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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Development and modelling of a solar assisted liquid desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the development and simulation of an advanced solar assisted liquid desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for ... regenerator, and an array of flat plate solar collectors. The sys...

Aqeel Kareem Mohaisen; Zhenjun Ma

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner October 4, 2013 - 4:40pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for liquid desiccant air conditioners (LDACs) within the Federal sector. Benefits Liquid desiccant air conditioners deeply dry air using natural gas, solar energy, waste heat, bio-fuel, or other fossil fuels to drive the system. By providing mostly latent cooling, the LDAC controls indoor humidity without overcooling and reheating. This unit is supplemented by an electric chiller or DX air conditioner that sensibly cools the building's recirculation air. The liquid desiccant is a concentrated salt solution that directly absorbs moisture. Application LDACs are applicable in hospital, office, prison, school, and service

3

Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

High performance liquid desiccant cooling system simulation at standard ARI conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? the experimental indirect evaporative cooler results liqdesc - the liquid desiccant solution room ? the conditioned space s ? desiccant solution tow, in - the inlet condition of the packed tower absorber tow, out ? the outlet condition of the packed tower... surface area of desiccant as well as to suspend the desiccant, which in turn exposes it to the air for a longer period of time. Humid air is blown counter currently from the bottom of the tower through the packing material and 16 Gas ]out Liquid...

McDonald, Brian Francis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

A model for a variable-volume, density-stratified, liquid desiccant storage tank.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A stratified, single-vessel liquid desiccant storage tank is an attractive option for the seasonal storage of solar energy. Maintaining stratified storage preserves the chemical energy… (more)

Mallinak, Jason

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Liquid Desiccants for a Hybrid Desiccant Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The candidate desiccants have toxicity ratings from moderate (LiC1) to low (CaC12) to relatively nontoxic (TEG). One measure of toxicity is the ID50 dose, which is the lethal dose that will result in fatality 60% of the time. Lithium chloride has an LD50..., thereby maintaining the deaiccant in solution. Table 2 Figures of Merit for Safety ID50 Relative Desiccant (02) Weight LiCl 1.23 7 LiBr 4.03 8 The saline desiccants are described aa odorless, while trietheylene glycol is described as having a mild...

Studak, J. W.; Peterson, J. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Retrofitting of Conditioning Systems for Existing Small Commercial Buildings - Analysis and Design of Liquid Desiccant - Vapor Compression Hybrid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RETROFITTING OF CONDITIONINC SYSTEMS FOR EXISTING SMALL COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS - ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF LIQUID DESICCANT - VAPOR COMPRESSION HYBRID Ozer A. Arnas Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Louisiana State University Baton... is combined with air heated passively in an attic to regenerate the desiccant. A prototype open-cycle, liquid desiccant dehumidification system has been adapted to the existing mechanical system of the building (Figure 1). Guidelines for retrofitting...

Arnas, O. A.; McQueen, T. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

11

Simulation and study of thermal performance of liquid desiccant cooling cycle configurations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: $ g(Beg~ 'i:1. ;, "?i C. F. K ttleborough (Chair of Committee) W. He n t (Member), H. Juvka -Wold (Member) G. P. Peterson (Head of Department...) May 1995 Major Subject. Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT Simulation and Study of Thermal Performance of Liquid Desiccant Cooling Cycle Configurations. (May 1995) Rajesh Dhir, B. S. , Poona University, India Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. F...

Dhir, Rajesh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

12

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system. DEVAP uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less

13

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system.

14

Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Zero Carryover A Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications Preprint A. Lowenstein AIL Research, Inc. S. Slayzak and E. Kozubal National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at ASME International Solar Energy Conference (ISEC2006) Denver, Colorado July 8-13, 2006 Conference Paper NREL/CP-550-39798 July 2006 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US Government and MRI retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

17

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

18

Energy consumption and optimization of internally cooled/heated liquid desiccant air-conditioning system: A case study in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract LDAC (liquid desiccant air-conditioning system) is promising for reducing the energy consumption, and improving the indoor air quality. In this paper, the operation performance of LDAC with internally cooled/heated dehumidifier/regenerator was simulated and optimized. The cooling tower and solar collectors were employed as the cooling/heating source. Four nested iteration loops were developed and solved for system modeling. A typical commercial building in Hong Kong was selected as a case study, which air-conditioning load was obtained by Energy-plus. Results show that with the increase of solar collector area, the electricity consumption of AC (air-conditioning systems) system reduced by 11–35% in original system, but only a part of dehumidification demand was handled with liquid desiccant ventilation, which led to a low chiller COP (coefficient of performance). By adding a cooling coil for the solution entering dehumidifier, the electricity saving effectively increased to 22–47%, while the heat demand for regeneration also increased by 17%. So, a heat exchanger between water leaving regenerator and solution leaving dehumidifier was introduced. With the lower thermal requirement (reduced by 20%) and higher solar fraction (increased from 30 to 40%), the saving further increased to 29–49%, and the required collector area obviously reduced by 50–60% for the similar energy saving purpose.

Ronghui Qi; Lin Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

Jalalzadeh, A. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Field development of a desiccant-based space-conditioning system for supermarket applications. Final report, February 1982-June 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The benefits associated with the use of gas-regenerated desiccant dehumidifiers in conjunction with electric-vapor-compression sensible cooling to provide space conditioning in supermarkets were evaluated. Data collected at two field installations were used for the assessment, in addition to the results of a computer program developed by Thermo Electron to simulate the loads and equipment performance in a supermarket. Both conventional humidity-level operation (47% relative humidity at 75F) and reduced store humidity level operation were evaluated for the desiccant-based system. Reductions in food refrigeration-system electric consumption with reduced store humidities were experimentally verified at both field sites. The use of desiccant dehumidifier hybrid space-conditioning systems produced operating cost savings over all electric vapor-compression systems in climates of moderate and high humidities.

Cohen, B.M.; Manley, D.L.; Arora, R.; Levine, A.H.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Field development of a desiccant-based space-conditioning system for supermarket applications. Annual report, February 1982-January 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of gas-regenerated desiccant dehumidification systems to provide space-conditioning for supermarkets was investigated. A silica gel-based dehumidification system and related components were installed in a Jewel supermarket as an adjunct to the conventional vapor-compression air-conditioning system. Instrumentation was installed to monitor this hybrid system and to allow performance comparisons with the conventional vapor-compression system operating alone. Data collected were used to develop load models for the building and to correlate indoor and ambient conditions to the energy consumption by the air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. The expected reduction in refrigeration energy consumption with decreasing store humidities was verified. The load models were used in conjunction with system characteristics to obtain cooling season cost projections for both systems operating under different conditions. Initial estimates indicate that payback periods of the hybrid system could be under 1 year.

Cohen, B.M.; Levine, A.H.; Arora, R.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Experiments on sorption hysteresis of desiccant materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid desiccant cooling systems take advantage of solar energy for air conditioning. The process involves passing air through a desiccant bed for drying and subsequent evaporative cooling to provide the air conditioning. The desiccant is then regenerated with hot air provided by a gas burner or solar collectors. This performance is limited by the capacity of the desiccant, its sorption properties, and the long-term stability of the desiccant material under cyclic operation conditions. Therefore, we have developed a versatile test facility to measure the sorption properties of candidate solid desiccant materials under dynamic conditions, under different geometrical configurations, and under a broad range of process air stream conditions, characteristic of desiccant dehumidifer operation. We identified a dependence of the sorption processes on air velocity and the test cell aspect ratio and the dynamic hysteresis between adsorption and desorption processes. These experiments were geared to provide data on the dynamic performance of silica gel in a parallel-passage configuration to prepare for tests with a rotary dehumidifier that will be conducted at SERI in late FY 1984. We also recommend improving the accuracy of the isotopic perturbation technique.

Pesaran, A.; Zangrando, F.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator" ... Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. ... Cost-Effective Teacher ...

Frederick Sweet

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas...

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

An assessment of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desiccant systems are heat-actuated cooling and dehumidification technology. With the recent advances in this technology, desiccant systems can now achieve a primary energy coefficient of performance (COP) between 1.3 and 1.5, with potential to go to 1.7 and higher. It is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to conventional cooling systems. Two important and well-known advantages of desiccant cooling systems are that they are CFC free and they can reduce the electricity peak load. Another important but lesser-known advantage of desiccant technology is its potential for energy conservation. The energy impact study in this report indicated that a possible 13% energy saving in residential cooling and 8% in commercial cooling is possible. Great energy saving potential also exists in the industrial sector if industrial waste heat can be used for desiccant regeneration. The latest study on desiccant-integrated building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems indicated that the initial cost for the conventional cooling equipment was greatly reduced by using desiccant technology because of downsized compressors, fans, and ductworks. This cost reduction was more than enough to offset the cost of desiccant equipment. Besides, the system operation cost was also reduced. All these indicate that desiccant systems are also cost effective. This study provides an updated state-of-the-art assessment forsiccant technology in the field of desiccant materials, systems, computer models, and theoretical analyses. From this information the technology options were derived and the future research and development needs were identified. Because desiccant technology has already been applied in the commercial building sector with very encouraging results, it is expected that future market breakthroughs will probably start in this sector. A market analysis for the commercial building application is therefore included.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Lavan, Z. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Collier, R.K. Jr. (Collier Engineering Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States)); Meckler, G. (Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C., Herndon, VA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

A review of desiccant dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper overviews applications of desiccant technology for dehumidifying commercial and institutional buildings. Because of various market, policy, and regulatory factors, this technology is especially attractive for dehumidification applications in the 1990s. After briefly reviewing the principle of operation, the authors present three case studies-for supermarkets, a hotel, and an office building. The authors also discuss recent advances and ongoing research and development activities.

Pesaran, A.A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Optimizing Development Strategy for Liquid Dominated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to optimize development strategy. The factors which are most influential on the cost of geothermal development development. Staging geothermal development reduces the risk of oversizing the plant but creates costly delaysSGP-TR-90 Optimizing Development Strategy for Liquid Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs John Andrew

Stanford University

30

Review of Desiccant Dehumidification Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper overviews applications of desiccant technology for dehumidifying commercial and institutional buildings. Because of various market, policy, and regulatory factors, this technology is especially attractive for dehumidification applications in the I990s.

Pesaran, A. A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Advanced Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The concept of staged regeneration as means of improving the desiccant cooling system performance is the subject of investigation in this study. In the staged regeneration, the regeneration section of desiccant dehumidifier is divided into two parts...

Ko, Y. J.; Charoensupaya, D.; Lavan, Z.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pressure exerted by the water vapor (in equilibrium...solutes in solution. The water vapor content of air...they often lead to a condensation of water. For example, early...pure liquid water at atmospheric pressure and at the...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

ccsd00001732, Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water with a melted NaCl is used as a test liquid. The liquid plasma is produced by the fundamental waveccsd­00001732, version 2 ­ 7 Nov 2004 Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by YAG laser the hazardous material called the environment material. Then, the plasma produced in liquid by the laser light

34

Monitoring Vadose Zone Desiccation with Geophysical Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil desiccation was recently field tested as a potential vadose zone remediation technology. Desiccation removes water from the vadose zone and significantly decreases the aqueous-phase permeability of the desiccated zone, thereby decreasing movement of moisture and contaminants. The 2-D and 3-D distribution of moisture content reduction over time provides valuable information for desiccation operations and for determining when treatment goals have been reached. This type of information can be obtained through use of geophysical methods. Neutron moisture logging, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar approaches were evaluated with respect to their ability to provide effective spatial and temporal monitoring of desiccation during a treatability study conducted in the vadose zone of the DOE Hanford Site in WA.

Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Demonstration and testing of an all-electric desiccant dehumidifying system at a New Jersey supermarket  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel all-electric desiccant dehumidifying system was demonstrated and evaluated at a supermarket field test site in New Jersey during 1995. Unlike traditional desiccant systems, this system uses waste heat from vapor-compression refrigerating condensers to regenerate a recently developed desiccant material. The 7,000-cfm (3,300-L/s) unit has a latent capacity of approximately 7 tons (25 kW), with fan energy as the only purchased energy source. This paper discusses the performance of the desiccant system under field conditions and its interactions with the refrigerating and conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Results indicate that the system is three to four times more efficient for moisture removal than a conventional HVAC system with no deleterious effects on refrigerating system operations.

Brandemuehl, M.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Joint Center for Energy Management; Khattar, M.K. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development - Nuclear Engineering Division  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

> Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development > Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Nuclear Data Program Advanced Reactor Development Overview Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Generation IV Nuclear Waste Form and Repository Performance Modeling Nuclear Energy Systems Design and Development Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Advanced Reactor Development and Technology Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Bookmark and Share STAR-LM: Simplified, Modular, Small Reactor Featuring Flow-thru Fuel Cartridge STAR-LM: Simplified, Modular, Small Reactor Featuring Flow-thru Fuel Cartridge. Click on image to view larger image. Argonne has traditionally been the foremost institute in the US for

37

Experiments on sorption characteristics of solid desiccant materials for solar desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test facility for measuring the sorption properties of candidate solid desiccant materials under dynamic conditions as well as equilibrium conditions, those experienced during desiccant dehumidifier operation, was constructed and tested. The theory of perturbation chromatography was initially used to measure the equilibrium properties of a desiccant/water-vapor system for the first time. Silica gel, molecular sieve, and gamma-manganese dioxide were tested. The equilibrium capacity estimated by the perturbation chromatography was lower than those available in literature, which suggests that perturbation chromatography may not be applicable to desiccant/water-vapor systems. The perturbation chromatography was replaced with a gravimetric technique, and satisfactory results were obtained for a water-vapor/molecular-sieve system.

Pesaran, A.A.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Application of a solar desiccant/collector system for water recovery from atmospheric air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An integrated desiccant/solar collector system for production of fresh water from atmospheric air is described. The solar driven system provided about 1.5 l of fresh water per square meter per day. The system involves the absorption of water vapor from ambient air during the night and simultaneous desiccant regeneration and water vapor condensation during the day. To enhance the mass transfer surface, a thick corrugated layer of cloth was used as a bed to carry the liquid absorbent. In the nocturnal phase of operation, air is allowed to penetrate the desiccant bed. The airflow is driven by fans supported on one side of the desiccant/solar collector unit. In this study, the effects of different parameters on the absorption and regeneration processes are discussed, and operational conditions for the proposed equipment evaluated. Radiation intensity, ambient temperature, bed temperature and temperature of the glass surface were recorded. Also, the productivity of the system during the day and under the given operation conditions was plotted. A mathematical model was prepared and its output compared with the analyzed experimental data.

H.E Gad; A.M Hamed; I.I El-Sharkawy

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Effect of Desiccation Cracks on Earth Embankments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................................. 4 1.4 Methodology ........................................................................................ 6 1.5 Summary .............................................................................................. 8 1.6 Layout... geometry recorded in literature ..... 17 2.5 Desiccation crack behavior during drying-wetting cycles ................... 29 2.6 Flow through a single crack ................................................................. 30 2.7 Flow through a...

Khandelwal, Siddharth

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

40

Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wipke, K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Dehydration of natural gas using solid desiccants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas is an important source of primary energy that, under normal production conditions, is saturated with water vapor. Water vapor increases natural gases' corrosivity, especially when acid gases are present. Several methods can be used to dry natural gas and, in this paper, a solid desiccant dehydrator using silica gel is considered due to its ability to provide extremely low dew points. The design analysis of a two-tower, silica gel dehydration unit to dry one million standard m3 of natural gas per day is presented in this paper and the effects of various operating parameters on the design of the unit are discussed. The study also covers the analysis of energy requirements for the regeneration of the weak desiccant bed based on some simplified assumptions and it is found that the higher the regeneration temperature, the smaller are the required quantities of regeneration gas.

P Gandhidasan; Abdulghani A Al-Farayedhi; Ali A Al-Mubarak

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Application of Desiccant Drying in Plastic Molding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATION OF DESICCANT DRYING IN PLASTIC MOLDING Michael Brown, P.E. Greg Connors, P.E. Douglas Moore, P.E. Senior Research Engr. Industrial Engr. Senior Research Engr. Ga. Tech Research Inst. Atlanta Gas Light Co. Ga. Tech Research Inst... will condense on refrigerated display doors. In ice rinks, condensation will occur on the ice surface causing it to soften if the humidity too high. In plastic molding, chilled water is provi ed to rapidly cool the finished parts. Cooling incr...

Brown, M.; Connors, G.; Moore, D.

43

Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies), January 2004  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Desiccant technology and applications, and designing them for utilization of available thermal energy in a combined heat and power (CHP) system.

44

Development of a Very Dense Liquid Cooled Compute Platform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to design and develop a prototype very energy efficient high density compute platform with 100% pumped refrigerant liquid cooling using commodity components and high volume manufacturing techniques. Testing at SLAC has indicated that we achieved a DCIE of 0.93 against our original goal of 0.85. This number includes both cooling and power supply and was achieved employing some of the highest wattage processors available.

Hughes, Phillip N.; Lipp, Robert J.

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

45

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Speaker(s): Chadi Maalouf Date: December 2, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Peng Xu Increased living standards and high occupants comfort demands lead to a growth in air conditioning market. This results in high energy consumption and high CO2 emissions. For these reasons, the solar desiccant cooling system is proposed as an alternative to traditional air conditioning systems. This system comprises a desiccant wheel containing Lithium Chloride in tandem with a rotating heat exchanger and two humidifiers on both supply and return air. The required regeneration temperature for the desiccant wheel varies between 40oC and 70oC which makes possible the use

46

Desiccant bed on hydrocarbon charged to and removed from underground (salt) cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hydrocarbon fluid storage system is described which consists of in operable conjunction: a cavern formed within an underground salt strata below a ground surface, the cavern comprises a lower liquid volume of saturated sodium chloride storage brine and an upper fluid volume of wet hydrocarbon storage fluid, surface fluid handling means; conduit connecting the lower storage brine and upper storage hydrocarbon fluid with the surface fluid handling means, of fluid transfer means enabling transfer of brine and hydrocarbon fluid from the surface to the cavern and from the cavern to the surface, such that brine can be added to or withdrawn from the lower brine volume and hydrocarbon fluids can be added to or withdrawn from the upper hydrocarbon fluid volume, and at least one desiccant drier means positioned at the surface in operable association with the surface fluid handling means whereby the wet hydrocarbon fluid upon withdrawal from the cavern passes through the desiccant drier means and thereby becomes dry, and dry hydrocarbon fluid intended for storage passes through the desiccant drier prior to entering the storage cavern and thereby becomes wet.

Washer, S.P.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

47

Recent developments on Air Liquide advanced technologies turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air Liquide Advanced Technologies has developed for more than 40 years turboexpanders mainly for hydrogen and helium liquefiers and refrigerators and has in total more than 600 references of cryogenic turbo-expanders and cold compressors. The latest developments are presented in this paper. The key motivation of these developments is to improve the efficiency of the machines and also to widen the range of operation. New impellers have been designed for low and high powers the operation range is now between 200W and 200kW. The thrust bearings have been characterized in order to maximize the load which can be withstood and to increase the turbo-expander cold power. Considering low power machines 3D open wheels have been designed and machined in order to increase the adiabatic efficiencies. A new type of machine a turbobooster for methane liquefaction has been designed manufactured and tested at AL-AT test facility.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Natural gas dehydration by desiccant materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water vapor in a natural gas stream can result in line plugging due to hydrate formation, reduction of line capacity due to collection of free water in the line, and increased risk of damage to the pipeline due to the corrosive effects of water. Therefore, water vapor must be removed from natural gas to prevent hydrate formation and corrosion from condensed water. Gas dehydration is the process of removing water vapor from a gas stream to lower the temperature at which water will condense from the stream; this temperature is called the “dew point” of the gas. Molecular sieves are considered as one of the most important materials that are used as desiccant materials in industrial natural gas dehydration. This work shows a study of natural gas dehydration using 3A molecular sieve as a type of solid desiccant materials, the scope of this work was to build up a pilot scale unit for a natural gas dehydration as simulation of actual existing plant for Egyptian Western Desert Gas Company (WDGC). The effect of different operating conditions (water vapor concentration and gas flow rate) on dehydration of natural gas was studied. The experimental setup consists of cylinder filled with 3A molecular sieve to form a fixed bed, then pass through this bed natural gas with different water vapor concentration, The experimental setup is fitted with facilities to control bed pressure, flow rate, measure water vapor concentration and bed temperature, a gas heater was used to activate molecular sieve bed. Increasing water vapor concentration in inlet feed gas leads to a marked decrease in dehydration efficiency. As expected, a higher inlet flow rate of natural gas decrease dehydration efficiency. Increasing feed pressure leads to higher dehydration efficiency.

Hassan A.A. Farag; Mustafa Mohamed Ezzat; Hoda Amer; Adel William Nashed

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Analysis of a Fabric/Desiccant Window Cavity Dehumidifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of a fabric/desiccant window cavity dehumidifier system for possible use in commercial buildings. The objective was to evaluate fabrics commonly used in buildings, and system concepts...

Hunn, B. D.; Grasso, M. M.; Vadlamani, V.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Weed control and desiccation strategies in chickpea Executive Summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-harvest desiccation. Studies were conducted at Minot and Williston, ND and Bozeman, MT from 2002-2004. Sulfentrazone to excellent control of kochia, redroot pigweed, and wild buckwheat. At Williston, sulfentrazone alone, tank

Lawrence, Rick L.

