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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

How ORISE is Making a Difference: Nurse Triage Lines Support  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nurse Triage Lines Support Nurse Triage Lines Support ORISE contributes to CDC Public Health Policy Competition win The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Influenza Coordination Unit (ICU) recently won the 2012 Annual Public Health Policy Competition for a proposal to explore the use of nurse triage lines during an influenza pandemic. As a key partner, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provided critical coordination, research, development of educational materials, and consultation to support the project, which has been underway since September 2011. The CDC ICU hosted the Nurse Triage Line Stakeholders Meeting in March of 2012. The project is exploring the use of nurse triage lines as a promising method for reducing disparities in access to quality health care during an

2

ORISE: Nurse Triage Lines Support | How ORISE is Making a Difference  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nurse Triage Lines Support ORISE contributes to CDC Public Health Policy Competition win How ORISE is Making a Difference The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),...

3

Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detonation is a process of layer-by-layer, ... Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) model of detonation, chemical reactions occur at a definite rate...

Muhamed Su?eska Ph.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation, reaction shock ? Detonation f, Explosion 2. Ordnung [Die Koppelung der energieliefernden Umsetzungen eines Explosivstoffes mit einem Verdichtungsstoß, der diese Umsetzung auslöst und sich...

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

detonation velocity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation velocity, detonation rate, velocity of detonation, V.O.D., detonating velocity, rate of detonation, detonating rate, detonation speed, detonating speed, speed of detonation ? Detonationsge...

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

detonation rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation rate, detonation velocity, velocity of detonation, V.O.D., detonating velocity, rate of detonation, detonating rate ? Detonationsgeschwindigkeit f

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

backward detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

backward detonation, backward reaction shock ? Rückwärtsdetonation f, Rückwärtsexplosion 2. Ordnung [Siehe Anmerkung unter „Detonation

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

detonation trap  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation trap [It prevents a detonation initiated in one part of a system...] ? Detonationsfang m, Detonationsfänger m

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

vollständige Detonation f  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

vollständige Detonation f [Umsetzung bis zu den Endprodukten] ? complete detonation, full detonation

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

symphathetic detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

symphathetic detonation, gap test, sympathetic reaction shock [The initiation of an explosive charge without ignition device by the detonation of another charge in the neighbourhood] ? Übertragexplos...

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

detonation pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation pressure ? Detonationsdruck m [Er ist dem Quadrat der Detonationsgeschwindigkeit und der Sprengstoffdichte proportional

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Radiological Triage | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Triage | National Nuclear Security Administration Triage | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Radiological Triage Home > About Us > Our Programs > Emergency Response > Responding to Emergencies > Render Safe > Radiological Triage Radiological Triage Triage Logo NNSA's Triage is a non-deployable, secure, on-line capability

13

detonation shock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation shock ? Detonationsstoß m, Verdichtungsstoß [DIN 20163. Verdichtungsstoß in der Chapman-Jouguet-Ebene eines detonierenden Sprengstoffs; er löst einen Verdichtungsstoß im angrenzenden Mediu...

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Detonation f  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detonation f, Explosion 2. Ordnung [Die Koppelung der energieliefernden Umsetzungen eines Explosivstoffes mit einem Verdichtungsstoß, der diese Umsetzung auslöst und sich mit Überschallge...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Superheated detonation and other detonations with external energy addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...An analytical description of a new notion in detonation physics – superheated detonation – is given. This is stationary detonation of an explosive with external energy addition. Other detonation regimes with e...

V.I. Tarzhanov

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Detonation velocity deficit and curvature radius of flexible detonation fuses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The detonation velocity deficit in bending flexible detonating fuses is studied, based on the detonation wave’s corner effects and delay time ... model and a theoretical mathematical equation of the detonation ve...

Y. -Q. Wen; Ya. -K. Ye; N. Yan

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Supernova: Carbon detonation redux  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A DECADE ago carbon detonation was all the rage among supernova theorists. The idea was that the characteristic burst ... wind.

J. Craig Wheeler

1983-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

18

High temperature detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

Johnson, James O. (Los Alamos, NM); Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Front Structure of Detonation and the Stability of Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physics of propagation of detonation waves is still a challenging topic in ... been found in experiments and 3D simulations of detonation physics, there are three types of detonation front structures. These a...

H. -S. Dou; Z. M. Hu; B. C. Khoo; C. Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Mechanism of Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A DISCUSSION on "Detonation" was held by the Boyal Society on November 10, in the Society's rooms ... P and specific volume V throughout the zone:

H. H. M. PIKE

1950-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Detonation of Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detonation of Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer ... charge of the fertilizer enclosed in ¼-inch Shelby seamless tubing, 3 inches in diameter and 20 inches in length, detonated with extreme violence. ...

1947-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

Hospital Triage in First Hours After Nuclear or Radiological...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hospital Triage in the First 24 Hours after a Nuclear or Radiological Disaster Medical professionals with the Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) at the...

23

Utility of Vital Signs in Mass Casualty-Disaster Triage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ann Emerg Med. the Persian Gulf War – Part 1: PreparationsEmergency medicine in the Persian Gulf War – Part 2: Triage

Hogan, David E.; Brown, Travis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Detonation in Liquid Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Laboratory, on the initiative of Dr. A. H. Davis, into the process of detonation in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the ... in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the detonation Waves in transparent liquid explosives—the sensitivity of some of which can be varied by ...

D. CRONEY

1948-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

25

Microwave Observation of Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... We have recently developed a technique for measuring the velocity of detonation of various high explosives under contained conditions by means of the reflexion of microwaves from ... contained conditions by means of the reflexion of microwaves from a region travelling with the detonation front. The technique differs substantially from that of Koch2 and the recent development of ...

JOHN L. FARRANDS; G. F. CAWSEY

1956-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

26

Diamonds in detonation soot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... The chemical nature of detonation soot has been a subject of interest for some time3'5, and the formation ... high density, pressure, and temperature and then expand and cool isentropically (Table 1). Detonation of CHNO explosive compositions underbalanced relative to CO (O/C< 1, after complete ...

N. Roy Greiner; D. S. Phillips; J. D. Johnson; Fred Volk

1988-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

27

Dopes and Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... investigation which is described was the determination of the physical actions that delay or prevent detonation in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The addition to petrol of non- ... by compression owing to their low ignition temperature. The marked effect of pressure in promoting detonation is explained by the rapid increase of nuclear condensation with increased density of charge. ...

1926-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

28

Dynamic Parameters of Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A chemically reactive material or mixture can undergo various combustion modes from low-speed flame (cm/s to m/s) to high-speed detonation (km/s) (e.g., [ ... ]). The initiation of a flame or detonation has a thr...

Anatoly A. Vasil’ev

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Bidirectional slapper detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a bidirectional slapper detonator. One embodiment utilizes a single bridge circuit to detonate a pair of opposing initiating pellets. A line generator embodiment uses a plurality of bridges in electrical series to generate opposing cylindrical wavefronts.

McCormick, Robert N. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Melissa D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Detonation of Metalized Composite Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A wealth of experimental data on the detonation performance of Alcontaining formulations based on the...

Fan Zhang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Germany June 24-27, 2008 Detonation of Meta-stable Clustersstate space for the detonation of such meta- stablethe Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 & 16 Mbar),

Kuhl, Allen L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Rapidity of Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... inflamed nor exploded when wet; and further, unless one has the key to its detonation--a little fulminate of mercury- it is of no more value as an explosive ... as when confined in a water-tight steel case.

1873-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

33

Detonation in Ammonium Nitrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Gelatine. Its behaviour was recorded by placing lead plates under the charge, and the detonation velocity measured by the Dautriche method at the larger cartridge diameters and with a streak ... wave died out quickly. The velocities were as follows:

STEWART PATERSON; JEAN M. DAVIDSON

1962-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

Detonation Diffraction into a Confined Volume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonation diffraction has been, and remains, an active area of research. However, detonation diffraction into a confined volume, and specifically the transformation of a planar detonation into a cylindrical detonation, is an area which has received...

Polley, Nolan Lee

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

35

Weak detonations, their paths and  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Previously, a quasi-steady form of the classical Rankine-Hugoniot weak detonation has been shown to play an integral part in describing certain forms of detonation initiation, arising during an intermediate stage between the thermal ignition of the material and the first appearance of a strong detonation with Zeldovich-von Neumann-Döring (ZND) structure. In this paper, we use a parametric variable integration to calculate numerically the path of the weak detonation in two important initiation scenarios, shock-induced and initial disturbance-induced transition to detonation, via a large activation energy induction domain model. The influence that the nature of the path may have on the weak detonation structure is also discussed. In each case these calculations enable us to predict how, where and when the transition to a strong detonation with ZND structure will occur. Explanations for several phenomena observed in both experiments and numerical studies on transition to detonation are also uncovered by these calculations.

Mark Short; J W Dold

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Reverse slapper detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Deflagration to Detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermonuclear explosions of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) involve turbulent deflagrations, detonations, and possibly a deflagration-to-detonation transition. A phenomenological delayed detonation model of SNIa successfully explains many observational properties of SNIa including monochromatic light curves, spectra, brightness - decline and color - decline relations. Observed variations among SNia are explained as a result of varying nickel mass synthesised in an explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf. Based on theoretical models of SNIa, the value of the Hubble constant H_o \\simeq 67km/s/Mpc was determined without the use of secondary distance indicators. The cause for the nickel mass variations in SNIa is still debated. It may be a variation of the initial C/O ratio in a supernova progenitor, rotation, or other effects.

A. M. Khokhlov

1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

38

Detonation in miniature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical analog for one?dimensional compressible flow in a chemically reacting fluid is constructed and used as a vehicle for a simplified introduction to such flows with particular application to detonations. The presentation includes a concise self?contained introduction to the elements of nonreactive compressible flow.

Wildon Fickett

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Detonation Wave Propagation in an Ejector-Augmented Pulse Detonation Rocket  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonation Wave Propagation in an Ejector-Augmented Pulse Detonation Rocket Tae-Hyeong Yi , Donald, TX 76019, USA The propagation of a detonation wave in an ejector-augmented pulse detonation rocket- and two-dimensional detonation tube is first investigated to observe the nature of a detonation wave

Texas at Arlington, University of

40

Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives. 3 figs.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Kopczewski, M.R.; Schwarz, A.C.

1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Kopczewski, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Carbon in detonations  

SciTech Connect

We review three principal results from a five year study of carbon and its properties in detonations and discuss the implications of these results to the behavior of explosives. We first present a new determination of the carbon melt line from release wave velocity measurements in the shocked state. We then outline a colloidal theory of carbon clustering which from diffusion limited coagulation predicts a slow energy release rate for the carbon chemistry. Finally, we show the results from the examination of recovered soot. Here we see support for the colloid theory and find the diamond phase of carbon. The main theme of this paper is that the carbon in detonation products is in the form of a colloidal suspension of carbon clusters which grow through diffusion limited collisions. Even the final state is not bulk graphite or diamond, but is a collection of small, less than 100 /angstrom/A, diamond and graphitic clusters. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Johnson, J.D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Detonation: From the Bottom Up  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Latest Issue:December 2014 All Issues submit Detonation: From the Bottom Up In the nuclear testing era, scientists never thoroughly characterized the properties of the...

45

Detonation Diffraction into a Confined Volume.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Detonation diffraction has been, and remains, an active area of research. However, detonation diffraction into a confined volume, and specifically the transformation of a planar… (more)

Polley, Nolan Lee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Apparent Intermediate Supervelocity of Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the initiation of a cylindrical charge by an axial shock-wave. In that case the detonation sets out from a circular, coaxial area on the shock front, the radius of ... velocity front overtakes the low-velocity front. Ocf shows the front of the high-velocity detonation along the axis. The slope of ab gives the low velocity D19 and the ...

C. H. JOHANSSON

1961-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

47

Detonation Phenomena in Homogeneous Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... In considering the effect of the container on the detonation of an explosive charge, the natural impulse is to look for an interpretati9n of ... is usually meant the resistance offered by the envelope to the lateral expansion of the detonation products. It is known, however, that the initial mass movement of the pro- ...

ELWYN JONES

1956-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Stability of cosmological detonation fronts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The steady state propagation of a phase transition front is classified, according to hydrodynamics, as a deflagration or a detonation, depending on its velocity with respect to the fluid. These propagation modes are further divided into three types, namely, weak, Jouguet, and strong solutions, according to their disturbance of the fluid. However, some of these hydrodynamic modes will not be realized in a phase transition. One particular cause is the presence of instabilities. In this work we study the linear stability of weak detonations, which are generally believed to be stable. After discussing in detail the weak detonation solution, we consider small perturbations of the interface and the fluid configuration. When the balance between the driving and friction forces is taken into account, it turns out that there are actually two different kinds of weak detonations, which behave very differently as functions of the parameters. We show that the branch of stronger weak detonations are unstable, except very cl...

Megevand, Ariel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grubelich, Mark C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Detonation Structure Simulation with AMROC Ralf Deiterding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonation Structure Simulation with AMROC Ralf Deiterding California Institute of Technology, 1200 detonation waves. But the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is extremely de- manding, because in simulating multi- dimensional detonations with detailed and highly stiff chemical kinetics on recent parallel

Barr, Al

51

Spread of Detonation in High Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... W. C. F. Shepherd makes the interesting observation that in the initial stages of detonation in a cylindrical cartridge of high explosive initiated with a detonator, a phase, referred ... of high explosive initiated with a detonator, a phase, referred to as the pre-detonation phase, is often noticeable during which the rate of propagation of the reaction is ...

ELWYN JONES; DUGALD MITCHELL

1948-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

52

INTRODUCTION In detonation wave computations involving  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTRODUCTION In detonation wave computations involving curved detonation fronts, accurate solutions to compute solutions to detonation prob­ lems without numerically resolving the reaction zone. For planar detonation waves, algebraic jump conditions which do not depend on the dynamics within the reaction zone can

Bukiet, Bruce

53

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF DETONATION IN A SPHERICAL BOMB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the Chapman-Jouguet detonation. J. Fluid Mechanics 55_,I- ChapMn-uouguet detonation; csnstant volume conbmiton; r (Chapcui-Oouguet detonation including von Neumann spit*;

Kurylo, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Spherically imploding detonation waves initiated by two-step divergent detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The detonation chamber developed by K. Terao and H ... effectively to a focus, so that imploding detonation waves are initiated by two-step divergent detonation waves in a hemispherical space having an effective ...

K. Terao; H. Akaba; H. Shiraishi

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Detonation of propane-air mixtures under injection of hot detonation products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The tube for spontaneous detonation (Institute of Technical Physics, Russian Federal ... used to study the initiation and development of detonation in propane-air mixtures under injection of hot detonation produc...

V. I. Tarzhanov; I. V. Telichko; V. G. Vil’danov…

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Dynamics of Curved Detonation Front and Critical Conditions for Detonation Initiations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The curved detonation front appears in a number of unsteady phenomena such as the diffraction of detonations, the initiation of detonation by a point energy source, by a ... propagating velocity D and the curvatu...

L. He

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with an algebraic study of the equations of detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics taking into account the pressure and the energy of thermal radiation. A new approach to shock and detonation wavefronts is outlined. The fluid under consideration is assumed to be perfect (nonviscous and nonconducting) and to obey the following equation of state: p=(?-1)? where p, ?, and ? are the pressure, the total energy density, and the adiabatic index, respectively. The solutions of the equations of detonation waves are reduced to the problem of finding physically acceptable roots of a quadratic polynomial ?(X) where X is the ratio ?/?0 of dynamical volumes behind and ahead of the detonation wave. The existence and the locations of zeros of this polynomial allow it to be shown that if the equation of state of the burnt fluid is known then the variables characterizing the unburnt fluid obey well-defined physical relations.

Mahdy Cissoko

1992-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Comment on ’’Detonation in miniature’’  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ZND model of the steady detonation waves as outlined by Fickett is refuted on the grounds that it does not represent a complete picture of reality.(AIP)

Walter G. Zinman

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Balancing human and system visualization during document triage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Frank M. Shipman, III Committee Members, Richard K. Furuta John Keyser....S., Yonsei University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Frank M. Shipman, III People must frequently sort through and identify relevant materials from a large set of documents. Document triage is a specific form of information collecting where people...

Bae, Soon Il

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Purely Gasdynamic Multidimensional Indirect Detonation Initiation Using Localized Acoustic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purely Gasdynamic Multidimensional Indirect Detonation Initiation Using Localized Acoustic detonation initiation process is presented that can be independent of diffusion, viscosity and turbulence to accelerate detonation formation. It is shown that given sufficient resolution, the detonation formation time

Vasilyev, Oleg V.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated triage system Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sathaporn - Mechanical Engineering Department, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology North Bangkok Collection: Engineering 78 Forensic Triage for Mobile Phones with DEC0DE...

62

Dependence of the Shape of a Detonation Wave Front on the Detonation Wave Velocity upon Detonation of a Cylindrical Charge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The transition of a system of partial differential equations which describe the stationary flow behind the shock–wave front of a detonation complex upon detonation of a cylindrical charge to a system...

A. R. Gushanov

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives#  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives. Aslam and D. S. Stewart TAM Department# University of Illinois Urbana# IL 61801 USA Abstract# Detonation Shock Dynamics #DSD# can be used to model the e#ects that shock curvature # has on detonation speed D n

Aslam, Tariq

64

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives. Aslam and D. S. Stewart TAM Department, University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801 USA Abstract: Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) can be used to model the eects that shock curvature has on detonation speed Dn

Aslam, Tariq

65

Structure of a pulsating detonation front  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results are presented from experiments involving the recording of the reflection of a detonation wave in a mixture of nitromethane and ... and they require correction of representations on pulsating detonation.

D. I. Matsukov; V. S. Solov'ev; S. V. Sorokin

66

Stability of cosmological detonation fronts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The steady state propagation of a phase transition front is classified, according to hydrodynamics, as a deflagration or a detonation, depending on its velocity with respect to the fluid. These propagation modes are further divided into three types, namely, weak, Jouguet, and strong solutions, according to their disturbance of the fluid. However, some of these hydrodynamic modes will not be realized in a phase transition. One particular cause is the presence of instabilities. In this work we study the linear stability of weak detonations, which are generally believed to be stable. After discussing in detail the weak detonation solution, we consider small perturbations of the interface and the fluid configuration. When the balance between the driving and friction forces is taken into account, it turns out that there are actually two different kinds of weak detonations, which behave very differently as functions of the parameters. We show that the branch of stronger weak detonations are unstable, except very close to the Jouguet point, where our approach breaks down.

Ariel Megevand; Federico Agustin Membiela

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

67

Airbreathing Rotating Detonation Wave Engine Cycle Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Airbreathing Rotating Detonation Wave Engine Cycle Analysis Eric M. Braun, Frank K. Lu, Donald R analysis of an airbreathing, rotating detonation wave engine (RDWE) is developed. The engine consists of a steady inlet system with an isolator which delivers air into the detonation annulus. A single wave

Texas at Arlington, University of

68

SOLVING CURVED DETONATION RIEMANN PROBLEMS Bruce Bukiet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOLVING CURVED DETONATION RIEMANN PROBLEMS Bruce Bukiet Department of Mathematics, Center to compute accurate solutions to detonation problems without numerically solving differential equations in the thin reaction zone. For planar detonation waves, alge­ braic jump conditions can be used to compute

Bukiet, Bruce

69

PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS ON A PULSED DETONATION ROCKET  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS ON A PULSED DETONATION ROCKET The members of the Committee approve #12;To Grandma and Grandpa #12;PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS ON A PULSED DETONATION ROCKET by JASON MATTHEW DETONATION ROCKET Publication No. Jason Matthew Meyers, M.S. The University of Texas at Arlington, 2002

Texas at Arlington, University of

70

PARAMETRIC CYCLE ANALYSIS FOR PULSE DETONATION ENGINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PARAMETRIC CYCLE ANALYSIS FOR PULSE DETONATION ENGINES by HAIDER HEKIRI Presented to the Faculty, in particular, pulse detonation engines. Dr. Wilson taught me the basics of propulsion and made me enjoy #12;iii ABSTRACT PARAMETRIC CYCLE ANALYSIS FOR PULSE DETONATION ENGINES Publication No. ______ Haider

Texas at Arlington, University of

71

Spread of Detonation in High Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... In a note1 on the spread of detonation in a mass of high explosive from the point of initiation, Weibull demonstrates that, ... initiation, Weibull demonstrates that, in a cylindrical cartridge of compressed T.N.T., detonation is propagated with a uniform and constant speed in all directions from the detonator. ...

DUGALD MITCHELL; STEWART PATERSON

1947-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

72

Abstract 1360: DNA methylation analysis in self-sampled material as a triage test in hrHPV positive women  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in self-sampled material as a triage test in hrHPV positive women Aniek Boers 1 Remko...DNA methylation analysis as a triage test in hrHPV positive women outperformed cytology...in self-sampled material as a triage test in hrHPV positive women. [abstract...

Aniek Boers; Remko P. Bosgraaf; Roland W. van Leeuwen; Ed Schuuring; Leon FAG Massuger; Johan Bulten; Willem J. Melchers; Ate GJ van der Zee; Ruud L. Bekkers; Bea Wisman

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

THE RABIT: A RAPID AUTOMATED BIODOSIMETRY TOOL FOR RADIOLOGICAL TRIAGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-priority need in an environment of heightened concern over possible radiological or nuclear terrorist attacks (Pellmar and Rockwell 2005). The detonation of even a small dirty bomb (radiological dispersal device of radiological injuries. A small improvised nuclear device (IND) would produce a major health emergency

74

A theoretical study of a special detonation regime of operation of a pulse detonation device with a variable cross section detonation combustion chamber and a valveless supply system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of a theoretical study of the special detonation regime that arises in a pulse detonation device with a variable cross section combustion ... location of the diaphragm. Since the pulse detonation devi...

L. G. Gvozdeva; D. I. Baklanov; I. N. Ryzhkina…

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Shchelkin’s contribution to spin detonation studies and further development of the spin detonation theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of K. I. Shchelkin, his publications on the detonation spin theory are reviewed. In those publications ... predicted the presence of a break on the detonation wave front, ...

M. E. Topchiyan

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

An Eulerian-Lagrangian Computational Model for Deflagration and Detonation of High Explosives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These scenarios are classified as slow cook-off, unknown detonation transition (XDT), and shock detonation

Utah, University of

77

A lecture on detonation-shock dynamics  

SciTech Connect

We summarize recent investigations into the theory of multi-dimensional, time-dependent detonation. These advances have led to the development of a theory for describing the propagation of high-order detonation in condensed-phase explosives. The central approximation in the theory is that the detonation shock is weakly curved. Specifically, we assume that the radius of curvature of the detonation shock is large compared to a relevant reaction-zone thickness. Our main findings are: (1) the flow is quasi-steady and nearly one dimensional along the normal to the detonation shock; and (2) the small deviation of the normal detonation velocity from the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) value is generally a function of curvature. The exact functional form of the correction depends on the equation of state (EOS) and the form of the energy-release law. 8 refs.

