?m thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell.

  10. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  11. Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Volinsky, A. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa Florida 33620 (United States)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

  12. Final Report: Novel ALD-Coated Nanoparticle Anodes for Enhanced Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groner, Markus

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Phase I effort is described in detail in the Phase I report given below. The key accomplishments of the Phase I project were (1) the demonstration of high stability LiCoO2 cathodes using ALD-coated LiCoO2 particles, as well as on ALD-coated LiCoO2 electrodes and (2) the demonstration of high stability of graphite anodes using ALD-coated graphite electrodes.

  13. Composite solid oxide fuel cell anode based on ceria and strontium titanate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Richland, WA)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An anode and method of making the same wherein the anode consists of two separate phases, one consisting of a doped strontium titanate phase and one consisting of a doped cerium oxide phase. The strontium titanate phase consists of Sr.sub.1-xM.sub.xTiO.sub.3-.delta., where M is either yttrium (Y), scandium (Sc), or lanthanum (La), where "x" may vary typically from about 0.01 to about 0.5, and where .delta. is indicative of some degree of oxygen non-stoichiometry. A small quantity of cerium may also substitute for titanium in the strontium titanate lattice. The cerium oxide consists of N.sub.yCe.sub.1-yO.sub.2-.delta., where N is either niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), antimony (Sb) or tantalum (Ta) and where "y" may vary typically from about 0.001 to about 0.1 and wherein the ratio of Ti in said first phase to the sum of Ce and N in the second phase is between about 0.2 to about 0.75. Small quantities of strontium, yttrium, and/or lanthanum may additionally substitute into the cerium oxide lattice. The combination of these two phases results in better performance than either phase used separately as an anode for solid oxide fuel cell or other electrochemical device.

  14. Passivation and anodic oxidation of duplex TiN coating on stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenja, S.; Pan, J.; Wallinder, I.O.; Leygraf, C.; Kulu, P.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The passivation and anodic oxidation of duplex TiN coatings deposited by arc ion plating onto prenitrided AISI 304 stainless steel have been studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Mott-Schottky measurements in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.05 M HCl. The chemical composition of the oxidized surface film atop TiN was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Up to 1.2 V/SHE the TiN coating exhibits passive behavior, which is attributed to the formation of a TiO{sub 2}-like film of nanometer thickness which grows linearly with anodic potential at a rate of 2.4 nm/V. Above 1.2 V/SHE enhanced anodic oxidation of TiN is observed at a rate of 17.7 nm/V, and the overall corrosion performance is governed both by the oxidized TiN coating and by a metallic Ti interlayer atop the nitrided stainless steel substrate. At all potentials the TiO{sub 2} film is characterized by relatively high donor densities and is, furthermore, terminated by a hydroxylated surface.

  15. Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A Ca- and Co-doped yttrium chromite (YCCC) - samaria-doped ceria (SDC) composite was studied in relation to a potential use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. Tests performed using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cells revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of the YCCC-SDC anode towards hydrogen oxidation at 800 C was comparable to that of the Ni-YSZ anode. In addition, the YCCC-SDC anode exhibited superior sulfur tolerant characteristics showing less than 10% increase in a polarization resistance, fully reversible, upon exposure to 20 ppm H2S at 800 C. No performance degradation was observed during multiple reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles when the anode was intentionally exposed to the air environment followed by the reduction in hydrogen. The redox tolerance of the YCCC-SDC anode was attributed to the dimensional and chemical stability of the YCCC exhibiting minimal isothermal chemical expansion upon redox cycling.

  16. Top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode with Au doped ultrathin n-Si film anode and bottom Al mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. Z.; Xu, W. J.; Ran, G. Z. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin, G. G. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a highly efficient top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode (PhOLED) with an ultrathin polycrystalline n-Si:Au film anode and a bottom Al mirror. This anode is formed by magnetron sputtering followed by Ni induced crystallization and then Au diffusion. By optimizing the thickness of the n-Si:Au film anode, the Au diffusion temperature, and the other parameters of the PhOLED, the highest current and power efficiencies of the n-Si:Au film anode PhOLED reached 85{+-}9 cd/A and 80{+-}8 lm/W, respectively, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 21{+-}2% and a power conversion efficiency of 15{+-}2%, respectively, which are about 60% and 110% higher than those of the indium tin oxide anode counterpart and 70% and 50% higher than those of the bulk n{sup +}-Si:Au anode counterpart, respectively.

  17. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  18. Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for increased sulfur loading Cathode Anode Investigatingoptimizing Li and Si composite anodes Exploring polymer electrolytes Electrolyte Determining new...

  19. Structural, chemical, and electrochemical characteristics of LaSr2Fe2CrO9--based solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    -of-the-art solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode is Ni-8-mole% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which performs very Available online 5 March 2012 Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell Perovskite Oxide anode Redox Sulfur tolerance Solid oxide fuel cells with LaSr2Fe2CrO9-­Gd0.1Ce0.9O2- composite anodes were tested in H2, H2S

  20. Sharp transition between two regimes of operation of dc discharge with two anodes and thermionic emission from cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mustafaev, A. S.; Grabovskiy, A. [National Mineral Resources University “Gorniy,” St. Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation)] [National Mineral Resources University “Gorniy,” St. Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States) [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a dc discharge plasma with two anodes and thermionic emission from cathode, the two anodes are used for plasma control. The main anode is placed between the cathode and the other auxiliary anode has a circular opening for passing electron current from the cathode to the second anode. It is experimentally demonstrated that a plasma may exhibit a sudden transition between two quasi-stable conditions as one increases the cathode-electron current collected by the auxiliary anode through an aperture, i.e., hole, in the main anode. In one regime, a bright glowing “ball-shaped double layer” appears on the plasma side having a potential drop of 10–15?eV and concomitant ionization in the neighboring region attached to the opening. The second regime is characterized by a uniform potential profile in plasma and an absence of the ball-shaped double layer. The transition between these regimes is accompanied by a significant change in plasma properties, such as the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Controlling the EEDF is a valuable capability in technological applications. Increasing the gas pressure leads to the elimination of the first regime for sufficiently high gas pressure, the threshold being a few Torr. The disappearance of a regime transition can be explained by invoking an EEDF transition, from being nonlocal at low pressure to becoming local at high pressure. Local EEDF is determined by local values of electric field. Nonlocal EEDF is determined by electric field values elsewhere, and the electron can travel without energy loss over a path much longer than the discharge dimension.

  1. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with more »ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.« less

  2. Surface treated natural graphite as anode material for high-power Li-ion battery applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.; Barsukov, I. V.; Henry, F.; Doniger, J.; Chemical Engineering; Superior Graphite Co.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High power application of Li-ion battery in hybrid electrical vehicles requires low cost and safe cell materials. Among the various carbon anode materials used in lithium ion batteries, natural graphite shows the most promise with advantages in performance and cost. However, natural graphite is not compatible with propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes, which have a lower melting point and improved safety characteristics. The problem with it is that the molecules of propylene carbonate intercalate with Li+ into graphite, and that frequently leads to the exfoliation of the graphite matrix.

  3. Electrocatalytic Materials and Techniques for the Anodic Oxidation of Various Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Everett Treimer

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this thesis was first to characterize and improve the applicability of Fe(III) and Bi(V) doped PbO{sub 2} film electrodes for use in anodic O-transfer reactions of toxic and waste organic compounds, e.g. phenol, aniline, benzene, and naphthalene. Further, they investigated the use of alternative solution/electrode interfacial excitation techniques to enhance the performance of these electrodes for remediation and electrosynthetic applications. Finally, they have attempted to identify a less toxic metal oxide film that may hold promise for future studies in the electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis of O-transfer reactions using metal oxide film electrodes.

  4. A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

    2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

  5. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  6. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Benton; Abhinav Bhandari

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPGâ??s program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPGâ??s high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with the standard diffuser sheets used by OLED manufacturers. For an internal extraction layer (IEL), PPG tested two concepts combining nanoparticles either in a solgel coating inserted between the anode and OLED or anode and glass interface, or incorporated into the internal surface of the glass. Efficacy enhancements of 1.31x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for the IEL by itself and factors of 1.73x were attained for an IEL in combination of thick acrylic block as an EEL. Recent offline measurements indicate that, with further optimization, factors over 2.0x could be achieved through an IEL alone.

  7. Intermetallic Anodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search for inexpensive intermetallic electrode materials (powder laminates rather than thin films) that provide 1) an electrochemical potential several hundred mV above Li 0 ,...

  8. Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6) Demonstration of novel processes for composite cathode and cermet anode materials. Track 2--ORNL's development work focused solely on making anode-supported planar cells by tape casting of a porous anode substrate, screen printing of a YSZ electrolyte film, co-sintering of the bi-layer element, and screen-printing of an opposite cathode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale-up of anode tape casting and lamination processes; (2) Development of proprietary ink vehicle for screen-printing processes; (3) Development of screen-printing process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer anode-supported elements; and (5) Development of cathode screen-printing process. Track 3--UMR's process development work involved fabrication of a micro-porous cathode substrate, deposition of a nano-porous interlayer film, deposition of nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films from polymeric precursor solutions, and deposition of an anode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale up of tape casting and sintering methods for cathode substrates; (2) Deposition of nano-porous ceria interlayer films on cathode substrates; (3) Successful deposition of dense YSZ films on porous cathode substrates; and (4) Identification of several anode material options.

  9. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ye., S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, J. X. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with <0.1 mg cm-2 of platinum group metals to perform similarly without and with 50 ppm CO in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Now, with the amount of CO impurities reduced to 10 ppm in reformates, a <1% performance loss with a 1.5% air-bleed has become a reasonable target. The CO-tolerant catalyst also needs to be dissolution resistant up to 0.93 V, viz., the potential experienced at the anode during startup and shutdown of the fuel cells. We recently demonstrated our ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.