51

Field Test of Combined Desiccant-Evaporator Cycle Providing Lower Dew Points and Enhanced Dehumidification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field Test of Combined Desiccant-Evaporator Cycle Providing Lower Dew Points and Enhanced Dehumidification Charles J. Cromer, PhD, P.E.; Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL, 321-638-1445, charlie... of difficult criteria, some with more success than others. Combined Cycle with Desiccant and AC Coil This paper describes the field testing of a novel air conditioning desiccant cycle. This cycle uses a desiccant to move moisture within the air...

Cromer, C. J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

53

(Liquid metal reactor/fast breeder reactor research and development)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The second meeting of the UJCC was held in Japan on June 6--8, 1990. The first day was devoted to presentations of the status of the US and Japanese Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) programs and the status of specific areas of cooperative work. Briefly, the Japanese are following the FBR development program which has been in place since the 1970s. This program includes an FBR test reactor (JOYO), a pilot-scale reactor (MONJU), a demonstration-scale plant, and commercial-scale plants by about 2020. The US program has been redirected toward an actinide recycle mission using metal fuel and pyroprocessing of spent fuel to recovery both Pu and the higher actinides for return to the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR). The second day was spent traveling from Tokyo to Tsuruga for a tour of the MONJU reactor. The tour was especially interesting. The third day was spent writing the minutes of the meeting and the return trip to Tokyo.

Homan, F.J.

1990-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

54

Moving Advanced Desiccant Materials into Mainstream Non-CFC Cooling Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desiccant air-conditioning systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air-conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building. Recent breakthroughs in desiccant materials technology and the creation of new markets by Indoor Air Quality issues make desiccant-based air-conditioning equipment practical for many space-conditioning applications.

Sand, J R [ORNL; Grossman, G [ORNL; Rice, C K [ORNL; Fairchild, P D [ORNL; Gross, I L [Engelhard/ICC

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

ccsd-00001732,version2-7Nov2004 Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ccsd-00001732,version2-7Nov2004 Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by YAG laser Jun called the environment material. Then, the plasma produced in liquid by the laser light is studied and the plasma development is observed by a streak camera. The ultra pure water or the ultra pure water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Teaching Sustainable Development Concepts in the Laboratory: A Solid–Liquid Extraction Experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Teaching Sustainable Development Concepts in the Laboratory: A Solid–Liquid Extraction Experiment ... One of the principles of sustainable development is to replace chemicals traditionally derived from oil with alternative, renewable materials. ...

Juan Carlos Parajó; Herminia Domínguez; Valentín Santos; José Luis Alonso; Gil Garrote

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Energy and economic performance analysis of an open cycle solar desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for application in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, a transient simulation model and the EnergyPlus were used to study the energy performance and economical feasibility for integrating a solar liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a conventional vapor compression air-conditioning system for the weather condition of Hong Kong. The vapor compression system capacity in the solar assisted air-conditioning system can be reduced to 19 kW from original 28 kW of a conventional air-conditioning system as a case study due to the solar desiccant cooling. The economical performance of the solar desiccant dehumidification system is compared with that of the conventional air-conditioning system. The results show that the energy saving potentials due to incorporation of the solar desiccant dehumidification system in a traditional air-conditioning system is significant for the hot wet weather in Hong Kong due to higher COP resulted from higher supply chilled water temperature from chiller plants. The annual operation energy savings for the hybrid system is 6760 kWh and the payback period of the hybrid system is around 7 years. The study shows that the solar assisted air-conditioning is a viable technology for utilizations in subtropical areas.

Yutong Li; Lin Lu; Hongxing Yang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Desiccant Moisture Exchange for Dehumidification Enhancement of Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* -led use of this inprarrPd air mtianer cycle with dssicrants will met likely occur in the cammrcial sector bbm desiccants are acmnonly IaKWn end the potential for savimy is greatar. Cne patential amnercial a~plication where the humidity pmblm...

Cromer, C. J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

International Congress Refrigeration 2003, Washington, DC ACTIVE DESICCANT INTEGRATION WITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTEGRATION WITH PACKAGED ROOFTOP HVAC EQUPMENT James R. Sand , John C. Fischer* Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL requirements for fresh air ventilation standards with continuous supply and increased amounts of building standard. Integration of a rooftop, unitary air conditioner with an active-desiccant module (ADM) allows

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

60

Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to regenerate the desiccant. Field experiments of two humidity pumps on existing commercial buildings have been initiated. Each system dehumidifies 5000 scfm of make-up air to meet all the latent loads, which is then fed to conventional, electric-driven HVAC...

Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing, April 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing

62

Liquid metal MHD experimental activities for LLCB TBM development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In Indian Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) blanket concept, Lead–Lithium (Pb–Li) liquid metal is used to extract heat from its own bulk volume and also from the neighboring solid breeder zones. The moderate flow velocity of Pb–Li inside the module can be significantly modified due to MHD effects, which arise because of the presence of strong toroidal magnetic field. Recently, two MHD experiments have been jointly carried out at Institute of Physics, University of Latvia (IPUL) with hot Pb–Li (?350 ?C) as the working fluid under a strong transverse magnetic field of up to ?4.0 T. The uncoated test sections are made of SS316L material and consist of LLCB TBM relevant flow geometries, such as rectangular and circular flow cross-sections, 90? bends, rectangular to circular flow transition region. The details of the liquid metal MHD experimental set up and experimental results are discussed in this paper.

Rajendraprasad Bhattacharyay; Anita Patel; Rajendrakumar Ellappan; Pravat K. Swain; Polepalle Satyamurthy; Sushil Kumar; Sergei Ivanov; Andrew Shishko; Erik Platacis; Anatoli Ziks

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed.

Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Farnum, E.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Vitkovski, I.V. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). MHD-Machines Lab.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, January--February 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

65

An Update in the Development of Alternate Liquid Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is classified by the U.S. Department of Energy as a non-critical or preferred fuel. 2. It is a cost effective high yield BTU fuel that can be produced with readily available feedstocks utilizing standard hardware and processing equipment. j 3. It has a low... for the disposal of spent industrial (flammable) liquids. 5. Certified laboratory analyses indicate that ALF feedstocks are free of all known carcinogens, and hazardous elements. 6. Utilization of ALF can provide a 20% business energy tax credit, in addition...

Rose, M. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded a five-year (1997-2002) grant (Mohan and Shoham, DE-FG26-97BC15024, 1997) to The University of Tulsa, to develop compact multiphase separation components for 3-phase flow. The research activities of this project have been conducted through cost sharing by the member companies of the Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) research consortium and the Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology (OCAST). As part of this project, several individual compact separation components have been developed for onshore and offshore applications. These include gas-liquid cylindrical cyclones (GLCC{copyright}), liquid-liquid cylindrical cyclones (LLCC{copyright}), and the gas-liquid-liquid cylindrical cyclones (GLLCC{copyright}). A detailed study has also been completed for the liquid-liquid hydrocyclones (LLHC). Appropriate control strategies have been developed for proper operation of the GLCC{copyright} and LLCC{copyright}. Testing of GLCC{copyright} at high pressure and real crude conditions for field applications is also completed. Limited studies have been conducted on flow conditioning devices to be used upstream of the compact separators for performance improvement. This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the 5-year project period, October 1, 1997-March 31, 2003 (including the no-cost extended period of 6 months). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the 5-year budget periods. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section, followed by relevant references. The publications resulting from this study in the form of MS Theses, Ph.D. Dissertation, Journal Papers and Conference Presentations are provided at the end of this report.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

67

Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet) Alan Robock­October for 141 stations from fields with either winter or spring cereals from the Ukraine for 1958­2002. We-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet), Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L

Robock, Alan

68

Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a minimum of 11.2 for a 10-ton commercially packaged air-cooled unit (ASHRAE 2010). Energy savings are expected to be greater than indicated by the IEER effective measurement,...

69

Honeywell developing low-GWP liquid blowing agent for foam insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Honeywell reports that it is developing a new blowing agent with low global warming potential (GWP) for energy-efficient polyurethane foam insulation. The non-flammable liquid blowing agent will provide customers with an alternative to hydrocarbons and traditional hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and assist customers in reducing the overall environmental impact of foam, the company says.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (R-NMRI) of desiccation in M9787 silicone pads.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production and aging of silicone materials remains an important issue in the weapons stockpile due to their utilization in a wide variety of components and systems within the stockpile. Changes in the physical characteristics of silicone materials due to long term desiccation has been identified as one of the major aging effects observed in silicone pad components. Here we report relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (R-NMRI) spectroscopy characterization of the silica-filled and unfilled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polydiphenylsiloxane (PDPS) copolymer (M9787) silicone pads within desiccating environments. These studies were directed at providing additional details about the heterogeneity of the desiccation process. Uniform NMR spin-spin relaxation time (T2) images were observed across the pad thickness indicating that the drying process is approximately uniform, and that the desiccation of the M9787 silicone pad is not a H2O diffusion limited process. In a P2O5 desiccation environment, significant reduction of T2 was observed for the silica-filled and unfilled M9787 silicone pad for desiccation up to 225 days. A very small reduction in T2 was observed for the unfilled copolymer between 225 and 487 days. The increase in relative stiffness with desiccation was found to be higher for the unfilled copolymer. These R-NMRI results are correlated to local changes in the modulus of the material

Alam, Todd M; Cherry, Brian Ray; Alam, Mary Kathleen

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

72

Development of hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading technologies for lipid-extracted algae conversion to liquid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available experimental results. The system assumed an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric tons/day and that the feedstock was converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrated that HTL and upgrading is effective for converting LEA to liquid fuels. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent (GGE) and the overall energy efficiency on a higher heating value (HHV) basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The variation range of the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $2.07 to $7.11/GGE by combining the effects of selected process factors. Key factors affecting the production cost were identified to be the LEA feedstock cost, final products yields, and the upgrading equipment cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

Yunhua Zhu; Karl O. Albrecht; Douglas C. Elliott; Richard T. Hallen; Susanne B. Jones

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Effects of chemical desiccation and early harvesting on Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seed germination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted at two locations over two years in Texas. Objectives of these experiments were to study effects of chemical desiccation and seed maturity at harvest on sorghum seed germination. Sorghum plants were...

Gouveia, Sergio

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Improving Gas-Fired Heat Pump Capacity and Performance by Adding a Desiccant Dehumidification Subsystem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capacity 50%. Increased initial manufacturing costs are estimated at around $500/ton ($142/kW) for volume production. This cost Level is expected to reduce the total initial cost per ton compared to a system without the desiccant subsystem....

Parsons, B. K.; Pesaran, A. A.; Bharathan, D.; Shelpuk, B. C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

27.1 / V. G. Chigrinov 27.1: Invited Paper: New Developments in Liquid Crystal Photo-Aligning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

27.1 / V. G. Chigrinov 27.1: Invited Paper: New Developments in Liquid Crystal Photo Incorporated, Japan Abstract Liquid crystal photo-alignment using azo-dyes is reviewed. This alignment method is very different from previously reported ones, such as photo-crosslinking, photo degradation and photo

76

What`s new in building energy research - desiccant cooling program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems are energy efficient, cost effective, and environmentally safe. They are used as stand-alone systems or with conventional air-conditioning to improve the indoor air quality of all types of buildings. In these systems, a desiccant removes moisture from the air, which releases heat and increases the air temperature. The dry air is cooled using either evaporative cooling or the cooling coils of a conventional air conditioner. The absorbed moisture in the desiccant is then removed (the desiccant is regenerated, or brought back to its original dry state) using thermal energy supplied by natural gas, electricity, waste heat, or the sun. Commercially available desiccants include silica gel, activated alumina, natural and synthetic zeolites, lithium chloride, and synthetic polymers. Currently, desiccant cooling and dehumidification are being used successfully in industrial and some commercial applications. The Office of Building Technologies in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is working with industry to broaden the market for desiccant cooling so its full energy savings and indoor air quality improvement potential can be realized. The main goals of the Desiccant Cooling Program are to (1) Reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 5 million tons (4.5 million metric tons) annually by 2005 and 18 million tons (16.3 million metric tons) annually by 2010. (2) Reduce energy consumption by 0.1 quad (105.5 petajoules) annually by 2005 and 0.3 quad (316.5 petajoules) annually by 2010. (3) Capture 5% of the air-conditioning market by 2005 and 15% by 2010.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the diameter and depth of the wheel, face flow velocity, rotational speed and other operating conditions. Bulk et al. [11] proposed NTU correlations for design calculation of latent and total effectiveness of enthalpy wheels coated with silica gel..., Wr Te1,We1 Space Fig.2. Passive desiccant system Enthalpy wheels normally use an aluminum substrate coated with a molecular sieve material or silica gel. The effectiveness of an enthalpy wheel depends on the load of desiccant materials...

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Effects of UV-B Radiation and Periodic Desiccation on the Morphogenesis of the Edible Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microbial Ecology Effects of UV-B Radiation and Periodic Desiccation on...flagelliforme under low UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation...Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). RESULTS Effects of UV-B...regardless of 0.1 W m2 UV-B radiation (Fig. 3a). Furthermore...

Yan-Na Feng; Zhong-Chun Zhang; Jun-Li Feng; Bao-Sheng Qiu

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Development of a Polarizable Intermolecular Potential Function (PIPF) for Liquid Amides and Alkanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Supercomputing Institute, Digital Technology Center, UniVersity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 and for liquid amides through molecular dynamics simulations. The computed heats of vaporization and liquid amides. Furthermore, the computed polarization energies contribute to the total intermolecular

Minnesota, University of

82

Spatially resolved x-ray studies of liquid crystals with strongly developed bond-orientational order  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an x-ray study of freely suspended hexatic films of the liquid crystal 3(10)OBC. Our results reveal spatial inhomogeneities of the bond-orientational (BO) order in the vicinity of the hexatic-smectic phase transition and the formation of large scale hexatic domains at lower temperatures. Deep in the hexatic phase up to 25 successive sixfold BO order parameters have been directly determined by means of angular x-ray cross-correlation analysis (XCCA). Such strongly developed hexatic order allowed us to determine higher order correction terms in the scaling relation predicted by the multicritical scaling theory over a full temperature range of the hexatic phase existence.

I. A. Zaluzhnyy; R. P. Kurta; E. A. Sulyanova; O. Y. Gorobtsov; A. G. Shabalin; A. V. Zozulya; A. P. Menushenkov; M. Sprung; B. I. Ostrovskii; I. A. Vartanyants

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

83

Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet) Alan Robock of Maryland, College Park 4 Ukrainian Research Institute for Environment and Resources, Kiev, Ukraine 5 Agrometeorology Department, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Centre, Kiev, Ukraine Submitted to Geophysical Research

Robock, Alan

84

Effects of heat and mass transport on the hydrodynamics and stability of liquid desiccant films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the formation of the ice on the cooling coil due to thedelay the formation of ice on the cooling coil. An internalthe formation of ice on the cooling coil, thus reducing the

Pineda Vargas, Sergio Manuel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A large share of energy consumption is taken by an air-conditioning system. It worsens the electricity load of the power network. Therefore, more and more scholars are paying attention to research on new types of air-conditioning systems...

Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Liquid-Liquid Separation Process: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-362  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 3M Company, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and others, will develop the concept of the membrane solvent-extraction (MSE) technology for water removal and verify the technology at a pilot scale for bio-ethanol production to increase energy and water savings.

Schell, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Review of In-Service Inspection and Repair Technique Developments for French Liquid Metal Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-service monitoring of nuclear plants is indispensable for both the Operator and the Regulator. The notion of in-service monitoring ranges from the continuous monitoring of the reactor in operation to the thorough in-service reactor inspection during programmed shutdowns. However, the highly specific environment found in French liquid metal fast reactor plants - Phenix and Superphenix - makes monitoring and inspection complicated because of the use of a sodium coolant that is hot, opaque, and difficult to drain.The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in collaboration with its traditional French partners, Electricite de France utilities and FRAMATOME/Novatome Engineering, decided to conduct a 6-yr research and development program (1994-2000) to explore this problem vis-a-vis Superphenix, as well as the possibilities of intervening within the reactor block or on components in a sodium environment. Furthermore, the safety reevaluation of Phenix, conducted between 1994 and 2003, represented an excellent 'test bench' during which the limits of inspection processes - applied to an integrated reactor concept - were surpassed using techniques such as fuel subassembly head scanning, ultrasonic examination of the core support, and visual inspection of the cover-gas plenum following a partial sodium draining. Repair techniques were investigated for cleaning of sodium wet structure surfaces, cutting of damaged parts, and welding in sodium aerosol atmosphere. Both conventional and laser processes were tested.

Baque, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed.

Momozaki, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

90

Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil fuel; and on the other hand, it provides a means for ''exporting'' geothermal energy from the well site. The primary goal of the work discussed in this report was to investigate the effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. In assessing the relative merits of various sets of conditions, we considered both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, we also investigated the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge. Phenol was selected for study because it was reported (8) to be effective in suppressing repolymerization of reactive lignin fragments. Aluminum sulfate, on the other hand, was chosen as a representative of the Lewis acids which, we hoped, would catalyze the delignification reactions.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

Miyashita, Yasushi

92

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization was done over a two day period in June 2011, and confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

93

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water ({approximately}40 Im), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, the Advanced Technologies Group of Thermo Power Corporation (a Thermo Electron company) is developing a real-time, field-deployable alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (US Patent 5,652,013 and pending, assigned to the US Department of Energy). The Thermo Water Alpha Monitor will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium, and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This report details the program's accomplishments to date. Most significantly, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument was successfully field demonstrated on water 100X below the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed safe drinking water limit--down to under 1 pCi/1. During the Field Test, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument successfully analyzed isotopic uranium levels on a total of five different surface water, process water, and ground water streams (the primary water types of interest to the DOE). As an example of the user demand for such an analytical instrument, a portion of the Field Test for the Alpha Monitoring Instrument was on the DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation, at two test locations in the Y-12 Site's Bear Creek Valley.

Unknown

1999-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

94

Design, Installation, and Field Verification of Integrated Active Desiccant Hybrid Rooftop Systems Combined with a Natural Gas Driven Cogeneration Package, 2008  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Report summary of a research/demonstration project involving a custom 230 kW cogeneration package with four integrated active desiccant rooftop (IADR) systems

95

Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO3, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair.

MacDonal, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; Ruiz, Julio de; Soundararajan, Balaji; Smith, Morgan; Coulson, Wendy

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Analysis of solar desiccant cooling system for an institutional building in subtropical Queensland, Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Institutional buildings contain different types of functional spaces which require different types of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In addition, institutional buildings should be designed to maintain an optimal indoor comfort condition with minimal energy consumption and minimal negative environmental impact. Recently there has been a significant interest in implementing desiccant cooling technologies within institutional buildings. Solar desiccant cooling systems are reliable in performance, environmentally friendly and capable of improving indoor air quality at a lower cost. In this study, a solar desiccant cooling system for an institutional building in subtropical Queensland (Australia) is assessed using TRNSYS 16 software. This system has been designed and installed at the Rockhampton campus of Central Queensland University. The system's technical performance, economic analysis, energy savings, and avoided gas emission are quantified in reference to a conventional HVAC system under the influence of Rockhampton's typical meteorological year. The technical and economic parameters that are used to assess the system's viability are: coefficient of performance (COP), solar fraction, life cycle analysis, payback period, present worth factor and the avoided gas emission. Results showed that, the installed cooling system at Central Queensland University which consists of 10 m2 of solar collectors and a 0.400 m3 of hot water storage tank, achieved a 0.7 COP and 22% of solar fraction during the cooling season. These values can be boosted to 1.2 COP and 69% respectively if 20 m2 of evacuated tube collector's area and 1.5 m3 of solar hot water storage volume are installed.

Ali M. Baniyounes; Gang Liu; M.G. Rasul; M.M.K. Khan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Development of a High-Power Coaxial Pulse Tube Refrigerator for a Liquid Xenon Calorimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-power coaxial pulse tube refrigerator has been designed, fabricated and tested to meet the requirements of liquefaction and re-condensation of xenon gas for a large liquid xenon calorimeter. A feature of this pulse tube refrigerator is that a cylindrical regenerator placed inside of the pulse tube for space saving and easy fabrication. It provides a cooling power of 70 W at 165 K by using a 2.2 kW GM-type compressor. The cooling power performance up to 120 W using a much larger compressor was also tested. The outer cylinder is a stainless steel pipe of 60 mm diameter, 180 mm in length and 0.5 mm in thickness. The regenerator consists of about 900 disk sheets of no. 300 stainless steel mesh packed in a Bakelite tube.

Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Inoue, H. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mihara, S. [ICEPP, International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsubara, Y. [Nihon University, 7-24-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan)

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

The development and operational testing of an experimental reactor for gas-liquid-solid reaction systems at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shaft. With the impeller in place and rotating, gas was drawn into the top port and ejected at the impeller mount. The reactor pressure was monitored via the transducer port. The transducer was a Viatran Pressure Transducer, model 103. The liquid...THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES A Thesis by RICHARD KENNETH HESS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial...