Stewart, D.S.; Bdzil, J.B.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Existence and stability of curved multidimensional detonation fronts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Existence and stability of curved multidimensional detonation fronts N. Costanzino , H. K. Jenssen of curved detonation fronts 32 7.1 ZND fronts of strong detonations in the two most commonly studied inviscid models of combustion, the ZND (finite

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Numerical Modeling of Acoustic Timescale Detonation Initiation Using the Adaptive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical Modeling of Acoustic Timescale Detonation Initiation Using the Adaptive Wavelet 2008 #12;This thesis entitled: Numerical Modeling of Acoustic Timescale Detonation Initiation Using. (Ph.D.) Numerical Modeling of Acoustic Timescale Detonation Initiation Using the Adaptive Wavelet

Vasilyev, Oleg V.

82

Detonation limits in rough walled tubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present paper reports the results of a study of detonation limits in rough tubes. Detonation velocity is measured by photodiodes and ionization probes spaced at 10 cm intervals along the length of the tube. Short lengths of smoked foils inserted into the core of the rough tube is used to register the structure of the detonation wave. Pressure transducers are also used to obtain the pressure profile. The results indicate that in rough tubes, the detonation velocity is generally much lower than the corresponding values for smooth tubes. The velocity decreases slowly at first and then more rapidly as the limit is approached. The velocity variation is generally continuous and at the limits, the failure velocity is of the order of about 0.4 V CJ for all cases. The detonation limits in rough tubes are found to be wider than for a smooth tube. This indicates that the turbulence generated by the wall roughness facilitates the propagation of the detonation and extends the limits. Smoked foil records show that in the core of the rough tube the detonation front has a cellular structure corresponding to the usual cellular structure due to instability of the detonation. Thus the intrinsic unstable cellular structure is quite robust and retains its global characteristics in spite of the large perturbations generated by the rough wall. The detonation in the core of the rough tube goes from multi-headed to single headed as the limit is approached. Past the single headed spin, the low velocity detonation has no cellular structure but consists of interacting weak transverse waves from the rough wall. The averaged pressure of the low velocity detonation front corresponds to about the constant volume explosion pressure, in accord with the velocity of the low velocity detonation.

Amanda Starr; John H.S. Lee; Hoi Dick Ng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Radioactive Fallout from Terrorist Nuclear Detonations  

SciTech Connect

Responding correctly during the first hour after a terrorist nuclear detonation is the key to reducing casualties from a low-yield surface burst, and a correct response requires an understanding of the rapidly changing dose rate from fallout. This report provides an empirical formula for dose rate as a function of time and location that can guide the response to an unexpected nuclear detonation. At least one post-detonation radiation measurement is required if the yield and other characteristics of the detonation are unknown.

Marrs, R E

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

84

Sharp shock model for propagating detonation waves  

SciTech Connect

Recent analyses of the reactive Euler equations have led to an understanding of the effect of curvature on an underdriven detonation wave. This advance can be incorporated into an improved sharp shock model for propagating detonation waves in hydrodynamic calculations. We illustrate the model with two simple examples: time dependent propagation of a diverging detonation wave in 1-D, and the steady 2-D propagation of a detonation wave in a rate stick. Incorporating this model into a 2-D front tracking code is discussed. 20 refs., 3 figs.

Bukiet, B.; Menikoff, R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Deflagrations and Detonations in Thermonuclear Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a type Ia supernova explosion using three-dimensional numerical simulations based on reactive fluid dynamics. We consider a delayed-detonation model that assumes a deflagration-to-detonation transition. In contrast to the pure deflagration model, the delayed-detonation model releases enough energy to account for a healthy explosion, and does not leave carbon, oxygen, and intermediate-mass elements in central parts of a white dwarf. This removes the key disagreement between simulations and observations, and makes a delayed detonation the mostly likely mechanism for type Ia supernovae.

Vadim N. Gamezo; Alexei M. Khokhlov; Elaine S. Oran

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

86

Lack of Gender Disparities in Emergency Department Triage of Acute Stroke Patients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ESI triage differences in stroke severity, outcomes, andNurs. 2011;37:526-532. patients with acute ischemic stroke.J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 9. Karve SJ, Balkrishnan R,

Madsen, Tracy E.; Choo, Esther K.; Seigel, Todd A.; Palms, Danielle; Silver, Brian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Parametric Analysis Of A Detonation-type Turbofan.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lu, Frank A new type of turbofan which detonates a fuel-air mixture was theoretically found to perform better than a conventional turbofan. A continuous detonation… (more)

Swamy, Yashwanth M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Numerical modelling of one-dimensional discrete source detonation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Detonation is a branch of combustion that is initiated by an exothermic chemical reaction and it results in a supersonic shock wave called the ?Detonation… (more)

Javaid, Mehshan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Detonation diffraction in a multi-step channel .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research investigated multiple detonation diffraction events in order to better understand the limits and benefits of diffraction strategies with respect to pulse detonation engine… (more)

Juillet, Daniel M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Gas Detonation and its Application in Engineering and Technologies (Review)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most relevant aspects of advanced experimental investigations of gas detonation and its mathematical simulation are presented. Examples of the engineering use of gas detonation are given.

Yu. A. Nikolaev; A. A. Vasil'ev…

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Wall Precursor Effects in Gaseous Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... and 5 mm long, were used in an investigation of electrical phenomena in stoichiometric oxyhydrogen detonations produced in a 4 m long stainless steel tube of hexagonal cross-section. The ... , which was insulated from the tube wall, recorded the time of arrival of the detonation plasma at the plane of observation. Only when both the probes and insulating surfaces ...

M. C. CAVENOR

1970-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

92

Fading of Detonation in Cones of Explosive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... boundary diameter of an explosive is the smallest diameter of charge in which a stable detonation wave can be established. It is characteristic of the explosive and its physical condition, ... condition, and is a criterion of 'fading', that is, the tendency of the detonation to die out. A boundary diameter may be determined by experiments with cylindrical charges ...

D. W. WOODHEAD; R. WILSON

1951-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Phenomena of Spin in Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , the flame front was not simply a disc-like or convex surface, but the detonation spun spiralwise along the tube, giving rise to a banded appearance in the photographs ... Fraser2 made a careful photographic investigation of the phenomenon, which showed that the initiation of detonation was almost invariably associated with the spin of the ‘head’ of ...

A. C. E.

1935-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

94

Professor John H. S. Lee: The Detonation Phenomenon: Cambridge University Press, 2008, 400 pp., ISBN: 9780521897235, $99.00  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

John H. S. Lee: The Detonation Phenomenon Cambridgeat Springerlink.com The book “The Detonation Phenomenon” byaspects of gas phase detonation. Gas phase detonation has

Tarver, Craig M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Redeye: A Digital Library for Forensic Document Triage  

SciTech Connect

Forensic document analysis has become an important aspect of investigation of many different kinds of crimes from money laundering to fraud and from cybercrime to smuggling. The current workflow for analysts includes powerful tools, such as Palantir and Analyst s Notebook, for moving from evidence to actionable intelligence and tools for finding documents among the millions of files on a hard disk, such as FTK. However, the analysts often leave the process of sorting through collections of seized documents to filter out the noise from the actual evidence to a highly labor-intensive manual effort. This paper presents the Redeye Analysis Workbench, a tool to help analysts move from manual sorting of a collection of documents to performing intelligent document triage over a digital library. We will discuss the tools and techniques we build upon in addition to an in-depth discussion of our tool and how it addresses two major use cases we observed analysts performing. Finally, we also include a new layout algorithm for radial graphs that is used to visualize clusters of documents in our system.

Bogen, Paul Logasa [ORNL] [ORNL; McKenzie, Amber T [ORNL] [ORNL; Gillen, Rob [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Initiation of the Detonation in the Gravitationally Confined Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernovae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the initiation of the detonation in the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this model, ignition occurs at one or several off-center points, resulting in a burning bubble of hot ash that rises rapidly, breaks through the surface of the star, and collides at a point on the stellar surface opposite the breakout, producing a high-velocity inwardly directed flow. Initiation of the detonation occurs spontaneously in a region where the length scale of the temperature gradient extending from the flow (in which carbon burning is already occurring) into unburned fuel is commensurate to the range of critical length scales which have been derived from one-dimensional simulations that resolve the initiation of a detonation. By increasing the maximum resolution in a truncated cone that encompasses this region, beginning somewhat before initiation of the detonation occurs, we successfully simulate in situ the first gradient-initiated detonation in a whole-star simulation. The detonation emerges when a compression wave overruns a pocket of fuel situated in a Kelvin-Helmholtz cusp at the leading edge of the inwardly directed jet of burning carbon. The compression wave preconditions the temperature in the fuel in such a way that the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism can operate and a detonation ensues. We explore the dependence of the length scale of the temperature gradient on spatial resolution and discuss the implications for the robustness of this detonation mechanism. We find that the time and the location at which initiation of the detonation occurs varies with resolution. In particular, initiation of a detonation had not yet occurred in our highest resolution simulation by the time we ended the simulation because of the computational demand it required. However, it may detonate later. We suggest that the turbulent shear layer surrounding the inwardly directed jet provides the most favorable physical conditions, and therefore the most likely location, for initiation of a detonation in the GCD model.

Ivo R. Seitenzahl; Casey A. Meakin; Don Q. Lamb; James W. Truran

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Initiation of the detonation in the gravitationally confined detonation model of type Ia supernovae.  

SciTech Connect

We study the initiation of the detonation in the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this model, ignition occurs at one or several off-center points, resulting in a burning bubble of hot ash that rises rapidly, breaks through the surface of the star, and collides at a point on the stellar surface opposite the breakout, producing a high-velocity inwardly directed flow. Initiation of the detonation occurs spontaneously in a region where the length scale of the temperature gradient extending from the flow (in which carbon burning is already occurring) into unburned fuel is commensurate to the range of critical length scales which have been derived from one-dimensional simulations that resolve the initiation of a detonation. By increasing the maximum resolution in a truncated cone that encompasses this region, beginning somewhat before initiation of the detonation occurs, we successfully simulate in situ the first gradient-initiated detonation in a whole-star simulation. The detonation emerges when a compression wave overruns a pocket of fuel situated in a Kelvin-Helmholtz cusp at the leading edge of the inwardly directed jet of burning carbon. The compression wave preconditions the temperature in the fuel in such a way that the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism can operate and a detonation ensues. We explore the dependence of the length scale of the temperature gradient on spatial resolution and discuss the implications for the robustness of this detonation mechanism. We find that the time and the location at which initiation of the detonation occurs varies with resolution. In particular, initiation of a detonation had not yet occurred in our highest resolution simulation by the time we ended the simulation because of the computational demand it required. However, it may detonate later. We suggest that the turbulent shear layer surrounding the inwardly directed jet provides the most favorable physical conditions, and therefore the most likely location, for initiation of a detonation in the GCD model.

Seitenzahl, I. R.; Meakin, C. A.; Lamb, D. Q.; Truran, J. W. (Physics); (Univ. of Chicago); (Max-Planck-Inst. for Astrophysics); (Univ. of Arizona)

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

98

Study of the detonation phase in the gravitationally confined detonation model of type Ia supernovae.  

SciTech Connect

We study the initiation of the detonation in the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this model, ignition occurs at one or several off-center points, resulting in a burning bubble of hot ash that rises rapidly, breaks through the surface of the star, and collides at a point on the stellar surface opposite the breakout, producing a high-velocity inwardly directed flow. Initiation of the detonation occurs spontaneously in a region where the length scale of the temperature gradient extending from the flow (in which carbon burning is already occurring) into unburned fuel is commensurate to the range of critical length scales which have been derived from one-dimensional simulations that resolve the initiation of a detonation. By increasing the maximum resolution in a truncated cone that encompasses this region, beginning somewhat before initiation of the detonation occurs, we successfully simulate in situ the first gradient-initiated detonation in a whole-star simulation. The detonation emerges when a compression wave overruns a pocket of fuel situated in a Kelvin-Helmholtz cusp at the leading edge of the inwardly directed jet of burning carbon. The compression wave preconditions the temperature in the fuel in such a way that the Zeldovich gradient mechanism can operate and a detonation ensues. We explore the dependence of the length scale of the temperature gradient on spatial resolution and discuss the implications for the robustness of this detonation mechanism. We find that the time and the location at which initiation of the detonation occurs varies with resolution. In particular, initiation of a detonation had not yet occurred in our highest resolution simulation by the time we ended the simulation because of the computational demand it required. However, it may detonate later. We suggest that the turbulent shear layer surrounding the inwardly directed jet provides the most favorable physical conditions, and therefore the most likely location, for initiation of a detonation in the GCD model.

Meakin, C. A.; Seitenzahl, I.; Jordan, G. C.; Truran,, J.; Lamb, D.; Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arizona

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

99

INITIATION OF THE DETONATION IN THE GRAVITATIONALLY CONFINED DETONATION MODEL OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

We study the initiation of the detonation in the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this model, ignition occurs at one or several off-center points, resulting in a burning bubble of hot ash that rises rapidly, breaks through the surface of the star, and collides at a point on the stellar surface opposite the breakout, producing a high-velocity inwardly directed flow. Initiation of the detonation occurs spontaneously in a region where the length scale of the temperature gradient extending from the flow (in which carbon burning is already occurring) into unburned fuel is commensurate to the range of critical length scales which have been derived from one-dimensional simulations that resolve the initiation of a detonation. By increasing the maximum resolution in a truncated cone that encompasses this region, beginning somewhat before initiation of the detonation occurs, we successfully simulate in situ the first gradient-initiated detonation in a whole-star simulation. The detonation emerges when a compression wave overruns a pocket of fuel situated in a Kelvin-Helmholtz cusp at the leading edge of the inwardly directed jet of burning carbon. The compression wave preconditions the temperature in the fuel in such a way that the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism can operate and a detonation ensues. We explore the dependence of the length scale of the temperature gradient on spatial resolution and discuss the implications for the robustness of this detonation mechanism. We find that the time and the location at which initiation of the detonation occurs varies with resolution. In particular, initiation of a detonation had not yet occurred in our highest resolution simulation by the time we ended the simulation because of the computational demand it required. However, it may detonate later. We suggest that the turbulent shear layer surrounding the inwardly directed jet provides the most favorable physical conditions, and therefore the most likely location, for initiation of a detonation in the GCD model.

Seitenzahl, Ivo R. [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Meakin, Casey A.; Truran, James W. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lamb, Don Q. [Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Hydroxylated Detonation Nanodiamond: FTIR, XPS, and NMR Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydroxylated Detonation Nanodiamond: FTIR, XPS, and NMR Studies ... Detailed and unambiguous characterization of the surface structure of detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles remains one of the most challenging tasks for the preparation of chemically functionalized nanodiamonds. ... (1-3) They are currently produced in bulk quantities by means of detonation of carbon-containing explosives followed by purification from the detonation soot by chemical treatment. ...

O. Shenderova; A. M. Panich; S. Moseenkov; S. C. Hens; V. Kuznetsov; H.-M. Vieth

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Experimental study of a pulse detonation rocket with Shchelkin spiral  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental study of a pulse detonation rocket with Shchelkin spiral F.K. Lu, J.M. Meyers, and D There is much recent interest in the development of propulsion systems using high- frequency pulsed detonations detonations in a short distance. The direct initiation of detonation requires an inordinate amount of energy

Texas at Arlington, University of

102

DNS of Detonation Wave and Isotropic Turbulence Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DNS of Detonation Wave and Isotropic Turbulence Interaction Hari Narayanan Nagarajan , Luca Massa A direct numerical simulation of detonation wave with compressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence is carried out with three different detonation Mach numbers to study the effect of detonation wave

Texas at Arlington, University of

103

Direct Observations of Reaction Zone Structure in Propagating Detonations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of self-sustaining, cellular detonations propagating near the Chapman-Jouguet state in hydrogen- oxygen

Barr, Al

104

Spectroscopic studies of detonating heterogeneous explosives. [HNS  

SciTech Connect

The experimental objectives of this work are to use real-time spectroscopic techniques, emission spectroscopy and Raman spectra to monitor chemical and physical changes in shock-loaded or detonating high explosive (HE) samples. The investigators hope to identify chemical species including any transient intermediates. Also, they wish to determine the physical state of the material when the reactions are taking place; measure the temperature and the pressure; and study the effect of different initiation parameters and bulk properties of the explosive material. This work is just part of the effort undertaken to gain information on the detailed chemistry involved in initiation and detonation. In summary, the investigators have obtained vibrational temperatures of some small radical products of detonation, which may correlate with the detonation temperature. They have also observed that NO/sub 2/ is an early product from detonating HNS and RDX, and that other electronically excited radical species such as CN(B) are formed in HNS detonations. In the Raman work, the single-pulse spectra could be obtained even in the severe environment of a detonation, and that the rate of removal of the parent molecule could be monitored. 2 refs., 6 figs.

Renlund, A.M.; Trott, W.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Magnetic Field Generation by Detonation Waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple model is given for the spontaneous magnetic field generation by a detonation wave in condensed matter. The field is shown to arise from the noncollinearity of the thermal and electron density gradients near a medium boundary at the detonation shock front. The model allows calculation of approximate values for the field strength at the front and penetration ahead of the detonation wave. For typical explosive media interfaced by air the magnetic field is predicted to lie in the range 0.1 to 15 G.

Michael J. Frankel and Edward T. Toton

1979-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

106

Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

107

Swept-ramp detonation initiation performance in a high pressure pulse detonation combustor .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pulse detonation combustion technologies promise the potential of increased thermodynamic efficiency and performance, across a wide range of thrust and power generation applications. Thrust applications… (more)

Nichols, Daniel A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

A Study of Deflagration To Detonation Transition In a Pulsed Detonation Engine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) is a propulsion device that takes advantage of the pressure rise inherent to the efficient burning of fuel-air mixtures via… (more)

Chapin, David Michael

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A NUMERICAL STUDY OF DETONATION AND PLUME DYNAMICS IN A PULSED DETONATION ENGINE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) is considered to be the propulsion system of future air vehicles. The objective of the present study is to understand… (more)

RAGHUPATHY, ARUN PRAKASH

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Hospital Triage in the First 24 Hours after a Nuclear or Radiological Disaster  

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Hospital Triage in the First 24 Hours after a Nuclear or Radiological Disaster Hospital Triage in the First 24 Hours after a Nuclear or Radiological Disaster Berger, ME; Leonard, RB; Ricks, RC; Wiley, AL; Lowry, PC; Flynn, DF Abstract: This article addresses the problems emergency physicians would face in the event of a nuclear or radiological catastrophe. It presents information about what needs to be done so that useful information will be gathered and reasonable decisions made in the all important triage period. A brief introductory explanation of radiation injury is followed by practical guides for managing the focused history, physical exam, laboratory tests, initial treatment, and disposition of victims of acute radiation syndrome and combined injury. The guides are not intended to serve as a hospital's "emergency

111

Spectroscopic studies of shocked and detonating explosives  

SciTech Connect

Real-time observation techniques including single-pulse Raman scattering, time-resolved infrared spectral photography, emission spectroscopy and fast-framing photography have been used to study chemical and physical changes in shock-loaded and detonating explosive materials. Experiments have focused on how material variables such as density and particle size may affect emission characteristics in detonating high explosives (HEs). We have also studied effects of pressure and temperature on vibrational frequencies in shocked HEs. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Renlund, A.M.; Trott, W.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Initiation and Detonation Physics on Millimeter Scales  

SciTech Connect

The LLNL Detonation Science Project has a major interest in understanding the physics of detonation on a millimeter scale. This report summarizes the rate stick experiment results of two high explosives. The GO/NO-GO threshold between varying diameters of ultra-fine TATB (ufTATB) and LX-16 were recorded on an electronic streak camera and analyzed. This report summarizes the failure diameters of rate sticks for ufTATB and LX-16. Failure diameter for the ufTATB explosive, with densities at 1.80 g/cc, begin at 2.34 mm (not maintaining detonation velocity over the entire length of the rate stick). ufTATB rate sticks at the larger 3.18 mm diameter maintain a constant detonation velocity over the complete length. The PETN based and LLNL developed explosive, LX-16, with densities at 1.7 g/cc, shows detonation failure between 0.318 mm and 0.365 mm. Additional tests would be required to narrow this failure diameter further. Many of the tested rate sticks were machined using a femtosecond laser focused into a firing tank - in case of accidental detonation.

Philllips, D F; Benterou, J J; May, C A

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

113

Spectroscopic studies of initiation and detonation chemistry  

SciTech Connect

There is much effort currently directed towards elucidating important microscopic processes in reacting high explosives (HEs). In particular, identification of early chemical steps in initiation is crucial to a better understanding of explosive sensitivity and vulnerability. The intimate coupling of the chemical work required to sustain detonation with the mechanical properties of the material and the resulting wave motion drives experimental studies to focus on realistic cases of initiation and steady-state detonation. Extrapolation of results from more homogeneous pressure and temperature domains may provide an inadequate description of the physics and chemistry involved. In practice the study of molecular properties in the extreme environment of detonation requires fast detection of transient phenomena. Over the past few years, the investigators have applied various optical techniques to studies of molecular mechanisms of initiation and detonation. The main focus has been to study reactions in compressed granular HEs like those commonly used in weapon components. Four experimental techniques were used: emission spectroscopy; fast-framing photography; time-resolved infrared spectral photography (TRISP); and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. In this paper the investigators describe; (1) use of fast-framing photography and emission spectroscopy to study spatial and temporal character of emitted light from detonating HEs; (2) use of TRISP technique to monitor formation of water from various detonating HEs; and (3) use of single-pulse Raman scattering to study changes in shocked TATB. 11 refs., 5 figs.

Renlund, A.M.; Trott, W.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Nursing Homes  

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Nursing homes are residential health care facilities that provide care for people recovering from an acute illness or suffering from a  chronic disease , and who require skilled nursing care and 24-hour superv...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Rotating Detonation Wave Propulsion: Experimental Challenges, Modeling, and Engine Concepts (Invited)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rotating Detonation Wave Propulsion: Experimental Challenges, Modeling, and Engine Concepts, Arlington, Texas, 76019 Rotating detonation engines (RDEs), also known as continuous detonation engines of energy conversion that may be even more superior than pulse detonation engines, themselves the subject

Texas at Arlington, University of

116

Steady detonation problem for slow and fast chemical reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steady detonation problem for slow and fast chemical reactions F. Conforto1 , M. Groppi2 , R of the stationary propagation of a detonation wave. The differ- ences of the shock structure in the two cases

Ceragioli, Francesca

117

Detailed structure of spinning detonation in a circular tube  

SciTech Connect

A single spinning detonation wave propagating in a circular tube, discovered experimentally in 1926, is simulated three-dimensionally with a detailed chemical reaction mechanism. The detonation front obtained numerically rotates periodically with a Mach leg, whiskers, and a transverse detonation. A long pressure trail, which is distributed from the transverse detonation to downstream, was reproduced, clearly showing that the pressure trail also spins synchronously with the transverse detonation. The formation of an unburned gas pocket behind the detonation front was not observed in the present simulations because the rotating transverse detonation completely consumed the unburned gas. The calculated profiles of instantaneous OH mass fraction have a keystone shape behind the detonation front. The numerical results for pitch, track angle, Mach stem angle, and incident shock angle on the tube wall agree well with the experimental results. (author)

Tsuboi, N. [Space Transportation Engineering Department, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Eto, K.; Hayashi, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe 5-10-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan)

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Detonation Emissivities and Temperatures in Some Liquid Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... T^XPERIMENTAL measurement of the spectral S_j distribution of radiation from a detonation wave enables the ... wave enables the detonation temperature and emissivity to be calculated using Planck's radiation equation, provided that the ...