  10. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL] [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoon, Steve [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Denlinger, Matthew [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Wood III, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  11. Modeling Electrochemical Decomposition of Fluoroethylene Carbonate on Silicon Anode Surfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Leung; Susan B. Rempe; Michael E. Foster; Yuguang Ma; Julibeth M. Martinez del la Hoz; Na Sai; Perla B. Balbuena

    2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) shows promise as an electrolyte additive for improving passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films on silicon anodes used in lithium ion batteries (LIB). We apply density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), and quantum chemistry techniques to examine excess-electron-induced FEC molecular decomposition mechanisms that lead to FEC-modified SEI. We consider one- and two-electron reactions using cluster models and explicit interfaces between liquid electrolyte and model Li(x)Si(y) surfaces, respectively. FEC is found to exhibit more varied reaction pathways than unsubstituted ethylene carbonate. The initial bond-breaking events and products of one- and two-electron reactions are qualitatively similar, with a fluoride ion detached in both cases. However, most one-electron products are charge-neutral, not anionic, and may not coalesce to form effective Li+-conducting SEI unless they are further reduced or take part in other reactions. The implications of these reactions to silicon-anode based LIB are discussed.

  12. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jigang; Hu, Yongfeng; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Chong M.; Zuin, Lucia

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical bonding nature and its evolution upon electrochemical cycling in amorphous Si coated-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) anode has been investigated using comprehensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) at Si L- and K-edges along with C and O K-edges. The Si nanolayer on CNT is found to be anchored to CNT via Si-O-C bonding. This bond weakens upon electrochemical cycling accompanied with generation of Li2CO3 on the surface of Si-CNT. Those findings are crucial in designing further improved Si-C composite anode for lithium ion battery.

  13. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  14. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell technology. Technical progress report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Component development concentrated on two objectives: development of a creep resistance ribbed anode and development of an internal reforming catalyst for steam-methane reforming in the MCFC anode. Satisfactory anode creep strength has been achieved with Ni + 16 wt % LiAlO composite anodes. Efforts concentrated on fabrication methods to directly produce a ribbed anode from the Ni + LiAlO/sub 2/ powder mixture. Encouraging results were obtained by mold compression in a machined graphite mold followed by in-mold sintering which was promoted by the use of a few percent LiKCO/sub 3/ as a sintering agent. Internal reforming catalyst development focused on preparation techniques for high surface area Ni catalyst supported on ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. The approach which is being most actively pursued involves first pelletizing the LiAlO/sub 2/ into suitable granule size followed by multiple impregnation in nickel salt solution and heat treatment. Several impregnations are necessary to obtain a nominal Ni loading of 15 wt %. Out-of-cell catalyst testing has been initiated in planar integral reactors as well as differential tube reactors. The LiAlO/sub 2/ supported catalyst granules have demonstrated high activity for the methane-steam reforming reaction and kinetic parameters compare favorably with those for commercially available reforming catalysts. Results are detailed. (WHK)

  15. Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

    2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 10 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5 % power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1500 hours depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni5Sb2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer.

  16. Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigation and Design of H2S Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerardine G. Botte; Damilola Daramola; Madhivanan Muthuvel

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high temperature fuel cell and it normally operates in the range of 850 to 1000 C. Coal syngas has been considered for use in SOFC systems to produce electric power, due to its high temperature and high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. However, coal syngas also has contaminants like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Among these contaminants, H{sub 2}S is detrimental to electrode material in SOFC. Commonly used anode material in SOFC system is nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ). The presence of H{sub 2}S in the hydrogen stream will damage the Ni anode and hinder the performance of SOFC. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of anode (Ni-YSZ) deterioration by H{sub 2}S. The study used computation methods such as quantum chemistry calculations and molecular dynamics to predict the model for anode destruction by H{sub 2}S. This was done using binding energies to predict the thermodynamics and Raman spectroscopy to predict molecular vibrations and surface interactions. On the experimental side, a test stand has been built with the ability to analyze button cells at high temperature under syngas conditions.

  17. Vertically Grown Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Anode and Nickel Silicide Integrated High Performance Microsized (1.25 L) Microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microsized (1.25 L) Microbial Fuel Cell Justine E. Mink,,§ Jhonathan P. Rojas,,§ Bruce E. Logan, and Muhammad, Pennsylvania 16802, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs to more efficiently shuttle electrons from the anode out of the device. KEYWORDS: Microbial fuel cell

  18. Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable nanoparticle clusters have quite reversible lithium-ion insertion and extraction, showing the first discharge lithium reactions, i MPn LixMPn simple Li-ion interca- lation and ii MPn M LixM + LixP alloying followed

  19. Rate Characteristics of Anatase TiO2 Nanotubes and Nanorods for Lithium Battery Anode Materials at Room

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    ratio.11 Repulsive Coulombic interactions be- tween lithium ions are expected to be responsibleRate Characteristics of Anatase TiO2 Nanotubes and Nanorods for Lithium Battery Anode Materials for lithium content to x = 0.7. Li surface storage on nanometer-sized particles can be energetically more

  20. Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Hailiang Wang,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries Hailiang Wang hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn3O4 nanoparticles

  1. Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu a , S.Y. Shen a , Y.L. He b , T.S. Zhao a cells Direct methanol fuel cells Neat methanol Water concentration a b s t r a c t This paper reports

  2. Electrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Al1-xCux Alloys as Anode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    controlling these two properties is the mag- nitude of interaction between the active and the inactiveElectrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Al1-xCux Alloys as Anode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries C. Y. Wang,a, * Y. S. Meng,b, * G. Ceder,c, *,z and Y. Lia,d,z a Advanced Materials

  3. In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental Q. Jeangros1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    , Denmark Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of a largeIn situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental TEM Q phase can occur during SOFC stack operation due to air leakage through the sealing, leakage of fuel

  4. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalies, William D.

    of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel

  5. New DMFC Anode Structure Consisting of Platinum Nanowires Deposited into a Nafion Z. X. Liang and T. S. Zhao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    fuel cell (DMFC) has recently attracted much interest as it has been identified as a promising designs of the electrode for fuel cells. New Design of the Anode Structure As discussed above, the balance. It has been reported that the Nafion has an optimal content in the ink, which ranges generally from 10

  6. Uniaxial Freezing, Freeze-Drying, and Anodization for Aligned Pore Structure in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Marc A.

    O2) semiconductor surface layer of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs); however, many of them are used of the techniques alone. I. Introduction DYE-SENSITIZED solar cells (DSSCs) are comprised of three major and twoUniaxial Freezing, Freeze-Drying, and Anodization for Aligned Pore Structure in Dye-Sensitized

  7. Short communication Effect of electrolyte pH on the rate of the anodic and cathodic reactions in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the open-circuit potential (OCP) revealed that the anodic microbial process preferred a neutral p, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed to investigate the effect of electrolyte pH on the performance of an air-cathode MFC. EIS has been used to measure the internal resistance of MFCs [4

  8. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Surface Heterogeneity in Graphite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Passive Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Surface Heterogeneity in Graphite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Passive Layer Formation Ravi N. Methekar,a,* Paul W. C. Northrop,a Kejia Chen,b Richard D. Braatz fade, and cycle life of Li-ion secondary batteries. In this paper, Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation

  9. Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China ABSTRACT Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO that MTDATA matches better with AZO than CuPc, which served as hole injection layer. Keywords: Aluminum doped

  10. Process development for a field emission structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legg, James Derek

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the thickness of the deposited insulator and metal anode layers. A lift-off technique is then employed to remove the photoresist mask. An undercut etch of the insulator layer and subsequent deposition of a low work function cermet material onto the...'cathode completes the fabrication. This process technology will allow for the future development of device applications such as flat panel displays, high definition television, and vacuum integrated circuits. To the memory of my grandmother, Cleo Barkley...

  11. Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basoli, Francesco [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy] [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; Senesi, Roberto [ORNL] [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Licoccia, Silvia [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"] [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

  12. Mesoporous carbon -Cr2O3 composite as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous carbon-Cr2O3 (M-C-Cr2O3) composite was prepared by co-assembly of in-situ formed phenolic resin, chromium precursor, and Pluronic block copolymer under acidic conditions, followed by carbonization at 750oC under Argon. The TEM results confirmed that the Cr2O3 nanoparticles, ranging from 10 to 20 nm, were well dispersed in the matrix of mesoporous carbon. The composite exhibited an initial reversible capacity of 710 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability, which is mainly due to the synergic effects of carbons within the composites, i.e. confining the crystal growth of Cr2O3 during the high temperature treatment step and buffering the volume change of Cr2O3 during the cycling step. This composite material is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  13. Production of energetic neutral particles and low energy electrons from four anode rods ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostafa, O. A.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority P.N.13759, Inchas, Cairo (Egypt)] [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority P.N.13759, Inchas, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The factors affecting the energetic neutral current, the low energy electron current, and the positive ion current emerging from a four-anode-rods ion source have been studied using argon gas. The neutral and electron current were measured using a simple, new technique. It was found that the energetic neutral current and the electron current depend on the positive ion current and the gas pressure. The ratio of the neutral and electron current to the positive ion current increases by increasing the gas pressure. Also it was found that at a pressure equal to 9 × 10{sup ?4} mmHg, the ratio of the neutral to the positive ion current reaches 2.34 while the ratio of the electron current to the positive ion current reaches 1.7.

  14. Modeling Electrochemical Decomposition of Fluoroethylene Carbonate on Silicon Anode Surfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Kevin; Foster, Michael E; Ma, Yuguang; del la Hoz, Julibeth M Martinez; Sai, Na; Balbuena, Perla B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) shows promise as an electrolyte additive for improving passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films on silicon anodes used in lithium ion batteries (LIB). We apply density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), and quantum chemistry techniques to examine excess-electron-induced FEC molecular decomposition mechanisms that lead to FEC-modified SEI. We consider one- and two-electron reactions using cluster models and explicit interfaces between liquid electrolyte and model Li(x)Si(y) surfaces, respectively. FEC is found to exhibit more varied reaction pathways than unsubstituted ethylene carbonate. The initial bond-breaking events and products of one- and two-electron reactions are qualitatively similar, with a fluoride ion detached in both cases. However, most one-electron products are charge-neutral, not anionic, and may not coalesce to form effective Li+-conducting SEI unless they are further reduced or take part in other reactions. The implication...