Hess, Richard Kenneth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

Waste Form Development for the Solidification of PDCF/MOX Liquid Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site, part of the Department of Energy's nuclear materials complex located in South Carolina, cementation has been selected as the solidification method for high-alpha and low-activity waste streams generated in the planned plutonium disposition facilities. A Waste Solidification Building (WSB) that will be used to treat and solidify three radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility is in the preliminary design stage. The WSB is expected to treat a transuranic (TRU) waste stream composed primarily of americium and two low-level waste (LLW) streams. The acidic wastes will be concentrated in the WSB evaporator and neutralized in a cement head tank prior to solidification. A series of TRU mixes were prepared to produce waste forms exhibiting a range of processing and cured properties. The LLW mixes were prepared using the premix from the preferred TRU waste form. All of the waste forms tested passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. After processing in the WSB, current plans are to dispose of the solidified TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and the solidified LLW waste at an approved low-level waste disposal facility.

COZZI, ALEX

2004-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

100

Development of polymer concrete for dike insulation at LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) facilities. Final report, August 1983-July 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An insulating polymer concrete (IPC) composite has been developed for possible use as a dike insulation material at Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities. Using hermetically sealed glass nodules or expanded perlite aggregates and unsaturated polyester resins, a new class of lightweight polymer concretes can be manufactured. Two application procedures have been identified and shown to be feasible in laboratory studies. Precast IPC composite panels 1-in thick can be bonded to concrete substrates using epoxy gel type adhesives or mortars. Cast-in-place IPC to concrete substrates have been shown to have good bonding and insulating characteristics. Modifications of the mix design to improve the workability and sagging of the IPC for installation on vertical or sloped surfaces is necessary.

Fontana, J.J.; Steinberg, M.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fundamental Desiccants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. such as carbon-dioxide, and impuritics, such as dust, pollen, viruses, hydrocarbon emissions and other "rare" gases, such as radon. These impurities can and do become major health risks when they exceed quantified limits. WHAT SHOULD AIR CONDITIONING... for traditional HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems. Control air impurity level required for health and/or process requirements Dust. pollen, bacteria, viruses and radon gas are naturally occurring impurities in the air we breath. Air may...

Krebs, M. E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Development of a silicon-based passive gas-liquid separation system for microscale direct methanol fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design, fabrication and performance characterisation of a passive gas-liquid separation system is presented in this paper. The gas-liquid separation system is silicon-based and its fabrication is compatible with the existing CMU design of the microscale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Both gas and liquid separators consist of staggered arrays of etched-through holes fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The gas separator is coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic polymer to substantiate the gas-liquid separation. To visually characterise the system performance, the gas-liquid separation system is made on a single wafer with a glass plate bonded on the top to form a separation chamber with a narrow gap in between. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) is applied for the low-temperature bonding. The maximum pressure for the liquid leakage of the gas separators is experimentally determined and compared with the values predicted theoretically. Several successful gas-liquid separations are observed at liquid pressures between 14.2 cmH2O and 22.7 cmH2O, liquid flow rates between 0.705 cc/min and 1.786 cc/min, and CO2 flow rates between 0.15160 cc/min to 0.20435 cc/min.

C.C. Hsieh; S.C. Yao; Yousef Alyousef

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the second half year (April 1, 2001-September 30, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

104

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the first half year (October 1, 2000-March 31, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

Developing a Standard Method of Test for Packaged, Solid-Desiccant Based Dehumidification Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for moving process and regeneration air; · May include other system components for filtering, pre of the dehumidification system is presented in terms that would be most familiar and useful to designers of building HVAC that include many of the ancillary components mentioned above. An HVAC system designer who considers a packaged

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

106

Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Development of Liquid-Vapor Core Reactors with MHD Generator for Space Power and Propulsion Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Any reactor that utilizes fuel consisting of a fissile material in a gaseous state may be referred to as a gaseous core reactor (GCR). Studies on GCRs have primarily been limited to the conceptual phase, mostly due to budget cuts and program cancellations in the early 1970's. A few scientific experiments have been conducted on candidate concepts, primarily of static pressure fissile gas filling a cylindrical or spherical cavity surrounded by a moderating shell, such as beryllium, heavy water, or graphite. The main interest in this area of nuclear power generation is for space applications. The interest in space applications has developed due to the promise of significant enhancement in fuel utilization, safety, plant efficiency, special high-performance features, load-following capabilities, power conversion optimization, and other key aspects of nuclear power generation. The design of a successful GCR adapted for use in space is complicated. The fissile material studied in the pa st has been in a fluorine compound, either a tetrafluoride or a hexafluoride. Both of these molecules have an impact on the structural material used in the making of a GCR. Uranium hexafluoride as a fuel allows for a lower operating temperature, but at temperatures greater than 900K becomes essentially impossible to contain. This difficulty with the use of UF6 has caused engineers and scientists to use uranium tetrafluoride, which is a more stable molecule but has the disadvantage of requiring significantly higher operating temperatures. Gas core reactors have traditionally been studied in a steady state configuration. In this manner a fissile gas and working fluid are introduced into the core, called a cavity, that is surrounded by a reflector constructed of materials such as Be or BeO. These reactors have often been described as cavity reactors because the density of the fissile gas is low and criticality is achieved only by means of the reflector to reduce neutron leakage from the core. Still there are problems of containment since many of the proposed vessel materials such as W or Mo have high neutron cross sections making the design of a critical system difficult. There is also the possibility for a GCR to remain in a subcritical state, and by the use of a shockwave mechanism, increase the pressure and temperature inside the core to achieve criticality. This type of GCR is referred to as a shockwave-driven pulsed gas core reactor. These two basic designs were evaluated as advance concepts for space power and propulsion.

Samim Anghaie

2002-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

108

Development of a low-cost black-liquid solar collector, Phase II. Second semi-annual report, March 1, 1980-August 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Battelle's Columbus Laboratories (BCL) is continuing its research effort to develop an efficient, low-temperature, low-cost, flat-plate black-liquid solar collector. The research efforts during this second 6-month period of Phase II have been directed toward (1) evaluating the long-term durability of various plastic materials and solar collector designs, (2) obtaining sufficient outdoor performance data to design a full-scale demonstration of a black-liquid solar collector for a commercial application, (3) working closely with a company willing to commercialize black liquid plastic collectors, and (4) incorporating improved black liquids with the identified plastic collector designs. Besides conducting indoor weathering tests of various plastic materials, two outdoor automated test facilities have been operated. One unit has been in use since February 1980 at Battelle in Columbus, Ohio, and the other unit began operation in May 1980 at Ramada Energy Systems, Inc., a collector manufacturing company near Phoenix, Arizona. Since Ramada Energy Systems has been working with extruded polycarbonate panels, Battelle has been working to date with extruded acrylic panel designs. Other potential plastics for solar collectors are being evaluated by exposure testing.

Landstrom, D.K.; Talbert, S.G.; McGinniss, V.D.

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

110

Jaworski Liquid metal PSI science and component development FESAC Meeting, Washington DC July 8-10, 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

): ­ No permanent damage ­ Increased power loading, relaxed design constraints ­ Enhanced confinement regimes · LM-cooled targets: with thin liquid layers need to demonstrate integrated performance in a high-power device. ­ We Science-driven program will address critical physics unknowns and guide technology 4 Heat Conduction

111

Development of a neural network model for the prediction of liquid holdup in two-phase horizontal flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edward Shippen, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Stuart Scott Accurate prediction of liquid holdup associated with multiphase flow is a critical element in the design and operation of modern production systems... Intermittent Annular 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dispersed bubble Figure 1: Horizontal flow patterns A number of empirical correlations and mechanistic models have been applied to estimate frictional pressure losses associated with multiphase flow in pipes...

Shippen, Mack Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

112

Three-Phase Vapor?Liquid?Liquid Equilibria for Methane + n-Octane + Monoethylene Glycol + Water at Pressures from (3.1 to 15.0) MPa and Temperatures from (281 to 363) K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are several commercial processes available for the dehydration of gas, such as the use of liquid or solid desiccants and expansion refrigeration. ... The gaseous part of the liquid samples, and the gas phase samples direct from the equilibrium cell, were expanded into a series of evacuated vessels of known volume from which the total amount of substance was determined from the perfect gas equation using the measured low-pressure PVT data. ... To predict the losses of MEG in processes for the dehydration of natural gas, the concentrations of MEG in the vapor phase are of interest to the gas industry. ...

Stanley J. Ashcroft; Gerd Brunner; Hansjörg Vollmer; Christopher W. Sweeney

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

113

Engineering scale development of the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)SiC fibrils are used as reinforcement in ceramic matrix composites (CMC). A program has been completed for determining process scaleup parameters and to produce material for evaluation in a CMC. The scaleup is necessary to lower production cost and increase material availability. Scaleup parameters were evaluated in a reactor with a vertical dimension twice that of the LANL reactor. Results indicate that the scaleup will be possible. Feasibility of recycling process gas was demonstrated and the impact of postprocessing on yields determined.

Hollar, W.E. Jr. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States). Technology Div.; Mills, W.H. [BP America, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

116

EMSL - liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquids en Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsiodine-solubility-low-activity-waste-borosilicate...

117

Laboratory solvent reuse -- Liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to develop a method for reduction of waste solvent in the Process Engineering Chemistry Laboratory. The liquid chromatographs are the largest generators of explosive-contaminated waste in the laboratory. We developed a successful process for the reuse of solvents from the liquid chromatographs and demonstrated the utility of the process in the assay of hexanitrostilbene.

Quinlin, W.T.; Schaffer, C.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that developed...

119

Status of axial heterogeneous liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core design studies and research and development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current status of axial heterogeneous core (AHC) design development in Japan, which consists of an AHC core design in a pool-type demonstration fast breeder reactor (DFBR) and research and development activities supporting AHC core design, is presented. The DFBR core design objectives developed by The Japan Atomic Power Company include (a) favorable core seismic response, (b) core compactness, (c) high availability, and (d) lower fuel cycle cost. The AHC concept was selected as a reference pool-type DFBR core because it met these objectives more suitably than the homogeneous core (HOC). The AHC core layouts were optimized emphasizing the reduction of the burnup reactivity swing, peak fast fluence, and power peaking. The key performance parameters resulting from the AHC, such as flat axial power/flux distribution, lower peak fast fluence, lower burnup reactivity swing, etc., were evaluated in comparison with the HOC. The critical experiments at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's Fast Critical Assembly facility demonstrate the key AHC performance characteristics. The large AHC engineering benchmark experiments using the zero-power plutonium reactor and the AHC fuel pin irradiation test program using the JOYO reactor are also presented.

Nakagawa, H.; Inagaki, T.; Yoshimi, H.; Shirakata, K.; Watari, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Inoue, K.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

LNG liquid-liquid immiscibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although natural gas species rarely exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility in binary systems, the presence of additional components can extend the domain of immiscibility in those few binary systems where it already exists or produce immiscibility in binary systems where it had not existed. If the solute has the proper molecular relation to the solvent mixture background, liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) behavior will occur; such phenomena greatly complicate the design of LNG processing equipment. To aid LNG engineers, researchers mapped the thermodynamic behavior of four ternary LLV systems and examined the effects of the second solvents - ethane, propane, n-butane, and CO/sub 2/ - on the binary methane + n-octane system.

Luks, K.D.; Kohn, J.P.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Recent Progress in the NSTX/NSTX-U Lithium Program and Prospects for Reactor-Relevant Liquid-Lithium Based Divertor Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developing a reactor compatible divertor has been identified as a particularly challenging technology problem for magnetic confinement fusion. While tungsten has been identified as the most attractive solid divertor material, the NSTX/NSTX-U lithium (Li) program is investigating the viability of liquid lithium (LL) as a potential reactor compatible divertor plasma facing component (PFC) . In the near term, operation in NSTX-U is projected to provide reactor-like divertor heat loads < 40 MW/m^2 for 5 s. During the most recent NSTX campaign, ~ 0.85 kg of Li was evaporated onto the NSTX PFCs where a ~50% reduction in heat load on the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was observed, attributable to enhanced divertor bolometric radiation. This reduced divertor heat flux through radiation observed in the NSTX LLD experiment is consistent with the results from other lithium experiments and calculations. These results motivate an LL-based closed radiative divertor concept proposed here for NSTX-U and fusion reactors. With an LL coating, the Li is evaporated from the divertor strike point surface due to the intense heat. The evaporated Li is readily ionized by the plasma due to its low ionization energies, and the ionized Li ions can radiate strongly, resulting in a significant reduction in the divertor heat flux. Due to the rapid plasma transport in divertor plasma, the radiation values can be significantly enhanced up to ~ 11 MJ/cc of LL. This radiative process has the desired function of spreading the focused divertor heat load to the entire divertor chamber facilitating the divertor heat removal. The LL divertor surface can also provide a "sacrificial" surface to protect the substrate solid material from transient high heat flux such as the ones caused by the ELMs. The closed radiative LLD concept has the advantages of providing some degree of partition in terms of plasma disruption forces on the LL, Li particle divertor retention, and strong divertor pumping action from the Li-coated divertor chamber wall. By operating at a lower temperature than the first wall, the LLD can serve to purify the entire reactor chamber, as impurities generally migrate toward lower temperature Li-condensed surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest capacity (e.g., ~ 1 Liter/sec for ~ 1% level "impurities") is envisioned for a steady-state 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant.

M. Ono, et al.

2012-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

122

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.

A. S. Bakai

2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

124

Development of a Conceptual Process for Selective CO{sub 2} Capture from Fuel Gas Streams Using [hmim][Tf2N] Ionic Liquid as a Physical Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO{sub 2} capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CO, and CH{sub 4} in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters ({delta}{sub ij} and l{sub ij}) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO{sub 2} solubilities in [hmim][Tf2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO{sub 2} capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO{sub 2} up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO{sub 2} was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H{sub 2} was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf2N] IL could be used as a physical solvent for CO{sub 2} capture from warm shifted fuel gas streams with high efficiency.

Basha, Omar M.; Keller, Murphy J.; Luebke, David R.; Resnik, Kevin; P Morsi, Badie I.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

IEEE/OSA JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 1, NO. 1, SEPTEMBER 2005 41 New Developments in Liquid Crystal Photo-Aligning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Crystal Photo-Aligning by Azo-Dyes Hoi-Sing Kwok, Vladimir G. Chigrinov, Hirokazu Takada, and Haruyoshi Takatsu Invited Paper Abstract--Liquid crystal (LC) photo-alignment using azo-dyes is reviewed such as photo-crosslinking, photo degradation, and photo-isomerization. We present the basic physical mechanisms

126

ILASS Americas 17th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Arlington, VA, May 2004 Optimal Disturbance Structure and Development on a Sheared Interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ILASS Americas 17th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Arlington, VA, May, viscosity and mean velocity all change. In the immediate vicinity of the interface, boundary layer flow thickness), density ratio r = 0.02 and viscosity ratio m = 0.025. The OD of this two-phase flow show some

Yecko, Philip

127

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

128

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids

129

A liquid film motor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that electro-hydrodynamical effects in freely suspended liquid films can force liquids to flow. Here, we report a purely electrically driven rotation in water and some other liquid suspended film...

A. Amjadi; R. Shirsavar; N. Hamedani Radja…

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with a particularly large advantage near the...of the glass. The thermal transition characteristics...the minimal surface area to the vapor phase...release relatively large amounts of water...Here, wetting frequency is of importance...indicates that extremely large and negative values...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...recombinant gene products represent an energy demand that can induce higher death rates...brown- ing) reaction. It seems that the energy changes involved in the loss of cell viability...consider these alternatives. The free energy of stabilization of globular proteins...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...until dry, under a vapor phase of controlled humidity...Immobilization of cells on dry sand or dry paper has been...Effect of sucrose on phase behavior of membranes intact pollen...leakage are linked with phase transitions of mem- brane...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rehydration is a very rapid onset of cellular metabolism in conjunction with a stepwise and stringent...stringent fashion, to resume integrated metabolism (and all that it means) upon rehydration...that the curtailment of respiratory metabolism prior to rehydration may be essential...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...worldwide are unwittingly in the business of distributing samples of...gene products represent an energy demand that can induce higher...reaction. It seems that the energy changes involved in the loss...these alternatives. The free energy of stabilization of globular...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mirror those described for other natural and synthetic glass-forming...they are stored under an inert gas phase (64, 291). What is...sugars zones. The simplest natural representative is trehalose...information on the positioning of natural chro- mophores or artificially...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA); Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Theory of fermion liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a general theory of fermion liquids in spatial dimensions greater than 1. The principal method, bosonization, is applied to the cases of short- and long-range longitudinal interactions and to transverse gauge interactions. All the correlation funtions of the system may be obtained with the use of a generating functional. Short-range and Coulomb interactions do not destroy the Landau-Fermi fixed point. Non-Fermi liquid fixed points are found, however, in the cases of a super-long-range longitudinal interaction in two dimensions and transverse gauge interactions in two and three spatial dimensions. We consider in some detail the (2+1)-dimensional problem of a Chern-Simons gauge action combined with a longitudinal two-body interaction V(q)??q?y-1, which controls the density, and hence gauge, fluctuations. For y0 the interaction is relevant and the fixed point cannot be accessed by bosonization. Of special importance is the case y=0 (Coulomb interaction), which describes the Halperin-Lee-Read theory of the half-filled Landau level. We obtain the full quasiparticle propagator, which is of a marginal Fermi-liquid form. Using Ward identities, we show that neither the inclusion of nonlinear terms in the fermion dispersion nor vertex corrections alters our results: the fixed point is accessible by bosonization. As the two-point fermion Green’s function is not gauge invariant, we also invetigate the gauge-invariant density response function. Near momentum Q=2kF, in addition to the Kohn anomaly we find other nonanalytic behavior. In the appendies we present a numerical calculation of the spectral function for a Fermi liquid with Landau parameter f0?0. We also show how Kohn’s theorem is satisfied within the bosonization framework.

H.-J. Kwon; A. Houghton; J. B. Marston

1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

Schultz, K.J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A Microfluidic System for the Continuous Recycling of Unmodified Homogeneous Palladium Catalysts through Liquid/Liquid Phase Separation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A prototype microflow system for the continuous recycling of homogeneous catalysts through liquid/liquid phase separation was developed and its effectiveness demonstrated in a challenging palladium-catalyzed hydroxylation ...

Li, Pengfei

142

Experimental Study of a New PVC Foam Insulation System for Liquid-Hydrogen-Liquid-Oxygen Space Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the development of a rigid external foam insulation for liquid-hydrogen-liquid-oxygen space vehicles...1...], dealing with the use of Klegecell G 300,* a PVC closed-cell foam. This foam does ...

F. J. Muller

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

144

Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Craig Jensen 1 (Primary Contact), Daniel Brayton 1 , and Scott Jorgensen 2 1 Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC 531 Cooke Street Honolulu, HI 96813 Phone: (808) 339-1333 Email: hhcllc@hotmail.com 2 General Motors Technical Center DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0005020 Project Start Date: July 1, 2011 Project End Date: June 30, 2013 *Congressionally directed project Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to optimize a hydrogen storage media based on a liquid organic carrier (LOC) for hydrogen and design a commercially viable hydrogen

145

Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

Andersen C, Hoogendoom S, Hudson B, Prince J, Teichert K, Wood J, Chase K

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

Development of thin palladium membranes supported on large porous 310L tubes for a steam reformer operated with gas-to-liquid fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Palladium membranes were prepared on large tubes (80 mm diameter and 150 mm length) of porous stainless steel supports (PSS) using a modified electroless plating technique. The morphology of the palladium layer was found to be depending on the container material of the coating apparatus. The use of PMMA resulted in compact palladium layers with smooth surfaces whereas PTFE led to inhomogeneous palladium coating with rough surface. Two different ceramic materials and coating methods were used to prepare an intermediate layer needed to prevent intermetallic diffusion between the palladium and the support at elevated temperatures. Wet powder spraying of TiO2 followed by sintering resulted in a smoother surface than atmospheric plasma spraying of YSZ, thus allowing for a thinner palladium coating. Pd/TiO2/PSS membranes showed about 4 times higher hydrogen permeances than Pd/YSZ/PSS membranes as a consequence of higher palladium thickness and lower porosity of the ceramic intermediate layer. The selectivity against nitrogen was comparable for both membranes. However, the YSZ intermediate layer showed better stability at elevated temperatures. Two membrane tubes were applied in the membrane reformer, which produced hydrogen successfully from a gas-to-liquid (GtL) fuel.

Grazyna Straczewski; Johannes Völler-Blumenroth; Hubert Beyer; Peter Pfeifer; Michael Steffen; Ingmar Felden; Angelika Heinzel; Matthias Wessling; Roland Dittmeyer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

149

Accelerated Animation of Liquid Splash Roman Durikovic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

step and viscosity. The final liquid surface is obtained from the velocity field by rough estimation small fluid objects such as splash and spray. Our final goal is to develop a real-time system

Durikovic, Roman

150

Viscosity, specific (for liquids)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n. The ratio between the viscosity of a liquid and the viscosity of water at the same temperature. Specific viscosity is sometimes used interchangeably with relative viscosity for liquids.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Liquid Piston Stirling Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Fluidyne liquid piston engine is a simple free-piston Stirling engine that can be made from nothing more...

Graham Walker Ph. D.; J. R. Senft Ph.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing New Process Produces Ethylene More Efficiently and Reduces Coke...