J. T. A. BURTON; J. A. HICKS

1964-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

119

Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases ... Instructions for safe detonation of ClO2 and NO (the fastest known reaction between two stable molecules at room temperature). ...

Thomas S. Briggs

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Detonation Simulation with the AMROC Framework Ralf Deiterding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The reaction results in an energy release driving the shock wave for- ward. In a self-sustaining detonation

Barr, Al

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Detonator cable initiation system safety investigation: Consequences of energizing the detonator and actuator cables  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to explore and assess the worst-case response of a W89-type weapons system, damaged so as to expose detonator and/or detonator safing strong link (DSSL) cables to the most extreme, credible lightning-discharge, environment. The test program used extremely high-current-level, fast-rise-time (1- to 2-{mu}s) discharges to simulate lightning strikes to either the exposed detonator or DSSL cables. Discharges with peak currents above 700 kA were required to explode test sections of detonator cable and launch a flyer fast enough potentially to detonate weapon high explosive (HE). Detonator-safing-strong-link (DSSL) cables were exploded in direct contact with hot LX-17 and Ultrafine TATB (UFTATB). At maximum charging voltage, the discharge system associated with the HE firing chamber exploded the cables at more than 600-kA peak current; however, neither LX-17 nor UFTATB detonated at 250{degree}C. Tests showed that intense surface arc discharges of more than 700 kA/cm in width across the surface of hot UFTATB [generally the more sensitive of the two insensitive high explosives (IHE)] could not initiate this hot IHE. As an extension to this study, we applied the same technique to test sections of the much-narrower but thicker-cover-layer W87 detonator cable. These tests were performed at the same initial stored electrical energy as that used for the W89 study. Because of the narrower cable conductor in the W87 cables, discharges greater than 550-kA peak current were sufficient to explode the cable and launch a fast flyer. In summary, we found that lightning strikes to exposed DSSL cables cannot directly detonate LX-17 or UFTATB even at high temperatures, and they pose no HE safety threat.

Osher, J.; Chau, H.; Von Holle, W.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Initiation mechanisms of low-loss swept-ramp obstacles for deflagration to detonation transition in pulse detonation combustors .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In order to enhance the performance of pulse detonation combustors (PDCs), an efficient deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process is critical to maintain the thermodynamic benefits of… (more)

Myers, Charles B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Modeling of a detonation driven, linear electric generator facility  

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Modeling of a detonation driven, linear electric generator facility E.M. Braun, E. Baydar, and F.K. Lu 1 Introduction The pulsed detonation engine (PDE) has been developed over several decades due must consider if the unique properties of the detonation wave can be utilized to in- crease efficiency

Texas at Arlington, University of

124

Effects of vortical and entropic forcing on detonation dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of vortical and entropic forcing on detonation dynamics L. Massa, M. Chauhan, and F.K. Lu 1 Introduction Experiments [3] have shown that detonations in non-ideal conditions, i.e., subject to strong combustion. The present research examines the interaction of detonation with turbulence with emphasis

Texas at Arlington, University of

125

Numerical Modeling of Acoustic Timescale Detonation J.D. Regele  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical Modeling of Acoustic Timescale Detonation Initiation J.D. Regele , D.R. Kassoy and O to perform one and two-dimensional simulations of acoustic timescale detonation initiation using thermal overdriven detonation wave that decays to a steady-state CJ wave. A 1-D parametric study of acoustic

Vasilyev, Oleg V.

126

Dimensional analysis of impulse loading resulting from detonation  

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Dimensional analysis of impulse loading resulting from detonation of shallow-buried charges Mica for the problem of impulse loading experienced by target structures (e.g. vehicle hull) due to detonation-overburden stretching and acceleration before the associated sand bubble bursts and venting of the gaseous detonation

Grujicic, Mica

127

Asymptotic Stability of a Plane CJ Detonation Wave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Asymptotic Stability of a Plane CJ Detonation Wave Tong Li Department of Mathematics University of California, Los Angeles Abstract. We study the asymptotic stability of a plane CJ detonation wave under and that the solution converges uniformly to a shifted CJ detonation wave as t!+ 1 for initial data which are small

Soatto, Stefano

128

FRONT CURVATURE RATE STICK MEASUREMENTS AND DETONATION SHOCK DYNAMICS CALIBRATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FRONT CURVATURE RATE STICK MEASUREMENTS AND DETONATION SHOCK DYNAMICS CALIBRATION FOR PBX 9502 OVER 87545 Detonation velocities and wave shapes were measured for PBX 9502 (95 wt.% TATB, 5 wt.% Kel­F 800 and diameter effect data. For each T 0 , the simplest detonation shock dynamics model assumes that the local

Aslam, Tariq

129

Testing of a Continuous Detonation Wave Engine with Swirled Injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Testing of a Continuous Detonation Wave Engine with Swirled Injection Eric M. Braun Nathan L. Dunn detonation wave engines with swirl to improve mixing were developed. The reactants were ignited with an ordinary automotive spark plug. Mixing and detonation occurred in a common annular chamber in the first

Texas at Arlington, University of

130

Verification and validation of detonation simulation: topical review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Verification and validation of detonation simulation: topical review Joseph M. Powers Department and Reactive Systems Irvine, California 28 July 2011 23rd ICDERS ­ Irvine, California V&V of Detonation 28 July 2011 1 / 29 #12;Outline 1 Some semantics and some provocation 2 Some overly brief detonation discourse

131

State of Detonation Stability Theory and Its Application to Propulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State of Detonation Stability Theory and Its Application to Propulsion D. Scott Stewart University, Massachusetts 02139 DOI: 10.2514/1.21586 We present an overview of the current state of detonation stability or asymptotic treatments of detonations, including various asymptotic limits that appear in the literature

Kasimov, Aslan

132

Detonation shock dynamics and comparisons with direct numerical simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonation shock dynamics and comparisons with direct numerical simulation Tariq D. Aslam # , and D­ nation and detonation shock dynamics (DSD) is made. The theory of DSD defines the motion of the detonation shock in terms of intrinsic geometry of the shock surface, in particular for condensed phase ex

Aslam, Tariq

133

A Numerical and Analytical Study of Detonation Diffraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Numerical and Analytical Study of Detonation Diffraction Thesis by Marco Arienti In Partial. This work could be completed only thanks to his insight in all aspects of detonation theory, modeling insights in fluid mechanics in general and physics of detonations in particular ­ Eric Schultz, Joanna

Barr, Al

134

Detonation shock dynamics and comparisons with direct numerical simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonation shock dynamics and comparisons with direct numerical simulation Tariq D. Aslam , and D- nation and detonation shock dynamics (DSD) is made. The theory of DSD defines the motion of the detonation shock in terms of intrinsic geometry of the shock surface, in particular for condensed phase ex

Aslam, Tariq

135

FRONT CURVATURE RATE STICK MEASUREMENTS AND DETONATION SHOCK DYNAMICS CALIBRATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FRONT CURVATURE RATE STICK MEASUREMENTS AND DETONATION SHOCK DYNAMICS CALIBRATION FOR PBX 9502 OVER 87545 Detonation velocities and wave shapes were measured for PBX 9502 95 wt. TATB, 5 wt. Kel-F 800 rate and diameter e ect data. For each T0, the simplest detonation shock dynamics model assumes that the local

Aslam, Tariq

136

Viscous attenuation of a detonation wave propagating in a channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Viscous attenuation of a detonation wave propagating in a channel P. Ravindran1 , R. Bellini1 , T of a detonation wave in a two-dimensional channel is simulated by an Euler and a Navier-Stokes solver. Transport arising from viscous drag. 1 Introduction The propagation of a detonation wave remains one

Texas at Arlington, University of

137

THEORY OF DETONATION STRUCTURE FOR TWO-PHASE MATERIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THEORY OF DETONATION STRUCTURE FOR TWO-PHASE MATERIALS BY JOSEPH MICHAEL POWERS B.S., University-CHAMPAIGN THE GRADUATE COLLEGE MAY 1988 WE HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THE THESIS BY JOSEPH MICHAEL POWERS THEORY OF DETONATION-phase steady detonation in a granulated solid propellant has been studied, and existence conditions for a one

138

Level-Set Techniques Applied to Unsteady Detonation Propagation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Level-Set Techniques Applied to Unsteady Detonation Propagation D. Scott Stewart1 Tariq Aslam1 Jin. The detonation shock surface has been shown under certain circumstances to be governed by an intrinsic relation detonation theory, which summarizes our recent work in [2]. In Sect. 4, we briefly explain the derivation

Aslam, Tariq

139

High Order Hybrid Numerical Simulations of Two Dimensional Detonation Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Order Hybrid Numerical Simulations of Two Dimensional Detonation Waves Wei Cai Department detonation waves, we have devel- oped a high order numerical scheme suitable for calculating the detailed transverse wave structures of multidimensional detonation waves. The numerical algorithm uses a multi

Cai, Wei

140

TRANSIENT FLOW ANALYSIS OF FILLING IN PULSE DETONATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRANSIENT FLOW ANALYSIS OF FILLING IN PULSE DETONATION ENGINE by VEERA VENKATA SUNEEL JINNALA. November 20, 2009 #12;iv ABSTRACT TRANSIENT FLOW ANALYSIS OF FILLING IN PULSE DETONATION ENGINE Veera The Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) is considered to be a propulsion system of future air vehicles

Texas at Arlington, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

EFFECT OF REACTION RATE PERIODICITY ON DETONATION PROPAGATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECT OF REACTION RATE PERIODICITY ON DETONATION PROPAGATION Eric O. Morano and Joseph E. Shepherd through numerical simulations how the detonation propagation is affected by the heterogeneous rate but there is no accepted and accurate repre- sentation of all thermodynamic states significant to the detonation process

Barr, Al

142

Detonation of Nitrogen Iodide, NI3NH3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the other hand, the substance can be completely decomposed into iodine and permanent gases without detonation occurring if the pressure of the permanent gases be not allowed to fall below 2 ... state is reached, on subjecting the residue to a hard vacuum it detonates. On detonation, the amount of permanent gas produced is only 30–50 per cent of that ...

W. E. GARNER; W. E. LATCHEM

1935-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

143

Steady detonation problem for slow and fast chemical reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steady detonation problem for slow and fast chemical reactions F. Conforto1 , M. Groppi2 , R of the stationary propagation of a detonation wave. The differ- ences of the shock structure in the two cases of steady detonation waves. We consider a mixture of four gases As, s = 1, . . . , 4 which, besides all

Ceragioli, Francesca

144

DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INTERACTION OF DETONATION WAVE WITH HOMOGENEOUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INTERACTION OF DETONATION WAVE WITH HOMOGENEOUS ISOTROPIC TURBULENCE SIMULATION OF INTERACTION OF DETONATION WAVE WITH HOMOGENEOUS ISOTROPIC TURBULENCE HARI NARAYANAN NAGARAJAN The propagation of a shock or detonation wave through a reactive mixture has been the subject of research for over

Texas at Arlington, University of

145

The Ghost Fluid Method for de agration and detonation discontinuities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Ghost Fluid Method for de agration and detonation discontinuities Ronald P. Fedkiw Tariq Aslam and detonations discontinuities similar to the work in 22, 16, 23, 24 . The resulting numerical method is robust and detonation discontinuities similar to the work in 22 , 16 , 23 , and 24 where the authors extended the level

Aslam, Tariq

146

Proof-of-Principle Detonation Driven, Linear Electric Generator Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proof-of-Principle Detonation Driven, Linear Electric Generator Facility Eric M. Braun, Frank K. Lu is described in which a detonation-driven piston system has been integrated with a linear generator in order in a single mass, two-spring system where the detonation wave pressure may be modeled as a variable force

Texas at Arlington, University of

147

LevelSet Techniques Applied to Unsteady Detonation Propagation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

## Level­Set Techniques Applied to Unsteady Detonation Propagation D. Scott Stewart 1 Tariq Aslam 1­propagating surface. The detonation shock surface has been shown under certain circumstances to be governed, we discuss the specific example from detonation theory, which summarizes our recent work in [2

Aslam, Tariq

148

The Ghost Fluid Method for de agration and detonation discontinuities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Ghost Fluid Method for de agration and detonation discontinuities Ronald P. Fedkiw #3; Tariq and detonation discontinuities are considered. The result- ing numerical method is robust and easy to implement for de agration and detonation discontinuities are considered simi- lar to the work in [25], [18], [26

Soatto, Stefano

149

Detonation Simulation with the AMROC Framework Ralf Deiterding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonation Simulation with the AMROC Framework Ralf Deiterding Center for Adanced Computing, which is essential for the accurate compu- tation of detonation waves, is achieved by blockstructured perfor- mance. Cellular Structure Simulation in 2D Experiments have shown that self-sustaining detonation

Deiterding, Ralf

150

ANALYTICAL PARAMETRIC CYCLE ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS ROTATING DETONATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANALYTICAL PARAMETRIC CYCLE ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS ROTATING DETONATION EJECTOR-AUGMENTED ROCKET. Donald Wilson for showing me how interesting the topic of continuous detonation is for the application to thank Eric Braun for providing some insights and advice on the physics of continuous detonation. His

Texas at Arlington, University of

151

The Ghost Fluid Method for deflagration and detonation discontinuities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Ghost Fluid Method for deflagration and detonation discontinuities Ronald P. Fedkiw \\Lambda for deflagration and detonations discontinuities similar to the work in [22, 16, 23, 24]. The resulting numerical. As a specific example, we will consider interface models for deflagration and detonation discontinuities similar

Aslam, Tariq

152

A High-resolution Method for Realistic Detonation Structure Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A High-resolution Method for Realistic Detonation Structure Simulation R. Deiterding Abstract. Detonation simulation is one of the computationally most challenging hyperbolic problems of practical. Introduction Detonations are shock-induced combustion waves that internally consist of a dis- continuous

Deiterding, Ralf

153

Existence and stability of curved multidimensional detonation fronts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Existence and stability of curved multidimensional detonation fronts N. Costanzino , H. K. Jenssen for ZND detonations was begun by J.J. Erpenbeck in [E1]. He used a normal mode analysis to define, multidimensional detonation fronts for ideal polytropic gases in both the ZND and Chapman-Jouguet models

Williams, Mark

154

Gaseous Detonation-Driven Fracture of Tubes Tong Wa Chao  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gaseous Detonation-Driven Fracture of Tubes Thesis by Tong Wa Chao In Partial Fulfillment An experimental investigation of fracture response of aluminum 6061-T6 tubes under internal gaseous detonation on the detonation velocity, strain history, blast pressure from the crack opening, and crack speeds. The curved

155

Development of a Large Pulse Detonation Engine Demonstrator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of a Large Pulse Detonation Engine Demonstrator Frank K. Lu, J. David Carter and constructed to study pulse detonation engine (PDE) operations under a broad range of test parameters to facilitate deflagration-to-detonation transition. The main sections of the combustor were fitted with fully

Texas at Arlington, University of

156

Detonation Turbulence Interaction L. Massa, M. Chauhan and F. Lu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonation Turbulence Interaction L. Massa, M. Chauhan and F. Lu This paper reports a numerical study on the effect of turbulence on the detonation wave properties. The analysis is based-mechanics equations in three dimensions to determine the fine-scale evolution. I. Introduction The detonation

Texas at Arlington, University of

157

Annihilation explosions in macroscopic polyelectrons. Photon detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Annihilation of the electron-positron pairs in macroscopic polyelectrons is considered. It is shown that very fast collapse of the spatial area occupied by macroscopic polyelectron (or dense electron-positron plasma) produces an instant annihilation of a very large number of electron-positron pairs. This phenomenon corresponds to the so-called annihilation explosion. Annihilation of each electron-positron pair is a highly exothermic process. Therefore, in dense electron-positron plasma one can observe a very interesting phenomenon of photon detonation, i.e. a self-organized formation and propagation of the detonation wave which coincides with the annihilation wave. The photon detonation can be used in many applications, including many military and astrophysical problems.

Alexei M. Frolov

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

158

The influence of detonation synthesis conditions on surface properties of detonation nanodiamonds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper addresses the influence of an armor protection composition of an explosive compound on the colloid-chemical properties of the detonation nanodiamonds. Adding an oxidation inhibitor to the...

A. P. Voznyakovskii; V. Yu. Dolmatov; F. A. Shumilov

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Experimental Investigation of Detonation Re-initiation Mechanisms Following a Mach Reflection of a Quenched Detonation .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Detonation waves are supersonic combustion waves that have a multi-shock front structure followed by a spatially non-uniform reaction zone. During propagation, a de-coupled shock-flame complex… (more)

Bhattacharjee, Rohit Ranjan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Critical tube diameter for detonation transmission and critical initiation energy of spherical detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Two experimental setups are used to study propagation and attenuation of blast waves. In the first one, the blast wave is generated by a spherical detonation, and in the second one, the ... is created by the d...

I. Sochet; T. Lamy; J. Brossard; C. Vaglio; R. Cayzac

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

INCOMPLETE CARBON-OXYGEN DETONATION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

Incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation with reactions terminating after burning of C{sup 12} in the leading C{sup 12} + C{sup 12} reaction (C-detonation) may occur in the low-density outer layers of white dwarfs exploding as Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Previous studies of carbon-oxygen detonation structure and stability at low densities were performed under the assumption that the velocity of a detonation wave is derived from complete burning of carbon and oxygen to iron. In fact, at densities {rho} {<=} 10{sup 6} g cm{sup -3} the detonation in SNe Ia may release less than a half of the available nuclear energy. In this paper, we study basic properties of such detonations. We find that the length of an unsupported steady-state C-detonation is {approx_equal}30-100 times greater than previously estimated and that the decreased energy has a drastic effect on the detonation stability. In contrast to complete detonations which are one-dimensionally stable, C-detonations may be one-dimensionally unstable and propagate by periodically re-igniting themselves via spontaneous burning. The re-ignition period at {rho} {<=} 10{sup 6} g cm{sup -3} is estimated to be greater than the timescale of an SN Ia explosion. This suggests that propagation and quenching of C-detonations at these densities could be affected by the instability. Potential observational implications of this effect are discussed.

Dominguez, Inma [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Khokhlov, Alexei [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Detonation propagation in a high loss configuration  

SciTech Connect

This work presents an experimental study of detonation wave propagation in tubes with inner diameters (ID) comparable to the mixture cell size. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in two test section tubes with inner diameters of 1.27 mm and 6.35 mm. For both test sections, the initial pressure of stoichiometric mixtures was varied to determine the effect on detonation propagation. For the 6.35 mm tube, the equivalence ratio {phi} (where the mixture was {phi} C{sub 3}H{sub 8} + 50{sub 2}) was also varied. Detonations were found to propagate in mixtures with cell sizes as large as five times the diameter of the tube. However, under these conditions, significant losses were observed, resulting in wave propagation velocities as slow as 40% of the CJ velocity U{sub CJ}. A review of relevant literature is presented, followed by experimental details and data. Observed velocity deficits are predicted using models that account for boundary layer growth inside detonation waves.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shepherd, Joseph E [CALTECH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Proton radiography of PBX 9502 detonation shock dynamics confinement sandwich test  

SciTech Connect

Recent results utilizing proton radiography (P-Rad) during the detonation of the high explosive PBX 9502 are presented. Specifically, the effects of confinement of the detonation are examined in the LANL detonation confinement sandwich geometry. The resulting detonation velocity and detonation shock shape are measured. In addition, proton radiography allows one to image the reflected shocks through the detonation products. Comparisons are made with detonation shock dynamics (DSD) and reactive flow models for the lead detonation shock and detonation velocity. In addition, predictions of reflected shocks are made with the reactive flow models.

Aslam, Tariq D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

PULSATING REVERSE DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. I. DETONATION IGNITION  

SciTech Connect

Observational evidences point to a common explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae based on a delayed detonation of a white dwarf (WD). Although several scenarios have been proposed and explored by means of one, two, and three-dimensional simulations, the key point still is the understanding of the conditions under which a stable detonation can form in a destabilized WD. One of the possibilities that have been invoked is that an inefficient deflagration leads to the pulsation of a Chandrasekhar-mass WD, followed by formation of an accretion shock around a carbon-oxygen rich core. The accretion shock confines the core and transforms kinetic energy from the collapsing halo into thermal energy of the core, until an inward moving detonation is formed. This chain of events has been termed Pulsating Reverse Detonation (PRD). In this work we explore the robustness of the detonation ignition for different PRD models characterized by the amount of mass burned during the deflagration phase, M {sub defl}. The evolution of the WD up to the formation of the accretion shock has been followed with a three-dimensional hydrodynamical code with nuclear reactions turned off. We found that detonation conditions are achieved for a wide range of M {sub defl}. However, if the nuclear energy released during the deflagration phase is close to the WD binding energy ({approx}0.46 x 10{sup 51} erg {yields} M {sub defl} {approx} 0.30 M {sub sun}) the accretion shock cannot heat and confine the core efficiently and detonation conditions are not robustly achieved.

Bravo, Eduardo; GarcIa-Senz, Domingo [Department de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: eduardo.bravo@upc.edu, E-mail: domingo.garcia@upc.edu

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

165

Transition to longitudinal instability of detonation waves is generically associated with Hopf bifurcation to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition to longitudinal instability of detonation waves is generically associated with Hopf We show that transition to longitudinal instability of strong detonation solu- tions of reactive detonations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.5 Structure of the equations

Texier, Benjamin - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

166

Parallel Algorithm for Detonation Wave Simulation P. Ravindran and F. K. Lu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parallel Algorithm for Detonation Wave Simulation P. Ravindran and F. K. Lu Aerodynamics Research solution of a propagating detonation wavefront is developed. The emphasis is placed on reduction of compu. 1 Introduction Detonation phenomena have been systematically examined theoretically, experimentally

Texas at Arlington, University of

167

Hydrodynamic detonation instability in electroweak and QCD phase transitions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hydrodynamic stability of deflagration and detonation bubbles for a first order electroweak and QCD phase transition has been discussed recently with the suggestion that detonations are stable. We examine here the case of a detonation more carefully. We find that in front of the bubble wall perturbations do not grow with time, but behind the wall modes exist which grow exponentially. We briefly discuss the possible meaning of this instability.

Mark Abney

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Using Detonation Nanodiamond for the Specific Capture of Glycoproteins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using Detonation Nanodiamond for the Specific Capture of Glycoproteins ... We demonstrate here the functionalization of detonation nanodiamond (ND) with aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) for the purpose of targeting the selective capture of glycoproteins from unfractionated protein mixtures. ... (1-4) In addition, a gene expression study carried out has confirmed the innate biocompatibility of ND.(5) These results are exciting because ND can now be produced in ton quantities by a breakthrough in detonation synthesis, allowing the enabling of many engineering applications. ...