  15. Structural transformation of macroporous silicon anodes as a result of cyclic lithiation processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, G. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kulova, T. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Tolmachev, V. A., E-mail: tva@mail.ioffe.ru; Chernienko, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Baranov, M. A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics (Russian Federation)] [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics (Russian Federation); Pavlov, S. I.; Astrova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Skundin, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes based on a regular lattice of macroporous silicon with different periods, sizes, and shapes of pore cross sections are studied. The discharge capacity and its degradation during cycling (embedding and extraction of lithium) are examined. Scanning electron microscopy is used to analyze changes in the electrode structure upon the lithiation/delithiation of Si and to evaluate the elemental composition of the porous material. An ex situ morphological analysis of the electrodes demonstrates that, on the whole, the porous structure is preserved upon cycling and the thickness of silicon walls increases. The degree of Si-wall destruction depends on their initial thickness. Estimates show that the electrolyte reduction process mainly occurs according to the two-electron mechanism, with inorganic salts of lithium formed as a result.

  16. Six Thousand Electrochemical Cycles of Double-Walled Silicon Nanotube Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H

    2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite remarkable progress, lithium ion batteries still need higher energy density and better cycle life for consumer electronics, electric drive vehicles and large-scale renewable energy storage applications. Silicon has recently been explored as a promising anode material for high energy batteries; however, attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to materials pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase. Here, we report double-walled silicon nanotube electrodes that can cycle over 6000 times while retaining more than 85% of the initial capacity. This excellent performance is due to the unique double-walled structure in which the outer silicon oxide wall confines the inner silicon wall to expand only inward during lithiation, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. This structural concept is general and could be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes.

  17. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Anode-supported cells comprising Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) YSZ electrolyte, and composite cathodes containing a mixture of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub (3-{delta})} (LSM) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub (3-{lambda})} (LSGM) were fabricated. The relative proportions of LSGM and LSM were varied between 30 wt.% LSGM + 70 wt.% LSM and 70 wt.% LSGM + 30 wt.% LSM, while the firing temperature was varied between 1000 and 1200 C. The cathode interlayer composition had a profound effect on cathode performance at 800 C with overpotentials ranging between 60 and 425 mV at 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} and exhibiting a minimum for 50 wt.% LSGM + 50 wt.% LSM. The cathodic overpotential decreased with increasing firing temperature of the composite interlayer in the range 1000 {le} T {le} 1150 C, and then increased dramatically for the interlayer fired at 1200 C. The cell with the optimized cathode interlayer of 50 wt.% LSM + 50 wt.% LSGM fired at 1150 C exhibited an area specific cell resistance of 0.18 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and a maximum power density of 1.4 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Chemical analysis revealed that LSGM reacts with YSZ above 1000 C to form the pyrochlore phase, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The formation of the pyrochlore phase at the interface between the LSGM/LSM composite cathode and the YSZ electrolyte limits the firing time and temperature of the cathode interlayer.

  18. Enhanced electrochromic property of nickel hydroxide thin films prepared by anodic deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chigane, Masaya; Ishikawa, Masami (Osaka Municipal Technical Research Inst. (Japan). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel hydroxide and nickel oxide thin films have received much attention as electrochromic (EC) materials, particularly as the materials for a complementary counterlayer against an EC tungsten oxide layer in smart window systems. Nickel hydroxide thin films were prepared onto transparent conductive tin oxide (NESA) substrates by potentiostatic electrolysis of a nickel amine complex solution at various potentials (0.6 to 1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Nickel hydroxide thin film (F0.7) obtained at relatively lower anodic potential (0.7 V) showed enhanced electrochromism between colorless and dark brown in a sodium borate buffer solution at pH 12; the absorption spectrum in the colored (oxidized) state was broadened in the visible and near-infrared region compared with the nickel hydroxide films prepared at the higher anodic potential (1.1 V). characterization of the films revealed that crystal structure of F0.7 is assigned to [alpha]-Ni(OH)[sub 2], and that its electrochromism is based on the reversible oxidation to hexagonal [gamma][sub 2]-2NiO[sub 2] [center dot] NiOOH structure. Composite nickel hydroxide film, i.e., by the electrolytic deposition at 1.1 V followed by that at 0.7 V, showed electrochromic property similar to F0.7 and its durability in repeated redox cycles were much improved in comparison with that of F0.7. Electrochromic properties in switching performance of this composite nickel hydroxide film were investigated.

  19. Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz, Sorina Udroiu, Jean-Paul Viricelle, Christophe Pijolat, Michle Pijolat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz Single chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SCFC) are an alternative concept to traditional SOFC

  20. Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode E. Bogdanov, V. I. Demidov, I. D. Kaganovich, M. E. Koepke, and A. A. Kudryavtsev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaganovich, Igor

    -authors of this paper, to advance nonlocal plasma research. Explaining and utilizing cathode fall, negative glow, anode in a high-voltage discharge. This approach is being applied currently in plasma engineering research

  1. The effect of nitrogen on the cycling performance in thin-film Si1xNx anode Donggi Ahn, Chunjoong Kim, Joon-Gon Lee, Byungwoo Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    and hybrid electric vehicles. The theoretical capacity of the commercially used graphite anode (372 mA h. The motivation of this work was to fabricate well-dispersed nanocomposites of silicon, silicon nitride

  2. In search of high performance anode materials for Mg batteries: computational studies of Mg in Ge, Si, and Sn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malyi, Oleksandr I; Manzhos, Sergei; 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.114

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ab initio studies of structures, energetics, and diffusion properties of Mg in Si, Ge, and Sn diamond structures to evaluate their potential as insertion type anode materials for Mg batteries. We show that Si could provide the highest specific capacities (3817 mAh g-1) and the lowest average insertion voltage (~0.15 eV vs. Mg) for Mg storage. Nevertheless, due to its significant percent lattice expansion (~216%) and slow Mg diffusion, Sn and Ge are more attractive; both anodes have lower lattice expansions (~120 % and ~178 %, respectively) and diffusion barriers (~0.50 and ~0.70 eV, respectively for single-Mg diffusion) than Si. We show that Mg-Mg interactions at different stages of charging can decrease significantly the diffusion barrier compared to the single atom diffusion, by up to 0.55 eV.

  3. Inert Electrodes Program: Characterization of the reaction layer or film on PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) inert anodes: Progress Report for April-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Stice, N.D.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report addresses activities conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) between April 1989 and December 1989 to characterize the reaction layer or film previously proposed by PNL to form on cermet anodes during the electrolytic production of aluminum in Hall-Heroult cells. Formation of this resistive film was thought to protect the cermet anode from corrosion reactions that would otherwise occur in the molten cryolite electrolyte. The results of potential-step studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem microscopic analysis of polarized anodes suggest that the processes of corrosion of the metallic phase of the anode and the production of oxygen gas are separable and exhibit very different kinetic behavior. The corrosion reactions occur predominantly at low anode potentials, appear to show diffusion control, and may be related to the porosity of the anode. The oxygen production reaction is the predominant reaction above 2.2 V, exhibits activation control, occurs primarily on the surface of the anode, and is accompanied by an increase in surface roughness at higher current densities. Evidence presented in this report indicates that the production of oxygen shuts down the corrosion reactions, possibly through a pore-blocking mechanism. In addition, roughness effects may help explain some of the impedance relationships previously observed by PNL for these anodes. Although the present results do not rule out the formation of a protective layer or film, they strongly indicate mechanisms other than the formation of a macroscopic protective film for the apparent attenuation of corrosion reactions at typical operating current densities. 11 refs.

  4. The effects of silicon doping on the performance of PMAN carbon anodes in Li-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Johnson, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Even, W. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbons derived from polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN) have been studied for use as intercalation anodes in Li-ion cells. The effect of Si doping upon the electrochemical performance of PMAN carbons was studied using tetravinylsilane (TVS) and tetramethysilane (TMS) as sources of Si during the formation of the PMAN precursors. The carbons were characterized by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and complex impedance. The presence of 9 to 11 w/o Si in the PMAN lattice greatly increased the irreversible capacity of these materials.

  5. Three-dimensional microstructural changes in the Ni–YSZ solid oxide fuel cell anode during operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson G. J.; Chu Y.; Grew, K.N.; Izzo Jr. J.R.; Lombardo, J.J.; Harris, W.M.; Faes, A.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Van herle, J.; Wang, S.; Virkar, A.V.; Chiu, W.K.S.

    2012-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Microstructural evolution in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cermet anodes has been investigated using X-ray nanotomography along with differential absorption imaging. SOFC anode supports composed of Ni and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were subjected to extended operation and selected regions were imaged using a transmission X-ray microscope. X-ray nanotomography provides unique insight into microstructure changes of all three phases (Ni, YSZ, pore) in three spatial dimensions, and its relation to performance degradation. Statistically significant 3D microstructural changes were observed in the anode Ni phase over a range of operational times, including phase size growth and changes in connectivity, interfacial contact area and contiguous triple-phase boundary length. These observations support microstructural evolution correlated to SOFC performance. We find that Ni coarsening is driven by particle curvature as indicated by the dihedral angles between the Ni, YSZ and pore phases, and hypothesize that growth occurs primarily by means of diffusion and particle agglomeration constrained by a pinning mechanism related to the YSZ phase. The decrease in Ni phase size after extended periods of time may be the result of a second process connected to a mobility-induced decrease in the YSZ phase size or non-uniform curvature resulting in a net decrease in Ni phase size.

  6. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Bi, [ORNL; Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  7. Experimental study of the ion flux parameters and anode plasma dynamics in the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Frolov, I. N. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the anode plasma dynamics and measurements of the ion flux ejected along the axis of a high-current Z-pinch. Pinch discharges were formed by the implosion of tungsten wire arrays in the Angara-5-1 facility. It is shown that the ion energy spectrum depends on the mass and configuration of wire arrays, as well as on the diameter of the anode aperture. The shape of the ion spectrum indicates that the plasma propagates in the form of a compact plasmoid. Shadow and X-ray images of the plasma show that the axial velocity of the plasma outflowing through the anode aperture is comparable with the velocity of radial plasma compression and, for tungsten ions, can reach a value corresponding to an energy of 100 keV. The experimental data indicate that the ion energy spectrum mainly forms due to the electrodynamical acceleration of the plasma and cumulative jets. A possible mechanism for the production of compact plasma formations in the course of electrodynamic plasma acceleration is discussed.