153

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing, April 2013 Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas...

154

Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University

155

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

156

Sliding Luttinger liquid phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study systems of coupled spin-gapped and gapless Luttinger liquids. First, we establish the existence of a sliding Luttinger liquid phase for a system of weakly coupled parallel quantum wires, with and without disorder. It is shown that the coupling can stabilize a Luttinger liquid phase in the presence of disorder. We then extend our analysis to a system of crossed Luttinger liquids and establish the stability of a non-Fermi-liquid state: the crossed sliding Luttinger liquid phase. In this phase the system exhibits a finite-temperature, long-wavelength, isotropic electric conductivity that diverges as a power law in temperature T as T?0. This two-dimensional system has many properties of a true isotropic Luttinger liquid, though at zero temperature it becomes anisotropic. An extension of this model to a three-dimensional stack exhibits a much higher in-plane conductivity than the conductivity in a perpendicular direction.

Ranjan Mukhopadhyay; C. L. Kane; T. C. Lubensky

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

157

Recent development in green buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the environmental concerns about some materials used in buildings, particularly chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids used as the blowing agent for insulation materials and as refrigerants used in the air conditioning systems have led to a search for environmentally safe alternatives. For insulation materials, new non-CFC blowing agents are still under development. However, the old insulation materials in the buildings will stay because they do not pose any further environmental damage. It is a different story for refrigerants used in air conditioning systems. This study reports that the change-over from CFC to non-CFC refrigerants in the existing and future air conditioning equipment could be a chance not only to take care of the environmental concerns, but to save energy as well. Alternative air conditioning technologies, such as the desiccant dehumidification and absorption systems, and the potential of some natural substances, such as carbon dioxide, as the future refrigerants are also discussed.

Mei, V.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

159

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

160

Global Assessments and Guidelines for Sustainable Liquid Biofuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Assessments and Guidelines for Sustainable Liquid Biofuel Production in Developing Countries Biofuel Production in Developing Countries FINAL REPORT A GEF Targeted Research Project Organized by Bernd for Sustainable Liquid Biofuels. A GEF Targeted Research Project. Heidelberg/Paris/Utrecht/Darmstadt, 29 February

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Trace determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction prior to HPLC–ESI-MS–MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel and environmentally friendly microextraction method, termed ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction (IL-DLPME), has been developed for rapid enrichment of triclosan and triclocarban before an...

Ru-Song Zhao; Xia Wang; Jing Sun; Shan-Shan Wang…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

164

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

PHASE CHANGE LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work is being performed to develop a new shipping system for frozen environmental samples (or other materials) that uses an optimal phase change liquid (PCL) formulation and an insulated shipping container with an on-board digital temperature data logger to provide a history of the temperature profile within the container during shipment. In previous work, several PCL formulations with temperatures of fusion ranging from approximately -14 to -20 C were prepared and evaluated. Both temperature of fusion and heat of fusion of the formulations were measured, and an optimal PCL formulation was selected. The PCL was frozen in plastic bags and tested for its temperature profile in a cooler using a digital temperature data logger. This testing showed that the PCL formulation can maintain freezer temperatures (< -7 to -20 C) for an extended period, such as the time for shipping samples by overnight courier. The results of the experiments described in this report provide significant information for use in developing an integrated freezer system that uses a PCL formulation to maintain freezer temperatures in coolers for shipping environmental samples to the laboratory. Experimental results show the importance of the type of cooler used in the system and that use of an insulating material within the cooler improves the performance of the freezer system. A new optimal PCL formulation for use in the system has been determined. The new formulation has been shown to maintain temperatures at < -7 to -20 C for 47 hours in an insulated cooler system containing soil samples. These results are very promising for developing the new technology.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

167

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

168

Tokamak with liquid metal for inducing toroidal electrical field  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tokamak apparatus includes a vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within said vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner confines gas therein. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside the liner. A magnetic field is established in the liquid metal to develop magnetic flux linking the toroidal space. The gas is ionized. The liquid metal and the toroidal space are moved relative to one another transversely of the space to generate electric current in the ionized gas in the toroidal space about its major axis and thereby heat plasma developed in the toroidal space.

Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

LiquidMaize LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LiquidMaize LLC LiquidMaize LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name LiquidMaize, LLC Place Denver, Colorado Zip 80237 Product LiquidMaize is an ethanol development and management company that builds, owns, and operates ethanol plants within existing cattle feed-yards and dairy operations. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

170

Development Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Programme 2007 - 2010 The aim of the Timber Development Programme (TDP) is "to contribute to the sustainable development to underpin sustainable forest management and support economic growth and employment acrossDevelopment Timber Development Programme 2007 - 2010 #12;2 | Timber Development Programme 2007

171

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

172

Sandia National Laboratories: ionic liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquid Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass, Energy,...

173

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

174

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Liquid-level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Not Available

1981-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

176

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

177

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

Unknown

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Ionic Liquids Used as Wear Reduction, Wins R&D 100 Award | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

100 Award October 16, 2014 - 11:19am Addthis Partnered with Shell Global Solutions, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed ionic liquids (salts in a liquid state...

179

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frames.

180

Closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators using a Joule Thomson circuit precooled by commercially available two staged Gifford Mac Mahon cryocoolers. The Joule Thomson counterflow heat exchangers are modular and have been thermo-hydraulically characterized. Fully automatic cool down and operation are achieved by two pneumatically driven by pass and expansion valves. Several apparatus have been built or are under assembly with cooling power ranging from 100 mW up to 5 Watt, for temperature ranging from 2.8 K up to 4.5 K. A trouble free operation with several warm up and cool down cycles has been proven over 7000 hours.

G. Claudet; R. Lagnier; A. Ravex

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes

182

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

183

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species James F. Wishart In "Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R. , Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 856, Ch. 31, pp. 381-395, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003. (ISBN 0-84123-856-1) [Information about the book] Abstract: An understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is important for development of their applications in radioactive material processing and for the application of pulse radiolysis techniques to the general study of chemical reactivity in ionic liquids. The distribution of primary radiolytic species and their reactivities determine the yields of ultimate products and the radiation stability of a particular ionic liquid. This chapter introduces some principles of radiation chemistry and the

184

IUPAC Partnership Develops Standards and a Data Retrieval System for Ionic Liquids J.W. Magee, J.A. Widegren, D.G. Archer, S.L. Outcalt, M.Frenkel, R.D. Chirico, Q. Dong, A. Laesecke,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature, have been proposed as solvents for Green Processing. In spite of the many advantages with a knowledge base to exploit these solvents. To achieve these goals in the shortest time possible and reach chemical structure, solvent properties, ionic liquids use in synthesis, reviews, reactions and catalysis

Magee, Joseph W.

185

Liquid Scintillator Purification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The KamLAND collaboration has studied background requirements and purification methods needed to observe the 7Be neutrino from the sun. First we will discuss the present background situation in KamLAND where it is found that the main background components are 210Pb and 85Kr. It is then described how to purify the liquid scintillator. The present status and results on how to remove 210Pb from the liquid scintillator are discussed. Specifically, the detailed analysis of the effects of distillation and adsorption techniques are presented.

Kishimoto, Y. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

186

Scattering of Slow Neutrons by a Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The differential cross section for coherent scattering of thermal neutrons by a liquid is given in general by the Fourier transform of a time-displaced radial density function. It is suggested here that, to an adequate degree of approximation, this time-displaced function can be expressed as a convolution of the ordinary radial density function with a self-diffusion function describing the wandering of an atom from an arbitrary initial position. The neutron scattering cross section then becomes the product of the Fourier transforms of these two functions. One of the transforms is the differential cross section for x-ray scattering and describes interference effects, the other governs the energy changes upon scattering. In this development the scatterer can be treated either quantum mechanically or classically. Recoil effects are not provided by the classical treatment, but this is a significant deficiency only in liquids of low atomic weight. Several models for calculating the self-diffusion function are considered, and from these it is suggested that a Gaussian function with a time-dependent width is a reasonable approximation for the case of a simple liquid. The principal features of the width are deduced. Quantization of the scatterer effects the width at small times. At large times the width depends only on the coefficient of self-diffusion of the liquid, and inelastic scattering is suggested as a means of determining this coefficient, as well as other features of atomic movement. The accuracy of the static approximation for determining liquid structures by neutron diffraction is assessed by considering the typical case of liquid lead near its melting point, and is found to be moderately good. The extension of the entire formalism to the case of polyatomic liquids is outlined.

George H. Vineyard

1958-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

188

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry and a new liquid autoporosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines the volumes of different size pores by measuring the amount of liquid in these pores, thus, providing pore volume distribution (PVD) data for porous structures. Any liquid that wets the sample may be used. This opens unique opportunities for porous structure evaluation. It provides realistic PVD analysis when the liquid of interest changes the porous structure. It determines uptake/drainage hysteresis of real liquids. It allows direct measurements of uptake and retention capillary pressures with different amounts of liquid in a sample. Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines liquid/solid contact angles of different size pores within the sample. It can also be used for PVD analysis of both soft, brittle materials and porous metal materials.

Tyomkin, I. [TRI/Princeton, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

The thickness of the falling film of liquid around a Taylor bubble  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...falling film of liquid around a Taylor bubble E. W. Llewellin 1 * E. Del Bello 2...falling film of liquid around a Taylor bubble, when liquid-gas interfacial tension...down a plane surface and around a Taylor bubble, and develop a theoretical model for...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A group of oil-miscible ionic liquids has been developed by an ORNL-GM team as candidate lubricant additives with promising physical/chemical properties and potential multiple functionalities.

191

750 MHz Radiological NMR Bokan (Liquids, Solids) | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spectroscopy (in development). The 750-MHz WB system comprises three solid-state NMR probes, four liquid-state probes, and five micro-imaging inserts (see below). In...

192

Liquid-Phase Combinatorial Synthesis Technique Could Ease Automation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A liquid-phase combinatorial synthesis technique developed by researchers at Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif., could provide advantages over existing solid-phase technology and ease automation of combinatorial techniques.Combinatorial ...

STU BORMAN

1995-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

Viscosity of Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

6 November 1952 research-article Viscosity of Liquids E. N. da C. Andrade The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. www.jstor.org

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

The Viscosity of Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of momentum between them. In the case of a gas, Maxwell showed how the viscosity can be derived by considering this momentum as being communicated by molecules transferring themselves bodily ... fulfilment of the conditions postulated in Maxwell's treatment, and the fact that while gas viscosity goes up with temperature liquid ...

E. N. DA C. ANDRADE

1930-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

195

Detonation in Liquid Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Laboratory, on the initiative of Dr. A. H. Davis, into the process of detonation in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the ... in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the detonation Waves in transparent liquid explosives—the sensitivity of some of which can be varied by ...

D. CRONEY

1948-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

196

Liquid Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid Natural Gas ... IN A new technique for storing natural gas at the East Ohio Gas Co. plant, Cleveland, Ohio, the gas is liquefied before passing to the gas holders. ... Natural gas contains moisture and carbon dioxide, both of which liquefy before the natural gas and are somewhat of a nuisance because upon solidification they clog the pipes. ...

W. F. SCHAPHORST

1941-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

197

Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

198

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Northern Illinois University; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and ChemMatCARS (sector 15 at the APS) used x-ray reflectivity from ion distributions at the liquid-liquid interface to provide strong evidence that the interfacial structure of a liquid alters the ion distributions near a charged interface, contrary to earlier theories about ions at charged surfaces. Coulomb's Law describes the interaction between two, otherwise isolated, point charges. If many charges are present in the region between these two charges, the net interaction between them is modified. This is commonly found in real systems, such as a plasma gas of electrons and ionized

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

202

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

203

Element One, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

204

SynchroPET LLC | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

205

Teknikem, A Division of RockinBoat LLC | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

206

Umpqua Energy, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

207

US e-Chromic | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

208

SH Coatings LP | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

209

Vorbeck Materials Corp. | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

210

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

41 - 2250 of 31,917 results. 41 - 2250 of 31,917 results. Page 7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. http://energy.gov/americas-next-top-energy-innovator/7ac-technologies-inc

211

TrakLok Corporation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

212

Woodmont Enterprises LLC | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

213

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

214

Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

215

California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

216

Determinants of Hospital's Financial Liquidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of the articles is to identify key factors that may affect the level of hospital's liquidity ratio. We’ve posed four research hypotheses, assuming that, the level of financial liquidity in hospitals depends on several factors (number of beds, annual income per bed, profitability ratios, debt ratio). We’ve found that: 1) there is a positive relationship between debt ratio and liquidity and profitability ratio and liquidity 2) the relationship between the size of the hospital and the financial liquidity is not statistically significant. In the study we’ve use statistical tools: Pearson's correlation coefficient, T-Student's test with Cohran-Cox's correction.

Agnieszka Bem; Katarzyna Pr?dkiewicz; Pawe? Pr?dkiewicz; Paulina Ucieklak-Je?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Numerical simulation of the Tayler instability in liquid metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electrical current through an incompressible, viscous and resistive liquid conductor produces an azimuthal magnetic field that becomes unstable when the corresponding Hartmann number exceeds a critical value in the order of 20. This Tayler instability, which is not only discussed as a key ingredient of a non-linear stellar dynamo model (Tayler-Spruit dynamo), but also as a limiting factor for the maximum size of large liquid metal batteries, was recently observed experimentally in a column of a liquid metal (Seilmayer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 244501, 2012}. On the basis of an integro-differential equation approach, we have developed a fully three-dimensional numerical code, and have utilized it for the simulation of the Tayler instability at typical viscosities and resistivities of liquid metals. The resulting growth rates are in good agreement with the experimental data. We illustrate the capabilities of the code for the detailed simulation of liquid metal battery problems in realistic geometries.

Weber, Norbert; Stefani, Frank; Weier, Tom; Wondrak, Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Quantal Ising Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An example is presented of a model of an amorphous quantum mechanical system, a liquid of quantal Ising spins, which can be solved exactly within certain many-body theories. Analytical solutions of the model in mean-field theory are shown to reveal a decrease in the extent of the ferromagnetic region (compared to an equivalent classical system) and the occurrence of some degree of quantum localization. Both phenomena are analyzed as a competition between quantum mechanics and the condensed phase.

Richard M. Stratt

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

RHIC The Perfect Liquid  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

BNL

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

What constitutes a simple liquid?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlation between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a property of the intermolecular potential only because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, according to the new definition not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of structure and dynamics of 15 atomic and molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. No proof is given that the chemical characterization follows from the strong correlation property, but it is shown to be consistent with the existence of isomorphs in strongly correlating liquids' phase diagram. Finally, we note that the FCS characterization of simple liquids calls into question the basis for standard perturbation theory, according to which the repulsive and attractive forces play fundamentally different roles for the physics of liquids.

Trond S. Ingebrigtsen; Thomas B. Schrøder; Jeppe C. Dyre

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Liquid Xenon Detectors for Particle Physics and Astrophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics and medical imaging experiments. We begin with a summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information. After a brief introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, we continue with a review of past, current and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine. We will introduce each application with a brief survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements, before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From experiments like MEG, currently the largest liquid xenon scintillation detector in operation, dedicated to the rare mu -> e + gamma decay, to the future XMASS which also exploits only liquid xenon scintillation to address an ambitious program of rare event searches, to the class of time projection chambers like XENON and EXO which exploit both scintillation and ionization of liquid xenon for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay, respectively, we anticipate unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years.

E. Aprile; T. Doke

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

223

Composition of liquids from coals of different rank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eight coal liquids prepared from six coals of widely differing rank were compared with respect to their suitability as potential feedstocks for production of refined fuels. The compositions of the liquids were determined by methods adapted from those developed for characterization of petroleum crudes. The coal liquids were prepared and upgraded by hydrogenation in a batch autoclave. The reaction conditions employed were selected to minimize hydrocarbon ring-opening reactions and, at the same time, to produce most of the hydrocarbon liquids potentially available from the coals. The degree of hydrogenation of the raw coal liquids was varied as required to decrease the nitrogen content to about the same level and to provide a predominantly hydrocarbon liquid for analysis. Distilled fractions of the upgraded coal liquids boiling up to 540/sup 0/C were characterized by a combination of separation and analytical techniques including adsorption chromatography; gel permeation chromatography; separations of acids, bases, and asphaltenes; and high- and low-resolution mass spectrometry. In general, the results show that liquids of comparable suitability as feedstocks for production of refined fuels can be produced from coals of different rank.

Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Woodward, P.W.; Vogh, J.W.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

Kabadi, V.N.

1995-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

225

Neutron scattering in almost-classical liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theory of quantum corrections for thermal-neutron scattering in almost-classical liquids is developed that goes beyond the usual quasiclassical approximations, which take only detailed balance and translational recoil into account, by also including quantum effects in the structure and dynamics of the liquid itself. The method that we use is similar to one which we have recently developed for calculating corrections for final-state interactions in deep-inelastic neutron scattering. In the present application the method requires an expansion of the moments of the dynamic structure factor in powers of ?2. We show that the required expansions can conveniently be obtained by an extension of a method due originally to Nelkin.

V. F. Sears

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Equation of State for Supercooled Water Near the Liquid-Liquid Critical Point  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a scaled parametric equation of state to describe and predict thermodynamic properties of supercooled water. The equation of state, built on the growing evidence that the critical point of supercooled liquid-liquid water separation exists, is universal in terms of theoretical scaling fields and is shown to belong to the Ising-model class of universality. The theoretical scaling fields are postulated to be analytical combinations of the physical fields, pressure and temperature. The equation of state enables us to accurately locate the "Widom line" (the locus of stability minima) and determine that the critical pressure is considerably lower than predicted by computer simulations.

M. A. Anisimov; D. A. Fuentevilla

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

227

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

228

Techniques for geothermal liquid sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology has been developed that is particularly suited to liquid-dominated resources and adaptable to a variety of situations. It is intended to be a base methodology upon which variations can be made to meet specific needs or situations. The approach consists of recording flow conditions at the time of sampling, a specific insertable probe sampling system, a sample stabilization procedure, commercially available laboratory instruments, and data quality check procedures.

Kindle, C.H.; Woodruff, E.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

230

Process for preparing liquid wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

FLARE, Fermilab Liquid Argon Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mature technology of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers in conjunction with intense neutrino beams constructed at Fermilab offer a broad program of neutrino physics for the next decade.

L. Bartoszek

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

232

Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

Emrick, Todd S. (South Deerfield, MA); Russell, Thomas P. (Amherst, MA); Dinsmore, Anthony (Amherst, MA); Skaff, Habib (Amherst, MA); Lin, Yao (Amherst, MA)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

233

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Antifreeze! Antifreeze! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! A burning candle is placed in a container of liquid nitrogen! Filmed in front of a live studio audience. Well, they were live when we started... [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Steve: Now, then. I'm a little bit afraid to ask this next question because I think I already know the answer, but is anyone in here feeling a little... dangerous? You're willing to take a chance? Because I am willing to do an experiment they haven't let me do since 'The Incident.' Now, because of the danger, I cannot have a volunteer. I must do this on my

234

A new Diffractometer for Studies of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have designed a novel, dedicated diffractometer for surface x-ray scattering studies of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces for the PETRA III High Resolution Diffraction Beamline. Using a double crystal beam-tilter in Bragg geometry this new instrument enables reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction investigations without moving the sample, which is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the diffractometer. This design minimizes external excitation of surface vibrations, a key prerequisite for studies of liquid interfaces. The instrument operates over the energy range 6.4 keV to 30 keV, the higher energy range being optimal for penetration through liquid sample environments. Vertical momentum transfer up to q{sub z} 2.5 A{sup -1} and lateral q{sub ||} up to 4 A{sup -1}will be available.

Murphy, B. M.; Greve, M.; Runge, B.; Koops, C. T.; Elsen, A.; Stettner, J.; Magnussen, O. M. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Seeck, O. H. [PETRA III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

235

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Cells vs. Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Superconductors! Superconductors! Previous Video (Superconductors!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Oxygen and Fire!) Liquid Oxygen and Fire! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Let's say you've carelessly dunked your hand into a vat of liquid nitrogen and let it freeze solid. Every movie you've seen where this happens tells you that your hand will shatter like fine china should you bump it into something. If you're extremely careful, will your hand be okay once it thaws out? We'll explore this issue, using flower and onion cells rather than our hands! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: By now, we all know what happens when you place a flower in liquid

236

X-rays at Solid-Liquid Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-liquid interfaces play an important role in many areas of current and future technologies, and in our biosphere. They play a key role in the development of nanofluidics and nanotribology, which sensitively depend on our knowledge of the microscopic structures and phenomena at the solid-liquid interface. The detailed understanding of how a fluid meets a wall is also a theoretical challenge. In particular, the phenomena at repulsive walls are of interest, since they affect many different phenomena, such as water-repellent surfaces or the role of the hydrophobic interaction in protein folding. Recent x-ray reflectivity studies of various solid-liquid interfaces have disclosed rather intriguiing phenomena, which will be discussed in this lecture: premelting of ice in contact with silica; liquid Pb in contact with Si; water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces. These experiments, carried out with high-energy x-ray microbeams, reveal detailed insight into the liquid density profile closest to the wall. A detailed insight into atomistic phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is also a prerequisite in the microscopic control of electrochemical reactions at interfaces. Recent x-ray studies show the enormous future potential of such non-destructive analytical tools for the in situ observation of (electro-)chemical surface reactions. This lecture will review recent x-ray experiments on solid-liquid interfaces.