Weng Siang Yeap; Yee Ying Tan; Kian Ping Loh

2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

169

Type Ia Supernova Explosion: Gravitationally Confined Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a new mechanism for Type Ia supernova explosions in massive white dwarfs. The scenario follows from relaxing assumptions of symmetry and involves a detonation born near the stellar surface. The explosion begins with an essentially central ignition of a deflagration that results in the formation of a buoyancy-driven bubble of hot material that reaches the stellar surface at supersonic speeds. The bubble breakout laterally accelerates fuel-rich outer stellar layers. This material, confined by gravity to the white dwarf, races along the stellar surface and is focused at the location opposite to the point of the bubble breakout. These streams of nuclear fuel carry enough mass and energy to trigger a detonation just above the stellar surface that will incinerate the white dwarf and result in an energetic explosion. The stellar expansion following the deflagration redistributes mass in a way that ensures production of intermediate-mass and iron group elements with ejecta having a strongly layered structure and a mild amount of asymmetry following from the early deflagration phase. This asymmetry, combined with the amount of stellar expansion determined by details of the evolution (principally the energetics of deflagration, timing of detonation, and structure of the progenitor), can be expected to create a family of mildly diverse Type Ia supernova explosions.

T. Plewa; A. C. Calder; D. Q. Lamb

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Characterizing detonator output using dynamic witness plates  

SciTech Connect

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

Murphy, Michael John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adrian, Ronald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Critical deflagration waves that lead to the onset of detonation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The conditions that are required for DDT are studied in the present thesis by focusing on the final phase of the onset of detonation. A… (more)

Chao, Jenny C., 1976-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Transient heat transfer properties in a pulse detonation combustor .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The heat transfer along the axis of a pulse detonation combustor has been characterized for various frequencies and fill fractions at 2.5 atmospheres of pressure… (more)

Fontenot, Dion G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Investigating the fundamentals of liquid-fuelled pulse detonation engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The shock tube test programme has shown that detonation initiation is achievable for gaseous fuel-air mixtures with a reflected shock. The presence of a shaped… (more)

Majithia, Ashish.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Detonation shock dynamics calibration for non-ideal HE: ANFO  

SciTech Connect

Linear D{sub n}-{kappa} detonation shock dynamics (DSD) filling forms are obtained for four ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) mixtures involving variations in the ammonium nitrate prill properties and ANFO stoichiometries. The detonation of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) mixtures is considered to be highly nonideal involving long reaction zones ({approx} several cms), low detonation energies and large failure diameters ({approx} 10s-100s cms). A number of experimental programs have been undertaken to understand ANFO detonation properties as a function of the AN properties [1]-[7]. Given the highly heterogeneous nature of ANFO mixtures (typical high explosive (HE) grade AN prills are porous with a range of diameters) a predictive reactive flow simulation of ANFO detonation will present significant challenges. At Los Alamos, a simulation capability has been developed for predicting the propagation of detonation in non-ideal HE and the work conducted on surrounding materials via a combination of a detonation shock dynamics (DSD) approach and a modified programmed burn method known as the pseudo-reaction-zone (or PRZ) method that accounts for the long detonation reaction zone. In the following, linear D{sub n}-{kappa} DSD fitting forms are obtained for four ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixtures involving variation in the ammonium nitrate prill properties and ANFO stoichiometries. A detonation shock dynamics calibration for ANFO consisting of regular porous HE grade AN in a 94/6 wt.% AN to FO mix has been obtained in [7].

Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salyer, Terry R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aslam, Tariq D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmerley, Tony [NEW MEXICO TECH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Photographic study of the structure of irregular detonation waves.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Detonation waves in gaseous reactive mixtures have been known to exhibit multidimensional structure since the 1950's. The interaction of shocks and presence of unsteady triple… (more)

Kiyanda, Charles Basenga.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

From detonation to diapers: Los Alamos computer codes at core...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

From detonation to diapers Los Alamos computer codes at core of advanced manufacturing tools The computer codes used for predictive fluid modeling are part of the Los Alamos...

177

LabVIEW internal combustion engine detonation frequency analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The project discussed herein is to develop the hardware and software necessary to identify the detonation frequency of a BMW S14 internal combustion engine. This… (more)

McClain, Kevin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Investigation of transient plasma ignition for a Pulse Detonation Engine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Elimination or reduction of auxiliary oxygen use in Pulse Detonation Engines (PDEs) is necessary if the technology is to compete with existing Ramjet systems. This… (more)

Rodriguez, Joel.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

THE DETONATION MECHANISM OF THE PULSATIONALLY ASSISTED GRAVITATIONALLY CONFINED DETONATION MODEL OF Type Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

We describe the detonation mechanism composing the 'pulsationally assisted' gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae. This model is analogous to the previous GCD model reported in Jordan et al.; however, the chosen initial conditions produce a substantively different detonation mechanism, resulting from a larger energy release during the deflagration phase. The resulting final kinetic energy and {sup 56}Ni yields conform better to observational values than is the case for the 'classical' GCD models. In the present class of models, the ignition of a deflagration phase leads to a rising, burning plume of ash. The ash breaks out of the surface of the white dwarf, flows laterally around the star, and converges on the collision region at the antipodal point from where it broke out. The amount of energy released during the deflagration phase is enough to cause the star to rapidly expand, so that when the ash reaches the antipodal point, the surface density is too low to initiate a detonation. Instead, as the ash flows into the collision region (while mixing with surface fuel), the star reaches its maximally expanded state and then contracts. The stellar contraction acts to increase the density of the star, including the density in the collision region. This both raises the temperature and density of the fuel-ash mixture in the collision region and ultimately leads to thermodynamic conditions that are necessary for the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism to produce a detonation. We demonstrate feasibility of this scenario with three three-dimensional (3D), full star simulations of this model using the FLASH code. We characterized the simulations by the energy released during the deflagration phase, which ranged from 38% to 78% of the white dwarf's binding energy. We show that the necessary conditions for detonation are achieved in all three of the models.

Jordan, G. C. IV; Graziani, C.; Weide, K.; Norris, J.; Hudson, R.; Lamb, D. Q. [Flash Center for Computational Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fisher, R. T. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States); Townsley, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Meakin, C. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Reid, L. B. [NTEC Environmental Technology, Subiaco WA 6008 (Australia)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

High order finite difference methods with subcell resolution for stiff multispecies detonation capturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High order finite difference methods with subcell resolution for stiff multispecies detonation words: stiff reaction term, shock capturing, detonation, WENO, ENO subcell resolution, multispecies

Shu, Chi-Wang

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181

Explanation of the Colossal Detonation Sensitivity of Silicon Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (Si-PETN) Explosive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explanation of the Colossal Detonation Sensitivity of Silicon Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (Si fulminate and far more sensitive than PETN. Although detonation sensitivity is an extremely important issue

Goddard III, William A.

182

Determining optimal fallout shelter times following a nuclear detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...President, Interagency Policy Coordination Subcommittee...Response to Radiological and Nuclear Threats 2010 Planning guidance for response to a nuclear detonation, 2nd edn...Science and Technology Policy. See http://www...planning-guidance-for-response-to-nuclear-detonation-2-edition-final...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Advance Detonation in a Tubular Charge of Explosive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... sleeves of 'Cellophane' J in. and 1J in. in diameter, the velocity of detonation in the tube wall is greater than the velocity in a solid cylinder by 47 ... Fig. 1 may be given (film writing-speed 352 m./sec.). Three detonation waves, indicated as A, B and C in the diagram, can be distinguished ...

D. W. WOODHEAD

1959-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

184

Relativistic detonation waves and bubble growth in false vacuum decay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After reviewing the current understanding of relativistic shock waves, a detailed analysis of relativistic detonation waves is presented. It is proposed that the motion of a detonation wave is analogous to the growth of a bubble nucleated during false vacuum decay at finite temperatures. Some possible applications of these results to cosmology are discussed.

Paul Joseph Steinhardt

1982-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Numerical modelling of shock waves and detonation in complex geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cumulation of shock snd detonation waves was considered. Computations were carried out by use of second-order central-difference scheme. Cumulation of waves in cone region with scales of 1 meter was studied. Pictures of flow in shock and detonation waves during different time moments were obtained as well as time dependences and maximum pressures for different corner angles.

Nevmerzhitskiy, Y V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Low-Order Detonation in Solid High Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of Jones and Mitchell reporting the existence of a specific stable ‘low' velocity of detonation in the case of crystalline or granulated T.N.T. is of considerable interest ... by variation in casting technique and alteration in the rate of charge cooling. Velocities of detonation were measured over 30-cm. intervals by the Dautriche method With cali-A brated ...

T. C. TRANTER

1948-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

187

Suppressed Light Emission of the Reaction Zone in Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... In detonation with high velocity the original surface of the explosive is luminous due to the emission ... sharply defined surfaces with different light intensities. Sometimes dark coherent sections appear. In transmitting detonation through water between two coaxial cylindrical charges with plane ends, the receptor charge has ...

C. H. JOHANSSON; L. STERNHOFF

1959-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

188

Study of the Detonation Phase in the Gravitationally Confined Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernovae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) through the detonation phase and into homologous expansion. In the GCD model, a detonation is triggered by the surface flow due to single-point, off-center flame ignition in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (WDs). The simulations are unique in terms of the degree to which nonidealized physics is used to treat the reactive flow, including weak reaction rates and a time-dependent treatment of material in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE). Careful attention is paid to accurately calculating the final composition of material which is burned to NSE and frozen out in the rapid expansion following the passage of a detonation wave over the high-density core of the WD; and an efficient method for nucleosynthesis postprocessing is developed which obviates the need for costly network calculations along tracer particle thermodynamic trajectories. Observational diagnostics are presented for the explosion models, including abundance stratifications and integrated yields. We find that for all of the ignition conditions studied here a self-regulating process comprised of neutronization and stellar expansion results in final 56Ni masses of ~1.1 M ?. But, more energetic models result in larger total NSE and stable Fe-peak yields. The total yield of intermediate mass elements is ~0.1 M ? and the explosion energies are all around 1.5 ? 1051 erg. The explosion models are briefly compared to the inferred properties of recent SN Ia observations. The potential for surface detonation models to produce lower-luminosity (lower 56Ni mass) SNe is discussed.

Casey A. Meakin; Ivo Seitenzahl; Dean Townsley; George C. Jordan IV; James Truran; Don Lamb

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Study of the Detonation Phase in the Gravitationally Confined Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae through the detonation phase and into homologous expansion. In the GCD model, a detonation is triggered by the surface flow due to single point, off-center flame ignition in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. The simulations are unique in terms of the degree to which non-idealized physics is used to treat the reactive flow, including weak reaction rates and a time dependent treatment of material in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE). Careful attention is paid to accurately calculating the final composition of material which is burned to NSE and frozen out in the rapid expansion following the passage of a detonation wave over the high density core of the white dwarf; and an efficient method for nucleosynthesis post-processing is developed which obviates the need for costly network calculations along tracer particle thermodynamic trajectories. Observational diagnostics are presented for the explosion models, including abundance stratifications and integrated yields. We find that for all of the ignition conditions studied here, a self regulating process comprised of neutronization and stellar expansion results in final \\iso{Ni}{56} masses of $\\sim$1.1\\msun. But, more energetic models result in larger total NSE and stable Fe peak yields. The total yield of intermediate mass elements is $\\sim0.1$\\msun and the explosion energies are all around 1.5$\\times10^{51}$ ergs. The explosion models are briefly compared to the inferred properties of recent Type Ia supernova observations. The potential for surface detonation models to produce lower luminosity (lower \\iso{Ni}{56} mass) supernovae is discussed.

Casey A. Meakin; Ivo Seitenzahl; Dean Townsley; George C. Jordan IV; James Truran; Don Lamb

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

190

Effect of prill structure on detonation performance of ANFO  

SciTech Connect

While the effects of charge diameter, fuel mix ratio, and temperature on ANFO detonation performance are substantial, the effects of prill type are considerable as well as tailorable. Engineered AN prills provide a means to improve overall performance, primarily by changing the material microstructure through the addition of features designed to enhance hot spot action. To examine the effects of prill type (along with fuel mix ratio and charge diameter) on detonation performance, a series of precision, large-scale, ANFO front-curvature rate-stick tests was performed. Each shot used standard No. 2 diesel for the fuel oil and was essentially unconfined with cardboard confinement. Detonation velocities and front curvatures were measured while actively maintaining consistent shot temperatures. Based on the experimental results, DSD calibrations were performed to model the detonation performance over a range of conditions, and the overall effects of prill microstructure were examined and correlated with detonation performance.

Salyer, Terry R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmerly, Tony [EMRTC NMT

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Detonation of nanosized explosive: New mechanistic model for nanodiamond formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract While nanodiamonds are synthesized by detonation of microstructured explosives since 50 years ago, we developed a novel approach to synthesize these particles by using nanostructured explosives. This new synthesis method leads to novel results not only in the control of the size, but also in the understanding of the nanodiamond synthesis and the detonation mechanisms. The use of explosive particles with size down to 40 nm results in the formation of detonation nanodiamonds with a mean size of 2.8 nm. In the light of these experiments, a model based on the size of the material involved during the detonation process has been developed to explain the size of the obtained nanodiamond. According to hypotheses based on the number of the nanodiamond nucleation sites, the experimental results are in favor of a decrease in the size of the nanodiamonds formed when the size of the explosive particles used during detonation is decreased.

V. Pichot; M. Comet; B. Risse; D. Spitzer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Detonation engine fed by acetylene–oxygen mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The advantages of a constant volume combustion cycle as compared to constant pressure combustion in terms of thermodynamic efficiency has focused the search for advanced propulsion on detonation engines. Detonation of acetylene mixed with oxygen in various proportions is studied using mathematical modeling. Simplified kinetics of acetylene burning includes 11 reactions with 9 components. Deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) is obtained in a cylindrical tube with a section of obstacles modeling a Shchelkin spiral; the DDT takes place in this section for a wide range of initial mixture compositions. A modified ka-omega turbulence model is used to simulate flame acceleration in the Shchelkin spiral section of the system. The results of numerical simulations were compared with experiments, which had been performed in the same size detonation chamber and turbulent spiral ring section, and with theoretical data on the Chapman–Jouguet detonation parameters.

N.N. Smirnov; V.B. Betelin; V.F. Nikitin; Yu.G. Phylippov; Jaye Koo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Measuring In-Situ Mdf Velocity Of Detonation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for determining the velocity of detonation of a mild detonation fuse mounted on the surface of a device includes placing the device in a predetermined position with respect to an apparatus that carries a couple of sensors that sense the passage of a detonation wave at first and second spaced locations along the fuse. The sensors operate a timer and the time and distance between the locations is used to determine the velocity of detonation. The sensors are preferably electrical contacts that are held spaced from but close to the fuse such that expansion of the fuse caused by detonation causes the fuse to touch the contact, causing an electrical signal to actuate the timer.

Horine, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); James, Jr., Forrest B. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

194

Spark-safe low-voltage detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Surface detonation in type Ia supernova explosions?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the evolution of thermonuclear supernova explosions when the progenitor white dwarf star ignites asymmetrically off-center. Several numerical simulations are carried out in two and three dimensions to test the consequences of different initial flame configurations such as spherical bubbles displaced from the center, more complex deformed configurations, and teardrop-shaped ignitions. The burning bubbles float towards the surface while releasing energy due to the nuclear reactions. If the energy release is too small to gravitationally unbind the star, the ash sweeps around it, once the burning bubble approaches the surface. Collisions in the fuel on the opposite side increase its temperature and density and may -- in some cases -- initiate a detonation wave which will then propagate inward burning the core of the star and leading to a strong explosion. However, for initial setups in two dimensions that seem realistic from pre-ignition evolution, as well as for all three-dimensional simulations the collimation of the surface material is found to be too weak to trigger a detonation.

F. K. Roepke; S. E. Woosley

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

197

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Numerical Simulation of H2/Air Detonation Using Detailed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Numerical Simulation of H2/Air Detonation of detonation, and 3-D computation of detonation propagating in a tube with a spiral obstacle was conducted. Introduction A detonation is a shock wave sustained by the energy released by combustion. The typical case

Löhner, Rainald

198

Introduction: Perspectives on Detonation-Based Propulsion DOI: 10.2514/1.26953  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction: Perspectives on Detonation-Based Propulsion DOI: 10.2514/1.26953 DETONATION, a shock, is one of the most rapid chemical energy release processes in nature. For self-sustained detonations. These rapid speeds are attained because the major mechanism of energy transport in a detonation is acoustic

199

Performance Enhancements on a Pulsed Detonation Engine J.M. Meyers*, F.K. Lu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Performance Enhancements on a Pulsed Detonation Engine J.M. Meyers*, F.K. Lu , D.R. Wilson University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 A major problem applying detonations into aero-propulsive devices is the transition of deflagration and weak detonation into CJ detonation. The longer

Texas at Arlington, University of

200

ANALYSIS OF DETONATION STATES WHEN SHOCKING TWO-PHASE REACTIVE SOLIDS*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

' ANALYSIS OF DETONATION STATES WHEN SHOCKING TWO-PHASE REACTIVE SOLIDS* J. M. Powers, D. S the hypothesis that observed deviations from Chapman-Jouguet detonation states inporous solid propellants for a minimum detonation wave speed analogous to a Chapman-Jouguet detonation for a single phase is given

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Preliminary Design of a Pulsed Detonation Based Combined Cycle Engine Ramakanth Munipalli*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Preliminary Design of a Pulsed Detonation Based Combined Cycle Engine Ramakanth Munipalli combined cycle engine using periodic detonation waves are presented here. Four modes of operation are used detonation rocket for take off to moderate supersonic Mach numbers (2) A pulsed normal detonation wave mode

Texas at Arlington, University of

202

The random projection method for sti detonation Weizhu Bao and Shi Jin y  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The random projection method for sti detonation waves Weizhu Bao and Shi Jin y School a simple and robust random projection method for underresolved numerical simulation of sti detonation waves the interactions of detonations. Extensive numerical experiments, including interaction of detonation waves

Jin, Shi

203

THE RANDOM PROJECTION METHOD FOR STIFF DETONATION WEIZHU BAO AND SHI JIN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE RANDOM PROJECTION METHOD FOR STIFF DETONATION CAPTURING WEIZHU BAO AND SHI JIN SIAM J. SCI of stiff detonation waves in chemically reacting flows. This method is based on the random projection the interactions of detonations. Extensive nu- merical experiments, including interaction of detonation waves

Bao, Weizhu

204

Development of a chemical microthruster based on pulsed detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of a microthruster based on gaseous pulsed detonation is presented in this study. The feasibility of cyclic valveless pulsed detonation at frequencies over 100 Hz is first experimentally investigated in a microchannel with 1 mm ? 0.6 mm rectangular cross-section. Highly reactive ethylene/oxygen mixtures are utilized to reduce the time and distance required for the reaction wave to run up to detonation in a smooth channel. High-speed visualizations have shown that the reaction waves reach detonative state through highly repeatable flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition processes in the channel. The validated concepts are implemented for the development of an integrated pulsed detonation microthruster. The microthruster was fabricated using low temperature co-fired ceramic tape technology. The volume of the reaction channel in the microthruster was 58 mm3. Spark electrodes and ion probes were embedded in the ceramic microthruster. The channel and via holes were fabricated using laser cutting techniques. Ion probe measurements showed that the reaction wave propagated at velocities larger than 2000 m s?1 before reaching the channel exit. The pulsed detonation microthruster has been successfully operated at frequencies as high as 200 Hz.

Ming-Hsun Wu; Tsung-Hsun Lu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

RESPONSE OF ALUMINUM SPHERES IN SITU TO DETONATION  

SciTech Connect

Time sequence x-ray imaging was utilized to determine the response of aluminum spheres embedded in a detonating high-explosive cylinder. The size of these spheres ranged from 3/8-inch to 1/32-inch in diameter. These experiments directly observed the response of the spheres as a function of time after interaction with the detonation wave. As the spheres are entrained in the post-detonation flow field, they are accelerating and their velocity profile is complicated, but can be determined from the radiography. Using the aluminum spheres as tracers, radial velocities of order 1.6 mm/us and horizontal velocities of order 0.08 mm/us were measured at early times post detonation. In terms of response, these data show that the largest sphere deforms and fractures post detonation. The intermediate size spheres suffer negligible deformation, but appear to ablate post detonation. Post detonation, the smallest spheres either react, mechanically disintegrate, atomize as a liquid or some combination of these.

Molitoris, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Batteux, J D; Wong, B M; Villafana, R J; Cracchiola, B A; Forbes, J W

2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

206

Geometry-specific scaling of detonation parameters from front curvature  

SciTech Connect

It has previously been asserted that classical detonation curvature theory predicts that the critical diameter and the diameter-effect curve of a cylindrical high-explosive charge should scale with twice the thickness of an analogous two-dimensional explosive slab. The varied agreement of experimental results with this expectation have led some to question the ability of curvature-based concepts to predict detonation propagation in non-ideal explosives. This study addresses such claims by showing that the expected scaling relationship (hereafter referred to d = 2w) is not consistent with curvature-based Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) theory.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

207

Transition of combustion into detonation within a channel with the diameter less than the critical diameter of the existence of stationary detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was carried out for transition of combustion into detonation of oxygen-hydrogen and hydrogen-air stoichiometric ... the critical diameter of the existence of stationary detonation in...

D. I. Baklanov; V. V. Golub; K. V. Ivanov; M. S. Krivokopytov

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Ultrafast Detonation of Hydrazoic Acid (HN3)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fastest self-sustained chemical reactions in nature occur during detonation of energetic materials where reactions are thought to occur on nanosecond or longer time scales in carbon-containing materials. Here we perform the first atomistic simulation of an azide energetic material, HN3, from the beginning to the end of the chemical evolution and find that the time scale for complete decomposition is a mere 10 ps, orders of magnitude shorter than that of secondary explosives and approaching the fundamental limiting time scale for chemistry; i.e., vibrational time scale. We study several consequences of the short time scale including a state of vibrational disequilibrium induced by the fast transformations.

Evan J. Reed; Alejandro W. Rodriguez; M. Riad Manaa; Laurence E. Fried; Craig M. Tarver

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

209

Quantitative Analysis of Reaction Front Geometry in Detonations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantitative Analysis of Reaction Front Geometry in Detonations F. Pintgen, and J.E. Shepherd Previous observations (Pintgen et al., 2003b, Pintgen, 2000) on the reaction zone struc- ture

Shepherd, Joe

210

Effect of an axial electric field on detonation waves.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The present thesis reports an investigation of the effects of an axial electric field (200V/cm – 8000V/cm) on the propagation of detonation waves in mixtures… (more)

Kamenskihs, Vsevolods

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Set-valued solutions for non-ideal detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence and structure of steady gaseous detonation propagating in a packed bed of solid inert particles are analyzed in the one-dimensional approximation by taking into consideration frictional and heat losses between the gas and the particles. A new formulation of the governing equations is introduced that eliminates the well-known difficulties with numerical integration across the sonic singularity in the reactive Euler equations. The new algorithm allows us to determine that the detonation solutions as the loss factors are varied have a set-valued nature at low detonation velocities when the sonic constraint disappears from the solutions. These set-valued solutions correspond to a continuous spectrum of the eigenvalue problem that determines the velocity of the detonation.

Semenko, Roman; Kasimov, Aslan; Ermolaev, Boris

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Ultrafast Detonation of Hydrazoic Acid (HN[subscript 3])  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fastest self-sustained chemical reactions in nature occur during detonation of energetic materials where reactions are thought to occur on nanosecond or longer time scales in carbon-containing materials. Here we perform ...

Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

213

Study of a Model Equation in Detonation Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we analyze properties of an equation that we previously proposed to model the dynamics of unstable detonation waves [A. R. Kasimov, L. M. Faria, and R. R. Rosales, Model for shock wave chaos, Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 ...

Faria, Luiz M.