  8. A Partial Oxidation Technique for Fuel-Cell Anode Exhaust-Gas Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward H. Robey, Jr.; Randall S. Gemmen

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the performance of a gas generator used to synthesize the exhaust gas from the anode of a molten-carbonate fuel cell. The composition of this gas is estimated to be that of equilibrium at 1,250 ° F and 1 atm: 48% CO2 , 39% H2O, 5% CO, and 8% H2, with an energy content of approximately 39 Btu/scf (higher heating value). To synthesize a range of gas compositions around this point, the gas generator partially oxidizes a mixture of CH4 , O2 , and CO2 to generate energy densities between 20 and 60 Btu/scf at temperatures between 1,198 and 1,350 ° F. Results show that the technique provides a relatively high ratio of CO to H2 concentrations compared with the target composition (CO:H2 of 2, versus 0.71). A detailed chemical model shows that the likely cause is quenching of the CO and H2 chemistry below 2,000 ° F.

  9. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chong M.; Cui, Yi

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. The well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (?2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode.

  10. Electrochemical characteristics of plasma-etched black silicon as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gibaek; Wehrspohn, Ralf B., E-mail: ralf.b.wehrspohn@iwmh.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Halle (Saale) 06120, Germany and Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany); Schweizer, Stefan L. [Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured silicon as an anode material for Li-ion batteries is produced for the first time by inductively coupled plasma–plasma etching of Si wafers in the black silicon regime. The microscopic structure strongly resembles other types of nanostructured silicon, with a well-arranged nanostructure possessing a sufficient porosity for accommodating large volume expansion. Despite these features, however, a high first-cycle irreversible capacity loss and a poor cycle life are observed. The main reason for these poor features is the formation of a thick solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer related to the surface condition of the pristine nanostructured black silicon (b-Si) electrode. Therefore, the cycle life of the b-Si electrode is heavily influenced by the constant reformation of the SEI layer depending upon the surface composition in spite of the presence of nanostructured Si. In the fast lithiation experiments, the nanostructure region of the b-Si electrode is detached from the Si substrate owing to the kinetics difference between the lithium ion diffusion and the electron injection and phase transformation in the nanostructured Si region. This means that more Si substrate is involved in lithiation at high current rates. It is therefore important to maintain balance in the chemical kinetics during the lithiation of nanostructured Si electrodes with a Si substrate.

  11. Performances and ageing study of resistive-anodes Micromegas detectors for HL-LHC environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Jeanneau; T. Alexopoulos; D. Attié; M. Boyer; J. Derré; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; E. Gazis; T. Geralis; A. Giganon; I. Giomataris; S. Herlant; J. Manjarrés; E. Ntomari; Ph. Schune; M. Titov; G. Tsipolitis

    2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    With the tenfold luminosity increase envisaged at the HL-LHC, the background (photons, neutrons, ...) and the event pile-up probability are expected to increase in proportion in the different experiments, especially in the forward regions like, for instance, the muons chambers of the ATLAS detector. Detectors based on the Micromegas principle should be good alternatives for the detector upgrade in the HL-LHC framework because of a good spatial (flux hadrons environment. Several prototypes of 10x10 cm2, with different pitches (0.5 to 2 mm) and different resistive layers have been tested at CERN (pi+@SPS). Several tests have been performed with a telescope at different voltages to assess the performances of the detectors in terms of position resolution and efficiency. The spark behaviour in these conditions has also been evaluated. Resistive coating has been shown to be a successful method to reduce the effect of sparks on the efficiency of micromegas. A good spatial resolution (~80 \\mum) can be reached with a resistive strip coating detector of 1mm pitch and a high efficiency (> 98%) can be achieved with resistive-anode micromegas detector. An X-rays irradiation has been also performed, showing no ageing effect after more than 21 days exposure and an integrated charge of almost 1C.

  12. Synthesis of nanoporous activated iridium oxide films by anodized aluminum oxide templated atomic layer deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comstock, D. J.; Christensen, S. T.; Elam, J. W.; Pellin, M. J.; Hersam, M. C. (Energy Systems); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iridium oxide (IrOx) has been widely studied due to its applications in electrochromic devices, pH sensing, and neural stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated that both Ir and IrOx films with porous morphologies prepared by sputtering exhibit significantly enhanced charge storage capacities. However, sputtering provides only limited control over film porosity. In this work, we demonstrate an alternative scheme for synthesizing nanoporous Ir and activated IrOx films (AIROFs). This scheme utilizes atomic layer deposition to deposit a thin conformal Ir film within a nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide template. The Ir film is then activated by potential cycling in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to form a nanoporous AIROF. The morphologies and electrochemical properties of the films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The resulting nanoporous AIROFs exhibit a nanoporous morphology and enhanced cathodal charge storage capacities as large as 311 mC/cm{sup 2}.

  13. Response of the plasma to the size of an anode electrode biased near the plasma potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnat, E. V.; Laity, G. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Baalrud, S. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As the size of a positively biased electrode increases, the nature of the interface formed between the electrode and the host plasma undergoes a transition from an electron-rich structure (electron sheath) to an intermediate structure containing both ion and electron rich regions (double layer) and ultimately forms an electron-depleted structure (ion sheath). In this study, measurements are performed to further test how the size of an electron-collecting electrode impacts the plasma discharge the electrode is immersed in. This is accomplished using a segmented disk electrode in which individual segments are individually biased to change the effective surface area of the anode. Measurements of bulk plasma parameters such as the collected current density, plasma potential, electron density, electron temperature and optical emission are made as both the size and the bias placed on the electrode are varied. Abrupt transitions in the plasma parameters resulting from changing the electrode surface area are identified in both argon and helium discharges and are compared to the interface transitions predicted by global current balance [S. D. Baalrud, N. Hershkowitz, and B. Longmier, Phys. Plasmas 14, 042109 (2007)]. While the size-dependent transitions in argon agree, the size-dependent transitions observed in helium systematically occur at lower electrode sizes than those nominally derived from prediction. The discrepancy in helium is anticipated to be caused by the finite size of the interface that increases the effective area offered to the plasma for electron loss to the electrode.

  14. Next Generation Hole Injection/Transport Nano-Composites for High Efficiency OLED Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King Wang

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to use a novel nano-composite material system for the OLED anode coating/hole transport layer. The novel anode coating is intended to significantly increase not only hole injection/transport efficiency, but the device energy efficiency as well. Another goal of the Core Technologies Program is the optimization and scale-up of air-stable and cross-linkable novel HTL nano-composite materials synthesis and the development of low-cost, large-scale mist deposition processes for polymer OLED fabrication. This proposed technology holds the promise to substantially improve OLED energy efficiency and lifetime.

  15. Microstructure degradation of YSZ in Ni/YSZ anodes of SOFC operated in phosphine-containing fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Zondlod, John; Celik, Ismail; Song, Xueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

    2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of trace (ppm) phosphine with the nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode of commercial solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated and evaluated for both synthesis gas and hydrogen fuels in an effort to examine P–Y reactions. The Ni poisoning effects reported in literature were confirmed and degradation was examined by electrochemical methods and post-test microstructural and chemical analyses. The results indicate that P-induced degradation rates and mechanisms are fuel dependent and that degradation of cells operated in synthesis gas (syngas) with phosphine is more severe than that of cells operated in hydrogen with phosphine. As reported in published literature, a cell operated in syngas containing 10 ppm phosphine demonstrated significant microstructural degradation within the Ni phase, including formation of Ni–P phases concentrated on the outer layer of the anode and significant pitting corrosion in the Ni grains. In this research, a previously undetected YPO{sub 4} phase is observed at the YSZ/YSZ/Ni triple grain junctions located at the interface with the YSZ electrolyte. Tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) and cubic-YSZ (c-YSZ) domains with sizes of several tens of nanometers are also newly observed along the Ni/YSZ interface. These observations contrast with data obtained for a cell operated in dry hydrogen with phosphine, where no YPO{sub 4} phase is observed and the alternating t-YSZ and c-YSZ domains at the Ni/YSZ interface are smaller with typical sizes of 5–10 nm. The data imply that electrolyte attack by P is a potentially debilitating mode of degradation in SOFC anodes, and that the associated reaction mechanisms and rates are worthy of further examination.

  16. Direct Internal Reformation and Mass Transport in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode: A Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Study with Detailed Reaction Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) allows the conversion of chemical energy that is stored in a given fuel, including light hydrocarbons, to electrical power. Hydrocarbon fuels, such as methane, are logistically favourable and provide high energy densities. However, the use of these fuels often results in a decreased efficiency and life. An improved understanding of the reactive flow in the SOFC anode can help address these issues. In this study, the transport and heterogeneous internal reformation of a methane based fuel is addressed. The effect of the SOFC anode's complex structure on transport and reactions is shown to exhibit a complicated interplay between the local molar concentrations and the anode structure. Strong coupling between the phenomenological microstructures and local reformation reaction rates are recognised in this study, suggesting the extension to actual microstructures may provide new insights into the reformation processes.

  17. Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Mi, E-mail: jmnano00@gmail.com, E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung [Korea Printed Electronics Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Jeollabuk-do, 561-844 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha, E-mail: jmnano00@gmail.com, E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Si-Hyung [School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

  18. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Wei; Li, Xiaolin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Chen, Xilin; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to form the stable surface film and to further enhance the long-term cycling stability of the graphite anodes of lithium-ion batteries, the surface of graphite powders has been modified by AlF3 coating through chemical precipitation method. The AlF3-coated graphite shows no evident changes in the bulk structure and a thin AlF3-coating layer of about 2 nm thick is found to uniformly cover the graphite particles with 2 wt% AlF3 content. However, it delivers a higher initial discharge capacity and largely improved rate performances compared to the pristine graphite. Remarkably, AlF3 coated graphite demonstrated a much better cycle life. After 300 cycles, AlF3 coated graphite and uncoated graphite show capacity retention of 92% and 81%, respectively. XPS measurement shows that a more conductive solid electrode interface (SEI) layer was formed on AlF3 coated graphite as compared to uncoated graphite. SEM monograph also reveals that the AlF3-coated graphite particles have a much more stable surface morphology after long-term cycling. Therefore, the improved electrochemical performance of AlF3 coated graphite can be attributed to a more stable and conductive SEI formed on coated graphite anode during cycling process.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cell based on La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -CGO cathode 1. Introduction Single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SC-SOFCs) have received many attentionsFabrication and characterization of anode-supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cell based-supported solid oxide fuel cells consisting of nickel-gadolinium doped ceria (NiO-CGO, 60:40 wt%) anode