Dosch, Helmut (Max Planck Institute for Metals Research) [Max Planck Institute for Metals Research

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

237

High Pressure Liquid Chromatography of Fatty Acids and Lipids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......column; am- bient temperature; 395-400 psig...acetone; column temperature, 45 . (Reprinted...reasonable to speculate that development of new deriva- tives...exciting area for future developments in HPLC is liquid chromatography...3.1.1.4) of snake venom. The resulting......

M. J. Cooper; M. W. Anders

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Enhanced liquid hydrocarbon recovery process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recovering liquid hydrocarbons. It comprises: injecting into a fractured subterranean formation a polymer enhanced foam comprising a polymer selected from a synthetic polymer or a biopolymer, a surfactant, an aqueous solvent and a gas, recovering liquid hydrocarbons from the formation.

Sydansk, R.D.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

239

Orifice mixing of immiscible liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measured with an Ostwald Viscosimeter relative to tap water also, All of these physical measurements were made at 83c F, the average tempera- ture noted during the runs. The liquid upon which these measurements were made were samples of the liquids...

McDonough, Joseph Aloysius

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Liquid-permeable electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

242

Freezing of a Liquid Marble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation for the observed morphology.

Ali Hashmi; Adam Strauss; Jie Xu

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

243

A Management Tool for Analyzing CHP Natural Gas Liquids Recovery System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research is to develop a management tool for analyzing combined heat and power (CHP) natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery systems. The methodology is developed around the central ideas of product recovery, possible recovery...

Olsen, C.; Kozman, T. A.; Lee, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Metal Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids UCLA, UCB, Yale DE-EE0005941 | April 15, 2013 | Ju 1.1 Thermochemistry modeling * Continue CALPHAD based calculations to search for optimal ternary alloy compositions. * Initiate development of liquid density models. 1.2 Combinatorial synthesis and characterization * Pipe-Liquid interaction of compositional library * More alloys, alloy additions and effect on liquidus temperatures * Iteratively optimize the compositions. 1.3 Corrosion characterization and mitigation * Tune static corrosion testing systems for testing over an extended period of time. * Perform analysis of the micro mechanical testing on the oxide layers. 1.4 Heat transfer characterization and modeling * Complete the construction of the flow loop and perform experiments to measure

245

Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of historical data and projections for supply, demand, and prices of these liquids, co-products, and competing products. To reduce confusion in terminology and improve its presentation of data, EIA has worked with industry and federal and state governments to clarify gas liquid terminology and has developed the term Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids, or HGL.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Gammasphere software development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

Piercey, R.B.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

249

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Instant Liquid Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freezing Balloons! Freezing Balloons! Previous Video (Freezing Balloons!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Flowers!) Shattering Flowers! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Need a bunch of balloons blown-up quickly? Liquid nitrogen to the rescue! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: We've been making videos for a while now and we've learned that people like balloons and liquid nitrogen! Steve: So... Here you go! Balloon: Crackling... Balloon: Pop! Joanna: Ooh! Balloon: Pop! Balloon: Pop! Steve: If you'd like to know the science of what's going on behind this, please one of our first videos, "Liquid Nitrogen Experiments: The Balloon."

250

Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Packaging and transportation of radioactive liquid at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beginning in the 1940`s, radioactive liquid waste has been generated at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site as a result of defense material production. The liquid waste is currently stored in 177 underground storage tanks. As part of the tank remediation efforts, Type B quantity packagings for the transport of large volumes of radioactive liquids are required. There are very few Type B liquid packagings in existence because of the rarity of large-volume radioactive liquid payloads in the commercial nuclear industry. Development of aboveground transport systems for large volumes of radioactive liquids involves institutional, economic, and technical issues. Although liquid shipments have taken place under DOE-approved controlled conditions within the boundaries of the Hanford Site for many years, offsite shipment requires compliance with DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and US Department of Transportation (DOT) directives and regulations. At the present time, no domestic DOE nor NRC-certified Type B packagings with the appropriate level of shielding are available for DOT-compliant transport of radioactive liquids in bulk volumes. This paper will provide technical details regarding current methods used to transport such liquids on and off the Hanford Site, and will provide a status of packaging development programs for future liquid shipments.

Smith, R.J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

UNDERSTANDING OF CATALYST DEACTIVATION CAUSED BY SULFUR POISONING AND CARBON DEPOSITION IN STEAM REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production.… (more)

Xie, Chao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Diffraction of light by topological defects in liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study light scattering by a hedgehog-like and linear disclination topological defects in a nematic liquid crystal by a metric approach. Light propagating near such defects feels an effective metric equivalent to the spatial part of the global monopole and cosmic string geometries. We obtain the scattering amplitude and the differential and total scattering cross section for the case of the hedgehog defect, in terms of the characteristic parameters of the liquid crystal. Studying the disclination case, a cylindrical partial wave method is developed. As an application of the previous developments, we also examine the temperature influence on the localization of the diffraction patterns.

E. Pereira; F. Moraes

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

254

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

255

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid ... An efficient process was developed for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the relatively low-toxicity and inexpensive catalytic system of chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3·6H2O) catalyst and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) ionic liquid. ... Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Biofuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran ...

Lei Hu; Yong Sun; Lu Lin

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

256

Molecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Richard J. Sadus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coexistence. 1. Introduction Henry's constant is a well-known measure of a solute's solubility in a particularMolecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Boundaries Richard to determine Henry's constant from the residual chemical potential at infinite dilution at the vapor-liquid

257

The Viscosity of Liquid Helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2 September 1935 research-article The Viscosity of Liquid Helium J. O. Wilhelm A. D. Misener A. R. Clark The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve...

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Liquid Oxygen and its Uses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of the liquid. At present, however, there is no known method of rendering them flameless, and their use in the majority of coal-mines is therefore inadmissible. If this ...

HENRY BRIGGS

1924-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

259

Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Today's state of the art for hydrogen storage includes 5,000- and 10,000-psi compressed gas tanks and cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks for on-board hydrogen storage.

260

Liquid helium cryo TEM | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cryo TEM Liquid helium cryo TEM The JEOL JEM-3000SFF was designed for high-resolution cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of biological samples and expands EMSL...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Essays on liquidity and information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation studies the interaction of liquidity and incomplete or asymmetric information. In Chapter 1, I study a dynamic economy with illiquidity due to adverse selection in financial markets. Investment is undertaken ...

Kurlat, Pablo (Pablo Daniel)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

263

SRS - Programs - Liquid Waste Disposition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Waste Disposition Liquid Waste Disposition This includes both the solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes stored in SRS's tank farms and disposal of liquid low-level waste generated as a by-product of the separations process and tank farm operations. This low-level waste is treated in the Effluent Treatment Facility. High-activity liquid waste is generated at SRS as by-products from the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, research and medical programs. The waste, totaling about 36 million gallons, is currently stored in 49 underground carbon-steel waste tanks grouped into two "tank farms" at SRS. While the waste is stored in the tanks, it separates into two parts: a sludge that settles on the bottom of the tank, and a liquid supernate that resides on top of the sludge. The waste is reduced to about 30 percent of its original volume by evaporation. The condensed evaporator "overheads" are transferred to the Effluent Treatment Project for final cleanup prior to release to the environment. As the concentrate cools a portion of it crystallizes forming solid saltcake. The concentrated supernate and saltcake are less mobile and therefore less likely to escape to the environment in the event of a tank crack or leak.

264

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California the theory of an extremely correlated Fermi liquid with U ! 1. This liquid has an underlying auxiliary Fermi liquid Green's function that is further caparisoned by extreme correlations. The theory leads to two

California at Santa Cruz, University of

267

Modeling of the Phase behavior of light (C2 & C3) olefins in liquid phase epoxidation systems and experimental determination of gas/liquid mass transfer coefficients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). HYSYS® software was used to study the phase behavior and generate quantitative data on the solubility of gaseous olefins in the liquid phase which aided in the optimization of the reaction conditions. A detailed stirred tank reactor model was developed...

Ghanta, Madhav

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Core-softened Fluids, Water-like Anomalies and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Points  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Water is characterized by well-known thermodynamic and kinetic liquid-state anomalies; for examplePREPRINT Core-softened Fluids, Water-like Anomalies and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Points Evy simulations are used to examine the relationship between water-like anoma- lies and the liquid-liquid critical

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

269

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Impact of Relative Humidity on the Survival of Desiccated Salmonella Cells on Surfaces with Peanut Butter Haiping Li, Christina Megalis, Mary Lou Tortorello  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assessment of current post harvest and nut butter processing practices, and the development of best practices cases. Environmental samples tested positive in two recent outbreaks associated with nuts. In the 2006 Salmonella peanut butter outbreak, two environmental samples, one from a floor swab and another from

Heller, Barbara

271

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture ... Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) are potential green substitutes of aqueous amine solutions for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. ... However, the viscous nature of AAILs greatly hinders their further development in CO2 capture applications. ...

Xianfeng Wang; Novruz G. Akhmedov; Yuhua Duan; David Luebke; David Hopkinson; Bingyun Li

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

272

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids ... An efficient process was developed for the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]) by using sulfated zirconia as catalyst. ... Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars ...

Xinhua Qi; Haixin Guo; Luyang Li

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Ultra-high-resolution time projection chambers with liquid crystal backplanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the possibility of incorporating a liquid-crystal device into a gas ionization detector. After extensive R&D on several candidate liquid-crystal technologies, we developed some novel materials allowing twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers to be coupled directly to gas ionization counters. However, the resulting structures were unsuitable for large-scale or practical use. We tested several technologies known to result in mechanically-robust liquid crystal electrooptic layers, but found poor behavior in the detector context.

Monreal, Benjamin

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Existing data on the 216-Z liquid waste sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 36 years of operation at the Hanford Site, the ground has been used for disposal of liquid and solid transuranic and/or low-level wastes. Liquid waste was disposed in surface and subsurface cribs, trenches, French drains, reverse wells, ditches and ponds. Disposal structures associated with Z Plant received liquid waste from plutonium finishing and reclamation, waste treatment and laboratory operations. The nineteen 216-Z sites have received 83% of the plutonium discharged to 325 liquid waste facilities at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to support the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement by drawing the existing data together for the 216-Z liquid waste disposal sites. This document provides an interim reference while a sitewide Waste Information Data System (WIDS) is developed and put on line. Eventually these and additional site data for all Hanford waste disposal sites will be available on WIDS. Compilation of existing data is the first step in evaluating the need and developing the technology for long-term management of these waste sites. The scope of this document is confined to data describing the status of the 216-Z waste sites as of December 31, 1979. Information and sketches are taken from existing documents and drawings.

Owens, K.W.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Santosh Gangwal, Director–Business Development, Energy Technologies, Southern Research Institute

276

Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mudline to the rig floor so as to maintain the bottom hole pressure. Several methods have been developed to achieve the dual gradient drilling principle. For this research project, we paid more attention to the liquid lift, dual gradient drilling (riser...

Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient drilling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mudline to the rig floor so as to maintain the bottom hole pressure. Several methods have been developed to achieve the dual gradient drilling principle. For this research project, we paid more attention to the liquid lift, dual gradient drilling (riser...

Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

278

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations Hui Jin, Bernie O'Hare, Jing Dong, Sergei Arzhantsev, Gary A. Baker, James F. Wishart, Alan J. Benesi, and Mark Maroncelli J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 81-92 (2008). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of

279

Understanding Sub-20 nm Breakdown Behavior of Liquid Dielectrics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanoscale confinement of dielectric molecules is expected to influence their breakdown mechanism in applications such as nanoprobe based machining, molecular electronics, and other related technologies. This Letter presents the first experimental study of the breakdown of nonpolar, nonthiolated liquid dielectrics in the nanometer regime and develops a field emission assisted avalanche based approach to model such behavior. The studies show that dielectric breakdown in the sub-20 nm regime is independent of the cathode materials and is dominated by the electron emission and atomic cluster migration due to the “sub-20 nm scale confinement of the liquid dielectric.”

Kumar R. Virwani; Ajay P. Malshe; Kamlakar P. Rajurkar

2007-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

280

Liquid soap film generates electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have observed that a rotating liquid soap film generates electricity when placed between two non-contact electrodes with a sufficiently large potential difference. In our experiments suspended liquid film (water + soap film) is formed on the surface of a circular frame, which is forced to rotate in the $x-y$ horizontal plane by a motor. This system is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply an external electric voltage difference in the $x-$direction. The produced electric current is collected from the liquid film using two conducting electrodes that are separated in the $y-$direction. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this paper we report a novel technique, in which a similar device can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to electrical energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed similarly in very small scales like micro scales with different applications. Although the device is comparable to commercial electric motors or electric generators, there is a significant difference in their working principles. Usually in an electric motor or generator the magnetic field causes the driving force, while in a LFM or LFEG the Coulomb force is the driving force. This fact is also interesting from the Bio-science point of view and brings a similarity to bio motors. Here we have investigated the electrical characteristics of such a generator for the first time experimentally and modelled the phenomenon with electroconvection governing equations. A numerical simulation is performed using the local approximation for the charge-potential relation and results are in qualitative agreement with experiments.

Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

LIQUID AIR INTERFACE CORROSION TESTING FOR FY2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was undertaken to investigate the corrosivity to carbon steel of the liquid-air interface of dilute simulated radioactive waste solutions. Open-circuit potentials were measured on ASTM A537 carbon steel specimens located slightly above, at, and below the liquid-air interface of simulated waste solutions. The 0.12-inch-diameter specimens used in the study were sized to respond to the assumed distinctive chemical environment of the liquid-air interface, where localized corrosion in poorly inhibited solutions may frequently be observed. The practical inhibition of such localized corrosion in liquid radioactive waste storage tanks is based on empirical testing and a model of a liquid-air interface environment that is made more corrosive than the underlying bulk liquid due to chemical changes brought about by absorbed atmospheric carbon dioxide. The chemical changes were assumed to create a more corrosive open-circuit potential in carbon in contact with the liquid-air interface. Arrays of 4 small specimens spaced about 0.3 in. apart were partially immersed so that one specimen contacted the top of the meniscus of the test solution. Two specimens contacted the bulk liquid below the meniscus and one specimen was positioned in the vapor space above the meniscus. Measurements were carried out for up to 16 hours to ensure steady-state had been obtained. The results showed that there was no significant difference in open-circuit potentials between the meniscus-contact specimens and the bulk-liquid-contact specimens. With the measurement technique employed, no difference was detected between the electrochemical conditions of the meniscus versus the bulk liquid. Stable open-circuit potentials were measured on the specimen located in the vapor space above the meniscus, showing that there existed an electrochemical connection through a thin film of solution extending up from the meniscus. This observation supports the Hobbs-Wallace model of the development of the pitting susceptibility of carbon steel in alkaline solutions.

Zapp, P.

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

282

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography and Electrodriven Separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......processing (5), solvent extraction (6, 7), electrolytes in batteries (8), metal deposition (9, 10) and gas treatment (11...Polymerized ionic liquid sorbents for CO2 separation. Energy and Fuels (2010) 24:5797-5804. 13 Ho T.D. , Canestraro A......

Yi Huang; Shun Yao; Hang Song

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

284

Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Charge Delocalization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Resistance Through Charge Delocalization in 1-Benzylpyridinium Ilya A. Shkrob, Timothy W. Marin, Jasmine L. Hatcher, Andrew R. Cook, Tomasz Szreder and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, Just Accepted (2013). [Find paper at ACS Publications]. Abstract: Hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) hold promise as replacements for molecular diluents for processing of used nuclear fuel as well as for the development of alternative separations processes, provided that the solvent can be made resistant to ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that 1-benzylpyridinium cations are uniquely suited as radiation resistant cations due to the occurrence of charge delocalization both in their reduced and oxidized form in the ILs. It is suggested that

286

Nozzle development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program has been the development of experimental techniques and data processing procedures to allow for the characterization of multi-phase fuel nozzles using laboratory tests. Test results were to be used to produce a single value coefficient-of-performance that would predict the performance of the fuel nozzles independent of system application. Several different types of fuel nozzles capable of handling multi-phase fuels have been characterized for: (a) fuel flow rate versus delivery pressure, (b) fuel-air ratio throughout the fuel spray or plume and the effective cone angle of the injector, and (c) fuel drop- or particle-size distribution as a function of fluid properties. Fuel nozzles which have been characterized on both single-phase liquids and multi-phase liquid-solid slurries include a variable-film-thickness nozzle, a commercial coal-water slurry (CWS) nozzle, and four diesel injectors of different geometries (tested on single-phase fluids only). Multi-phase mixtures includes CWS with various coal loadings, surfactant concentrations, and stabilizer concentrations, as well as glass-bead water slurries with stabilizing additives. Single-phase fluids included glycerol-water mixtures to vary the viscosity over a range of 1 to 1500 cP, and alcohol-water mixtures to vary the surface tension from about 22 to 73 dyne/cm. In addition, tests were performed to characterize straight-tube gas-solid nozzles using two differences size distributions of glass beads in air. Standardized procedures have been developed for processing measurements of spray drop-size characteristics and the overall cross-section average drop or particle size. 43 refs., 60 figs., 7 tabs.

Dodge, F.T.; Dodge, L.G.; Johnson, J.E.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Demonstration of Light Guides for Light Detection in Liquid Argon TPCs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are a developing technology that is becoming a popular choice for neutrino and dark matter experiments due to the low cost of the LAr as a target material and the high ...

Ignarra, C.M.

288

An “exact” self-consistent Brueckner calculation for liquid 3He  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Brueckner g-matrix elements for liquid 3He are calculated by a direct matrix inversion method. The validity and convenience of this approach, developed and applied to the nuclear matter problem by Baranger an...

H. B. Ghassib; J. M. Irvine

1975-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Numerical modeling of the ignition of a liquid hydrocarbon layer by a radiant heat pulse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A gas-phase model of radiative ignition of a flammable liquid is developed, allowing for absorption of the radiant flux in the gas phase. Using motor fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel), as examples, we demonstra...

Yu. V. Agabekov; F. G. Yagafarov

290

The economics of liquid transportation fuels from coal: Past, present and future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews the technologies for producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and traces their evolution. Estimates of how their economics have changed with continuing research and development are also given.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; ElSawy, A. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

On the stability of gas bubbles in liquid-gas solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was shown some time ago by use of diffusion theory that a gas bubble in a liquid-gas solution was unstable. ... papers both of which propose to develop a stability analysis solely from thermodynamic considerat...

Milton S. Plesset; Satwindar S. Sadhal

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

A grid-level alkali liquid metal battery recycling process : design, implementation, and characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The application of liquid metal batteries for large scale grid-level energy storage is being enabled through the development of research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2006. A recycling ...

Thomas, Dale Arlington, III

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

The logic behind thick, liquid-walled, fusion concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It may be possible to surround the region where fusion reactions are taking place with a neutronically thick liquid blanket which has penetrations that allow only a few tenths of a percent of the neutrons to leak out. Even these neutrons can be attenuated by adding an accurately placed liquid or solid near the target to shadow-shield the beam ports from line-of-sight neutrons. The logic of such designs are discussed and their evolution is described with examples applied to both magnetic and inertial fusion (HYLIFE-II). These designs with liquid protection are self healing when exposed to pulsed loading and have a number of advantages-over the usual designs with solid first walls. For example, the liquid-protected solid components will last the life of the plant, and therefore the capacity factor is estimated to be approximately 10% higher than for the non-liquid-walled blankets, because no blanket replacement shutdowns are required. The component replacement, operations, and maintenance costs might be half the usual value because no blanket change-out costs or accompanying facilities are required. These combined savings might lower the cost of electricity by 20%. Nuclear-grade construction should not be needed, largely because the liquid attenuates neutrons and results in less activation of materials. Upon decommissioning, the reactor materials should qualify for disposal by shallow burial even when constructed of ordinary 304 stainless steel. The need for a high-intensity 14-MeV neutron test facility to develop first-wall materials is avoided or greatly reduced, saving billions of development dollars. Flowing molten Li, the molten salt Flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}), and molten Li{sub l7}Pb{sub 83} have been considered. An advantage of molten salt is that it will not burn and has a low tritium solubility and therefore low tritium inventory.

Moir, R.W.

1994-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

296

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids Symposium Schedule  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) (Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) Sunday Morning Structure and Heterogeneity of Ionic Liquids I. James Wishart and Edward Castner Introductory Remarks Andre Pinkert Hydroxyamine ionic liquids and their properties Thomas Strassner TAAILs - Tunable Aryl-Alkyl Ionic Liquids: A new generation of ionic liquids Laura Sprunger Grubbs Thermodynamic Properties of New Generation Ionic Liquids Christopher Hardacre Prediction methods for physical properties of ionic liquids BREAK Patricia Hunt What happens when you functionalise an ionic liquid with a "silicone" side chain? Edward L Quitevis Effect of cation symmetry and nanoscale segregation on the morphology, physical properties, and low-frequency vibrational dynamics of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation ionic liquids

297

Determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A hydrophobic ionic liquid was finely dispersed in aqueous solution along with a hydrophilic ionic liquid. Following centrifugation, the two phases aggregate to form relatively large droplets. Based on this pheno...