214

Frequency content of current pulses in slapper detonator bridges  

SciTech Connect

DFT amplitudes are obtained for digital current pulse files. The frequency content of slapper detonator bridge current pulses is obtained. The frequencies are confined well within the passband of the CVR used to sample them.

Carpenter, K H

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

215

On the influence of low initial pressure and detonation stochastic nature on Mach reflection of gaseous detonation waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The two-dimensional, time-dependent and reactive Navier–Stokes equations were solved to obtain an insight into Mach reflection of gaseous detonation in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture diluted ... argon. ...

C. J. Wang; C. M. Guo

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Cyclic deflagration-to-detonation transition in the flow-type combustion chamber of a pulse-detonation burner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of realization of a rapid cyclic deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) with a frequency of...DDT...? 20 ms after ignition. The results will be used in the development of a new type of indust...

S. M. Frolov; V. S. Aksenov; K. A. Avdeev…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL HELIUM DETONATIONS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Several models for Type Ia-like supernova events rely on the production of a self-sustained detonation powered by nuclear reactions. In the absence of hydrogen, the fuel that powers these detonations typically consists of either pure helium (He) or a mixture of carbon and oxygen (C/O). Studies that systematically determine the conditions required to initiate detonations in C/O material exist, but until now no analogous investigation of He matter has been conducted. We perform one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamical simulations at a variety of initial density and temperature combinations and find critical length scales for the initiation of He detonations that range between 1 and 10{sup 10} cm. A simple estimate of the length scales over which the total consumption of fuel will occur for steady-state detonations is provided by the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) formalism. Our initiation lengths are consistently smaller than the corresponding CJ length scales by a factor of {approx}100, providing opportunities for thermonuclear explosions in a wider range of low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) than previously thought possible. We find that virialized WDs with as little mass as 0.24 M{sub Sun} can be detonated, and that even less massive WDs can be detonated if a sizable fraction of their mass is raised to a higher adiabat. That the initiation length is exceeded by the CJ length implies that certain systems may not reach nuclear statistical equilibrium within the time it takes a detonation to traverse the object. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that incomplete burning will occur in the majority of He WD detonations and that {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, or {sup 48}Cr, rather than {sup 56}Ni, is the predominant burning product for many of these events. We anticipate that a measure of the quantity of the intermediate-mass elements and {sup 56}Ni produced in a helium-rich thermonuclear explosion can potentially be used to constrain the nature of the progenitor system.

Holcomb, Cole; Guillochon, James; De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [TASC, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Facility for Shock and Detonation Wave Interaction with a Reactive Turbulent Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as in scramjet combustors30 and as a mechanism for deflagration-to-detonation transition.31 The interaction

Texas at Arlington, University of

219

Using ethanol for preparation of nanosized TiO2 by gaseous detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method of preparing nanosized titanium dioxide by gaseous detonation by using ethanol, hydrogen, and oxygen as an explosion...

H. H. Yan; X. C. Huang; S. X. Xi

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

CALTECH ASCI TECHNICAL REPORT 135 Analysis of Numerical Simulations of Detonation Diffraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALTECH ASCI TECHNICAL REPORT 135 Analysis of Numerical Simulations of Detonation Diffraction M. Arienti and J.E.Shepherd #12;Analysis of Numerical Simulations of Detonation Diffraction Marco Arienti Abstract We investigate the problem of a self-sustaining detonation wave diffracting from a tube

Barr, Al

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Detonation loading of tubes in the modified shear wave speed regime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonation loading of tubes in the modified shear wave speed regime T. Chao and J. E. Shepherd detonation loading in the modified shear wave speed regime. Strain gauges were used to determine the time and numerical simulations with explicit finite element computation treating the detonation as a traveling load

222

AlAA 95-2580 Experimental Investigation of Pulse Detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AlAA 95-2580 Experimental Investigation of Pulse Detonation Wave Phenomenon as Related DETONATION WAVE PHENOMENON AS RELATED TO PROPULSION APPLICATION* Steven B. Stanley?, Karl R. Burgef ABSTRACT The subject of this paper is the experimental study of detonation wave phenomenon as related

Texas at Arlington, University of

223

Experimental Study on Transmission of an Overdriven Detonation Wave Across a Mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental Study on Transmission of an Overdriven Detonation Wave Across a Mixture J. Li1 , K a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane

Texas at Arlington, University of

224

THE PROTOTYPE OF RECORDING SYSTEM FOR SHOCK AND DETONATION WAVE INVESTIGATION WITH APPLICATION OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE PROTOTYPE OF RECORDING SYSTEM FOR SHOCK AND DETONATION WAVE INVESTIGATION WITH APPLICATION of the prototype of multichannel recording system for shock-wave and detonation processes investigations (first of all, shock-wave and detonation ones) [1, 2]. A prototype of recording system [3], providing

Fedotov, Mikhail G.

225

Highly Shocked Polymer Bonded Explosives at a Nonplanar Interface: Hot-Spot Formation Leading to Detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Detonation Qi An, William A. Goddard III,* Sergey V. Zybin, Andres Jaramillo-Botero, and Tingting Zhou the ReaxFF reactive force field to examine shock-induced hot-spot formation followed by detonation and pressure in the hot-spot region, until detonation. By contrast, the first step for PETN is NO2 release

Goddard III, William A.

226

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Application of Pulsed Detonation Engine for Electric Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Application of Pulsed Detonation Engine of testing. In subsequent tests with the PDE, detonations were observed for H2-O2 mixtures, but H2-Air mixtures failed to detonate. Nomenclature ac = alternating current atm = atmosphere C-J = Chapman

Texas at Arlington, University of

227

Numerical simulation of detonation processes in a variable cross-section chamber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical simulation of detonation processes in a variable cross-section chamber H Y Fan and F K Lu for publication on 8 November 2007. DOI: 10.1243/09544100JAERO272 Abstract: The detonation processes occurring mechanism is used. Two detonation cases are simulated, corresponding to initiation from the closed, left end

Texas at Arlington, University of

228

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Numerical Simulation of Detonation Processes in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Numerical Simulation of Detonation Processes The detonation processes occurring in a combustion chamber with variable cross-sections are numerically simulated-species, two-step global reaction mechanism is used. Two detonation cases are simulated, corresponding

Texas at Arlington, University of

229

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Experimental Study on Deflagration-to-Detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Experimental Study on Deflagration-to-Detonation detonation engine platform incorporating commercial, off-the-shelf solenoid valve gas injectors and non-conventional deflagration-to-detonation transition enhancing devices. The study made use of stoichiometric propane

Texas at Arlington, University of

230

The chemical-gas dynamic mechanisms of pulsating detonation wave instability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The chemical-gas dynamic mechanisms of pulsating detonation wave instability By Mark Short1- dimensional pulsating detonation wave driven by a three-step chain-branching reac- tion are revealed by direct involves regular oscillations of the detonation front, where the instability is driven by low

Kapila, Ashwani K.

231

A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELF-PROPAGATING TWO-PHASE DETONATION Paper Number 105  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELF-PROPAGATING TWO-PHASE DETONATION Paper Number 105 Keith A-PHASE DETONATION KEITH A. GONTHIER LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY and JOSEPH M. POWERS UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME 1 of detonation in granulated energetic material. This research has largely been motivated by concerns over

232

Exploratory study of flow domains arising from detonation waves induced in a wedged channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exploratory study of flow domains arising from detonation waves induced in a wedged channel H. Detonation of the flow of a combustible mixture over a wedged channel is numerically simulated. A two and standing detonation wave modes were found, both of which can be further subdivided depending on where

Texas at Arlington, University of

233

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Development of a Compact Liquid Fueled Pulsed Detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonation Engine with Predetonator Philip K. Panicker* Aerodynamic Research Center (ARC), University, USA A compact PDE platform has been constructed, which features a pre-detonator with 1 in. i.d. followed by a 30° smooth area change nozzle that expands to a 4 in. i.d. main combustor. The pre-detonator

Texas at Arlington, University of

234

Molecular simulations of Hugoniots of detonation products mixtures at chemical equilibrium: Microscopic calculation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular simulations of Hugoniots of detonation products mixtures at chemical equilibrium and chemical equilibrium of mixtures of detonation products on the Hugoniot curve. The ReMC method (W. R. Smith the system to satisfy the Hugoniot relation. Once the Hugoniot curve of the detonation products mixture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

The random projection method for stiff detonation Weizhu Bao \\Lambda and Shi Jin y  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The random projection method for stiff detonation waves Weizhu Bao \\Lambda and Shi Jin y School a simple and robust random projection method for underresolved numerical simulation of stiff detonation, and then extended to handle the interactions of detonations. Extensive numerical experiments, including interaction

236

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 A numerical study of detonation diffraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 A numerical study of detonation diffraction of detonation diffraction through an abrupt area change has been carried out via a set of two of the reaction rate to temperature. We study in detail three highly resolved cases of detonation diffraction

Goddard III, William A.

237

A Virtual Test Facility for Simulating Detonation-Induced Fracture of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Virtual Test Facility for Simulating Detonation-Induced Fracture of Thin Flexible Shells Ralf. The fluid-structure interaction simulation of detonation- and shock-wave-loaded fracturing thin with fracture and fragmen- tation capabilities with an Eulerian Cartesian detonation solver with optional

Deiterding, Ralf

238

A Fully Conservative Ghost Fluid Method & Stiff Detonation Waves Computer Science Department  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Fully Conservative Ghost Fluid Method & Stiff Detonation Waves Duc Nguyen Computer Science applicable for tracking material interfaces, inert shocks, and both deflagration and detonation waves tracking inert shocks and detonation waves, so that is the focus of this paper. In particular, we address

Fedkiw, Ron

239

An Accurate Deterministic Projection Method for Two-Dimensional Stiff Detonation Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Accurate Deterministic Projection Method for Two-Dimensional Stiff Detonation Waves Yunlong Chen detonation waves. We demonstrate the robustness of the proposed approach on a number of numerical experiments. Key words: stiff detonation waves, reactive Euler equations, splitting method, deterministic

Kurganov, Alexander

240

PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF A DETONATION-TYPE TURBOFAN YASHWANTH M. SWAMY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF A DETONATION-TYPE TURBOFAN by YASHWANTH M. SWAMY Presented to the Faculty. November 8, 2011 #12;iv ABSTRACT PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF A DETONATION-TYPE TURBOFAN YASHWANTH M. SWAMY, M detonates a fuel-air mixture was theoretically found to perform better than a conventional turbofan

Texas at Arlington, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Condensed-phase detonation stability for a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Condensed-phase detonation stability ?? and in revised form ??) The linear stability analysis of a planar detonation wave is reformulated of detonations in condensed phase explosives. In this paper, we focus our attention on a Tait equation of state

Anguelova, Iana

242

Numerical Study of Unsteady Detonation Wave Propagation in a Supersonic Combustion Chamber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical Study of Unsteady Detonation Wave Propagation in a Supersonic Combustion Chamber T.H. Yi detonation waves in a supersonic flow in one-dimensional tube and two- dimensional wedged chamber parameters. Various features including a vortex are observed. 1 Introduction Detonation wave propagation

Texas at Arlington, University of

243

Similarity and differences between conditions for initiation and failure of detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...conditions for initiation and failure of detonation Henry Eyring Franklin E. Walker Shao-mu...sides of the reaction zone. D is the detonation velocity and d is the diameter of the...and other phenomena associated with detonation. Similarity and differences between...

Henry Eyring; Franklin E. Walker; Shao-mu Ma; Nancy Coon

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

A Java-Based Direct Monte Carlo Simulation of a Nano-Scale Pulse Detonation Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Java-Based Direct Monte Carlo Simulation of a Nano- Scale Pulse Detonation Engine Darryl J. Here, the pulse detonation engine is proposed as a means of propulsion for micro-air vehicles and nano attempting to implement the pulse detonation engine at such small length scales is the dominance of the wall

245

CALTECH ASCI TECHNICAL REPORT 137 Reduction of Detailed Chemcial Reaction Networks for Detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALTECH ASCI TECHNICAL REPORT 137 Reduction of Detailed Chemcial Reaction Networks for Detonation FOR DETONATION SIMULATIONS Patrick Hung Mechanical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA extended and applied to gaseous detonation simulations2,3,4 . Unfortunately, while a one-dimensional ILDM

Barr, Al

246

An Adaptive Cartesian Detonation Solver for Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation on Distributed Memory Computers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Adaptive Cartesian Detonation Solver for Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation on Distributed shock and detonation waves impinging on deforming solid structures benefit significantly from) for studying the three- dimensional dynamic response of solid materials subject to strong shock and detonation

247

Multi-Dimensional Adaptive Simulation of Shock-Induced Detonation in a Shock Tube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-Dimensional Adaptive Simulation of Shock-Induced Detonation in a Shock Tube P. Ravindran clear of unphysical values due to linearization. One-, two- and three-dimensional detonation simu results, providing new insights in detonation wave propagation. Nomenclature Ar j , Af j Pre

Texas at Arlington, University of

248

Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame S. E of these regions can be supersonic and could initiate a detonation. Subject headings: supernovae: general a late time transition of the thermonuclear burning to a detonation wave (e.g., Hoflich et al. 1995

249

Transition to longitudinal instability of detonation waves is generically associated with Hopf bifurcation to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition to longitudinal instability of detonation waves is generically associated with Hopf show that transition to longitudinal instability of strong detonation solu- tions of reactive of an associated Evans function, and obtain the first complete nonlinear stability result for strong detonations

Hélein, Frédéric - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

250

2011 International Workshop on Detonation for Propulsion November 14-15, 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2011 International Workshop on Detonation for Propulsion November 14-15, 2011 Paradise Hotel, Busan, Korea Summary of Recent Research on Detonation Wave Engines at UTA Donald R. Wilson,* Frank K. Lu on detonation waves related to propulsion is presented in this paper. A brief historical review of the early

Texas at Arlington, University of

251

ON A FREE BOUNDARY PROBLEM ARISING IN DETONATION THEORY: CONVERGENCE TO TRAVELLING WAVES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 ON A FREE BOUNDARY PROBLEM ARISING IN DETONATION THEORY: CONVERGENCE TO TRAVELLING WAVES by M] and by Ludford and Oyediran in [10]. It is a simple model of detonation waves where the reaction is supposed to occur at the detonation front x = i(t), and where q is the ignition temperature. We consider three

Hulshof, Joost

252

A Virtual Test Facility for Simulating Detonation-induced Fracture of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Virtual Test Facility for Simulating Detonation-induced Fracture of Thin Flexible Shells Ralf://www.cacr.caltech.edu/asc Abstract. The fluid-structure interaction simulation of detonation- and shock-wave-loaded fracturing thin with fracture and fragmen- tation capabilities with an Eulerian Cartesian detonation solver with optional

Cirak, Fehmi

253

Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers detonations into aero-propulsive devices is the transition of deflagration and weak deto- nation into CJ detonation. The longer this transition, the longer the physical length of the engine must be to facilitate

Texas at Arlington, University of

254

Detonation wave driven by condensation of supersaturated carbon vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental observation of a detonation wave driven by the energy of condensation of supersaturated carbon vapor is reported. The carbon vapor was formed by the thermal decay of unstable carbon suboxide C3O2 behind shock waves in mixtures containing 10–30% C3O2 in Ar. In the mixture 10% C3O2+Ar the insufficient heat release resulted in a regime of overdriven detonation. In the mixture 20% C3O2+Ar measured values of the pressure and wave velocity coincident with calculated Chapman-Jouguet parameters were attained. In the richest mixture 30% C3O2+Ar an excess heat release caused the slowing down of the condensation rate and the regime of underdriven detonation was observed.

A. Emelianov; A. Eremin; V. Fortov; H. Jander; A. Makeich; H. Gg. Wagner

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

255

Type Ia Supernova: Burning and Detonation in the Distributed Regime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple, semi-analytic representation is developed for nuclear burning in Type Ia supernovae in the special case where turbulent eddies completely disrupt the flame. The speed and width of the ``distributed'' flame front are derived. For the conditions considered, the burning front can be considered as a turbulent flame brush composed of corrugated sheets of well-mixed flames. These flames are assumed to have a quasi-steady-state structure similar to the laminar flame structure, but controlled by turbulent diffusion. Detonations cannot appear in the system as long as distributed flames are still quasi-steady-state, but this condition is violated when the distributed flame width becomes comparable to the size of largest turbulent eddies. When this happens, a transition to detonation may occur. For current best estimates of the turbulent energy, the most likely density for the transition to detonation is in the range 0.5 - 1.5 x 10^7 g cm^{-3}.

S. E. Woosley

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

256

Spectra of visible emission from detonating PETN and PBX 9407  

SciTech Connect

Spectra of the visible emission from detonating PETN and PBX 9407 have been obtained and clearly show CN (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/)), CH(A/sup 2/..delta..), C/sub 2/ (d/sup 3//PI//sub g/) and NO/sub 2/(A/sup 2/B/sub 2/) as emitting species. Relative vibrational level populations in CN(B) and C/sub 2/(d) were measured from the intensity of their well-resolved vibronic bands in the PETN detonations. These results were used to calculate Boltzmann vibrational temperatures of 3300 +- 300 K and 4100 +- 800 K for CN(B) and C/sub 2/(d), respectively. These may be lower limits to the actual detonation temperature.

Renlund, A.M.; Trott, W.M.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Diamond Patterns in the Cellular Front of an Overdriven Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonlinear integral-differential equation describing the cellular front of an overdriven detonation is obtained by an analysis carried out in the neighborhood of the instability threshold. The analysis reveals both an unusual mean streaming motion, resulting from the rotational part of the oscillatory flow, and pressure bursts generated by the crossover of cusps representative of Mach stems propagating on the detonation front. A numerical study of the nonlinear equation exhibits the “diamond” patterns observed in experiments. An overall physical understanding is provided.

P. Clavin and B. Denet

2002-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

258

The Use of Steady and Pulsed Detonations for Propulsion Systems  

SciTech Connect

Objectives of the ODWE concept studies are: demonstrate the feasibility of the oblique detonation wave engine (ODWE) for hypersonic propulsion; demonstrate the existance and stability of an oblique detonation wave in hypersonic wind tunnels; develop engineering codes which predict the performance characteristics of the ODWE including specific impulse and thrust coefficients for various operating conditions; develop multi-dimensional computer codes which can model all aspects of the ODWE including fuel injection, mixing, ignition, combustion and expansion with fully detailed chemical kinetics and turbulence models; and validate the codes with experimental data use the simulations to predict the ODWE performance for conditions not easily obtained in wind tunnels.

Adelman, H.G.; Menees, G.P.; Cambier, J.L.; Bowles, J.V.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The Initiation and Propagation of Helium Detonations in White Dwarf Envelopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detonations in helium-rich envelopes surrounding white dwarfs have garnered attention as triggers of faint thermonuclear ".Ia" supernovae and double detonation Type Ia supernovae. However, recent studies have found that the minimum size of a hotspot that can lead to a helium detonation is comparable to, or even larger than, the white dwarf's pressure scale height, casting doubt on the successful ignition of helium detonations in these systems. In this paper, we examine the previously neglected effects of C/O pollution and a full nuclear reaction network, and we consider hotspots with spatially constant pressure in addition to constant density hotspots. We find that the inclusion of these effects significantly decreases the minimum hotspot size for helium-rich detonation ignition, making detonations far more plausible during turbulent shell convection or during double white dwarf mergers. The increase in burning rate also decreases the minimum shell mass in which a helium detonation can successfully propagate ...

Shen, Ken J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Gas-phase detonation propagation in mixture composition gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...unconfined gas detonations in hydrocarbon-air mixtures by a sympathetic...Meeting (International) of the Combustion Institute, Bordeaux, France...and A. Linan1995Effects of heat release on triple flamesPhys...model for partially premixed hydrocarbon combustionCombust. Flame...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

AIAA 95-2197 Experimental Investigation of Pulse Detonation Wave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conventional rocket motors.' This technology may also be used to clean slag offof coal furnaces which would Engines, any one of these applications would justify the development of this technology. As a result of the promising nature of this technology a detailed study of the properties of detonations needed to be conducted

Texas at Arlington, University of

262

Some observations on the initiation and onset of detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...wave reflections on the development of detonationPhys...K. 2010Modelling of gas explosionsPhD thesis...University of Science and Technology. 34 Markstein, G...fuels at representative gas turbine conditionsASME Gas Turbo Expo, New Orleans...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Review of Direct Numerical Simulations of Astrophysical Detonations and Their Implications  

SciTech Connect

Multi-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of astrophysical detonations in degenerate matter have revealed that the nuclear burning is typically characterized by cellular structure caused by transverse instabilities in the detonation front. Type Ia supernova modelers often use one- dimensional DNS of detonations as inputs or constraints for their whole star simulations. While these one-dimensional studies are useful tools, the true nature of the detonation is multi-dimensional. The multi-dimensional structure of the burning influences the speed, stability, and the composition of the detonation and its burning products, and therefore, could have an impact on the spectra of Type Ia supernovae. Considerable effort has been expended modeling Type Ia supernovae at densities above 1 107 g cm 3 where the complexities of turbulent burning dominate the flame propagation. However, most full star models turn the nuclear burning schemes off when the density falls below 1 107 g cm 3 and distributed burning begins. The deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) is believed to occur at just these densities and consequently they are the densities important for studying the properties of the subsequent detonation. This work will review the status of DNS studies of detonations and their possible implications for Type Ia supernova models. It will cover the development of Detonation theory from the first simple Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation models to the current models based on the time-dependent, compressible, reactive flow Euler equations of fluid dynamics.

Parete-Koon, Suzanne T [ORNL; Messer, Bronson [ORNL; Smith, Chris R [ORNL; Papatheodore, Thomas L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Occupational Health Nurse  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Occupational Health Nurse position is located in the Talent Sustainment group within the Human Capital Management (HCM) organization. The Talent Sustainment organization ensures that effective...

265

Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image Weak ignition behind a reflected Mach=1.5 shock in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 0.1 atm initial pressure. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Alexei Khokhlov, University of Chicago; Charles Bacon, Argonne National Laboratory, Joanna Austin, Andrew Knisely, University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: The University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 130 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Chemistry Hydrogen is an abundant, environmentally friendly fuel with the potential

266

CIRCUMSTELLAR ABSORPTION IN DOUBLE DETONATION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

Upon formation, degenerate He core white dwarfs are surrounded by a radiative H-rich layer primarily supported by ideal gas pressure. In this Letter, we examine the effect of this H-rich layer on mass transfer in He+C/O double white dwarf binaries that will eventually merge and possibly yield a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in the double detonation scenario. Because its thermal profile and equation of state differ from the underlying He core, the H-rich layer is transferred stably onto the C/O white dwarf prior to the He core's tidal disruption. We find that this material is ejected from the binary system and sweeps up the surrounding interstellar medium hundreds to thousands of years before the SN Ia. The close match between the resulting circumstellar medium profiles and values inferred from recent observations of circumstellar absorption in SNe Ia gives further credence to the resurgent double detonation scenario.