  20. Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Tape-casting Ceramic Structure Yuya HORII, Yuji SUZUKI, and Nobuhide KASAGI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Tape-casting Ceramic Structure Yuya HORII, Yuji through anodic oxidation of thermally-evaporated aluminum is employed for the catalyst support. A ceramic combustor with a 3-D manifold is made using high-precision tape-catsing method, and Pt/Al2 O3 catalyst layer

  1. Final report on the PNL program to develop an alumina sensor. Sensors Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.; Koski, O.H.; Williford, R.E.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alumina concentration sensor was required to ensure safe operating conditions for cermet inert anodes that were under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(a) for the electrolytic production of aluminum metal. The Sensors Development Program at PNL was conducted in response to this need for an alumina sensor. In all, eight different approaches to developing an alumina sensor were evaluated as part of this program. Each approach sought to correlate alumina concentration either to some spectral, physical, or electrical property of the molten electrolytic, or alternatively, to some operational characteristic of the reduction cell such as the integrity of the cermet anodes or the electrical noise generated by them during cell operation. The studies on electrical noise were performed using a large number of digital signal analysis (DSA) methods. There were two primary requirements for success for an alumina sensor to be used in conjunction with cermet anodes: (1) adequate sensitivity to alumina concentration at concentrations close to saturation, and (2) ease of use in an industrial setting. After numerous laboratory experiments as well as field studies in some cases, it was concluded that none of the approaches sufficiently satisfied the two criteria to serve as the basis for an alumina sensor. If further work is to continue in this area, it is recommended that the research focus on altemative DSA approaches, primarily because DSA methods would be so easy to use in an industrial environment. Due to the lack of correlation using DSA in the present work, however, it is recommended that altemative strategies for data collection and analysis be used in any further development activities.

  2. Development and Entrepreneurship College News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanyi

    " " """" , "" "Facile preparation of hierarchically porous carbons from metal- organic gels and their application Sulfides/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Composites: Phase- Controlled Synthesis and High Performance Anode

  3. Development Michael Short

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Equivalent Tilt Submarine Requirements Air Independent Propulsion Power System #12;Advanced SOFC Systems High of a net 400 kW SOFC power system High overall fuel utilization via anode recycling, High level of in

  4. Carbon-coated rhombohedral Li3V2(PO4)3 as both cathode and anode materials for lithium-ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    performance and storage mechanism of a symmetrical lithium-ion battery made of carbon-coated rhombohedral Li3V two decades, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have attracted signicant attention because of their highCarbon-coated rhombohedral Li3V2(PO4)3 as both cathode and anode materials for lithium-ion

  5. Electron Microscopy Study of Novel Ru Doped La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    Electron Microscopy Study of Novel Ru Doped La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have been the center of research activities with the goal of improving energy Cells (SOFCs) Y. Wang,* B. D. Madsen,* W. Kobsiriphat,* S.A. Barnett* and L.D. Marks* * Department

  6. Template Synthesis of Ordered Pt Nanorods in Porous Anodic Alumina Yar-Ming Wang, Hong-Hsiang Kuo, and Mark W. Verbrugge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    , Singapore 639798 High-purity aluminum was anodized to form an alumina coating layer (typically 10 to 30 µm composite layer could be used as an oxidizing catalyst for automotive applications. The morphologies (Fig. 1B) obtained after removing the front surface of the aluminum oxide have been observed using

  7. This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010 Chem. Commun. Self-assembled Ni/TiO2 nanocomposite anodes synthesized via electroless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    nanocomposite anodes synthesized via electroless plating and atomic layer deposition on biological scaffoldsw in electroless plating reactions. As a result, self-assembled metallic nanorods can be fabricated, which have advantage of the proposed structure lies in the self-assembly of the viral materials. Nickel- coated TMV can

  8. [11] Cui L, Hu L, Choi JW, Cui Y. Light-weight free-standing carbon nanotube-silicon films for anodes of lithium ion batteries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for anodes of lithium ion batteries. ACS Nano 2010;4:3671­8. [12] Krivchenko VA, Pilevsky AA, Rakhimov AT, Seleznev BV, Suetin NV, Timofeyev MA, et al. Nanocrystalline graphite: promising material for high current-band Raman intensity of graphitic materials as a function of laser energy and crystallite size. Chem Phys

  9. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level dense plasma focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellsworth, J. L., E-mail: ellsworth7@llnl.gov; Falabella, S.; Tang, V.; Schmidt, A.; Guethlein, G.; Hawkins, S.; Rusnak, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ?6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 10{sup 7} per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  10. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres as anode material for enhanced performance in lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasidharan, Manickam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Gunawardhana, Nanda [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)] [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki, E-mail: yoshio@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)] [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Nakashima, Kenichi, E-mail: nakashik@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanosphere constructed electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup ?1} after 250 cycles and maintains structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. Highlights: ? Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres synthesis was synthesized by soft-template. ? Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode material in Li-ion battery. ? Nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup ?1} after 250 cycles. ? The electrode maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. ? Nanosized shell domain facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation. -- Abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres of average diameter ca. ?29 nm and hollow cavity size ca. 17 nm were synthesized using polymeric micelles with core–shell–corona architecture under mild conditions. The hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Thus obtained Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries for the first time. The nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup ?1} after 250 cycles of charge/discharge at a rate of 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow particles based electrodes maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability even after exposing to high current density 6.25 A g{sup ?1}. The enhanced electrochemical behavior is ascribed to hollow cavity coupled with nanosized Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} shell domain that facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation kinetics.

  11. Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and doctors better understand the impact of these organisms on diseases like diabetes. Learn how > Scientists at Ames Laboratory have developed a new process to make...

  12. Porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jinxue; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiao, E-mail: zhx1213@126.com; Chen, Haoxin

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this manuscript, porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are prepared through a two-step approach which is composed of hydrothermal process and heating treatment as high performance anode for lithium-ion battery. Benefiting from the porous structure and 1-dimensional features, the product becomes robust and exhibits high reversible capability, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. - Graphical abstract: 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • A two-step route has been applied to prepare 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure. • Its porous feature facilitates the fast transport of electron and lithium ion. • Its porous structure endows it with capacities higher than its theoretical capacity. • 1D nanostructure can tolerate volume changes during lithation/delithiation cycles. • It exhibits high capacity, good cyclability and excellent rate performance.

  13. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

  14. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  15. Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Ding, Fei; Zheng, Jianming; Nie, Zimin; Choi, Young Joon; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The commercial Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is successfully modified by AlF3 via a low temperature process. After being calcined at 400oC for 5 hours, AlF3 reacts with LTO to form a composite material which mainly consists of Al3+ and F- co-doped LTO with small amounts of anatase TiO2 and Li3AlF6. Al3+ and F- co-doped LTO demonstrates largely improved rate capability comparing to the pristine LTO. Since the amount of the byproduct TiO2 is relatively small, the modified LTO electrodes retain the main voltage characteristics of LTO with a minor feature similar to those of anatase TiO2. The doped LTO anodes deliver higher discharge capacity and significantly improved high-rate performance when compared to the pristine LTO anode. They also demonstrate excellent long-term cycling stability at elevated temperatures. Therefore, Al3+ and F- co-doped LTO synthesized at low temperature is an excellent anode for stable and ultra-high power lithium-ion batteries.

  16. One-pot synthesis of a metal–organic framework as an anode for Li-ion batteries with improved capacity and cycling stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gou, Lei, E-mail: Leigou@chd.edu.cn; Hao, Li-Min; Shi, Yong-Xin; Ma, Shou-Long; Fan, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Lei; Li, Dong-Lin, E-mail: dlli@chd.edu.cn; Wang, Kang

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal–organic framework is a kind of novel electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here, a 3D metal–organic framework Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC (BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of Co{sup 2+} with a bio-inspired renewable organic ligand 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid through a solvothermal method. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this material exhibited an excellent cyclic stability as well as a large reversible capacity of ca. 650 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 50 mA g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles within the voltage range of 0.02–3.0 V, higher than that of other BDC based anode. - Graphical abstract: The PXRD pattern and the cycleability curves (inset) of Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC was synthesized through a one pot solvothermal process. • The solvent had a great effect on the purity of this material. • This material was used as anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. • Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC showed improved capacity and cycling stability.

  17. A Damage Model for Degradation in the Electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells: Modeling the effects of sulfur and antimony in the anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Over their designed lifetime, high temperature electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), can experience degradation in their electrochemical performance due to environmental conditions, operating conditions, contaminants, and other factors. Understanding the different degradation mechanisms in SOFCs and other electrochemical devices is essential to reducing performance degradation and increasing the lifetime of these devices. In this paper SOFC degradation mechanisms are discussed and a damage model is presented which describes performance degradation in SOFCs due to damage or degradation in the electrodes of the SOFC. A degradation classification scheme is presented that divides the various SOFC electrode degradation mechanisms into categories based on their physical effects on the SOFC. The application of the damage model and the classification method is applied to sulfur poisoning and antimony poisoning which occur in the anode of SOFCs. For sulfur poisoning the model is able to predict the degradation in SOFC performance based on the operating temperature and voltage of the fuel cell and the concentration of gaseous sulfur species in the anode. For antimony poisoning the effects of nickel removal from the anode matrix is investigated.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of interactions between Ni-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) anodes and trace species in a survey of coal syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Martinez; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; James Postona

    2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermodynamic analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of trace contaminants in syngas derived from coal gasification on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. The effluents from 15 different gasification facilities were considered to assess the impact of fuel composition on anode susceptibility to contamination. For each syngas case, the study considers the magnitude of contaminant exposure resulting from operation of a warm gas cleanup unit at two different temperatures and operation of a nickel-based SOFC at three different temperatures. Contaminant elements arsenic (As), phosphorous (P), and antimony (Sb) are predicted to be present in warm gas cleanup effluent and will interact with the nickel (Ni) components of a SOFC anode. Phosphorous is the trace element found in the largest concentration of the three contaminants and is potentially the most detrimental. Poisoning was found to depend on the composition of the syngas as well as system operating conditions. Results for all trace elements tended to show invariance with cleanup operating temperature, but results were sensitive to syngas bulk composition. Synthesis gas with high steam content tended to resist poisoning.