Ru-Song Zhao; Xia Wang; Jing Sun; Cong Hu; Xi-Kui Wang

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Nanopatterned anchoring layers for liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the theory and fabrication of inhomogeneous Liquid Crystal anchoring layers. While chemical anchoring techniques have proved useful for many applications, especially Liquid Crystal Displays, they have ...

Gear, Christopher S. (Christopher Stanwood)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturingassembly guidelines, maintenancerepair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as...

302

Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wall Research Advances the Science and Energy Goals of Fusion in a Perfect Fit · If we can make liquidRemarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou Professor Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering UCLA Note For recent presentations and papers on liquid wall research by the APEX team see website: http

Abdou, Mohamed

303

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen Show!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Insulators! Insulators! Previous Video (Insulators!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Superconductors!) Superconductors! Liquid Nitrogen Show! All of your favorite liquid nitrogen experiments all in one place! Flowers! Balloons! Racquetballs! Nothing is safe! Just sit back, relax, and enjoy the show! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Usually, every couple years, Jefferson Lab hosts an Open House. This is the one time the public and come and tour our accelerator and end stations. Steve: During the 2010 Open House, our cameraman snuck into one of the ongoing cryo shows that are held throughout the day. He missed half of it. So if you want to see the entire thing, check our website to see when the

304

Bubbles in Insulating Liquids: Stability in an Electric Field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...July 1964 research-article Bubbles in Insulating Liquids: Stability in an Electric Field C. G...Krasucki It is shown that a bubble of gas or liquid, immersed...of incompressible (liquid) bubbles immersed in an insulating liquid...

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

306

A Lattice Boltzmann model for polymeric liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Lattice Boltzmann model for polymeric liquids is developed. In the proposed model, polymers are modelled as dumbbells suspended in a solvent. A distribution function is introduced to describe the configuration of the dumbbells, and is used to evaluate the viscoelastic stresses in flow fields. A discrete kinetic equation for the configurational distribution is derived, and is shown to recover the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation at the continuous level, when coupled with the standard Lattice Boltzmann equation for the flow of the solvent. Numerical simulations of both steady and unsteady flows are performed in order to investigate the validity of the current model. In the simulation of small-amplitude oscillatory shear flows, numerical results are quantitatively compared with the analytical solutions obtained with the Oldroyd-B equation, and good agreements are observed.

Junya Onishi; Yu Chen; Hirotada Ohashi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Viscosity of liquid Fe at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray radiography has been used to measure the viscosity of pure liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature in a large volume press. A probe sphere rising through liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature is imaged, in situ, allowing for the derivation of sample viscosity through a modified form of Stokes’ equation. The effect of pressure on viscosity is fit by the semi empirical framework for transport coefficients in liquid metals, providing experimental verification of constant viscosity at the pressure-dependent melting temperature of liquid Fe where no change in liquid structure occurs.

Michael D. Rutter; Richard A. Secco; Hongjian Liu; Takeyuki Uchida; Mark L. Rivers; Stephen R. Sutton; Yanbin Wang

2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

308

TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

309

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Alien liquid detector and control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

Potter, B.M.

1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

311

Refueling Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR), also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. Depending upon goals, the peak coolant operating temperatures are between 700 and 1000 deg. C, with reactor outputs between 2400 and 4000 MW(t). Several fluoride salt coolants that are being evaluated have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum refueling temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. At operating conditions, the liquid salts are transparent and have physical properties similar to those of water. A series of refueling studies have been initiated to (1) confirm the viability of refueling, (2) define methods for safe rapid refueling, and (3) aid the selection of the preferred AHTR design. Three reactor cores with different fuel element designs (prismatic, pebble bed, and pin-type fuel assembly) are being evaluated. Each is a liquid-salt-cooled variant of a graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor. The refueling studies examined applicable refueling experience from high-temperature reactors (similar fuel element designs) and sodium-cooled fast reactors (similar plant design with liquid coolant, high temperatures, and low pressures). The findings indicate that refueling is viable, and several approaches have been identified. The study results are described in this paper. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cahalan, James E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Enneking, Jeffrey A. [Areva NP (United States); Phil MacDonald [Consultant, Cedar Hill, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use in nuclear fuel processing J. F. Wishart and I. A. Shkrob in "Ionic Liquids: From Knowledge to Application" Rogers, R. D., Plechkova, N. V., and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 1030, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2009, pp 119-134. (ISBN 978-0-8412-6997-2) [Find chapter at ACS Publications] Abstract: Using ionic liquids as a medium for the processing of spent nuclear fuel, where their safety and process improvement advantages could be significant, promises to substantially contribute to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles to improve the world's energy posture. It is therefore important to study the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids, to determine

313

Membrane Separations of Liquid Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS OF LIQUID MIXTURES Douglas R. Lloyd Separations Research Program Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas In recent years considerable attention has been given to the need... for reduced energy costs in the chemical processing industry. A major portion of the energy consumed in this industry is associated with the separation and recovery of chemicals. Membrane processes offer energy-efficient, cost effective methods...

Lloyd, D. R.

314

Gammasphere software development. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

Piercey, R.B.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 2 - Liquid Fuels World liquids consumption increases from 84 million barrels per day in 2005 to 99 million barrels per day in 2030 in the IEO2008 high price case. In the reference case, which reflects a price path that departs significantly from prices prevailing in the first 8 months of 2008, liquids use rises to 113 million barrels per day in 2030. Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

316

Developments Towards a Liquid Piston Stirling Engine Tracking # 132055  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

continuous combustion of sustainable fuels, solar energy, factory waste heat, geothermal energy, or numerous 01609 USA The Stirling engine possesses numerous natural benefits such as functioning from any heat a conventional piston. Creating near-isothermal operation in the working chambers eliminates the need for costly

Van de Ven, James D.

317

Liquid metal systems development: reactor vessel support structure evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of an evaluation of support structures for the reactor vessel are reported. The U ring, box ring, integral ring, tee ring and tangential beam supports were investigated. The U ring is the recommended vessel support structure configuration.

McEdwards, J.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt059tiday2011...

319

Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. tiarravt059day2010...

320

Development of National Liquid Propane (Autogas) Refueling Network...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt059tiday2012o...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NREL Demonstrates Game-Changing Air Conditioner Technology (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Testing of DEVAP prototype validates modeled Testing of DEVAP prototype validates modeled predictions of 40% to 85% energy savings. Researchers in the NREL Buildings group are moving the award-winning desiccant enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air conditioning technol- ogy further toward commercialization by demonstrating that its energy-saving perfor- mance matches closely with thermodynamic model predictions. Industry partners Synapse Product Development and AIL Research built two prototypes of DEVAP based on NREL's design and modeling, which were tested in NREL's Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory. Experiments added confidence to the predicted energy savings of 40% in humid climates and 85% in dry climates, empowering the model as a tool for developing marketable designs, and illustrating the potential of DEVAP to transform

322

Screening Tool for Desiccant Dehumidification Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-friendliness. Its graphical interface emphasizes the simplicity of using default values or, if desired, provides the user with the option of customizing the input. The program runs annual loads/energy calculations with the electric equipment selected by the user...

Czachorski, M.; Worek, W. M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Contamination by Dust Particles and Intensive Desiccation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the area of the quasi-porous internal surface of glass that has been cleaned and roughened by cleaning solution. Again, the fusion process may engulf and incorporate beneath a relatively ...

ALAN W. C. MENZIES

1930-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

324

High pressure liquid chromatographic method for CP amide analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed for the analysis of the 5-carboxamidotetrazolatopentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate contaminant of the explosive CP (2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)-pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate). The analysis utilizes a Zn/Hg reduction of the cobalt (III) complexes to allow a high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of the reaction products; the product analysis is directly related to the weight percent of impurity present in the explosive. The technique is described and shortcomings pointed out.

Loyola, V. M.; Womelsduff, J. E.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter bench test module  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter Bench Test Module. The work presented in this document was conducted as a part of Heat Engine Task of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The objective of this task is the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies applicable to distributed receiver systems, in particular, dish electric systems.

Lukens, L.L.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Transient-Liquid-Phase and Liquid-Film-Assisted Joining ofCeramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two joining methods, transient-liquid-phase (TLP) joining and liquid-film-assisted joining (LFAJ), have been used to bond alumina ceramics. Both methods rely on multilayer metallic interlayers designed to form thin liquid films at reduced temperatures. The liquid films either disappear by interdiffusion (TLP) or promote ceramic/metal interface formation and concurrent dewetting of the liquid film (LFAJ). Progress on extending the TLP method to lower temperatures by combining low-melting-point (<450 C) liquids and commercial reactive-metal brazes is described. Recent LFAJ work on joining alumina to niobium using copper films is presented.

Sugar, Joshua D.; McKeown, Joseph T.; Akashi, Takaya; Hong, SungM.; Nakashima, Kunihiko; Glaeser, Andreas M.

2005-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

327

Viscosity of liquid {sup 4}He and quantum of circulation: Are they related?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the vicinity of the superfluid transition in liquid {sup 4}He, we explore the relation between two apparently unrelated physical quantities—the kinematic viscosity, ?, in the normal state and the quantum of circulation, ?, in the superfluid state. The model developed here leads to the simple relationship ? ? ?/6, and links the classical and quantum flow properties of liquid {sup 4}He. We critically examine available data relevant to this relation and find that the prediction holds well at the saturated vapor pressure. Additionally, we predict the kinematic viscosity for liquid {sup 4}He along the ?-line at negative pressures.

L’vov, Victor S., E-mail: victor.lvov@gmail.com, E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz, E-mail: krs3@nyu.edu [Department of Chemical Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Skrbek, Ladislav, E-mail: victor.lvov@gmail.com, E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz, E-mail: krs3@nyu.edu [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Sreenivasan, Katepalli R., E-mail: victor.lvov@gmail.com, E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz, E-mail: krs3@nyu.edu [Departments of Physics and Mechanical Engineering, and Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans releases 2.0 and 3.0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

Guettler, D.A.

1995-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

329

Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Flowing Liquid Crystal Simulating the Schwarzschild Metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how to simulate the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric through a flowing liquid crystal in its nematic phase. Inside a liquid crystal in the nematic phase, a traveling light ray feels an effective metric, whose properties are linked to perpendicular and parallel refractive indexes, $n_o$ e $n_e$ respectively, of the rod-like molecule of the liquid crystal. As these indexes depend on the scalar order parameter of the liquid crystal, the Beris-Edwards hydrodynamic theory is used to connect the order parameter with the velocity of a liquid crystal flow at each point. This way we calculate a radial velocity profile that simulates the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric, in the region outside of Schwarzschild's radius, in the nematic phase of the liquid crystal. In our model, the higher flow velocity can be of the order of some meters per second.

Erms R. Pereira; Fernando Moraes

2010-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

331

Study of Liquid Dynamics by Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews the information about the collective motions of atoms in liquids which can be obtained from neutron scattering experiments with particular attention to the rare gases and liquid metals. The current status of the theoretical interpretation is examined. Coherent neutron scattering from a monatomic liquid gives directly the spectrum of the correlation function for density fluctuations in the system for wavelengths in the range 1–10 Å. The results have a dual interpretation. On the one hand they may be understood in terms of a viscoelastic theory which takes into account the microscopic structure of the liquid; on the other hand fluctuations at these wavelengths may be interpreted in terms of vibrational modes as in an amorphous solid. The paper attempts to reconcile these two points of view. Qualitative differences between liquidargon and the liquid metals are discussed with reference to the connection between the neutron results and the microscopic properties of these liquids.

P. Schofield

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

NONE

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background Development of innovative environmental control technologies is key to maintaining coal as an affordable and environmentally sound energy source. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control technologies, specifically post-combustion CO 2 capture, for coal- fired power plants is a major focus area in addressing climate change concerns. Post-

334

EIS-0085-S: Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, Supplemental  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this supplemental statement to examine the reduced scope of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program and the environmental impacts associated therewith, including a re-examination of the purpose, need and timing of the program, the present program structure, including reasonable program alternatives, and alternative electricity production technologies anticipated to be available within the same timeframe as the LMFBR technology option. This statement supplements ERDA-1535, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program.

335

Solubility of Carbohydrates in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

‡ Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P., Unit of Bioenergy, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038, Lisboa, Portugal ... The aim of this Review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding the solubility of carbohydrates in ionic liquids but not on modifications of carbohydrates in ionic liquids. ... We herein collect all of the available literature data about the solubility of various carbohydrates in ionic liquids and highlight their interactions with carbohydrates. ...

Ma?gorzata Ewa Zakrzewska; Ewa Bogel-?ukasik; Rafa? Bogel-?ukasik

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

336

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Gas well operation with liquid production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prediction of liquid loading in gas wells is discussed in terms of intersecting tubing or system performance curves with IPR curves and by using a more simplified critical velocity relationship. Different methods of liquid removal are discussed including such methods as intermittent lift, plunger lift, use of foam, gas lift, and rod, jet, and electric submersible pumps. Advantages, disadvantages, and techniques for design and application of the methods of liquid removal are discussed.

Lea, J.F.; Tighe, R.E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Exciplex Fluorescence Thermometry of Liquid Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental program is described that investigates the application of exciplex fluorescence to the internal thermometry of flowing liquid decane in the temperature range 24-91°C....

Stufflebeam, John H

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves",49,"Annual",2012,"6301979" ,"Release...

340

Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2 November 1936 research-article Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium Y. S. Chiong The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend...

1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves",49,"Annual",2013,"6301979" ,"Release...

342

Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Seeing clearly through a liquid | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Influencing Quantitative Liquid (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy." 2014. Chemical Communications 50(8):4873-4880. DOI: 10.1039c3cc48479c Related Staff: James Evans...

344

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

345

Cryocompressed Hydrogen Storage and Liquid Delivery  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cryocompressed Hydrogen Storage & Liquid Delivery Jacob Leachman, Ph.D. Assistant Professor DOE H 2 Transmission & Delivery Workshop 2262014 H Y P E R H drogen roperties for...

346

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Liquid Chlorination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication explains the process, components, legal requirements, factors affecting performance, and maintenance needs of liquid chlorination systems for onsite wastewater treatment....

Weaver, Richard; Lesikar, Bruce J.; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

347

Hazardous Liquid Pipelines and Storage Facilities (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute regulates the permitting, construction, monitoring, and operation of pipelines transporting hazardous liquids, including petroleum products and coal slurries. The definition used in...

348

The response of a point source in a liquid layer overlying a liquid half space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The response to a harmonic point source in a liquid layer overlying a liquid half space is computed as a function of frequency. Included are the contributions form all normal modes that occur, and the branch-line integral ...

Greenfield, Roy

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids as liquid membranes on phenol removal: Experimental study and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapor pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. Three ionic liquids with high hydrophobicity were used and their phenol removal efficiency, membrane stability and membrane loss were studied. Besides that, the effects of several parameters, namely feed phase pH, feed concentration, NaOH concentration and stirring speeds on the performance of best ionic liquid membrane were also evaluated. Lastly, an optimization study on bulk ionic liquid membrane was conducted and the maximum phenol removal efficiency was compared with the organic liquid membranes. The preliminary study shows that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 96.21% and 98.10%, respectively can be achieved by ionic liquid memb...

Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

China's Scientific Investigation for Liquid Waste Treatment Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Post World War II created the nuclear age with several countries developing nuclear technology for power, defense, space and medical applications. China began its nuclear research and development programs in 1950 with the establishment of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) located near Beijing. CIAE has been China's leader in nuclear science and technical development with its efforts to create advanced reactor technology and upgrade reprocessing technology. In addition, with China's new emphasis on environmental safety, CIAE is focusing on waste treatment options and new technologies that may provide solutions to legacy waste and newly generated waste from the full nuclear cycle. Radioactive liquid waste can pose significant challenges for clean up with various treatment options including encapsulation (cement), vitrification, solidification and incineration. Most, if not all, nuclear nations have found the treatment of liquids to be difficult, due in large part to the high economic costs associated with treatment and disposal and the failure of some methods to safely contain or eliminate the liquid. With new environmental regulations in place, Chinese nuclear institutes and waste generators are beginning to seek new technologies that can be used to treat the more complex liquid waste streams in a form that is safe for transport and for long-term storage or final disposal. [1] In 2004, CIAE and Pacific Nuclear Solutions, a division of Pacific World Trade, USA, began discussions about absorbent technology and applications for its use. Preliminary tests were conducted at CIAE's Department of Radiochemistry using generic solutions, such as lubricating oil, with absorbent polymers for solidification. Based on further discussions between both parties, it was decided to proceed with a more formal test program in April, 2005, and additional tests in October, 2005. The overall objective of the test program was to apply absorbent polymers to various waste streams to determine leach rates, stability (immobilization), effective bonding ratios, compression capability, waste minimization and effects of irradiation on the solidified samples. (authors)

Liangjin, B.; Meiqiong, L. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(87), Beijing, 102413 (China); Kelley, D. [Pacific Nuclear Solutions, 450 East 96th Street, Suite 335, Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most widely used separation technique in the petroleum industry and other liquid fuel production processes as well as in much of the chemical industry is distillation. To design and operate an appropriate commercial and laboratory distillation unit requires a knowledge of the boiling point distribution of the materials to be separated. In recognition of these needs, the ASTM developed the distillation procedures of D86, D216, D447, D850, and D1078. They are widely used in laboratories for the purposes of sample characterization, product and quality control, and distillation column design. However, the significant drawbacks of these ASTM methods include (1) close monitoring of the distillation is required. This is particularly difficult for those samples which are very toxic and/or cause any other safety problems; (2) the sample under test must be transparent and free of separated water; and (3) results obtained by these methods are not particularly precise. This motivated the development of a novel automatic distillation system based on the use of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Spiers Memorial Lecture Recent experimental advances in studies of liquid/liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complicated processes such as molecular transport across cell membranes. A variety of techniques have been on the interaction of a hydrophobic surface with water, and ion and solute transport across these and other liquid/hydrophilic properties of liquid/ liquid interfaces. In biological systems, protein folding and membrane formation rely

Richmond, Geraldine L.

354

Arrays and Cascades of Fluorescent Liquid-Liquid Waveguides: Broadband Light Sources for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arrays and Cascades of Fluorescent Liquid-Liquid Waveguides: Broadband Light Sources) microchannel waveguides with liquid cores containing fluorescent dyes, excited by incident light from an external halogen bulb. Simultaneous use of multiple fluorophores in a common solution, in a single L2 light

Prentiss, Mara

355

Computational simulation of liquid-fuelled HVOF thermal spraying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid-fuelled high-velocity oxygen–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying systems are gaining more attentions due to their advantage of producing denser coatings in comparison to their gas-fuelled counterparts. The flow through a HVOF gun is characterized by a complex array of thermodynamic phenomena involving combustion, turbulence and compressible flow. Advanced computational models have been developed to gain insight to the thermochemical processes of thermal spraying, however little work has been reported for the liquid-fuelled systems. This investigation employs a commercial finite volume CFD code to simulate the flow field through the most widely used liquid-fuel HVOF gun, JP5000 (Praxair, US). By combining numerical combustion and discrete phase models the turbulent spray flame is captured and the development of supersonic gas flow is revealed. The flow field is thoroughly examined by adjusting the nozzle throat diameter and combustion chamber size. The influence of fuel droplet size on the flame shame shape and combusting gas flow is also examined.

H. Tabbara; S. Gu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

NREL: News - NREL to Help Convert Methane to Liquid Diesel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

113 113 NREL to Help Convert Methane to Liquid Diesel Advanced research project could lead to lower greenhouse emissions, new life for spent gas and oil wells January 3, 2013 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will help develop microbes that convert methane found in natural gas into liquid diesel fuel, a novel approach that if successful could reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower dependence on foreign oil. The amount of natural gas simply flared or vented from oil wells globally is enormous - equal to one-third of the amount of petroleum used in the United States each year. And every molecule of methane vented to the atmosphere in that process has the global-warming capacity of 12 molecules of carbon dioxide.

357

Gas-liquid critical point in ionic fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on the method of collective variables we develop the statistical field theory for the study of a simple charge-asymmetric $1:z$ primitive model (SPM). It is shown that the well-known approximations for the free energy, in particular DHLL and ORPA, can be obtained within the framework of this theory. In order to study the gas-liquid critical point of SPM we propose the method for the calculation of chemical potential conjugate to the total number density which allows us to take into account the higher order fluctuation effects. As a result, the gas-liquid phase diagrams are calculated for $z=2-4$. The results demonstrate the qualitative agreement with MC simulation data: critical temperature decreases when $z$ increases and critical density increases rapidly with $z$.