Shen, Ken J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Guillochon, James [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: kenshen@astro.berkeley.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

267

Study of a model equation in detonation theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we analyze properties of an equation that we previously proposed to model the dynamics of unstable detonation waves [A. R. Kasimov, L. M. Faria, and R. R. Rosales. Model for shock wave chaos. Physical Review Letters, 110(10):104104, 2013]. The equation is \\[ u_{t}+\\frac{1}{2}\\left(u^{2}-uu\\left(0_{-},t\\right)\\right)_{x}=f\\left(x,u\\left(0_{-},t\\right)\\right),\\quad x\\le0,\\quad t>0. \\] It describes a detonation shock at $x=0$ with the reaction zone in $x<0$. We investigate the nature of the steady-state solutions of this nonlocal hyperbolic balance law, the linear stability of these solutions, and the nonlinear dynamics. We establish the existence of instability followed by a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos.

Luiz M. Faria; Aslan R. Kasimov; Rodolfo R. Rosales

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

268

Detonation along laser generated micropinch for fast ignition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proposed fast ignition of highly compressed deuterium-tritium (DT) targets by petawatt lasers requires energy of about 100kJ. To lower the power of the laser, it is proposed to accomplish fast ignition with two lasers, one with lower power in the infrared, and a second one with high power in the visible to ultraviolet region. The infrared laser of lower power shall by its radiation pressure drive a large current in a less than solid density plasma placed inside a capillary, while the second high power-shorter wave length-laser shall ignite at one end of the capillary a magnetic field supported thermonuclear detonation wave in a blanket made from solid DT along the outer surface of the capillary. The other end of the capillary, together with its DT blanket, is stuck in the DT target, where following the compression of the target the detonation wave ignites the target.

Winterberg, F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator is disclosed which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

270

Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal environments. This report presents safety considerations for the design and implementation of UQSs in the context of the overall safety system.

Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Detonation Initiation from Spontaneous Hotspots Formed During Cook-Off Observed in Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detonation Initiation from Spontaneous Hotspots Formed During Cook-Off Observed in Molecular Dynamics Simulations ... New equations based on Johnson?Mehl?Avrami?Kolmogorov kinetics are proposed for describing the extent of detonated material that could provide new insight into mechanisms of critical hotspot nucleation. ... Depending on the chemical and thermal properties of the energetic material as well as the size and containment of the material during cook-off, a supersonic reaction front can form; that is, the material can detonate. ...

Yanhong Hu; Donald W. Brenner; Yunfeng Shi

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

273

Detonation Nanodiamond: An Organic Platform for the Suzuki Coupling of Organic Molecules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detonation Nanodiamond: An Organic Platform for the Suzuki Coupling of Organic Molecules ... Detonation nanodiamond possesses facile surface functional groups and can be chemically processed for many engineering applications. ... (2) Although the production methods of nanodiamond via detonation of TNT?hexogene mixtures have been discovered decades ago, the widespread application of nanodiamond was restricted at that time due to the difficulty in processing tightly aggregated nanodiamond. ...

Weng Siang Yeap; Shiming Chen; Kian Ping Loh

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

274

Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator ich provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal.

Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Operational Space and Characterization of a Rotating Detonation Engine Using Hydrogen and Air.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An experimental study was performed on a rotating detonation engine originally designed by Pratt and Whitney’s Seattle Aerosciences Center. The engine was tested with a… (more)

Suchocki, James Alexander

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Evaluation and selection of an efficient fuel/air initiation strategy for pulse detonation engines .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Rapid and efficient initiation of hydrocarbon/air mixtures has been identified as one of the critical and enabling technologies for Pulse Detonation Engines (PDEs). Although the… (more)

Channell, Brent T.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Material properties effects on the detonation spreading and propagation of diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF)  

SciTech Connect

Recent dynamic testing of Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) has focused on understanding the material properties affecting the detonation propagation, spreading, behavior and symmetry. Small scale gap testing and wedge testing focus on the sensitivity to shock with the gap test including the effects of particle size and density. Floret testing investigates the detonation spreading as it is affected by particle size, density, and binder content. The polyrho testing illustrates the effects of density and binder content on the detonation velocity. Finally the detonation spreading effect can be most dramatically seen in the Mushroom and Onionskin tests where the variations due to density gradients, pressing methods and geometry can be seen on the wave breakout behavior.

Francois, Elizabeth Green [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Novak, Alan M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kennedy, James E [HERE LLC

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

A mathematical model for three dimensional detonation as pure gas-dynamic discontinuity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model for three dimensional detonation is proposed based on the approximation that the detonation thickness is small compared to the characteristic scales of the fluid motion. In this framework detonations are treated as a modified hydrodynamic discontinuity. The altered Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions take into account the internal structure of the detonation including the chemical reaction. The position of the discontinuity surface and the corresponding jump conditions are derived from first principles. The final modified conditions are dependent on curvature, flame thickness and stretching and allow for simple physical interpretation.

Jorge Yanez Escanciano; Andreas G. Class

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

279

Parallel Adaptive Simulation of Detonation Waves Using a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this thesis was to develop a code that could be used to develop a better understanding of the physics of detonation waves.… (more)

McMahon, Sean Logan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Performance characterization of swept ramp obstacle fields in pulse detonation applications .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pulse Detonation technology offers the potential for substantial increases in thrust and fuel efficiency in subsonic and supersonic flight Mach ranges through the use of… (more)

Dvorak, William T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Thrust measurement of a split-path, valveless pulse detonation engine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Theory predicts ideal pulse detonation technology offers significant fuel efficiency advantages over ramjet/scramjet architecture within a range from high subsonic to low hypersonic velocities. In… (more)

Bartosh, Brady J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Mathematical modeling of heterogeneous detonation in gas suspensions of aluminum and coal-dust particles  

SciTech Connect

Results of investigations performed by the authors in the field of theoretical and numerical modeling of heterogeneous detonation of reacting gas suspensions since 2005 are systematized.

Fedorov, A.V.; Fomin, V.M.; Khmel, T.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Numerical Simulation of Detonation Initiation by the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation is focused on the numerical simulation of the detonation initiation process. The space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method, a novel numerical… (more)

Wang, Bao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Direct numerical investigation of detonation waves using a Monte Carlo method.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A detonation wave describes a shock that propagates at supersonic velocity through a chemically unstable gas medium and is driven by the energy released by… (more)

O'Connor, Patrick

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air  

SciTech Connect

Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

Li, J.; Lai, W.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tainan (China); Chung, K. [National Cheng Kung University, Aerospace Science and Technology Research Center, Tainan (China); Lu, F.K. [University of Texas at Arlington, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Aerodynamics Research Center, TX 76019 (United States)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Detonation and deflagration characteristics of p-Xylene/gaseous hydrocarbon fuels/air mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract p-Xylene is an important intermediate for the production of polyethylene terephthalate, it has growing chemical industrial demand based on the statistics in the last few decades. In the process of producing p-Xylene, gaseous hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., H2, C1–C3) are usually involved, which renders p-Xylene highly possible mix with those gaseous hydrocarbon fuels as leaking occurs, this presents fire or explosion/detonation hazard at some specific conditions. To date, very limited data regarding its detonation and deflagration characteristics are available in previous literatures. In this study, experiments of measuring the overpressure and velocity of p-Xylene/gaseous hydrocarbon fuels (i.e., H2, C2H4, C3H8, CO)/air mixtures are carried out in a vertical detonation tube with an inner diameter of 200 mm and a length of 6.5 m to explore the detonation and deflagration characteristics of p-Xylene. The experimental results indicate that under the same initiation energy of 0.189 MJ m?2, pure p-Xylene/air and p-Xylene/CO/air cannot achieve detonation, only deflagrations are observed. However, under this same initiation energy, detonations occur in p-Xylene/H2/air, p-Xylene/C2H4/air and p-Xylene/C3H8/air mixtures. By comparing the combinatorial compositions of p-Xylene along with gaseous hydrocarbon fuels that within which detonation observed, the detonation sensitive of the mixtures in increasing order are obtained as following: p-Xylene/H2/air, p-Xylene/C3H8/air and p-Xylene/C2H4/air. The results also indicate the relative ease that p-Xylene/gaseous hydrocarbon fuel/air can be detonated mainly depends on the detonation sensitive of the gaseous fuel, which is supported by the critical energy of direct detonation initiation and chemical kinetic analysis.

Bo Zhang; Guangli Xiu; Jian Chen; Shaopeng Yang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

288

Simulations of detonation wave propagation in rectangular ducts using a three-dimensional WENO scheme  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports high resolution simulations using a fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme with a third-order TVD Runge-Kutta time stepping method to examine the features of detonation front and physics in square ducts. The simulations suggest that two and three-dimensional detonation wave front formations are greatly enhanced by the presence of transverse waves. The motion of transverse waves generates triple points (zones of high pressure and large velocity coupled together), which cause the detonation front to become locally overdriven and thus form ''hot spots.'' The transversal motion of these hot spots maintains the detonation to continuously occur along the whole front in two and three dimensions. The present simulations indicate that the influence of the transverse waves on detonation is more profound in three dimensions and the pattern of quasi-steady detonation fronts also depends on the duct size. For a ''narrow'' duct (4L x 4L where L is the half-reaction length), the detonation front displays a distinctive ''spinning'' motion about the axial direction with a well-defined period. For a wider duct (20L x 20L), the detonation front exhibits a ''rectangular mode'' periodically, with the front displaying ''convex'' and ''concave'' shapes one following the other and the transverse waves on the four walls being partly out-of-phase with each other. (author)

Dou, Hua-Shu; Tsai, Her Mann [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Khoo, Boo Cheong; Qiu, Jianxian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Computational Analysis of Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) Detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of multiple detonation waves issuing from different ?stages? along a simple ducted engine, and aims to eliminate the need for compressors at low speeds. Currently, the Zel?dovichvon Neumann-Doering (ZND) steady, one-dimensional detonation is the simplest...

Nakamura, Tetsu

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

290

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Analysis of an Ejector-Augmented Pulse Detonation Rocket  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a preliminary design tool for investigating alternative design concepts and performing rapid performance data and from CFD simulations are provided, several applications are presented to illustrate the design is filled with a fuel/oxidizer mixture (2). A valve seals the detonation chamber and the detonation

Texas at Arlington, University of

291

Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques.

O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA); Druce, Robert L. (Union City, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Title: A Virtual Test Facility for Simulating Detonation-and Shock-induced Deformation and Fracture of Thin Flexible Shells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: A Virtual Test Facility for Simulating Detonation- and Shock-induced Deformation-mail: deiterdingr@ornl.gov Running head: A Virtual Test Facility Key words: Fluid-structure interaction, detonation hammer Abstract: The coupling of a dynamically adaptive Eulerian Cartesian detonation solver

Deiterding, Ralf

293

arXiv:1011.0897v1[math.NA]3Nov2010 EFFICIENT NUMERICAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF DETONATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

arXiv:1011.0897v1[math.NA]3Nov2010 EFFICIENT NUMERICAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF DETONATION WAVES­Stewart and Short­Stewart, the numerical evaluation of linear stability of planar detonation waves problem. Planar detonation waves can often change stability as physical parameters are varied, undergoing

Humpherys, Jeffrey

294

Dynamic Transition in the Structure of an Energetic Crystal during Chemical Reactions at Shock Front Prior to Detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Front Prior to Detonation Ken-ichi Nomura, Rajiv K. Kalia, Aiichiro Nakano, and Priya Vashishta at shock fronts prior to detonation. Shock sensitivity measurements provide widely varying results that detonation is preceded by a transition from a diffuse shock front with well-ordered molecular dipoles behind

Southern California, University of

295

A Study of Detonation Diffraction in the Ignition-and-Growth A. K. Kapila and D. W. Schwendeman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Study of Detonation Diffraction in the Ignition-and-Growth Model A. K. Kapila and D. W to a sufficiently strong stimulus, such as impact by a high-velocity projectile, a detonation is initiated. Our and temperature encountered in a detonation is incomplete, and the same is true of the complex set of reactions

Kapila, Ashwani K.

296

Development of a shock-induced detonation driver F.K. Lu and D.R. Wilson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of a shock-induced detonation driver F.K. Lu and D.R. Wilson Aerodynamics Research's performance can be improved by using a detonation driver that produces a driver gas with a high pressure, are that the gaseous detonation products have high molecular weight compared to helium and the potential danger

Texas at Arlington, University of

297

Two-phase modeling of deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular materials: A critical examination of modeling issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-phase modeling of deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular materials: A critical the deflagration-to-detonation transition DDT in granular explosives is critically reviewed. The continuum, analysis and numerical simulation of deflagration- to-detonation transition DDT in porous energetic

Kapila, Ashwani K.

298

INVESTIGATION OF LASER SUPPORTED DETONATION WAVES AND THERMAL COUPLING USING 2.8um HF LASER IRRADIATED METAL TARGETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INVESTIGATION OF LASER SUPPORTED DETONATION WAVES AND THERMAL COUPLING USING 2.8um HF LASER of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, England. Abstract.- The formation and propagation of laser supported detonation was obtained in a of laser supported detonation waves and thermal o. 300 nsec. pulse (FHHM). The laser output

Boyer, Edmond

299

Two-Phase Steady Detonation Analysis J.M. Powers, D.S. Stewart, and H. Krier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-Phase Steady Detonation Analysis J.M. Powers, D.S. Stewart, and H. Krier Reprinted from-Phase Steady Detonation Analysis J.M. Powers,· D. S. Stewart,t and H. Krier:j: _ University of Illinois equations are studied to test the hypothesis that observed deviations from Chapman- Jouguet (C-J) detonation

300

Cold Flow Simulations for a Pulse Detonation Rocket Ejector J. Tyler Nichols, Donald R. Wilson, Frank K. Lu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cold Flow Simulations for a Pulse Detonation Rocket Ejector J. Tyler Nichols, Donald R. Wilson pulse detonation rocket (PDR) ejecting into a duct was fabricated and integrated into the supersonic detonation engines (PDE) have been researched extensively as an alternate form for high-speed propulsion

Texas at Arlington, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A study on the contribution of slow reaction in detonation  

SciTech Connect

Interface velocimetry and plate push experiments of the TATB-based explosives investigated so far show the presence of nonsteady detonation; namely, the initial velocity history increases with increasing explosive charge length, a condition generally attributed to the variation of effective CJ pressure. A multistage reaction model is used to simulate these experiments. For these explosives, we find that the reaction must include a slow process stage so that the numerical results can be brought into good agreement with experimental observation. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Tang, P.K.; Seitz, W.L.; Stacy, H.L.; Wackerle, J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Double-detonation supernovae of sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the "double-detonation sub-Chandrasekhar" model for type Ia supernovae, a carbon-oxygen (C + O) white dwarf accumulates sufficient amounts of helium such that a detonation ignites in that layer before the Chandrasekhar mass is reached. This detonation is thought to trigger a secondary detonation in the C + O core. By means of one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the robustness of this explosion mechanism for generic 1-M_sun models and analyze its observable predictions. Also a resolution dependence in numerical simulations is analyzed. The propagation of thermonuclear detonation fronts, both in helium and in the carbon-oxygen mixture, is computed by means of both a level-set function and a simplified description for nuclear reactions. The decision whether a secondary detonation is triggered in the white dwarf's core or not is made based on criteria given in the literature. In a parameter study involving different initial flame geometries for He-shell masses of 0.2 and 0.1 M_sun, we find that a secondary detonation ignition is a very robust process. Converging shock waves originating from the detonation in the He shell generate the conditions for a detonation near the center of the white dwarf in most of the cases considered. Finally, we follow the complete evolution of three selected models with 0.2 M_sun of He through the C/O-detonation phase and obtain nickel-masses of about 0.40 to 0.45 M_sun. Although we have not done a complete scan of the possible parameter space, our results show that sub-Chandrasekhar models are not good candidates for normal or sub-luminous type Ia supernovae. The chemical composition of the ejecta features significant amounts of nickel in the outer layers at high expansion velocities, which is inconsistent with near-maximum spectra. (abbreviated)

M. Fink; W. Hillebrandt; F. K. Roepke

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

303

An Equilibrium-Based Model of Gas Reaction and Detonation  

SciTech Connect

During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F2 and ClF3. Replacement of CFC-114 with a non-ozone-depleting substitute is planned. Consequently, in the future, the substitute coolant must also be considered as a potential fuel in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should it ignite? Experimental data on these systems, particularly for the newer coolant candidates, are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a mathematical model was developed to serve as a tool for predicting the potential detonation pressures and for estimating the composition limits of flammability for these systems based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems. The present model uses the thermodynamic equilibrium to determine the reaction endpoint of a reactive gas mixture and uses detonation theory to estimate an upper bound to the pressure that could be generated upon ignition. The model described and documented in this report is an extended version of related models developed in 1992 and 1999.

Trowbridge, L.D.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Reply to Comment on "Analytical Model for the Impulse of Single-Cycle Pulse Detonation Tube" by M. I. Radulescu and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reply to Comment on "Analytical Model for the Impulse of Single- Cycle Pulse Detonation Tube" by M to model the isentrope in the detonation products in our original study1 in order to simplify) Is the polytropic approximation reliable for equilibrium detonation products? 2) To what extent are the detonation

Shepherd, Joe

305

Development of the triage, monitoring and treatment Handbook for Members of the Public Affected by Radiological Terrorism - A European Response  

SciTech Connect

European national emergency response plans have long been focused on accidents at nuclear power plants. Recently, the possible threats by disaffected groups have shifted the focus to being prepared also for malevolent use of radiation that are aimed at creating disruption and panic in the society. The casualties will most likely be members of the public. According to the scenario, the number of affected people can vary from a few to mass casualties. The radiation exposure can range from very low to substantial, possibly combined with conventional injuries. There is a need to develop practicable tools for the adequate response to such acts and more specifically to address European guidelines for triage, monitoring and treatment of exposed people. Although European countries have developed emergency response plans for nuclear accidents they have not all made plans for handling malevolent use of radioactive material. Indeed, there is a need to develop practical guidance on emergency response and medical treatment of the public affected by malevolent acts. Generic guidance on this topic has been published by international organisations. They are, however, not operational documents to be used in emergency situations. The Triage, Monitoring and Treatment (TMT) Handbook aims to strengthen the European ability to efficiently respond to malevolent acts in terms of protecting and treating exposed people. Part of the Handbook is also devoted to public information and communication issues which would contribute to public reassurance in emergency situations. The Handbook will be drafted by European and international experts before it is circulated to all emergency response institutions in Europe that would be a part of the handling of malevolent acts using radioactive material. The institutions would be given a 6 months consultation time with encouragement to test the draft Handbook in national exercises. A workshop will allow feedback from these end users on the content, structure and usefulness of the Handbook before a final version is produced. In order to achieve the project's objectives a consortium has been drawn together including, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland, the UK Health Protection Agency, the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection of Poland and the World Health Organisation. Enviros Consulting is acting as the technical secretariat for the project. The Handbook will aim to harmonise the approaches to handling malevolent acts across Europe. This harmonisation will have an added value on the public confidence in authorities since differing approaches in neighbouring countries could lead to public confusion and mistrust. (authors)

Kruse, P. [Enviros Consulting Limited, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX (United Kingdom); Rojas-Palma, C. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Radiation Protection Div., Mol (Belgium)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Simulation of detonation of ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture confined by aluminum: edge angles for DSD  

SciTech Connect

Non-ideal high explosives are typically porous, low-density materials with a low detonation velocity (3--5 km/s) and long detonation reaction zone ({approx} cms). As a result, the interaction of a non-ideal high explosive with an inert confiner can be markedly different than for a conventional high explosive. Issues arise, for example, with light stiff confiners where the confiner can drive the high explosive (HE) through a Prandtl-Meyer fan at the HE/confiner interface rather than the HE driving the confiner. For a non-ideal high explosive confined by a high sound speed inert such that the detonation velocity is lower than the inert sound speed, the flow is subsonic and thus shockless in the confiner. In such cases, the standard detonation shock dynamics methodology, which requires a positive edge-angle be specified at the HE/confiner interface in order that the detonation shape be divergent, cannot be directly utilized. In order to study how detonation shock dynamics can be utilized in such cases, numerical simulations of the detonation of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum 6061 are conducted.

Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quirk, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Briggs, Matthew E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shinas, Micheal A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

ASYMMETRY AND THE NUCLEOSYNTHETIC SIGNATURE OF NEARLY EDGE-LIT DETONATION IN WHITE DWARF CORES  

SciTech Connect

Most of the leading explosion scenarios for Type Ia supernovae involve the nuclear incineration of a white dwarf star through a detonation wave. Several scenarios have been proposed as to how this detonation may actually occur, but the exact mechanism and environment in which it takes place remain unknown. We explore the effects of an off-center initiated detonation on the spatial distribution of the nucleosynthetic yield products in a toy model-a pre-expanded near Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. We find that a single-point near edge-lit detonation results in asymmetries in the density and thermal profiles, notably the expansion timescale, throughout the supernova ejecta. We demonstrate that this asymmetry of the thermodynamic trajectories should be common to off-center detonations where a small amount of the star is burned prior to detonation. The sensitivity of the yields on the expansion timescale results in an asymmetric distribution of the elements synthesized as reaction products. We tabulate the shift in the center of mass of the various elements produced in our model supernova and find an odd-even pattern for elements past silicon. Our calculations show that off-center single-point detonations in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs are marked by significant composition asymmetries in their remnants which bear potentially observable signatures in both velocity and coordinate space, including an elemental nickel mass fraction that varies by a factor of 2-3 from one side of the remnant to the other.

Chamulak, David A.; Truran, James W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Meakin, Casey A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Seitenzahl, Ivo R., E-mail: dchamulak@anl.gov [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching (Germany)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A Three-Dimensional Picture of the Delayed-Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deflagration models poorly explain the observed diversity of SNIa. Current multidimensional simulations of SNIa predict a significant amount of, so far unobserved, carbon and oxygen moving at low velocities. It has been proposed that these drawbacks can be resolved if there is a sudden jump to a detonation (delayed detonation), but this kind of models has been explored mainly in one dimension. Here we present new three-dimensional delayed detonation models in which the deflagraton-to-detonation transition (DDT) takes place in conditions like those favored by one-dimensional models. We have used a SPH code adapted to SNIa with algorithms devised to handle subsonic as well as supersonic combustion fronts. The starting point was a C-O white dwarf of 1.38 solar masses. When the average density on the flame surface reached 2-3x10^7 g/cm^3 a detonation was launched. The detonation wave processed more than 0.3 solar masses of carbon and oxygen, emptying the central regions of the ejecta of unburned fuel and raising its kinetic energy close to the fiducial 10^51 ergs expected from a healthy Type Ia supernova. The final amount of 56Ni synthesized also was in the correct range. However, the mass of carbon and oxygen ejected is still too high. The three-dimensional delayed detonation models explored here show an improvement over pure deflagration models, but they still fail to coincide with basic observational constraints. However, there are many aspects of the model that are still poorly known (geometry of flame ignition, mechanism of DDT, properties of detonation waves traversing a mixture of fuel and ashes). Therefore, it will be worth pursuing its exploration to see if a good SNIa model based on the three-dimensional delayed detonation scenario can be obtained.

Eduardo Bravo; Domingo Garcia-Senz

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

309

Deflagration-to-detonation transition in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of highly resolved one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations, we provide an understanding of the burn process in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets. The cornerstone of the phenomenology of propagating burn in such laser-driven capsules is shown to be the transition from a slow unsteady reaction-diffusion regime of thermonuclear combustion (some sort of deflagration) to a fast detonative one. Remarkably, detonation initiation follows the slowing down of a shockless supersonic reaction wave driven by energy redeposition from the fusion products themselves. Such a route to detonation is specific to fusion plasmas.