  19. Anodically electrodeposited Co+Ni mixed oxide electrode: preparation and electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Gang [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: wugang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou Derui [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Mitsuo, Kurachi [Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8283 (Japan); Xu Boqing [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co+Ni mixed oxides on Ni substrate were prepared through anodic electrodeposition from Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solutions with five different Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratios beside only Co{sup 2+}. By the electrochemical measurements, the optimum performance in electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media was obtained on the Co+Ni mixed oxide deposited from the solution containing Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratio of 1:1. The mixed oxide is corresponding to about 68at% Co contents with spinel-type NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase and porosity surface structure. The electrochemical kinetic parameters including exchange current density, Tafel slopes, reaction order with respect to [OH{sup -}] and standard electrochemical enthalpy of activation were analyzed also. A possible mechanism involving the formation of a physisorbed hydrogen peroxide intermediate in a slow electrochemical step was presented, which accounts for the values of the experimental results.

  20. Investigation into the effects of trace coal syn gas species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell anodes, PhD. thesis, Russ College of Engineering and Technology of Ohio University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembly, J.P.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is the United States’ most widely used fossil fuel for the production of electric power. Coal’s availability and cost dictates that it will be used for many years to come in the United States for power production. As a result of the environmental impact of burning coal for power production more efficient and environmentally benign power production processes using coal are sought. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) combined with gasification technologies represent a potential methodology to produce electric power using coal in a much more efficient and cleaner manner. It has been shown in the past that trace species contained in coal, such as sulfur, severely degrade the performance of solid oxide fuel cells rendering them useless. Coal derived syngas cleanup technologies have been developed that efficiently remove sulfur to levels that do not cause any performance losses in solid oxide fuel cells. The ability of these systems to clean other trace species contained in syngas is not known nor is the effect of these trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. This works presents the thermodynamic and diffusion transport simulations that were combined with experimental testing to evaluate the effects of the trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The results show that some trace species contained in coal will interact with the SOFC anode. In addition to the transport and thermodynamic simulations that were completed experimental tests were completed investigating the effect of HCl and AsH3 on the performance of SOFCs.

  1. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

  2. Ab initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Initial Stages of Solid-electrolyte Interphase Formation on Lithium Ion Battery Graphitic Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Kevin; 10.1039/B925853A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decomposition of ethylene carbonate (EC) during the initial growth of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films at the solvent-graphitic anode interface is critical to lithium ion battery operations. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of explicit liquid EC/graphite interfaces are conducted to study these electrochemical reactions. We show that carbon edge terminations are crucial at this stage, and that achievable experimental conditions can lead to surprisingly fast EC breakdown mechanisms, yielding decomposition products seen in experiments but not previously predicted.

  3. MHD generator electrode development. Quarterly report, October-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadler, J W; Cadoff, L H; Dietrick, D L

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program is directed towards the engineering development of cold metallic electrodes which are alternatives to the use of platinum as an anode clad material for MHD generators. Results of continuing laboratory screening tests are presented. Improvements in the anode arc test methodology and test setup, which have resulted in improved reproducibility as well as test simplification, are discussed. Laboratory electrochemical corrosion testing has been initiated using aqueous and molten salts as the aggressive constituent in the electrolyte. Initial results from these tests are reported. On the basis of these test results, electrochemical corrosion tests using a molten salt are preferred. As a result of ongoing laboratory screening tests, acceptance criteria, which are interim in nature and are likely to change based on future test results have been defined for the anode arc and electrochemical corrosion tests. Reflecting the initial laboratory test results, a listing of candidate advanced alloys which should demonstrate improved corrosion resistance has been defined. Upon completion of WESTF modifications, facility checkout and activation operations have been initiated. Progress, as well as those difficulties which have been encountered, in completing WESTF activation is reported. Detailed engineering and test planning activities in support of WESTF tests are reported.

  4. Novel Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (NIU) Collaborations * Fikile Brushett (MIT) * X. Xiao (APS microtomography) * Gao Liu (LBNL) * Russell Cook (Electron Microscopy Center) 3 Project Objectives - Relevance Project...

  5. Novel Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Novel Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    silicon TBACl as supporting electrolyte Coin cells , Si vs Li metal in 1.2M LiPF 6 , EC:EMC electrode surface 1cm 2 , copper foam weight 60mg 1 st cycle voltage profile for...

  7. Lithium Metal Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Li 3 Sb (10 nm particle size) * Baseline Cell Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cathode, 1.2M LiPF 6 ECEMC electrolyte * very stable cell chemistry allows assignment of cell changes to the...

  8. Direct comparison between X-ray nanotomography and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructure characterization of a solid oxide fuel cell anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quey, R., E-mail: quey@emse.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); École des Mines de Saint-Étienne, CNRS UMR 5307, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Étienne, Cedex 2 (France); Suhonen, H., E-mail: heikki.suhonen@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Laurencin, J., E-mail: jerome.laurencin@cea.fr [CEA-Liten, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cloetens, P., E-mail: peter.cloetens@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Bleuet, P., E-mail: pierre.bleuet@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been applied to characterize the microstructure of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode. A direct comparison between the results of both methods is conducted on the same region of the microstructure to assess the spatial resolution of the nano-CT microstructure, SEM being taken as a reference. A registration procedure is proposed to find out the position of the SEM image within the nano-CT volume. It involves a second SEM observation, which is taken along an orthogonal direction and gives an estimate reference SEM image position, which is then refined by an automated optimization procedure. This enables an unbiased comparison between the cell porosity morphologies provided by both methods. In the present experiment, nano-CT is shown to underestimate the number of pores smaller than 1 ?m and overestimate the size of the pores larger than 1.5 ?m. - Highlights: ? X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and SEM are used to characterize an SOFC anode. ? A methodology is proposed to compare the nano-CT and SEM data on the same region. ? The spatial resolution of the nano-CT data is assessed from that comparison.

  9. Noncomposite Counterelectrode Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-203

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engtrakul, C.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New counter electrode materials under development at NREL have the potential to positively impact electrochromic window technology. The current generation of nanocomposite materials is designed to provide rapid transport of lithium ions to nanoparticles of anodic coloring materials. They may improve the coloration efficiency of the entire films stack while also improving the speed and depth of coloration. We expect an added benefit of greater film durability. To date, encouraging results have been obtained in the laboratory. Performance and durability tests will be carried out to characterize any improvements obtained as a result of the new counter electrode materials. In addition to process improvement, the project also has the secondary goal of improving the basic understanding of the electrochromic process in Sage?s counter electrode.

  10. Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    160 Sustainable Development Sustainable Development Degree options BSc or MA (Single Honours Degree) Sustainable Development Contributing Schools Biology; Chemistry; Computer Science; Geography & Geosciences in arts subjects as partner subjects within Sustainable Development, then you should apply for the MA

  11. MAROC: Multi-Anode ReadOut Chip for MaPMTs P. Barrillon, S. Blin, M. Bouchel, T. Caceres, C. de La Taille, member IEEE, G. Martin, P. Puzo, N. Seguin-Moreau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MAROC: Multi-Anode ReadOut Chip for MaPMTs P. Barrillon, S. Blin, M. Bouchel, T. Caceres, C. de La, the MAROC chip has been tested at LAL. Despite a substrate coupling effect which affects the performance during beam tests at CERN in October 2006. I. INTRODUCTION MAROC is the readout chip designed

  12. This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010 Chem. Commun., 2010, 46, 73497351 7349 Self-assembled Ni/TiO2 nanocomposite anodes synthesized via electroless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson-Prior, Linda

    -assembled Ni/TiO2 nanocomposite anodes synthesized via electroless plating and atomic layer deposition-binding affinity in electroless plating reactions. As a result, self-assembled metallic nanorods can be fabricated advantage of the proposed structure lies in the self-assembly of the viral materials. Nickel- coated TMV can

  13. Flat-response x-ray-diode-detector development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tirsell, G.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we discuss the design of an improved sub-nanosecond flat response x-ray diode detector needed for ICF diagnostics. This device consists of a high Z cathode and a complex filter tailored to flatten the response so that the total x-ray energy below 1.5 keV can be measured using a single detector. Three major problems have become evident as a result of our work with the original LLNL design including deviation from flatness due to a peak in the response below 200 eV, saturation at relatively low x-ray fluences, and long term gold cathode instability. We are investigating grazing incidence reflection to reduce the response below 200 eV, new high Z cathode materials for long term stability, and a new complex filter for improved flatness. Better saturation performance will require a modified XRD detector under development with reduced anode to cathode spacing and increased anode bias voltage.

  14. Final report on the PNL program to develop an alumina sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.; Koski, O.H.; Williford, R.E.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alumina concentration sensor was required to ensure safe operating conditions for cermet inert anodes that were under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(a) for the electrolytic production of aluminum metal. The Sensors Development Program at PNL was conducted in response to this need for an alumina sensor. In all, eight different approaches to developing an alumina sensor were evaluated as part of this program. Each approach sought to correlate alumina concentration either to some spectral, physical, or electrical property of the molten electrolytic, or alternatively, to some operational characteristic of the reduction cell such as the integrity of the cermet anodes or the electrical noise generated by them during cell operation. The studies on electrical noise were performed using a large number of digital signal analysis (DSA) methods. There were two primary requirements for success for an alumina sensor to be used in conjunction with cermet anodes: (1) adequate sensitivity to alumina concentration at concentrations close to saturation, and (2) ease of use in an industrial setting. After numerous laboratory experiments as well as field studies in some cases, it was concluded that none of the approaches sufficiently satisfied the two criteria to serve as the basis for an alumina sensor. If further work is to continue in this area, it is recommended that the research focus on altemative DSA approaches, primarily because DSA methods would be so easy to use in an industrial environment. Due to the lack of correlation using DSA in the present work, however, it is recommended that altemative strategies for data collection and analysis be used in any further development activities.

  15. Anode-cathode voltage drop of a rotating arc in an auto-expansion circuit-breaker filled with SF6-N2 mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauvois, V.; Legros, W.; Scarpa, P. [Inst. Montefiore, Liege (Belgium)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In auto-expansion circuit-breakers, the power dissipated by the arc itself heats the surrounding gas, inducing a pressure build up in the {open_quotes}upstream volume{close_quotes} and giving rise to a gas flow which blows the extinguishing arc. Moreover, in the studied apparatus, a magnetic field, due to the current flowing in a coil, provides arc radial stability and leads to arc rotation which efficiently reduces electrode erosion. In such a circuit-breaker, it is obvious that arc-gas and arc-electrode interactions are essential and govern. the energy balance in the plasma region. This paper deals more specifically with the phenomena occurring at the arc-electrode interfaces. It relates results of experiments carried out to determine the anode-cathode voltage drop when the apparatus is filled with different SF6-N2 mixtures.