O. Patsahan; I. Mryglod; T. Patsahan

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

358

Communications Counterion Effects in Liquid Crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nanostructured CdS templated directly with ion-doped liquid crystals.13,14 In both cases the mesoporous solidCommunications Counterion Effects in Liquid Crystal Templating of Nanostructured CdS V. Tohver, P system, nanostructured particles consisting of alternat- ing sheets of CdS and oligomeric vinyl alcohol

Braun, Paul

359

Fiber-optic liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber-optic liquid level sensor measures the height of a column of liquid through the hydrostatic pressure it produces. The sensor employs a fiber-optic displacement sensor to detect the pressure-induced displacement of the center of a corrugated diaphragm.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 2011 Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries A review of some of the challenges, activities and policy options for liquid biofuels Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries Although this research is funded by DFID

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Cholesteric Pitch of Lyotropic Polymer Liquid Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cholesteric Pitch of Lyotropic Polymer Liquid Crystals ... The cholesteric pitch P of semiflexible helical polymer solutions was formulated using a threaded equivalent freely jointed chain model. ... The structure of cholesteric liquid crystals is characterized by the cholesteric pitch P or the cholesteric wavenumber qc (?2?/P). ...

Takahiro Sato; Jun Nakamura; Akio Teramoto; Mark M. Green

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

362

Dynamic nuclear polarization of liquid 3He  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...March 1998 research-article Dynamic nuclear polarization of liquid 3He B. Bleaney...3PU, UK Methods of producing dynamic nuclear polarization of liquid 3He by the solid...method have been proposed using enhanced nuclear paramagnetic resonance in Van Vleck compounds...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou Professor Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering UCLA physicists and engineering scientists · Enhances synergism between IFE and MFE · Provides excellent disciplines. #12;Several "Ideas" Have Been Proposed for Liquid Walls Fluids 1) High-conductivity, low Pr

California at Los Angeles, University of

364

A high selective and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for quantization of BPA urinary levels in children  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A selective and highly sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for determination of Bisphenol A (BPA) in human urine using labeled d6-BPA as internal stand...

Carla Nicolucci; Sergio Rossi; Ciro Menale…

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Adhesion-diffusion formation of a multilayer wall for the liquid metal flow channel of a fusion reactor blanket  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique for calculating the adhesion-diffusion formation of a multilayer metal-ceramic structure is presented. The development of this technique is dictated by requirements imposed on the wall of the liquid m...

I. V. Vitkovsky; L. Yu. Frolenkova; V. S. Shorkin

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

\ UNCLASSIFIED ' ;c ,. ' UNCLASSIFIED AECU-29'79 Subject Category: PHYSICS UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION TAYLOR INSTABILITY OF INCOMPRESSIBLE LIQUIDS BY Enrico Fermi John von Neumann , _ November 1955 [ TIS Issuance D.a&?] Los Alamos Scientific Labqratqry Los Alamos, New Mexico Technical Information Service, Ooic Ridge, Tennessee DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available document. original I , The date for Part 1 is September 4, 1951. The date for Part 2 is August 19, 1953. Work performed under Contract PTo. W-7405-Eng-36. The Atomic Energy Commission makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy or usefulness of the lnformatlon or statements contained

367

Enhanced liquid hydrocarbon recovery process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation. It comprises injecting natural gas into the formation via a well in fluid communication with the formation, the natural gas being at a temperature which is insufficient to significantly mobilize light density oil in the formation and at a pressure such that the natural gas is immiscible with the light density oil in the formation, the natural gas being injected in a volume sufficient to contact light density oil in the formation within a radius from the well of about 50 meters; shutting in the well for a period of time of about 1 to about 100 days which is sufficient to render the contacted light density oil mobile; and producing the light density oil which has been mobilized by solution of the natural gas from the well.

Haines, H.K.; Monger, T.G.; Kenyon, D.E.; Galvin, L.J.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

368

Viscosity of Liquid He II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The viscosity of liquid He4 has been measured between 1.10°K and the lambda point. A new type of viscometer was used, based on the damping of the transverse vibrations of a fine wire stretched between two rigid supports. The simplicity of the hydrodynamic problem and the low nuisance damping of the wire make this technique particularly appropriate for the measurement of small viscosities. The smoothed data are presented and found to be in good agreement with the latest rotating cylinder viscometer results. In different experimental runs the vibration frequency was varied by a factor of seven and the wire diameter by a factor of three. There was no evidence of systematic trend due to mean free-path effects or geometrical corrections.

J. T. Tough; W. D. McCormick; J. G. Dash

1963-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells â–  Hydrogen Energy â–  Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US â–  Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

370

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Insulators!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Popping Film Canisters! Popping Film Canisters! Previous Video (Popping Film Canisters!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Show!) Liquid Nitrogen Show! Insulators! Cups full of water are placed into bowls of liquid nitrogen! Which cup will insulate the best? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And these are two plastic cups! Joanna: Let's see which cup is the better insulator! Steve: Okay! So, um, how do we do that? Joanna: Well, we'll pour water into each of the cups and then we'll pour the liquid nitrogen into each of the bowls. If we then place the cup in the bowl, the heat from the water will try to pass through the cup into the

371

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Freezing Balloons!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Season Two Bloopers Season Two Bloopers Previous Video (Season Two Bloopers) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party!) Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Freezing Balloons! What happens when a balloon full of air is plunged into a container full of liquid nitrogen? Play the video to find out! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a really big balloon! Joanna: Let's see what happens when we place the balloon in the liquid nitrogen! Steve: Okay! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Isn't the balloon going to pop? Joanna: We'll see! Steve: Aw, man... Huh. Okay, so the balloon didn't pop. But, there's

372

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid September 15, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. Kristina Pflanz Writer & Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy What does this mean for me? With its all-liquid design, this battery is much more efficient than today's rechargeable batteries, which use 80-90% of the space to hold

374

Neutron Scattering from Liquid Helium at Large Momentum Transfer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......letter Letters to the Editor Neutron Scattering from Liquid Helium at Large...Vol. 46 (1971), No. 1 Neutron Scattering from Liquid Helium at Large...Feynman diagram for the elastic scattering of a neutron from liquid helium, where......

Sigenobu Sunakawa; Kazuo Okajima; Kiyohisa Matsuda

1971-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Modeling, system identification, and control for slosh-free motion of an open container of liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses work performed under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) with Corning, Inc., to analyze and test various techniques for controlling the motion of a high speed robotic arm carrying an open container of viscous liquid, in this case, molten glass. A computer model was generated to estimate the modes of oscillation of the liquid based on the shape of the container and the viscosity of the liquid. This fluid model was experimentally verified and tuned based on experimental data from a capacitive sensor on the side of the container. A model of the robot dynamics was also developed and verified through experimental tests on a Fanuc S-800 robot arm. These two models were used to estimate the overall modes of oscillation of an open container of liquid being carried by a robot arm. Using the estimated modes, inverse dynamic control techniques were used to determine a motion profile which would eliminate waves on the liquid`s surface. Experimental tests showed that residual surface waves in an open container of water at the end of motion were reduced by over 95% and that in-motion surface waves were reduced by over 75%.

Feddema, J.; Baty, R.; Dykhuizen, R.; Dohrmann, C.; Parker, G.; Robinett, R.; Romero, V.; Schmitt, D.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

377

ARM - Evaluation Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

378

Kinetics of liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the kinetics of the liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether investigated. The experiments were carried out under low concentrations of feed in a 1-L stirred autoclave, according to a statistical experimental design. The inert liquid phase used for this investigation was a 78:22 blend of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oils. A complete thermodynamic analysis was carried out in order to determine the liquid phase concentrations of the dissolved species. A global kinetic model was developed for the rate of dimethyl ether synthesis in terms of the liquid phase concentration of methanol. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 18,830 cal/gmol. Based on a step-wise linear regression analysis of the kinetic data, the order of the reaction which gave the best fit was 0.28 with respect to methanol.

Gogate, M.R.; Lee, B.G.; Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Kulik, C.J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Granular impact cratering by liquid drops: Understanding raindrop imprints through an analogy of asteroid strikes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a granular material is impacted by a sphere, its surface deforms like a liquid yet it preserves a circular crater like a solid. Although the mechanism of granular impact cratering by solid spheres is well understood, our knowledge on granular impact cratering by liquid drops is still very limited. Using high-speed photography, we investigate liquid-drop impact dynamics on granular media. Surprisingly, we find that granular impact cratering by liquid drops follows the same energy scaling as that of asteroid impact cratering. Inspired by this similarity, we develop a simple model that quantitatively describes the observed crater morphologies. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms governing raindrop impacts on granular surfaces and reveals an interesting analogy between familiar phenomena of raining and catastrophic asteroid strikes.

Runchen Zhao; Qianyun Zhang; Hendro Tjugito; Xiang Cheng

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

380

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a small scale prototype system. This includes investigations of plugging issues, heat transfer, pressure drop, and the corrosion and erosion of materials in the flowing system.

Mark Anderson; Kumar Sridhara; Todd Allen; Per Peterson

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

382

Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

383

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid...

384

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

385

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance...

386

Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets Creating Liquidity for Energy Efficiency Loans in Secondary Markets Provides information on secondary markets in...

387

DOE Selects Savannah River Remediation, LLC for Liquid Waste...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

objective of the Liquid Waste contract is to achieve closure of the SRS liquid waste tanks in compliance with the Federal Facilities Agreement, utilizing the Defense Waste...

388

Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid chromatography mobile phases as interference ions in liquid Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based...

389

Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

390

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

391

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and...

392

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

393

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced...

394

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

395

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

396

California Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

397

California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) California--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

398

Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million...

399

Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

400

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Liquids Lease...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade...

402

California State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

403

California--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

404

Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

405

California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) Decade...

406

California Onshore Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted in California...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Liquids Extracted in California (Thousand Barrels) California Onshore Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted in California (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

407

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 The unique...

408

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for...

409

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

410

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

411

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

412

Thermal bubble behaviour in liquid nitrogen under electric fields.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis describes thermally induced bubble behaviour changes in liquid nitrogen (LN2) under electric fields. Cryogenic liquids such as LN2 have been used not only… (more)

Wang, Ping

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a...

414

Dielectric liquid ionization chambers for detecting fast neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three ionization chambers with different geometries have been constructed and filled with dielectric liquids for detection of fast neutrons. The three dielectric liquids studied were Tetramethylsilane (TMS), Tetramethylpentane ...

Boyd, Erin M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Probing the Mobility of Supercooled Liquid 3-Methylpentane at...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mobility of Supercooled Liquid 3-Methylpentane at Temperatures Near the Glass Transition Using Rare Gas Permeation. Probing the Mobility of Supercooled Liquid 3-Methylpentane at...

416

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene,...

417

High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Viscosity of a nanoconfined liquid during compression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The viscous behavior of liquids under nanoconfinement is not well understood. Using a small-amplitude atomic force microscope we found bulk-like viscosity in a nanoconfined weakly interacting liquid. A further decrease in viscosity was observed at confinement sizes of a just few molecular layers. Overlaid over the continuum viscous behavior we measured non-continuum stiffness and damping oscillations. The average stiffness of the confined liquid was found to scale linearly with the size of the confining tip while the damping scales with the radius of curvature of the tip end.

Edward L. Kramkowski; Peter J. Ochs; David M. Wilson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Fermi liquid theory for high temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article the Fermi liquid theory of metals is discussed starting from Luttinger's theorem. The content of Luttinger's Theorem and its implications for microscopic theories of high temperature superconductors are discussed. A simple quasi-2d Fermi liquid theory is introduced and some of its properties are calculated. It is argued that a number of experiments on YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 6+x/, x > 0.5, strongly suggest the existence of a Fermi surface and thereby a Fermi liquid normal state. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Bedell, K.S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography for the rapid determination of triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-triclosan in aqueous samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As extraction solvents, ionic liquids have green characteristics. In this study, an environmentally benign analytical method termed temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TIL...

JieHong Guo; XingHong Li; XueLi Cao; Lei Qu; DeKun Hou…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Neutron Scattering by Liquid Neon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theory for neutron scattering by a semiclassical system, which is appropriate for liquid neon, is described. The theory is based on a generalized mean-field approximation involving the polarization potential and the screened response function, similarly to what has been done previously for argon and helium. The screened response function is assumed to be a sum of Gaussian functions weighted by the momentum-distribution function. The polarization potential and the width of the Gaussians are determined by the zeroth and third moments of the scattering law. The momentum distribution has the Maxwell—Boltzmann form, but includes quantum corrections to order ?2. The quantum-mechanical zero-point energy is found to increase the kinetic energy per particle to a value of about 30% greater than the classical equipartition value. Calculations have been done for wave-vector transfers in the range 0.75-5.5 times the wave vector at the principal maximum in the static-structure factor, and the theoretical line shapes have been folded with the resolution function for the experiments of Buyers et al. Comparison of the position of the maximum, full width at half-maximum, and line shapes with the experimental results gives good agreement.

W. C. Kerr and K. S. Singwi

1973-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Thousand Barrels) Thousand Barrels) Data Series: Natural Gas Processed Total Liquids Extracted NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 658,291 673,677 720,612 749,095 792,481 873,563 1983-2012 Alabama 13,381 11,753 11,667 13,065 1983-2010 Alaska 22,419 20,779 19,542 17,798 18,314 18,339 1983-2012 Arkansas 126 103 125 160 212 336 1983-2012 California 11,388 11,179 11,042 10,400 9,831 9,923 1983-2012 Colorado 27,447 37,804 47,705 57,924 1983-2010 Florida 103 16 1983-2008 Illinois 38 33 24 231 705 0 1983-2012

423

Liquid and liquid–gas flows at all speeds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All speed flows and in particular low Mach number flow algorithms are addressed for the numerical approximation of the Kapila et al. [1] multiphase flow model. This model is valid for fluid mixtures evolving in mechanical equilibrium but out of temperature equilibrium and is efficient for material interfaces computation separating miscible and non-miscible fluids. In this context, the interface is considered as a numerically diffused zone, captured as well as all present waves (shocks, expansion waves). The same flow model can be used to solve cavitating and boiling flows [2]. Many applications occurring with liquid–gas interfaces and cavitating flows involve a very wide range of Mach number, from 10{sup ?3} to supersonic (and even hypersonic) conditions with respect to the mixture sound speed. It is thus important to address numerical methods free of restrictions regarding the Mach number. To do this, a preconditioned Riemann solver is built and embedded into the Godunov explicit scheme. It is shown that this method converges to exact solutions but needs too small time steps to be efficient. An implicit version is then derived, first in one dimension and second in the frame of 2D unstructured meshes. Two-phase flow preconditioning is then addressed in the frame of the Saurel et al. [3] algorithm. Modifications of the preconditioned Riemann solver are needed and detailed. Convergence of both single phase and two-phase numerical solutions are demonstrated with the help of single phase and two-phase steady nozzle flow solutions. Last, the method is illustrated by the computation of real cavitating flows in Venturi nozzles. Vapour pocket size and instability frequencies are reproduced by the model and method without using any adjustable parameter.

LeMartelot, S., E-mail: sebastien.lemartelot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Nkonga, B., E-mail: boniface.nkonga@unice.fr [RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University of Nice, LJAD UMR CNRS 7351, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex (France); Saurel, R., E-mail: richard.saurel@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University Institute of France, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

ARPA-E Announces $40 Million for Research Projects to Develop...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

second program will develop biological technologies that will improve the conversion of natural gas to liquids for transportation fuels, designed to reduce vehicle emissions...

425

Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Institute of Technology Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge...nuclear reactors, turbine machineries...behavior of nitrogen gas environing a...following pressure development can be analytically...Institute of Technology Health Sciences...

Young S. Song; Douglas Adler; Feng Xu; Emre Kayaalp; Aida Nureddin; Raymond M. Anchan; Richard L. Maas; Utkan Demirci

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Definition: Liquid natural gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Liquid natural gas Liquid natural gas Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Liquid natural gas Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a

427

Analysis of Isocyanates by Gas Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Liquid Chromatography Gary W. Ruth Marathon Oil Company, Denver Research Center...Chromatography by Gary W. Ruth, Marathon Oil Company, Denver Research Center...at the Denver Research Center, Marathon Oil Company, Littleton, Colorado......

Gary W. Ruth

1968-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

429

Viscosity of Liquids and Colloidal Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... conference it was decided to hold a further conference, in the following year, on "Viscosity of Liquids and Colloidal Solutions". This took place just before the German invasion and ...

G. W. SCOTT BLAIR

1945-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

430

Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Analyzing Biomass Conversion into Liquid Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variants of the Fischer–Tropsch producer-gas conversion into liquid hydrocarbons are analyzed under the ... is attained in the reactions occurring in the biomass gasification. When the raw material is wood ... th...

V. D. Meshcheryakov; V. A. Kirillov

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Liquid Fuels from Biomass | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuels from Biomass Liquid Fuels from Biomass Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel...

434

AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

last year but will be this year It is a cap and trade system for Green House Gas (GHG) It is anticipated to affect prices, production and more than just liquid fuels Carbon...

435

Photo-responsive liquid crystal block copolymers/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photo-responsive liquid crystal polymers (LCP) which contain azobenzene moieties have gained interest for their ability to change properties by merely irradiating them with the correct wavelength of light in the appropriate ...

Petr, Michael Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

SRS Liquid Waste Program Partnering Agreement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

We the members of the  SRS Liquid Waste Partnering Team do hereby mutually agree to work in a collaborative and cooperative manner through open communication and coordination with team members, and...

437

Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuels (ALF) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) Address: P.O. Box 76 Place: McArthur, Ohio Zip: 45651 Sector: Biofuels, Renewable Energy, Services...

438

Doppler effect in light scattering in liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work deals with the study of the state of polarisation of the three components observed in the spectrum of monochromatic light scattered by liquid formic and acetic acids, when examined with a Fabr...

B. V. Raghavendra Rao

1936-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Goethite liquid crystals and magnetic field effects.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis the liquid crystal phase behavior of colloidal, boardlike, goethite (alpha-FeOOH) particles is described. Apart from the nematic phase, a smectic A phase… (more)

Pol, E. van den

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Magnetism in Heavy-Electron Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Theoretical Physics February 1992 research-article Articles Magnetism in Heavy-Electron Liquids Fusayoshi J. Ohkawa Department...d expansion to paramagnons, metamagnetism, tiny-moment magnetism, and other topics are presented. Citing Article(s......

Fusayoshi J. Ohkawa

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

From Bio-Derived Liquids From Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen From Bio Hydrogen From Bio - - Derived Liquids Derived Liquids Dave King, Yong Wang, PNNL BILIWIG Meeting Laurel, Maryland November 6, 2007 Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Project comprises two components z Ethanol steam reforming z Aqueous phase reforming (APR) Importance to small scale hydrogen production for distributed reforming for hydrogen production ‹ Ethanol is rapidly becoming an infrastructure fuel and is a logical feedstock ‹ APR provides vehicle for facile reforming of a variety of bio-derived feedstocks available in the biorefinery that are not conducive to conventional vapor phase reforming Distinctive technology approach/innovation z We are investigating single step ethanol reforming with emphasis on lower

442

Optical constants of liquid and solid methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The optical constants nr + ini of liquid methane and phase I solid methane were determined over the entire spectral range by the use of various data sources published in the...

Martonchik, John V; Orton, Glenn S

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Liquid--liquid equilibria by use of UNIFAC for gasohol extraction systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A synthetic naphtha cut composed of a mixture of paraffinic, aromatic, and naphthenic hydrocarbons has been studied as a solvent to directly produce gasohol. The equilibria in these highly nonideal liquid mixtures has been estimated by the UNIFAC group contribution method. The process would appear to be simple and direct to produce gasohol by liquid--liquid extraction with this naphtha and could compete with existing azeotropic distillation processes.

Furzer, I.A.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Bubble departure in the direct-contact boiling field with a continuous liquid-liquid interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Behavior of vapor bubbles was experimentally investigated in the boiling field where a volatile liquid layer of per-fluorocarbon PF5050 (boiling point 306K) was directly in contact with an immiscible hot liquid layer of water above it. Heat was supplied to the continuous liquid-liquid interface by the impingement of the downward hot water jet. Vapor bubbles were generated not only from this continuous interface but from a large number of PF5050 droplets floating on it. According to precise observation, incipience of boiling did not occur at the liquid-liquid interface but in the PF5050 liquid close to the interface in both cases of continuous and dispersed interfaces. As a result, the bubbles broke up the thin PF5050 liquid film above them and rose up into the water layer. This bubble departure phenomenon, which does not occur in the ordinary pool boiling field on the solid heating wall, is very important to evaluate the heat transfer performance in the present direct-contact boiling system. For modeling this behavior, sizes of the bubbles were measured at the moment just after they were released into the water pool. Volumes of the bubbles were larger in the case of departing from the continuous liquid-liquid interface than from the droplets. This tendency could be explained by taking into account the buoyancy force acting on unit area of the thin PF5050 liquid film above the bubble before departure, which was one of the most important parameters for the liquid film breakdown. (author)

Kadoguchi, Katsuhiko [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

446

The absorption of ultrasonic waves in liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vee ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ea ~ ~ ~ eee ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ea ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ?easursasnt of ths Prop-:. ties of:asss and Liquids by Ultrasonicseae ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ dies Borne erscsnt Theories ConcsrrrinS the Oisorsparrcy 3e tween... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 3Q VI, Plot of' Los A /A vs~ Sound Path Length Ital ZthoI' 1Mox' Ppoalul'oe ~ ~ a ~ y ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ e s ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ a ~ ~ 3) xxeasuraaents oa the absorption of high frequency souad. waves ia liquids axe useful ia studying...

Hudson, Paul A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

447

Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Models for liquid droplet dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phenomena. I have developed Fortran codes for droplet motion, evaporation, variation of Weber number of droplets, and droplet break up time, and compared these results with the results obtained from the FLACS simulation. The behaviour of decane droplet...