P. Gauthier; F. Chaland; L. Masse

2004-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

310

Nonlinear dynamics of self-sustained supersonic reaction waves: Fickett's detonation analogue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present study investigates the spatio-temporal variability in the dynamics of self-sustained supersonic reaction waves propagating through an excitable medium. The model is an extension of Fickett's detonation model with a state dependent energy addition term. Stable and pulsating supersonic waves are predicted. With increasing sensitivity of the reaction rate, the reaction wave transits from steady propagation to stable limit cycles and eventually to chaos through the classical Feigenbaum route. The physical pulsation mechanism is explained by the coherence between internal wave motion and energy release. The results obtained clarify the physical origin of detonation wave instability in chemical detonations previously observed experimentally.

Matei I. Radulescu; Justin Tang

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

311

Detonation Nanodiamonds for Rapid Detection of Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Broth Culture Media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detonation Nanodiamonds for Rapid Detection of Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Broth Culture Media ... To tackle this problem, we develop a method to streamline identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in broth culture media by using detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) as a platform to effectively capture the antigen secreted by MTBC which is cultured in BACTEC MGIT 960, followed by the analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). ... Here we present detonation nanodiamond matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DND MALDI-TOF MS) to rapidly and correctly identify MTBC. ...

Po-Chi Soo; Ching-Jen Kung; Yu-Tze Horng; Kai-Chih Chang; Jen-Jyh Lee; Wen-Ping Peng

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

312

NURSING HOMES BRACE FOR CUTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NURSING HOMES BRACE FOR CUTS FLORIDA: Federal and state losses likely to eat into jobs, amenities in Medicare payments to U.S. nursing homes takes effect this month, which, combined with a 6.5 percent and economically in nursing homes. This, critics say, amounts to both shortsighted fiscal planning and bad medicine

Belogay, Eugene A.

313

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Detonating Failed Deflagration Model of Thermonuclear Supernovae I. Explosion Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detonating failed deflagration model of Type Ia supernovae. In this model, the thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf follows an off-center deflagration. We conduct a survey of asymmetric ignition configurations initiated at various distances from the stellar center. In all cases studied, we find that only a small amount of stellar fuel is consumed during deflagration phase, no explosion is obtained, and the released energy is mostly wasted on expanding the progenitor. Products of the failed deflagration quickly reach the stellar surface, polluting and strongly disturbing it. These disturbances eventually evolve into small and isolated shock-dominated regions which are rich in fuel. We consider these regions as seeds capable of forming self-sustained detonations that, ultimately, result in the thermonuclear supernova explosion. Preliminary nucleosynthesis results indicate the model supernova ejecta are typically composed of about 0.1-0.25 Msun of silicon group elements, 0.9-1.2 Msun of iron group elements, and are essentially carbon-free. The ejecta have a composite morphology, are chemically stratified, and display a modest amount of intrinsic asymmetry. The innermost layers are slightly egg-shaped with the axis ratio ~1.2-1.3 and dominated by the products of silicon burning. This central region is surrounded by a shell of silicon-group elements. The outermost layers of ejecta are highly inhomogeneous and contain products of incomplete oxygen burning with only small admixture of unburned stellar material. The explosion energies are ~1.3-1.5 10^51 erg.

Tomasz Plewa

2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

First-Principles Simulations of High-Speed Combustion and Detonation |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Weak ignition behind a reflected Mach=1.5 shock in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 0.1 atm initial pressure. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Alexei Khokhlov, University of Chicago, Charles Bacon, Argonne National Laboratory, Joanna Austin and Andrew Knisely, University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign. First-Principles Simulations of High-Speed Combustion and Detonation PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 150 Million Year: 2014

317

Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator which provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal. 8 figs.

Osher, J.E.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

318

OGLE-2013-SN-079: a lonely supernova consistent with a helium shell detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present observational data for a peculiar supernova discovered by the OGLE-IV survey and followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects. The inferred redshift of z=0.07 implies an absolute magnitude in the rest-frame I-band of M$_{I}\\sim-17.6$ mag. This places it in the luminosity range between normal Type Ia SNe and novae. Optical and near infrared spectroscopy reveal mostly Ti and Ca lines, and an unusually red color arising from strong depression of flux at rest wavelengths detonation of a helium shell around a low-mass CO white dwarf and "double-detonation" models that include a secondary detonation of a CO core following a primary detonation in an overlying helium shell.

Inserra, C; Wyrzykowski, L; Smartt, S J; Fraser, M; Nicholl, M; Shen, K J; Jerkstrand, A; Gal-Yam, A; Howell, D A; Maguire, K; Mazzali, P; Valenti, S; Taubenberger, S; Benitez-Herrera, S; Bersier, D; Blagorodnova, N; Campbell, H; Chen, T -W; Elias-Rosa, N; Hillebrandt, W; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Kozlowski, S; Kromer, M; Lyman, J D; Polshaw, J; Ropke, F K; Ruiter, A J; Smith, K; Spiro, S; Sullivan, M; Yaron, O; Young, D; Yuan, F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Ultrafast Spin Avalanches in Crystals of Nanomagnets in Terms of Magnetic Detonation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent experiments [W. Decelle et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 027203 (2009)] have discovered ultrafast propagation of spin avalanches in crystals of nanomagnets, which is 3 orders of magnitude faster than the traditionally studied magnetic deflagration. The new regime has been hypothetically identified as magnetic detonation. Here we demonstrate unequivocally the possibility of magnetic detonation in the crystals, as a front consisting of a leading shock and a zone of Zeeman energy release. We study the key features of the process and find that the magnetic detonation speed only slightly exceeds the sound speed in agreement with the experimental observations. For combustion science, our results provide a unique physical example of extremely weak detonation.

M. Modestov; V. Bychkov; M. Marklund

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

320

Shock-Fitted Numerical Solutions of One- and Two-Dimensional Detonation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??One- and two- dimensional detonation problems are solved using a conservative shock-fitting numerical method which is formally fifth order accurate. The shock-fitting technique for a… (more)

Henrick, Andrew Koldewey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

The chemical-gas dynamic mechanisms of pulsating detonation wave instability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...detonation profiles showing: (a) fuel, f (solid lines) and radical, y (dashed...low-Mach-number fast flame is again recovered before the cycle repeats. Figures...fast-flame reaction zone structure is recovered and the cycle repeats. Phil...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Estimating the exposure to first receivers from a contaminated victim of a radiological dispersal device detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The threat of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) detonation arouses the concern of contaminated victims of all ages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose to a uniformly contaminated five-year old male. It also explores...

Phillips, Holly Anne

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Passage of a Bubble?Detonation Wave into a Chemically Inactive Bubble Medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Passage of detonation waves from a chemically active bubble medium into a chemically inactive bubble medium is studied experimentally. The structure of ... pressures of these waves for different parameters of bubble

A. I. Sychev

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The effect of freestream variations on the propagation of detonation and combustion waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF FREESTREAM VARIATIONS ON THE PROPAGATION OF DETONATION AND COMBUSTION WAVES A Thesis by MARLON LEE CLARK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering THE EFFECT OF FREESTREAM VARIATIONS ON THE PROPAGATION OF DETONATION AND COMBUSTION WAVES A Thesis by MARLON LEE CLARK Approved as to style and content by: eland A. Garison...

Clark, Marlon Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

325

THE EFFECTS OF CURVATURE AND EXPANSION ON HELIUM DETONATIONS ON WHITE DWARF SURFACES  

SciTech Connect

Accreted helium layers on white dwarfs have been highlighted for many decades as a possible site for a detonation triggered by a thermonuclear runaway. In this paper, we find the minimum helium layer thickness that will sustain a steady laterally propagating detonation and show that it depends on the density and composition of the helium layer, specifically {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. Detonations in these thin helium layers have speeds slower than the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) speed from complete helium burning, v{sub CJ} = 1.5 × 10{sup 9} cm s{sup –1}. Though gravitationally unbound, the ashes still have unburned helium (?80% in the thinnest cases) and only reach up to heavy elements such as {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 48}Cr, and {sup 52}Fe. It is rare for these thin shells to generate large amounts of {sup 56}Ni. We also find a new set of solutions that can propagate in even thinner helium layers when {sup 16}O is present at a minimum mass fraction of ?0.07. Driven by energy release from ? captures on {sup 16}O and subsequent elements, these slow detonations only create ashes up to {sup 28}Si in the outer detonated He shell. We close by discussing how the unbound helium burning ashes may create faint and fast 'Ia' supernovae as well as events with virtually no radioactivity, and speculate on how the slower helium detonation velocities impact the off-center ignition of a carbon detonation that could cause a Type Ia supernova in the double detonation scenario.

Moore, Kevin; Bildsten, Lars [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Townsley, Dean M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

326

Spontaneous initiation of detonations in while dwarf environments: Determination of critical sizes.  

SciTech Connect

Some explosion models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), such as the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) or the double detonation sub-Chandrasekhar (DDSC) models, rely on the spontaneous initiation of a detonation in the degenerate {sup 12}C/{sup 16}O material of a white dwarf (WD). The length scales pertinent to the initiation of the detonation are notoriously unresolved in multidimensional stellar simulations, prompting the use of results of one-dimensional simulations at higher resolution, such as those performed for this work, as guidelines for deciding whether or not conditions reached in the higher dimensional full star simulations successfully would lead to the onset of a detonation. Spontaneous initiation relies on the existence of a suitable gradient in self-ignition (induction) times of the fuel, which we set up with a spatially localized nonuniformity of temperature - a hot spot. We determine the critical (smallest) sizes of such hot spots that still marginally result in a detonation in WD matter by integrating the reactive Euler equations with the hydrodynamics code FLASH. We quantify the dependences of the critical sizes of such hot spots on composition, background temperature, peak temperature, geometry, and functional form of the temperature disturbance, many of which were hitherto largely unexplored in the literature. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of modeling of SNe Ia.

Seitenzahl, I. R.; Meakin, C. A.; Townsley, D. M.; Lamb, D. Q.; Truran, J. W. (Physics); (Univ. of Chicago); (Max-Planck Inst. for Astrophysics); (Univ. of Arizona)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Time-resolved spectroscopic studies of detonating heterogeneous explosives. [HMX and HNS  

SciTech Connect

Emission spectroscopy and pulsed-laser-excited Raman scattering methods have been applied to the study of detonating heterogeneous explosives, including PETN, HMX and HNS. Time-resolved spectra of emission from detonating HNS show the evolution of features due to electronically-excited radical species. For HNS, the CN(B-X) system near 388 nm has been studied at a wavelength resolution of 0.5 A. Boltzmann vibrational temperatures have been calculated by comparing the experimental data with computer-simulated spectra. These temperatures are consistent with the expected trend of detonation temperature as a function of charge density. Using 532-nm laser excitation, single-pulse Raman scattering measurements have been made at the free surface of detonating HMX and PETN samples. Monotonic attenuation of Raman scattering intensity over a 100-ns interval is observed after detonation front arrival at the free surface. Depletion of the Raman signal occurs prior to significant loss of the scattered laser light. The significance of the Raman measurements as a possible probe of reaction zone length in detonating explosives is discussed. 21 refs., 11 figs.

Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Infections and antibiotic resistance in nursing homes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Infections and antibiotic resistance in nursing homes LE Nicolle LJ Strausbaugh RA Garibaldi...Infections occur frequently in nursing home residents. The most common infections...infection. Antimicrobial agent use in nursing homes is intense and usually empiric. All of...

L E Nicolle; L J Strausbaugh; R A Garibaldi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL DELAYED DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS  

SciTech Connect

For the explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), different scenarios have been suggested. In these, the propagation of the burning front through the exploding white dwarf (WD) star proceeds in different modes, and consequently imprints of the explosion model on the nucleosynthetic yields can be expected. The nucleosynthetic characteristics of various explosion mechanisms are explored based on three two-dimensional explosion simulations representing extreme cases: a pure turbulent deflagration, a delayed detonation following an approximately spherical ignition of the initial deflagration, and a delayed detonation arising from a highly asymmetric deflagration ignition. Apart from this initial condition, the deflagration stage is treated in a parameter-free approach. The detonation is initiated when the turbulent burning enters the distributed burning regime. This occurs at densities around 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}-relatively low as compared to existing nucleosynthesis studies for one-dimensional spherically symmetric models. The burning in these multidimensional models is different from that in one-dimensional simulations as the detonation wave propagates both into unburned material in the high-density region near the center of a WD and into the low-density region near the surface. Thus, the resulting yield is a mixture of different explosive burning products, from carbon-burning products at low densities to complete silicon-burning products at the highest densities, as well as electron-capture products synthesized at the deflagration stage. Detailed calculations of the nucleosynthesis in all three models are presented. In contrast to the deflagration model, the delayed detonations produce a characteristic layered structure and the yields largely satisfy constraints from Galactic chemical evolution. In the asymmetric delayed detonation model, the region filled with electron capture species (e.g., {sup 58}Ni, {sup 54}Fe) is within a shell, showing a large off-set, above the bulk of {sup 56}Ni distribution, while species produced by the detonation are distributed more spherically.

Maeda, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Roepke, F.K.; Fink, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Travaglio, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Thielemann, F.-K., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@ipmu.j [Department Physik, Universitaet Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

330

Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack. 8 figs.

Weiss, J.D.

1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

Double-detonation explosions as progenitors of type Iax supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has recently been proposed that one sub-class of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is sufficiently both distinct and common to be classified separately from the bulk of SNe Ia, with a suggested class name of "type Iax supernovae" (SNe Iax), after SN 2002cx. We show that the population properties of this class can be understood if the events originate from helium double-detonation sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions, in which a carbon--oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) accumulates a helium layer from a non-degenerate helium star. We have incorporated detailed binary evolution calculations for the progenitor systems into a binary population synthesis model to obtain birthrates and delay times for such events. The predicted Galactic event rate is $\\sim$$0.6-1.8\\times 10^{-3}\\,{\\rm yr}^{-1}$, in good agreement with the measured rates of SNe Iax. In addition, predicted delay times are $\\sim$70\\,Myr$-$710\\,Myr, consistent with the fact that SNe Iax have so far only been discovered in late-type galaxies. Based on the CO WD mass...

Wang, Bo; Han, Zhanwen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Dispersion model development for open burn/open detonation sources  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of obsolete munitions, propellants, and manufacturing wastes is conducted at Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The most common disposal method is open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) of the material, which occurs in an earthen pit or bermed area. OB/OD operations generate air pollutants and require predictions of pollutant concentrations. The pollutants include SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates, volatile organic compounds and toxic materials such as metals, semivolatile organics, etc. Dispersion models are used to estimate pollutant concentrations given the source and meteorological conditions. However, there is currently no recommended EPA dispersion model to address OB/OD sources. Due to the constraints of existing models, a model development program was initiated under the DOD/DOE Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. In Section 2, the authors give an overview of the model design which is divided into simple and research components. Sections 3 and 4 describe the simple component which includes Gaussian puff and analytic plume models.

Weil, J.C.; Templeman, B. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Banta, R.; Weber, R. [NOAA-ETL, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Research Labs.; Mitchell, W. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

Flame-driven deflagration-to-detonation transitions in Type Ia supernovae?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although delayed detonation models of thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs seem promising for reproducing Type Ia supernovae, the transition of the flame propagation mode from subsonic deflagration to supersonic detonation remains hypothetical. A potential instant for this transition to occur is the onset of the distributed burning regime, i.e. the moment when turbulence first affects the internal flame structure. Some studies of the burning microphysics indicate that a deflagration-to-detonation transition may be possible here, provided the turbulent intensities are strong enough. Consequently, the magnitude of turbulent velocity fluctuations generated by the deflagration flame is analyzed at the onset of the distributed burning regime in several three-dimensional simulations of deflagrations in thermonuclear supernovae. It is shown that the corresponding probability density functions fall off towards high turbulent velocity fluctuations much more slowly than a Gaussian distribution. Thus, values claimed to be necessary for triggering a detonation are likely to be found in sufficiently large patches of the flame. Although the microphysical evolution of the burning is not followed and a successful deflagration-to-detonation transition cannot be guaranteed from simulations presented here, the results still indicate that such events may be possible in Type Ia supernova explosions.

F. K. Roepke

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

335

Slang characterization and removal using pulse detonation technology during coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Boiler slagging and fouling as a result of inorganic impurities in combustion gases being deposited on heat transfer tubes have caused severe problems in coal-fired power plant operation. These problems are fuel, system design, and operating condition dependent. Pulse detonation technology for the purpose of removing slag and fouling deposits in coal-fired utility power plant boilers offers great potential. The detonation wave technique based on high impact velocity with sufficient energy and thermal shock on the slag deposited on gas contact surfaces offers a convenient, inexpensive, yet efficient and effective way to supplement existing slag removal methods. These detonation waves have been demonstrated experimentally to have exceptionally high shearing capability important to the task of removing slag and fouling deposits. The experimental results show that the single shot detonation wave is capable of removing the entire slag (types of slag deposited on economizer) even at a distance of 8 in. from the exit of a detonation engine tube. Wave strength and slag orientation also have different effects on the chipping off of the slag. This paper discusses about the results obtained in effectively removing the economizer slag.

Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Biney, P.O.; Zhou, J.

1997-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

336

Experimental observations of detonation in ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) surrounded by a high-sound speed, shockless, aluminum confiner  

SciTech Connect

Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could desensitize the explosive by crushing porosity required for shock initiation or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. As these phenomena are not well understood, most numerical explosive models are unable to account for them. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understanding and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by an aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation front curvature, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Front curvature profiles display detonation acceleration near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness due to the additional inertial confinement of the reaction zone flow. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected which interfered with the front curvature measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

One-Dimensional Shock and Detonation Wave Simulator Philip Caplan Dominic LeBlanc Adam Sirignano Amanda Starr Supervisor: Prof. Andrew J. Higgins April 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One-Dimensional Shock and Detonation Wave Simulator Philip Caplan Dominic LeBlanc Adam Sirignano of the project was to produce physical and numerical models to illustrate the propagation of shock and detonation is transmitted via their magnetic fields. What are shock & detonation waves? Imagine a line of parked train cars

Peraire, Jaime

338

Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Detonation-Driven Rupture Events of Thin-Walled Tubes with a Parallel Adaptive Level Set Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Detonation-Driven Rupture Events of Thin-Walled Tubes of Engineering, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK Technically relevant fluid-structure interaction simulation of detonation-induced dy- namic response of thin-walled solid structures requires an efficient detonation solver that can

Deiterding, Ralf

339

High-Speed Combustion and Detonation Project Scaling Up for Mira | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Speed Combustion and Detonation Project Scaling Up for Mira High-Speed Combustion and Detonation Project Scaling Up for Mira March 26, 2013 Printer-friendly version Researchers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) are simulating the high-speed combustion and detonation of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures to enable safer and more widespread use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. This is one of 16 projects in the ALCF's Early Science Program (ESP), which is aimed at preparing key scientific applications for the architecture and scale of Mira, Argonne's new 10-petaflop IBM Blue Gene/Q supercomputer. Using pre-production time on Mira for real scientific problems, these projects vet the system and gather knowledge that will help future projects take full advantage of Mira's vastly increased power and capabilities when it goes into production later this year.

340

Surface chemical reaction of laser ablated aluminum sample for detonation initiation  

SciTech Connect

We explore the evolution of metal plasma generated by high laser irradiances and its effect on the surrounding air by using shadowgraph images after laser pulse termination; hence the formation of laser supported detonation and combustion processes has been investigated. The essence of the paper is in observing initiation of chemical reaction between ablated aluminum plasma and oxygen from air by inducing high power laser pulse (>1000 mJ/pulse) and conduct a quantitative comparison of chemically reactive laser initiated waves with the classical detonation of exploding aluminum (dust) cloud in air. Findings in this work may lead to a new method of initiating detonation from metal sample in its bulk form without the need of mixing nano-particles with oxygen for initiation.

Kim, Chang-hwan; Yoh, Jack J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Kwanakro, Kwanakgu, Seoul, Korea 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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341

Beyond the bubble catastrophe of Type Ia supernovae: Pulsating Reverse Detonation models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a mechanism by which a failed deflagration of a Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf can turn into a successful thermonuclear supernova explosion, without invoking an ad hoc high-density deflagration-detonation transition. Following a pulsating phase, an accretion shock develops above a core of 1 M_sun composed of carbon and oxygen, inducing a converging detonation. A three-dimensional simulation of the explosion produced a kinetic energy of 1.05E51 ergs and 0.70 M_sun of 56Ni, ejecting scarcely 0.01 M_sun of C-O moving at low velocities. The mechanism works under quite general conditions and is flexible enough to account for the diversity of normal Type Ia supernovae. In given conditions the detonation might not occur, which would reflect in peculiar signatures in the gamma and UV-wavelengths

Eduardo Bravo; Domingo Garcia-Senz

2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

342

Deflagration-to-detonation transition project. Quarterly report, December 1979-February 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress in a project on deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) is reported. The activities of this project pertain primarily to the development of small, safe, low-voltage, hot-wire detonators. Its major goals are: the formulation of a modeling capability for DDT of the explosive 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaamminecobalt (III) perchlorate (CP); the development of improved DDT materials; the establishment of a data base for corrosion, compatibility, and reliability of CP-loaded detonators; and the design and development of advanced DDT components. Information is included on materials development, component development, and compatibility studies encompassing the thermal and chemical stability of CP in contact with the component materials. (LCL)

Lieberman, M.L. (ed.) [ed.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

THE EFFECT OF THE PRE-DETONATION STELLAR INTERNAL VELOCITY PROFILE ON THE NUCLEOSYNTHETIC YIELDS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

A common model of the explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae is based on a delayed detonation of a white dwarf. A variety of models differ primarily in the method by which the deflagration leads to a detonation. A common feature of the models, however, is that all of them involve the propagation of the detonation through a white dwarf that is either expanding or contracting, where the stellar internal velocity profile depends on both time and space. In this work, we investigate the effects of the pre-detonation stellar internal velocity profile and the post-detonation velocity of expansion on the production of {alpha}-particle nuclei, including {sup 56}Ni, which are the primary nuclei produced by the detonation wave. We perform one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion phase of the white dwarf for center and off-center detonations with five different stellar velocity profiles at the onset of the detonation. In order to follow the complex flows and to calculate the nucleosynthetic yields, approximately 10,000 tracer particles were added to every simulation. We observe two distinct post-detonation expansion phases: rarefaction and bulk expansion. Almost all the burning to {sup 56}Ni occurs only in the rarefaction phase, and its expansion timescale is influenced by pre-existing flow structure in the star, in particular by the pre-detonation stellar velocity profile. We find that the mass fractions of the {alpha}-particle nuclei, including {sup 56}Ni, are tight functions of the empirical physical parameter {rho}{sub up}/v{sub down}, where {rho}{sub up} is the mass density immediately upstream of the detonation wave front and v{sub down} is the velocity of the flow immediately downstream of the detonation wave front. We also find that v{sub down} depends on the pre-detonation flow velocity. We conclude that the properties of the pre-existing flow, in particular the internal stellar velocity profile, influence the final isotopic composition of burned matter produced by the detonation.