  16. Direct Access to Mesoporous Crystalline TiO2/Carbon Composites with Large and Uniform Pores for Use as Anode Materials in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Jung, Yoon S.; Warren, Scott C.; Kamperman, Marleen; Oh, Seung M.; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous and highly crystalline TiO{sub 2} (anatase)/carbon composites with large (>5?nm) and uniform pores were synthesized using PI-b-PEO block copolymers as structure directing agents. Pore sizes could be tuned by utilizing block copolymers with different molecular weights. The resulting mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/carbon was successfully used as an anode material for Li ion batteries. Without addition of conducting aid (Super P), the electrode showed high capacity during the first insertion/desertion cycle due to carbon wiring inside the walls of mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/carbon. The electrode further showed stable cycle performance up to 50 cycles and the specific charge capacity at 30?C was 38?mA h (g of TiO{sub 2}){sup ?1}, which indicates CCM-TiO{sub 2}/carbon can be used as a material for high rate use.

  17. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on HOPG as precursor of new carbon-based anode for high-capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelucci, Marco; Frau, Eleonora; Betti, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I - 00185 Roma (Italy); Mura, Francesco [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences for Engineering, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Via A. Scarpa 14/16, I - 00161 Roma (Italy); Panero, Stefania [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I - 00185 Roma (Italy); Mariani, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, CNISM, CNIS, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I - 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron Oxides nanostructures are very promising systems for new generation of anode material for Lithium-Ion batteries because of their high capacity associated to their surface area. A core-level photoemission study of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires deposited on highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) under Li exposure is presented. The Fe-2p, Fe-3p, and Li-1s core-level lineshape evolution upon Li exposure in ultra-high-vacuum conditions clearly brings to light the Fe ion reduction from fully trivalent to prevalently divalent at saturation. Furthermore, the graphite substrate allows allocation of a large amount of Li ions surrounding the iron-oxide nanowires, opening a new scenario towards the use of graphene for improving the ionic charge exchange.

  18. Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV. On the Ohmic loss in anode supported button cells with LSM or LSCF cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zigui; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2010-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with a variety of YSZ electrolyte thicknesses were fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The preparation of the YSZ electrolyte tapes with various thicknesses was accomplished by using doctor blades with different gaps between the precision machined, polished blade and the casting surface. The green tape was cut into discs, sintered at 1385°C for 2 h, and subsequently creep-flattened at 1350°C for 2 h. Either LSCF with an SDC interlayer or LSM+YSZ composite was used as the cathode material for the fuel cells. The ohmic resistances of these anode-supported fuel cells were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at temperatures from 500°C to 750°C. A linear relationship was found between the ohmic resistance of the fuel cell and the YSZ electrolyte thickness at all the measuring temperatures for both LSCF and LSM+YSZ cathode fuel cells. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte, derived for the fuel cells with LSM+YSZ or LSCF cathodes, were independent of the cathode material and cell configuration. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte was slightly lower than that of the bulk material, possibly due to Ni-doping into the electrolyte. The fuel cell with a SDC interlayer and LSCF cathode showed larger intercept resistance than the fuel cell with LSM+YSZ cathode, which was possibly due to the imperfect contact between the SDC interlayer and the YSZ electrolyte and the migration of Zr into the SDC interlayer to form an insulating solid solution during cell fabrication. Calculations of the contribution of the YSZ electrolyte to the total ohmic resistance showed that YSZ was still a satisfactory electrolyte at temperatures above 650°C. Explorations should be directed to reduce the intercept resistance to achieve significant improvement in cell performance.

  19. Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    150 Sustainable Development Sustainable Development MA or BSc (Single Honours Degree) Sustainable Sustainable Development, then you should apply for the MA degree, and students most interested in Science subjects as partner subjects within Sustainable Development should apply for the BSc degree. Subject

  20. Application of cyclic voltammetry to investigate enhanced catalytic current generation by biofilm-modified anodes of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    to be useful for powering small electronic devices such as a meteorological buoy. Here we present a 5-step is broadly applicable and may be useful to develop strategies for optimizing power generation by MFCs. 896

  1. Develop and Evaluate Materials and Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    protection 5 Recent Accomplishments and Progress SEI formation on different carbon anodes o Material investigated: MCMB-1028, 3 types of surface modified graphite from...

  2. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kasei * Focused on High Capacity Manganese Rich (HCMR TM ) cathodes & Silicon-Carbon composite anodes for Lithium ion batteries * Envia's high energy Li-ion battery materials...

  3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Torre, Leon

    Report on SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2 0 1 1 ­ 2 0 1 2 ISCN-GULF Charter Report #12;3 1. FACILITIES with projects of our University's Cell for Sustainable Development; it also presents evidence for steady alike. THIS REPORT This is the second report on sustainable development at the University of Luxembourg

  4. Performance of a static-anode/flat-panel x-ray fluoroscopy system in a diagnostic strength magnetic field: A truly hybrid x-ray/MR imaging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahrig, R.; Wen, Z.; Ganguly, A.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J.A.; Stevens, G.M.; Saunders, R.F.; Pelc, N.J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sunnybrook and Women's Health Sciences Center and Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); GE Healthcare, Schenectady, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimally invasive procedures are increasing in variety and frequency, facilitated by advances in imaging technology. Our hybrid imaging system (GE Apollo{sup TM} flat panel, custom Brand x-ray static anode x-ray tube, GE Lunar high-frequency power supply and 0.5 T Signa SP{sup TM}) provides both x-ray and MR imaging capability to guide complex procedures without requiring motion of the patient between two distant gantries. The performance of the x-ray tube in this closely integrated system was evaluated by modeling and measuring both the response of the filament to an externally applied field and the behavior of the electron beam for field strengths and geometries of interest. The performance of the detector was assessed by measuring the slanted-edge modulation transfer function (MTF) and when placed at zero field and at 0.5 T. Measured resonant frequencies of filaments can be approximated using a modified vibrating beam model, and were at frequencies well below the 25 kHz frequency of our generator for our filament geometry. The amplitude of vibration was not sufficient to cause shorting of the filament during operation within the magnetic field. A simple model of electrons in uniform electric and magnetic fields can be used to estimate the deflection of the electron beam on the anode for the fields of interest between 0.2 and 0.5 T. The MTF measured at the detector and the DQE showed no significant difference inside and outside of the magnetic field. With the proper modifications, an x-ray system can be fully integrated with a MR system, with minimal loss of image quality. Any x-ray tube can be assessed for compatibility when placed at a particular location within the field using the models. We have also concluded that a-Si electronics are robust against magnetic fields. Detailed knowledge of the x-ray system installation is required to provide estimates of system operation.

  5. Development of Prototype Pixellated PIN CdZnTe Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Narita; P. Bloser; J. Grindlay; R. Sudharsanan; C. Reiche; C. Stenstrom

    1998-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report initial results from the design and evaluation of two pixellated PIN Cadmium Zinc Telluride detectors and an ASIC-based readout system. The prototype imaging PIN detectors consist of 4X4 1.5 mm square indium anode contacts with 0.2 mm spacing and a solid cathode plane on 10X10 mm CdZnTe substrates of thickness 2 mm and 5 mm. The detector readout system, based on low noise preamplifier ASICs, allows for parallel readout of all channels upon cathode trigger. This prototype is under development for use in future astrophysical hard X-ray imagers with 10-600 keV energy response. Measurements of the detector uniformity, spatial resolution, and spectral resolution will be discussed and compared with a similar pixellated MSM detector. Finally, a prototype design for a large imaging array is outlined.

  6. Synthesis of uniform nano-structured lead oxide by sonochemical method and its application as cathode and anode of lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karami, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Abhar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karami_h@yahoo.com; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Haghdar, Saeed [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Ardakan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the results of a research aimed at investigating the synthesis of nano-structured lead oxide through reaction of lead nitrate solution and sodium carbonate solution by the sonochemical method. At the first, lead carbonate was obtained in a synthesized solution and then, after filtration, it was calcinated at the temperature of 320 deg. C so that nano-structured lead oxide can be produced. The effects of different parameters on particle size and morphology of final lead oxide powder were optimized by a 'one at a time' method. The prepared lead oxide powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Under optimum conditions, uniformed and homogeneous nano-structured lead oxide powder with more spongy morphology and particle size of 20-40 nm was obtained. The synthesized lead oxide, as anode and cathode of lead-acid batteries, showed an excellent discharge capacity (140 mA h/g)

  7. Program Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

  8. Tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines: Unfiltered x-ray spectra from 20 kV to 640 kV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Andrew M. [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)] [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Boone, John M., E-mail: john.boone@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Monte Carlo methods were used to generate lightly filtered high resolution x-ray spectra spanning from 20 kV to 640 kV. Methods: X-ray spectra were simulated for a conventional tungsten anode. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended radiation transport code (MCNPX 2.6.0) was used to produce 35 spectra over the tube potential range from 20 kV to 640 kV, and cubic spline interpolation procedures were used to create piecewise polynomials characterizing the photon fluence per energy bin as a function of x-ray tube potential. Using these basis spectra and the cubic spline interpolation, 621 spectra were generated at 1 kV intervals from 20 to 640 kV. The tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) produces minimally filtered (0.8 mm Be) x-ray spectra with 1 keV energy resolution. The TASMICS spectra were compared mathematically with other, previously reported spectra. Results: Using pairedt-test analyses, no statistically significant difference (i.e., p > 0.05) was observed between compared spectra over energy bins above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence. For all energy bins, the correlation of determination (R{sup 2}) demonstrated good correlation for all spectral comparisons. The mean overall difference (MOD) and mean absolute difference (MAD) were computed over energy bins (above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence) and over all the kV permutations compared. MOD and MAD comparisons with previously reported spectra were 2.7% and 9.7%, respectively (TASMIP), 0.1% and 12.0%, respectively [R. Birch and M. Marshall, “Computation of bremsstrahlung x-ray spectra and comparison with spectra measured with a Ge(Li) detector,” Phys. Med. Biol. 24, 505–517 (1979)], 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (Poludniowski), and 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (AAPM TG 195). The effective energy of TASMICS spectra with 2.5 mm of added Al filtration ranged from 17 keV (at 20 kV) to 138 keV (at 640 kV); with 0.2 mm of added Cu filtration the effective energy was 9 keV at 20 kV and 169 keV at 640 kV. Conclusions: Ranging from 20 kV to 640 kV, 621 x-ray spectra were produced and are available at 1 kV tube potential intervals. The spectra are tabulated at 1 keV intervals. TASMICS spectra were shown to be largely equivalent to published spectral models and are available in spreadsheet format for interested users by emailing the corresponding author (JMB)

  9. Where Are They Now? National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Colorado Cleantech New Venture Challenge SiNode Systems - Advanced silicon graphene batteries. | Photo courtesy of Sinode Systems. Startup Success: Energy Department...