Khattri, Sanjay Kumar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

451

Compressed/Liquid Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Currently, DOE's physical hydrogen storage R&D focuses on the development of high-pressure (10,000 psi) composite tanks, cryo-compressed tanks, conformable tanks, and other advanced concepts...

452

Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E. Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospectsthem attention as “green” solvents for synthesis and

Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Solvent-Resistant Photocurable "Liquid Teflon" for Microfluidic Device Fabrication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with photocurable perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs). PFPEs are a unique class of fluoropolymers that are liquids at room

Quake, Stephen R.

454

Comparison of performance characteristics of liquid biofuels and petroleum fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance properties of different types of liquid biofuels (bioalcohols, biodiesel, etc.) are examined...

K. E. Pankin; Yu. V. Ivanova; R. I. Kuz’mina…

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Essays on Bank Optimal Portfolio Choice under Liquidity Constraint  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the bank securities business produces a chasm between a real liquidity of economy and market liquidity. Banks can have more liquidity by selling their securitized loans, and as our model already pointed out, a good liquidity condition makes the bank have...

Kim, Eul Jin

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

456

A high power beam-on-target test of liquid lithium target for RIA.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the stable operation of a windowless liquid lithium target under extreme thermal loads that are equivalent to uranium beams from the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The engineering and safety issues accompanying liquid lithium systems are first discussed. The liquid metal technology knowledge base generated primarily for fast reactors, and liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, was applied to the development of these systems in a nuclear physics laboratory setting. The use of a high energy electron beam for simulating a high power uranium beam produced by the RIA driver linac is also described. Calculations were performed to obtain energy deposition profiles produced by electron beams at up to a few MeV to compare with expected uranium beam energy deposition profiles. It was concluded that an experimental simulation using a 1-MeV electron beam would be a valuable tool to assess beam-jet interaction. In the experiments, the cross section of the windowless liquid lithium target was 5 mm x 10 mm, which is a 1/3rd scale prototype target, and the velocity of the liquid lithium was varied up to 6 m/s. Thermal loads up to 20 kW within a beam spot diameter of 1mm were applied on the windowless liquid lithium target by the 1-MeV electron beam. The calculations showed that the maximum power density and total power deposited within the target, from the electron beam, was equivalent to that of a 200-kW, 400-MeV/u uranium beam. It was demonstrated that the windowless liquid lithium target flowing at velocities as low as 1.8 m/s stably operated under beam powers up to 20 kW without disruption or excessive vaporization.

Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Novick, V.; Specht, J.; Plotkin, P.; Momozaki,Y.; Gomes, I.

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

457

Collection of liquid from below-ground location  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container.

Phillips, Steven J. (Kennewick, WA); Alexander, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

459

Air-Assisted Liquid Liquid–Microextraction for the Analysis of Fungicides from Environmental Water and Juice Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......2014 research-article Article Air-Assisted Liquid Liquid-Microextraction...work, a rapid method based on air-assisted liquid liquid microextraction...the continuous injection of air by a 20-mL glass syringe...resulting in the possible pollution of water, fruits and vegetables......

Shiju Wu; Tingting Jin; Jing Cheng; Hongbin Zhou; Min Cheng

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.

Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.

1987-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Gas-liquid separator and method of operation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for gas-liquid separation in electrolysis processes is provided. The system includes a first compartment having a liquid carrier including a first gas therein and a second compartment having the liquid carrier including a second gas therein. The system also includes a gas-liquid separator fluidically coupled to the first and second compartments for separating the liquid carrier from the first and second gases.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Whitt, David Brandon (Albany, NY)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

462

Experiments with liquid metal walls: Status of the lithium tokamak experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstarct Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The lithium tokamak experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the current drive experiment-upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in ohmically heated tokamak plasmas was achieved with a toroidal liquid lithium limiter. The LTX extends this liquid lithium PFC by using a conducting conformal shell that almost completely surrounds the plasma. By heating the shell, a lithium coating on the plasma-facing side can be kept liquefied. A consequence of the low-recycling conditions from liquid lithium walls is the need for efficient plasma fueling. For this purpose, a molecular cluster injector is being developed. Future plans include the installation of a neutral beam for core plasma fueling, and also ion temperature measurements using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS). Low edge recycling is also predicted to reduce temperature gradients that drive drift wave turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations are in progress to calculate fluctuation levels and transport for LTX plasmas, and new fluctuation diagnostics are under development to test these predictions.

Robert Kaita; Laura Berzak; Dennis Boyle; Timothy Gray; Erik Granstedt; Gregory Hammett; Craig M. Jacobson; Andrew Jones; Thomas Kozub; Henry Kugel; Benoit Leblanc; Nicholas Logan; Matthew Lucia; Daniel Lundberg; Richard Majeski; Dennis Mansfield; Jonathan Menard; Jeffrey Spaleta; Trevor Strickler; John Timberlake; Jongsoo Yoo; L. Zakharov; Rajesh Maingi; Vlad Soukhanovskii; Kevin Tritz; Sophia Gershman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

A novel X-ray diffractometer for studies of liquid-liquid interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A dedicated liquid surface diffractometer employing a tilting double-crystal monochromator in Bragg geometry has been designed. This diffractometer allows reflectivity and grazing-incidence scattering measurements of an immobile mechanical completely decoupled liquid sample from 6.4 to 29.4 keV.

Murphy, B.M.

2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

466

Self-Assembly of Microscale Objects at a Liquid/Liquid Interface through Lateral Capillary Forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-Assembly of Microscale Objects at a Liquid/Liquid Interface through Lateral Capillary Forces allowed to self-assemble at the perfluorodecalin/water interface. These plates were fabricated from, the designs of hydrophobic edges necessary to generate menisci useful in self-assembly were different for 100

Prentiss, Mara

467

Liquid?Liquid Equilibria for Binary and Ternary Polymer Solutions with PC-SAFT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid?Liquid Equilibria for Binary and Ternary Polymer Solutions with PC-SAFT ... The algorithms are used for investigating the correlative and predictive capabilities of the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. ... The algorithms are used for testing of a state-of-the-art model in polymer thermodynamics, PC-SAFT, by Gross and Sadowski. ...

Thomas Lindvig; Michael L. Michelsen; Georgios M. Kontogeorgis

2004-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

468

Continuous transitions between composite Fermi liquid and Landau Fermi liquid: A route to fractionalized Mott insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most successful theories of a non-Fermi-liquid metallic state is the composite Fermi-liquid (CFL) theory of the half-filled Landau level. In this paper, we study continuous quantum phase transitions out of the ...

Barkeshli, Maissam

469

MERCURY PURIFICATION IN THE MEGAWATT LIQUID METAL SPALLATION TARGET OF EURISOL-DS Joerg Neuhausena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MERCURY PURIFICATION IN THE MEGAWATT LIQUID METAL SPALLATION TARGET OF EURISOL-DS Joerg Neuhausena. For the development of a purification procedure, knowledge about the chemical state of the different elements present-components are of different origin: Gaseous impurities include oxygen, nitrogen and water. The construction materials

McDonald, Kirk

470

Giant and switchable surface activity of liquid metal via surface oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...recent developments . Adv Colloid Interface Sci 159 ( 2 ): 198 – 212 . 27 Ladd C So J-H Muth J Dickey MD ( 2013 ) 3D printing of free standing liquid metal microstructures . Adv Mater 25 ( 36 ): 5081 – 5085 . 28 Regan MJ ( 1997 ) X-ray reflectivity...

Mohammad Rashed Khan; Collin B. Eaker; Edmond F. Bowden; Michael D. Dickey

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Heat Transfer Measurements for a Horizontal Micro-Tube Using Liquid Crystal Thermography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

62 TC02-007 Heat Transfer Measurements for a Horizontal Micro-Tube Using Liquid Crystal-tube and 1000m micro-tube. In the single-phase heat transfer experiments, the fully-developed flow heat transfer were also measured using thermocouples (TC). The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient

Ghajar, Afshin J.

472

A liquid-helium cooled large-area silicon PIN photodiode x-ray detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An x-ray detector using a liquid-helium cooled large-area silicon PIN photodiode has been developed along with a tailor-made charge sensitive preamplifier whose first-stage JFET has been cooled. The operating temperature of the JFET has been varied separately and optimized. The x- and $\\gamma$-ray energy spectra for an \

Yoshizumi Inoue; Shigetaka Moriyama; Hideyuki Hara; Makoto Minowa; Fumio Shimokoshi

1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

473

Polar anchoring energy measurement of vertically aligned liquid-crystal cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polar anchoring energy measurement of vertically aligned liquid-crystal cells Xiangyi Nie July 2005 An electric-field method is developed for measuring the polar anchoring energy of vertically-electric-field technique3 is most commonly employed for measuring the polar anchor- ing energy. However, some inconsistent

Wu, Shin-Tson

474

Liquid meniscus friction on a wet plate: Bubbles, lamellae and foams Isabelle Cantat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For enhanced oil recovery [1­3], or soil remediation [4], liquid foams are pushed into porous media to displace]; innovative set-ups are developed to control bubbles motion in micro-channels for lab-on-a-chip applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

475

Simulation and Economic Analysis of Indirect Coal-to-Liquid Technology Coupling Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation and Economic Analysis of Indirect Coal-to-Liquid Technology Coupling Carbon Capture and Storage ... How to ensure sufficient CO2 emission reductions for coal utilization in a low-carbon economy is an important issue regarding the development of CTL technology. ...

Li Zhou; Wen-Ying Chen; Xi-Liang Zhang; Tian-Yu Qi

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

476

Measurement of the viscoelastic properties of liquid crystals using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and encouragements. It was a pleasure to meet Dr. Stuart I. Smedley who shared with me his personal experience and new ideas in the development and use of the PUCO for studying the viscoelastic properties of liquids. Dehors A. Fairbrother and Lloyd Steven Cook...

Seet, Tiong Boon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

477

A study of the phenomenon of liquid-flame combustion; I. Visual examinations and high-speed photography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid-flame combustion phenomenon, which has been revealed for pressed mixtures of tetrazole and sodium tetrazolate, was studied using high-speed photography and photography of high spatial resolution. New, previously unknown, peculiarities of the origin and development of the liquid-flame structure, pertinent, in particular, to its external texture and interaction with the melt on the pellet surface, as well as some features of the dispersion of condensed products were found.

Astashinsky, V.M.; Kostyukevich, E.A. (Byelorussian Academy of Science, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. of Molecular and Atomic Physics); Ivashkevich, O.A.; Lesnikovich, A.I.; Krasitsky, V.A. (Byelorussian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

THERMAL EVALUATION OF CONTAMINATED LIQUID ONTO CELL FLOORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP), postulated events in the new Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) can result in spilling liquids that contain Cs-137 and organics onto cell floors. The parameters of concern are the maximum temperature of the fluid following a spill and the time required for the maximum fluid temperature to be reached. Control volume models of the various process cells have been developed using standard conduction and natural convection relationships. The calculations are performed using the Mathcad modeling software. The results are being used in Consolidated Hazards Analysis Planning (CHAP) to determine the controls that may be needed to mitigate the potential impact of liquids containing Cs-137 and flammable organics that spill onto cell floors. Model development techniques and the ease of making model changes within the Mathcad environment are discussed. The results indicate that certain fluid spills result in overheating of the fluid, but the times to reach steady-state are several hundred hours. The long times allow time for spill clean up without the use of expensive mitigation controls.

(NOEMAIL), J

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

479

Utilizing Metalized Fabrics for Liquid and Rip Detection and Localization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper proposes a novel technique for utilizing conductive textiles as a distributed sensor for detecting and localizing liquids (e.g., blood), rips (e.g., bullet holes), and potentially biosignals. The proposed technique is verified through both simulation and experimental measurements. Circuit theory is utilized to depict conductive fabric as a bounded, near-infinite grid of resistors. Solutions to the well-known infinite resistance grid problem are used to confirm the accuracy and validity of this modeling approach. Simulations allow for discontinuities to be placed within the resistor matrix to illustrate the effects of bullet holes within the fabric. A real-time experimental system was developed that uses a multiplexed Wheatstone bridge approach to reconstruct the resistor grid across the conductive fabric and detect liquids and rips. The resistor grid model is validated through a comparison of simulated and experimental results. Results suggest accuracy proportional to the electrode spacing in determining the presence and location of discontinuities in conductive fabric samples. Future work is focused on refining the experimental system to provide more accuracy in detecting and localizing events as well as developing a complete prototype that can be deployed for field testing. Potential applications include intelligent clothing, flexible, lightweight sensing systems, and combat wound detection.

Holland, Stephen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mahan, Cody [Western Kentucky University; Kuhn, Michael J [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "developing liquid desiccant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

Fish, R.H.

1984-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

482

Liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air and includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container in which is disposed a wettable material extending substantially the entire length of the container. One end of the wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid, which flows to the other end of the container. Sample air is flowed through the container in contact with the wetted material for trapping and preconcentrating the traces of analyte in the sorbing liquid, which is then collected at the other end of the container and discharged to the detector. The wetted material may be a wick comprising a bundle of fibers, one end of which is immersed in a reservoir of the analyte-sorbing liquid, or may be a liner disposed on the inner surface of the container, with the sorbing liquid being centrifugally dispersed onto the liner at one end thereof. The container is preferably vertically oriented so that gravity effects the liquid flow. 4 figs.

Zaromb, S.

1990-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

483

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007-Liquids Production Projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production Projection Tables (1990-2030) Liquids Production Projection Tables (1990-2030) International Energy Outlook 2007 Liquids Production Projections Tables (1990-2030) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 19 complete) Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G2 World Conventional Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G2. World Conventional Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

484

High-temperature superconductor applications development at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developments at Argonne National Laboratory of near and intermediate term applications using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Near-term applications of liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, current leads, and magnetic bearings are discussed in detail.

Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

1992-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

485

LiquidPiston Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LiquidPiston Inc LiquidPiston Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name LiquidPiston Inc Address 21C Old Windsor Road Place Bloomfield, Connecticut Zip 06002 Sector Efficiency Product New combustion engine technology to drastically improve efficiency Website http://www.liquidpiston.com/ Coordinates 41.8572877°, -72.7032021° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.8572877,"lon":-72.7032021,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

486

Charge trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids I. A. Shkrob and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 5582-5592 (2009). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising class of solvents for applications ranging from photovoltaics to solvent extractions. Some of these applications involve the exposure of the ILs to ionizing radiation, which stimulates interest in their radiation and photo- chemistry. In the case of ILs consisting of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions, ionization, charge transfer and redox reactions yield charge-trapped species thought to be radicals resulting from neutralization of the constituent ions. Using computational chemistry methods and the recent results on electron spin resonance (ESR) and transient absorption

487

Oil/Liquids | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oil/Liquids Oil/Liquids < Oil Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report Full figure data for Figure 93. Reference Case Tables Table 1. Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary Table 11. Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition Table 12. Petroleum Product Prices Table 14. Oil and Gas Supply Table 21. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - New England Table 22. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic Table 23. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central Table 24. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central Table 25. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic Table 26. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South

488

Coal to Liquids | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquids Liquids Coal to Liquids Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Located in Charleston, WV, the Yeager facility was constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Located in Charleston, WV, the Yeager facility was constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. The Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels Program supports DOE's strategic goals of increasing energy security, reducing environmental impact of energy use,

489

DOE studies on coal-to-liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Liquid Crystal Microfluidics for Tunable Flow Shaping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We explore the flow of a nematic liquid crystal in microfluidic channels with a rectangular cross section through experiments and numerical modeling. The flow profile and the liquid crystal orientational profile show three distinct regimes of weak, medium, and strong flow as the driving pressure is varied. These are identified by comparing polarizing optical microscopy experiments and numerical solutions of the nematofluidic equations of motion. The relative stability of the regimes is related to the de Gennes characteristic shear-flow lengths e1 and e2, together with the channel’s aspect ratio w/d. Finally, we show that the liquid crystalline microfluidic flow can be fully steered from left to right of a simple microchannel by applying transverse temperature gradients.

Anupam Sengupta; Uroš Tkalec; Miha Ravnik; Julia M. Yeomans; Christian Bahr; Stephan Herminghaus

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

491

High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

Zaromb, S.; Bozen, R.M.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

492

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids M. F. Thomas, L. Li, J. Handley-Pendleton, D. van der Lelie, J. J. Dunn and J. F. Wishart Bioresource Technology 102, in press. [Find paper at Science Direct] Abstract: The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic

493

Simple numerical simulation for liquid dominated geothermal reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical model for geothermal reservoir has been developed. The model used is based on an idealized, two-dimensional case, where the porous medium is isotropic, nonhomogeneous, filled with saturated liquid. The fluids are assumed to have constant and temperature dependent viscosity. A Boussinesq approximation and Darcy`s law are used. The model will utilize a simple hypothetical geothermal system, i.e. graben within horsts structure, with three layers of different permeabilities. Vorticity plays an importance roles in the natural convection process, and its generation and development do not depend only on the buoyancy, but also on the magnitude and direction relation between the flow velocity and the local gradient of permeability to viscosity ratio. This model is currently used together with a physical, scaled-down reservoir model to help conceptual modeling.

Wintolo, D.; Sutrisno; Sudjamiko [Gadjah Mada Univ., Yogyakarta (Indonesia)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

494

Simple numerical simulation for liquid dominated geothermal reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical model for geothermal reservoir has been developed. The model used is based on an idealized, two-dimensional case, where the porous medium is isotropic, nonhomogeneous, filled with saturated liquid. The fluids are assumed to have constant and temperature dependent viscosity. A Boussinesq approximation and Darcy’s law are used. The model will utilize a simple hypothetical geothermal system, i.e. graben within horsts structure, with three layers of different permeabilities. Vorticity plays an importance roles in the natural convection process, and its generation and development do not depend only on the buoyancy, but also on the magnitude and direction relation between the flow velocity and the local gradient of permeability to viscosity ratio. This model is currently used together with a physical, scaled-down reservoir model to help conceptual modeling.

Wintolo, Djoko; Sutrisno; Sudjatmiko; Sudarman, S.

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

495

ICARUS and Status of Liquid Argon Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICARUS is the largest liquid argon TPC detector ever built (~600 ton LAr mass). It operates underground at the LNGS laboratory in Gran Sasso. It has been smoothly running since summer 2010, collecting data with the CNGS beam and with cosmics. Liquid argon TPCs are really "electronic bubble chamber" providing a completely uniform imaging and calorimetry with unprecedented accuracy on massive volumes. ICARUS is internationally considered as a milestone towards the realization of the next generation of massive detectors (~tens of ktons) for neutrino and rare event physics. Results will be presented on the data collected during 2010 with the detector at LNGS.

Dorota Stefan

2011-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

496

A priori estimates for relativistic liquid bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate that a sufficiently smooth solution of the relativistic Euler equations that represents a dynamical compact liquid body, when expressed in Lagrangian coordinates, determines a solution to a system of non-linear wave equations with acoustic boundary conditions. Using this wave formulation, we prove that these solutions satisfy energy estimates without loss of derivatives. Importantly, our wave formulation does not require the liquid to be irrotational, and the energy estimates do not rely on divergence and curl type estimates employed in previous works.

Oliynyk, Todd A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

1990-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

498

Coal-to-Liquids in the U S Status and Activities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to-Liquids in the United States to-Liquids in the United States Status and Roadmap CTLtec Americas 2008 June 23 - 24, 2008 Daniel C. Cicero, Technology Manager, Hydrogen and Syngas National Energy Technology Laboratory CTL Tec Americas 2008 / Daniel Cicero / U.S. DOE-NETL / June 2008 * 35% of world energy consumption is from oil 2 * 96% of all world oil used for transportation * World vehicle population at 700 million; - double by 2030 to 1.5 billion; - developing countries to triple * World oil consumption is 84 MMBPD - 20% higher than 1995 - expect 120 MMBPD by 2030 * World oil supplies could peak between 2016 and 2037 3 * Increasing competition with China, India, and other growing nations for oil resources * Oil resources not equitably distributed globally; coal more wide spread 2 Ref: World Coal Institute Report "Coal-to-Liquids"

499

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production Southern Research Institute (SRI) Project Number: FE0012054 Project Description The focus of the project will be to develop, test, and optimize steam-reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, NH3, and CH4 in high-temperature and sulfur environments, increasing the ratio of hydrogen in syngas, as part of a modified, advanced gasification platform for the conversion of low-rank coals to syngas for coal-to-liquid and integrated gasification combined cycle applications. Project Details Program Background and Project Benefits Project Scope and Technology Readiness Level Accomplishments Contacts, Duration, and Cost Project Images Abstract Performer website: Southern Research Institute

500

Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reforming of Renewable Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) * U. (Balu) Balachandran, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Park, and S. E. Dorris Energy Systems Division E-mail: balu@anl.gov * Work supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Presented at the Bio-derived Liquids Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting, Nov. 6, 2007. BILIWG Meeting, Nov. 6, 2007 2 Objective & Rationale Objective: Develop compact dense ceramic membrane reactors that enable the efficient and cost-effective production of hydrogen by reforming renewable liquid fuels using pure oxygen produced by water splitting and transported by an OTM. Rationale: Membrane technology provides the means to attack barriers to the