  10. Northwestern University Team Wins 2013 National Clean Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Announcing the Clean Energy Trust Semifinalists SiNode Systems - Advanced silicon graphene batteries. | Photo courtesy of Sinode Systems. Startup Success: Energy Department...

  11. Energy Department Announces Regional Winners of University Clean...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Team Wins 180,000 Toward Clean Energy Start Up SiNode Systems - Advanced silicon graphene batteries. | Photo courtesy of Sinode Systems. Startup Success: Energy Department...

  12. Element One Reduces Cost of Hydrogen Leak Detection Systems ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Begins for "America's Next Top Energy Innovator" SiNode Systems - Advanced silicon graphene batteries. | Photo courtesy of Sinode Systems. Startup Success: Energy Department...

  13. Software Developers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Because SEED will provide a common, open-source data framework, software developers will be able to write applications that access the data in a consistent way (with proper permissions), or build functionalities onto the SEED platform in a replicable way.

  14. Rural Development Energy Audit & Renewable Energy Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rural Development Energy Audit & Renewable Energy Development Assistance Webinar Rural Development Energy Audit & Renewable Energy Development Assistance Webinar January 21, 2015...

  15. Carbonate fuel cell system development for industrial cogeneration. Final report Mar 80-Aug 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnacke, A.W.; Reinstrom, R.M.; Najewicz, D.J.; Dawes, M.H.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey of various industries was performed to investigate the feasibility of using natural gas-fueled carbonate fuel cell power plants as a cogeneration heat and power source. Two applications were selected: chlorine/caustic soda and aluminum. Three fuel processor technologies, conventional steam reforming, autothermal reforming and an advanced steam reformer concept were used to define three thermodynamic cycle concepts for each of the two applications. Performance and economic studies were conducted for the resulting systems. The advanced steam reformer was found among those studied to be most attractive and was evaluated further and compared to internally reforming the fuel within the fuel cell anodes. From the results of the studies it was concluded that the issues most affecting gas-fired carbonate fuel cell power plant commercial introduction are fuel cell and stack development, fuel reformer technology and the development of reliable, cost-effective heat transfer equipment.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  17. Economic Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasRelease Date:research community -- hostedEconomic Development

  18. ELLIPSCMETRY OF ANODIC FILM GROWTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Craig Gordon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    situ measurements have been restricted to classical electrochemical techniques (current, potential, and impedence measurements),

  19. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  20. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  1. ELLIPSCMETRY OF ANODIC FILM GROWTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Craig Gordon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of SFt. tRYSTilSISECI 1.00 PPl. COMSTIMf IS» 24. ~5 I~E.C! nSUlSI5lCI ~.6Jl PPl. tONSUNl lSI UI.Sl A'lll::. o. ~H •z f1l'PIE 1 H'I'ORATIE PPl. RUCHISI CO~Sl~"l lSI 14.55

  2. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  3. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oak Brook, IL)

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  4. Three Dimensional Anodes and Architectures

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Baris Key (ANL), CEES-EFRC * Yi Cui (Stanford, SLAC), Stan Whittingham (SUNY), Gao Liu (LBNL) * Collaborations - R. Winarski, X. Xiao - APS tomography - Russell Cook (Electron...

  5. Intermetallic Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15Among States inFederal WatersPresentation

  6. Intermetallic Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15Among States inFederal WatersPresentation10

  7. Intermetallic Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15Among States inFederal

  8. Anode-supported tubular SOFCs based on BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3?? electrolyte fabricated by dip coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Changcheng; Liu, Mingfei; Bai, Yaohui; Yang, Lei; Xie, Erqing; Liu, Meilin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on a proton and oxide ion mixed conductor, BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.1}Yb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3 ? ?} (BZCYYb), have been fabricated using a dip coating and co-firing process. This new fabrication technique effectively reduced the Ohmic resistances of tubular cells to ~ 0.1 and ~ 0.3 ? cm{sup 2} at 750 and 600 °C, respectively. Typical tubular cells with Ni-BZCYYb anode, BZCYYb electrolyte, and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3 ? ?} (LSCF)-BZCYYb composite cathode demonstrated much-improved performance, achieving peak power densities of 1.13, 0.81, 0.63, and 0.53 W cm{sup ? 2} at 750, 700, 650, and 600 °C, respectively, when humidified (3 v% water vapor) hydrogen was used as fuel and ambient air as oxidant.

  9. Development of a Novel Efficient Solid-Oxide Hybrid for Co-generation of Hydrogen and Electricity Using Nearby Resources for Local Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg, G.; Virkar, Anil, V.; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Thangamani, Nithyanantham; Anderson, Harlan, U.; Brow, Richard, K.

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing safe, reliable, cost-effective, and efficient hydrogen-electricity co-generation systems is an important step in the quest for national energy security and minimized reliance on foreign oil. This project aimed to, through materials research, develop a cost-effective advanced technology cogenerating hydrogen and electricity directly from distributed natural gas and/or coal-derived fuels. This advanced technology was built upon a novel hybrid module composed of solid-oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), both of which were in planar, anode-supported designs. A SOFEC is an electrochemical device, in which an oxidizable fuel and steam are fed to the anode and cathode, respectively. Steam on the cathode is split into oxygen ions that are transported through an oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte (i.e. YSZ) to oxidize the anode fuel. The dissociated hydrogen and residual steam are exhausted from the SOFEC cathode and then separated by condensation of the steam to produce pure hydrogen. The rationale was that in such an approach fuel provides a chemical potential replacing the external power conventionally used to drive electrolysis cells (i.e. solid oxide electrolysis cells). A SOFC is similar to the SOFEC by replacing cathode steam with air for power generation. To fulfill the cogeneration objective, a hybrid module comprising reversible SOFEC stacks and SOFC stacks was designed that planar SOFECs and SOFCs were manifolded in such a way that the anodes of both the SOFCs and the SOFECs were fed the same fuel, (i.e. natural gas or coal-derived fuel). Hydrogen was produced by SOFECs and electricity was generated by SOFCs within the same hybrid system. A stand-alone 5 kW system comprising three SOFEC-SOFC hybrid modules and three dedicated SOFC stacks, balance-of-plant components (including a tailgas-fired steam generator and tailgas-fired process heaters), and electronic controls was designed, though an overall integrated system assembly was not completed because of limited resources. An inexpensive metallic interconnects fabrication process was developed in-house. BOP components were fabricated and evaluated under the forecasted operating conditions. Proof-of-concept demonstration of cogenerating hydrogen and electricity was performed, and demonstrated SOFEC operational stability over 360 hours with no significant degradation. Cost analysis was performed for providing an economic assessment of the cost of hydrogen production using the targeted hybrid technology, and for guiding future research and development.

  10. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Development of a High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in electrolysis mode) · Cathode: Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (anode) · Electrolyte: YSZ, 175 µm thickness-carbon-emitting technology utilizing heat from nuclear or solar sources. Table 4.1.7b. Technical Targets: High Temperature

  11. Development of large flow-type proportional counters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torline, Norbert Kevin

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . )2 13 ~ The minimum efficiency observed in the region of overlap of the proportional counters as a function of the amount of 1'k. Details of the installation of Kovar seal and tungsten wire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )8 vii LXST OF TABLES... proportional counters: (i) All counters are of the continuous gas flow-type a- described in the thesis by K. ~&!. Bull. 2 (2) All counters were constructed with brass cathodes and tungsten wire anodes, with bras" end plates and Kovar seal anode leads...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  13. Development of Thin Film Membrane Assemblies with Novel Nanostructured Electrocatalyst for Next Generation Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Generation Fuel Cells Abstract: While problems related to CO poisoning still exist for the anode, most to internal combustion and diesel engine transportation. The present Department of energy targets. Improved CO tolerance of the anode would lead to simpler CO management systems and decrease the power

  14. Universit degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" Dipartimento di Chimica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    . Progetto di ricerca: "Development of anodes alternative to lithium metal for lithium air batteries", per il

  15. Preparation and Exceptional Lithium Anodic Performance of Porous Carbon-Coated ZnO Quantum Dots Derived from a Metal-Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    batteries. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), a fast-developing technology area in electric energy storage be used in LIBs. As an example, metal oxides can potentially be substituted for graphite (370 mA h g-1

  16. Ecosystems and Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufford, Dan

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ecosystems and Sustainable Development Editors: J.L. Uso,Ecosystems and Sustainable Development. Southhampton, UK:ISBN: 1-85312-502-4. Sustainable development research is a

  17. Psychology of Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milfont, Taciano Lemos

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to achieve sustainable development: economic, environmental,Psychology of Sustainable Development By Peter Schmuck andPsychology of Sustainable Development. Norwell, MA: Kluwer

  18. Psychology of Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milfont, Taciano Lemos

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to achieve sustainable development: economic, environmental,out historical aspects of sustainable development and itsPsychology of Sustainable Development By Peter Schmuck and

  19. Ecosystems and Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufford, Dan

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Ecosystems and Sustainable Development Editors: J.L.Ecosystems and Sustainable Development. Southhampton, UK:as well. Ecosystems and Sustainable Development is a strong

  20. Perpetual Development Dror Feitelson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feitelson, Dror

    Perpetual Development Dror Feitelson Basic Seminar on Software Engineering Hebrew University 2009 it #12;Lifecycle Models Waterfall Spiral Unified process Agile / extreme Emphasize development till Requirements Feature requests #12;Perpetual Development Lifecycle time size initial development #12;Perpetual