Kim, Yeunjin; Jordan, G. C. IV; Graziani, Carlo; Lamb, D. Q.; Truran, J. W. [Astronomy Department, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Meyer, B. S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Geometric Scaling for a Detonation Wave Governed by a Pressure-Dependent Reaction Rate and Yielding Confinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The propagation of detonation waves in reactive media bounded by an inert, compressible layer is examined via computational simulations in two different geometries, axisymmetric cylinders and two dimensional, planar slabs. For simplicity, an ideal gas equation of state is used with a pressure-dependent reaction rate that results in a stable detonation wave structure. The detonation is initiated as an ideal Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation with a one-dimensional structure, and then allowed to propagate into a finite diameter or thickness layer of explosive surrounded by an inert layer. The yielding confinement of the inert layer results in the detonation wave decaying to a sub-CJ steady state velocity or failing entirely. Simulations are performed with different values of the reaction rate pressure exponent (n = 2 and 3) and different impedance confinement (greater than, less than, and equal to the confinement of the explosive). The velocity decrement and critical dimension (critical diameter or thickness) are ...

Jianling, Li; Higgins, Andrew J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

LA-UR-11-05233 Page 1 Session 3: High Explosive Topics Modeling of Detonation Propagation  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

233 233 Page 1 Session 3: High Explosive Topics Modeling of Detonation Propagation Tariq D. Aslam Los Alamos National Laboratory Summary A simple methodology for propagation of detonation waves, Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD), is presented. Theory, experiments and computational issues regarding DSD will be addressed. Introduction Detonation Shock Dynamics is based on a weak curvature, quasi-steady analysis of the compressible reactive Euler equations. See [1] for a recent review of the field. The key result from DSD is that to a first order approximation, a detonation wave will propagate normal to itself at a velocity related to its local curvature. This is expressed as a D n -k relation. This D n -k relation is an intrinsic propagation rule (i.e., all

346

Off-center ignition in type Ia supernova: I. Initial evolution and implications for delayed detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The explosion of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf as a Type Ia supernova is known to be sensitive to the manner in which the burning is ignited. Studies of the pre-supernova evolution suggest asymmetric, off-center ignition, and here we explore its consequences in two- and three-dimensional simulations. Compared with centrally ignited models, one-sided ignitions initially burn less and release less energy. For the distributions of ignition points studied, ignition within two hemispheres typically leads to the unbinding of the white dwarf, while ignition within a small fraction of one hemisphere does not. We also examine the spreading of the blast over the surface of the white dwarf that occurs as the first plumes of burning erupt from the star. In particular, our studies test whether the collision of strong compressional waves can trigger a detonation on the far side of the star as has been suggested by Plewa et al. (2004). The maximum temperature reached in these collisions is sensitive to how much burning and expansion has already gone on, and to the dimensionality of the calculation. Though detonations are sometimes observed in 2D models, none ever happens in the corresponding 3D calculations. Collisions between the expansion fronts of multiple bubbles also seem, in the usual case, unable to ignite a detonation. "Gravitationally confined detonation" is therefore not a robust mechanism for the explosion. Detonation may still be possible in these models however, either following a pulsation or by spontaneous detonation if the turbulent energy is high enough.

F. K. Roepke; S. E. Woosley; W. Hillebrandt

2006-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

347

Simulations of flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions in methane-air systems  

SciTech Connect

Flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions (DDT) in large obstructed channels filled with a stoichiometric methane-air mixture are simulated using a single-step reaction mechanism. The reaction parameters are calibrated using known velocities and length scales of laminar flames and detonations. Calculations of the flame dynamics and DDT in channels with obstacles are compared to previously reported experimental data. The results obtained using the simple reaction model qualitatively, and in many cases, quantitatively match the experiments and are found to be largely insensitive to small variations in model parameters. (author)

Kessler, D.A.; Gamezo, V.N.; Oran, E.S. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Small-angle neutron scattering study of high-pressure sintered detonation nanodiamonds  

SciTech Connect

The structure of detonation diamonds sintered at a high pressure (7 GPa) and temperatures of 1200-1700 Degree-Sign C has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. It is shown that sintering leads to an increase in the particle size from 6 to 30 nm and established that this increase is due to the chainlike oriented attachment of particles. This study supplements the oriented-attachment model, which was suggested based on the X-ray diffraction spectra of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) sintered under the same conditions.

Kidalov, S. V.; Shakhov, F. M., E-mail: fedor.shakhov@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Lebedev, V. T.; Orlova, D. N.; Grushko, Yu. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Konstantinov St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

DOUBLE-DETONATION SUB-CHANDRASEKHAR SUPERNOVAE: SYNTHETIC OBSERVABLES FOR MINIMUM HELIUM SHELL MASS MODELS  

SciTech Connect

In the double-detonation scenario for Type Ia supernovae, it is suggested that a detonation initiates in a shell of helium-rich material accreted from a companion star by a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. This shell detonation drives a shock front into the carbon-oxygen white dwarf that triggers a secondary detonation in the core. The core detonation results in a complete disruption of the white dwarf. Earlier studies concluded that this scenario has difficulties in accounting for the observed properties of Type Ia supernovae since the explosion ejecta are surrounded by the products of explosive helium burning in the shell. Recently, however, it was proposed that detonations might be possible for much less massive helium shells than previously assumed (Bildsten et al.). Moreover, it was shown that even detonations of these minimum helium shell masses robustly trigger detonations of the carbon-oxygen core (Fink et al.). Therefore, it is possible that the impact of the helium layer on observables is less than previously thought. Here, we present time-dependent multi-wavelength radiative transfer calculations for models with minimum helium shell mass and derive synthetic observables for both the optical and {gamma}-ray spectral regions. These differ strongly from those found in earlier simulations of sub-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions in which more massive helium shells were considered. Our models predict light curves that cover both the range of brightnesses and the rise and decline times of observed Type Ia supernovae. However, their colors and spectra do not match the observations. In particular, their B - V colors are generally too red. We show that this discrepancy is mainly due to the composition of the burning products of the helium shell of the Fink et al. models which contain significant amounts of titanium and chromium. Using a toy model, we also show that the burning products of the helium shell depend crucially on its initial composition. This leads us to conclude that good agreement between sub-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions and observed Type Ia supernovae may still be feasible but further study of the shell properties is required.

Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Fink, M.; Roepke, F. K.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Hillebrandt, W., E-mail: mkromer@mpa-garching.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

350

The piston-flow interaction as a model for the deflagration-to-detonation transition  

SciTech Connect

The piston-flow interaction induced by a piston pushing hydraulically resisted gas through a long tube is discussed. It is shown that the hydraulic resistance causes a significant precompression and preheating of the gas adjacent to the piston's edge. In the case of an explosive premixture this development may lead to a localized autoignition triggering detonation. It is suggested that the problem may serve as a guide for understanding the deflagration-to-detonation transition in tubes, with the piston modeling the impact of the advancing flame. (author)

Brailovsky, Irina; Kagan, Leonid; Sivashinsky, Gregory [Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University (Israel)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Flashing Dark Matter-- Gamma-Ray Bursts from Relativistic Detonations of Electro-Dilaton Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We speculate that the universe is filled with stars composed of electromagnetic and dilaton fields which are the sources of the powerful gamma-ray bursts impinging upon us from all directions of the universe. We calculate soliton-like solutions of these fields and show that their energy can be converted into a relativistic plasma in an explosive way. As in classical detonation theory the conversion proceeds by a relativistic self-similar solution for a spherical detonation wave which extracts the energy from the scalar field via a plasma in the wave front.

V. Folomeev; V. Gurovich; H. Kleinert; H. -J. Schmidt

2002-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

352

Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

Ball, D

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

353

High temperature erosion and fatigue resistance of a detonation gun chromium carbide coating for steam turbines  

SciTech Connect

Chromium carbide based detonation gun coatings have been shown to be capable of protecting steam turbine components from particle erosion. To be usable, however, erosion resistant coatings must not degrade the fatigue characteristics of the coated components. Recent studies of the fatigue properties of a detonation gun coated martensitic substrate at 538 C (1,000 F) will be presented with an emphasis on its long term performance. This study will show the retention of acceptable fatigue performance of coated substrates into the high cycle regime, and will include a discussion on the mechanism of fatigue.

Quets, J.M.; Walsh, P.N. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Srinivasan, V. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Tucker, R.C. Jr. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Shockwave and detonation studies at ITEP-TWAC proton radiography facility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years studies of shock and detonation wave phenomena at extreme dynamic conditions were performed at proton radiography facility developed at the 800 MeV proton beam line of ITEP Terawatt Accelerator (ITEP-TWAC). The facility provides a multi-frame imaging capability at 50 ?m spatial and 70 ns temporal resolution. The results of latest studies conducted there are presented including explosion and detonation of pressed and emulsion high explosives shock-induced dense non-ideal plasma of argon and xenon and shock loading of non-uniform metal surfaces. New compact explosive generators developed specifically for a use at proton radiography facilities are also presented.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Faculty of Science & Health SCHOOL OF NURSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the evolving education, research and clinical agenda in nursing and health care in Ireland. SheFaculty of Science & Health SCHOOL OF NURSING Lecturer in Mental Health Nursing (5 year contract university based School of Nursing that is closely associated with a number of partner health services

Humphrys, Mark

356

On the Detonation of Aluminum Suspensions in Air and in Oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The process of initiation and propagation in shock tube of stationary detonations in suspensions of the Al-particles of...?m didn’t ignited neither in air medium nor in the oxygen one. Al-air-suspensions with sca...

A. A. Borisov; B. A. Khasainov; E. L. Saneev…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Mechanisms of deflagration-to-detonation transition under initiation by high-voltage nanosecond discharges  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of detonation initiation in a stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture by a high-voltage nanosecond gas discharge was performed in a detonation tube with a single-cell discharge chamber. The discharge study performed in this geometry showed that three modes of discharge development were realized under the experimental conditions: a spark mode with high-temperature channel formation, a streamer mode with nonuniform gas excitation, and a transient mode. Under spark and transient initiation, simultaneous ignition inside the discharge channel occurred, forming a shock wave and leading to a conventional deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) via an adiabatic explosion. The DDT length and time at 1 bar of initial pressure in the square smooth tube with a 20-mm transverse size amounted to 50 mm and 50{mu}s, respectively. The streamer mode of discharge development at an initial pressure of 1 bar resulted in nonuniform mixture excitation and a successful DDT via a gradient mechanism, which was confirmed by high-speed time resolved ICCD imaging. The gradient mechanism implied a longer DDT time of 150{mu}s, a DDT run-up distance of 50 mm, and an initiation energy of 1 J, which is two orders of magnitude less than the direct initiation energy for a planar detonation under these conditions. (author)

Rakitin, Aleksandr E.; Starikovskii, Andrei Yu. [Physics of Nonequilibrium Systems Lab, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutski Lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electrical modeling of semiconductor bridge (SCB) BNCP detonators with electrochemical capacitor firing sets  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors describe computer models that simulate the electrical characteristics and hence, the firing characteristics and performance of a semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator for the initiation of BNCP [tetraammine-cis-bis (5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N{sup 2}) cobalt(III) perchlorate]. The electrical data and resultant models provide new insights into the fundamental behavior of SCB detonators, particularly with respect to the initiation mechanism and the interaction of the explosive powder with the SCB. One model developed, the Thermal Feedback Model, considers the total energy budget for the system, including the time evolution of the energy delivered to the powder by the electrical circuit, as well as that released by the ignition and subsequent chemical reaction of the powder. The authors also present data obtained using a new low-voltage firing set which employed an advanced electrochemical capacitor having a nominal capacitance of 350,000 {micro}F at 9 V, the maximum voltage rating for this particular device. A model for this firing set and detonator was developed by making measurements of the intrinsic capacitance and equivalent series resistance (ESR < 10 m{Omega}) of a single device. This model was then used to predict the behavior of BNCP SCB detonators fired alone, as well as in a multishot, parallel-string configuration using a firing set composed of either a single 9 V electrochemical capacitor or two of the capacitors wired in series and charged to 18 V.

Marx, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Ingersoll, D.; Bickes, R.W. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Fracture response of externally flawed aluminum cylindrical shells under internal gaseous detonation loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fracture response of externally flawed aluminum cylindrical shells under internal gaseous. Experiments were performed to observe the fracture behavior of thin- wall and initially-flawed aluminum tubes to different fracture events are analyzed. Keywords: tube fracture, detonation, crack branching, crack curving

Barr, Al

360

OPTICAL, ELECTROMAGNETIC, AND SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ALTITUDE NUCLEAR DETONATIONS—PART II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ALTITUDE NUCLEAR DETONATIONS—PART...of the explosion of a nuclear device at very high...might accompany the nuclear explosions and might...temperature-limited vacuum noise diode and the...synchro- tron particle accelerator. The generation of...

Allen M. Peterson

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Nursing Home Administrators' Personality And Nursing Home Quality: Correlations Between The Predictive Index And Cms Ratings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The approximately two million residents in nursing homes are nearly totally dependent on the care they receive from the nursing homes' staff. The quality of… (more)

Osbaldiston, Kelly Anne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Kansas nursing homes overusing antipsychotics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kansas state ranks 47th...among the states and District of Columbia for the use of powerful antipsychotics to control the behaviour of nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s or dementias, according...

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

How Accelerated Nursing Students Learn| A Comparative Case Study of the Facilitators, Barriers, Learning Strategies, Challenges, and Obstacles of Students in an Accelerated Nursing Program.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Accelerated nursing programs for non-nurse college graduates are a relatively new concept in nursing education. They were developed within generic nursing programs and individualized… (more)

Johnson Lewis, Edna

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

PBX 9404 detonation copper cylinder tests: a comparison of new and aged material  

SciTech Connect

We present detonation copper cylinder test results on aged PBX 9404 (94 wt% HMX, 3 wt% CEF, 2.9 wt% NC, 0.1 wt% DPA) explosive. The charges were newly pressed from 37.5 year-old molding powder. We compare these results to equivalent data performed on the same lot when it was 3.5 years old. Comparison of the detonation energy inferred from detonation speed to that inferred from wall motion suggests that the HMX energy is unchanged but the NC energy has decreased to {approx}25% of its original value. The degradation of explosives and their binders is a subject of continual interest. Secondary explosives such as HMX are sufficiently stable near room temperature that they do not measurably degrade over a period of at least several decades. For formulated systems the bigger concern is binder degradation, for which the three main issues are strength, initiation safety, and (if the binder is energetic) energy content. In this paper we examine the detonation energy of new and aged PBX 9404 (94 wt% HMX, 3 wt% tris-{beta} chloroethylphosphate (CEF), 2.9 wt% nitrocellulose (NC), 0.1 wt% diphenylamine (DPA) [1, 2]), measured via the detonation copper cylinder test. In 1959, two independent PBX 9404 accidents [3] raised serious concerns about the safety of the formulation. Over about a decade's time, Los Alamos pursued a safer, energetically equivalent replacement, which ultimately became PBX 9501. In order to accurately compare the performance of the PBX 9404 and PBX 9501 formulations, W. Campbell and R. Engelke (C & E) developed a stringent cylinder test protocol that they called the Los Alamos Precision Cylinder Test [4]. The present aging study is possible because excellent PBX 9404 data from those qualification tests endures.

Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mier, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Briggs, Matthew E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Numerical simulation of detonation structures using a thermodynamically consistent and fully conservative reactive flow model for multi-component computations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...there have been many advances in detonation modelling...apparent in figure 7 c. Recent experimental investigation...support by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research...mixtures. In 42nd AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

GIS surface effects archive of underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a new comprehensive, digital archive of more than 40 years of geologic surface effects maps produced at individual detonation sites throughout the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa nuclear testing areas of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Geographic Information System (GIS) surface effects map archive on CD-ROM (this report) comprehensively documents the surface effects of underground nuclear detonations conducted at two of the most extensively used testing areas of the Nevada Test Site. Between 1951 and 1992, numerous investigators of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency meticulously mapped the surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing. Their work documented the effects of more than seventy percent of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and all of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Pahute Mesa.

Grasso, D.N.

2001-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

Health Sciences and Nursing Health Sociology ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

related to health problems and health care systems, through developing and applying theories, concepts44 Health Sciences and Nursing Health Sociology in interdisciplinary academic fields, involving health, medicine and nursing as well as the field of sociology

Miyashita, Yasushi

368

Nursing homes to treat more ailments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nursing homes to treat more ailments Article by Warren Wolfe, Star Tribune Updated: November 7, 2011 - 8:28 PM With the state's financial blessing, 49 of Minnesota's 384 nursing homes are launching sick or failing residents are sent to a hospital. The project will give nursing home staff a set

Belogay, Eugene A.

369

Faculty of Science & Health SCHOOL OF NURSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and clinical agenda in nursing and health care in Ireland. She will be expected to take a lead roleFaculty of Science & Health SCHOOL OF NURSING Lecturer in Mental Health Nursing (5 year contract. Applicants must also have a minimum of three years work experience in the field of mental health. Previous

Humphrys, Mark

370

From detonation to diapers: Los Alamos computer codes at core of advanced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

From detonation to diapers From detonation to diapers Los Alamos computer codes at core of advanced manufacturing tools The computer codes used for predictive fluid modeling are part of the Los Alamos Computational Fluid Dynamics Library. July 27, 2011 This simulation of a droplet of liquid falling into a pool of liquid was modeled using Los Alamos National Laboratory's Computational Fluid Dynamics Library This simulation of a droplet of liquid falling into a pool of liquid was modeled using Los Alamos National Laboratory's Computational Fluid Dynamics Library (CFDLib), which was also used by Procter and Gamble to simulate a manufacturing process. The computer code is now available to help American industries become more competitive. Contact James Rickman Communicatons Office (505) 665-9203

371

Propagation Distance Required to Reach Steady-State Detonation Velocity in Finite-Sized Charges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The decay of a detonation wave from its initial CJ velocity to its final, steady state velocity upon encountering a finite thickness or diameter charge is investigated numerically and theoretically. The numerical simulations use an ideal gas equation of state and pressure dependent reaction rate in order to ensure a stable wave structure. The confinement is also treated as an ideal gas with variable impedance. The velocity decay along the centerline is extracted from the simulations and compared to predictions base on a front evolution equation that uses the steady state detonation velocity-front curvature relation ($D_n-\\kappa$). This model fails to capture the finite signaling speed of the leading rarefaction resulting from the interaction with the yielding confinement. This signaling speed is verified to be the maximum signal velocity occurring in the ideal ZND wave structure of the initial CJ velocity. A simple heuristic model based on the rarefaction generated by a one-dimensional interaction between the...

Li, Jianling; Higgins, Andrew J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Detonation product equation-of-state directly from the cylinder test  

SciTech Connect

A quasi-analytic method is presented for obtaining the detonation-product expansion isentrope directly from cylinder test data. The idea actually dates to G.I. Taylor`s invention of the cylinder test--though he did not implement it for lack of data--but has received little attention since. The method uses the fact that the pressure may be determined from the measured wall trajectory, whereupon the associated specific volume follows from the equations of continuity and momentum. Using the HMX-based explosive PBX9501 as an example, the method makes a good prediction of the detonation pressure and the basic form of {gamma}, the isentropic exponent. However, the model isentrope is slightly low in the mid-range, perhaps because the standard cylinder test is not optimal for this analysis. A better-suited design is proposed, and a simple ad-hoc correction is offered that reconciles the standard test.

Hill, L.G.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Detonative Propagation and Accelerative Expansion of the Crab Nebula Shock Front  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The accelerative expansion of the Crab Nebula’s outer envelope is a mystery in dynamics, as a conventional expanding blast wave decelerates when bumping into the surrounding interstellar medium. Here we show that the strong relativistic pulsar wind bumping into its surrounding nebula induces energy-generating processes and initiates a detonation wave that propagates outward to form the current outer edge, namely, the shock front, of the nebula. The resulting detonation wave, with a reactive downstream, then provides the needed power to maintain propagation of the shock front. Furthermore, relaxation of the curvature-induced reduction of the propagation velocity from the initial state of formation to the asymptotic, planar state of Chapman-Jouguet propagation explains the observed accelerative expansion. Potential richness in incorporating reactive fronts in the description of various astronomical phenomena is expected.

Yang Gao and Chung K. Law

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

374

Computational and theoretical analysis of weak and strong transverse-wave structures in gaseous detonations  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional simulation results are presented that capture at great detail the temporal evolution of Mach reflection triple point sub-structures intrinsic to gaseous detonation waves. The observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis for realistic, thermally perfect but nonreactive gases. A diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed and found to be in good agreement with the computational results.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Carbon Detonation and Shock-Triggered Helium Burning in Neutron Star Superbursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The strong degeneracy of the 12C ignition layer on an accreting neutron star results in a hydrodynamic thermonuclear runaway, in which the nuclear heating time becomes shorter than the local dynamical time. We model the resulting combustion wave during these superbursts as an upward propagating detonation. We solve the reactive fluid flow and show that the detonation propagates through the deepest layers of fuel and drives a shock wave that steepens as it travels upward into lower density material. The shock is sufficiently strong upon reaching the freshly accreted H/He layer that it triggers unstable 4He burning if the superburst occurs during the latter half of the regular Type I bursting cycle; this is likely the origin of the bright Type I precursor bursts observed at the onset of superbursts. The cooling of the outermost shock-heated layers produces a bright, ~0.1s, flash that precedes the Type I burst by a few seconds; this may be the origin of the spike seen at the burst onset in 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1636-54, the only two bursts observed with RXTE at high time resolution. The dominant products of the 12C detonation are 28Si, 32S, and 36Ar. Gupta et al. showed that a crust composed of such intermediate mass elements has a larger heat flux than one composed of iron-peak elements and helps bring the superburst ignition depth into better agreement with values inferred from observations.

Nevin N. Weinberg; Lars Bildsten

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

376

Flame Evolution During Type Ia Supernovae and the Deflagration Phase in the Gravitationally Confined Detonation Scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop an improved method for tracking the nuclear flame during the deflagration phase of a Type Ia supernova, and apply it to study the variation in outcomes expected from the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) paradigm. A simplified 3-stage burning model and a non-static ash state are integrated with an artificially thickened advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) flame front in order to provide an accurate but highly efficient representation of the energy release and electron capture in and after the unresolvable flame. We demonstrate that both our ADR and energy release methods do not generate significant acoustic noise, as has been a problem with previous ADR-based schemes. We proceed to model aspects of the deflagration, particularly the role of buoyancy of the hot ash, and find that our methods are reasonably well-behaved with respect to numerical resolution. We show that if a detonation occurs in material swept up by the material ejected by the first rising bubble but gravitationally confined to the white dwarf (WD) surface (the GCD paradigm), the density structure of the WD at detonation is systematically correlated with the distance of the deflagration ignition point from the center of the star. Coupled to a suitably stochastic ignition process, this correlation may provide a plausible explanation for the variety of nickel masses seen in Type Ia Supernovae.

D. M. Townsley; A. C. Calder; S. M. Asida; I. R. Seitenzahl; F. Peng; N. Vladimirova; D. Q. Lamb; J. W. Truran

2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

377

Critical velocities for deflagration and detonation triggered by voids in a REBO high explosive  

SciTech Connect

The effects of circular voids on the shock sensitivity of a two-dimensional model high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. The probability of initiating chemical reactions is found to rise more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void with radius as small as 10 nm reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4. The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in a micron-long sample with a single void (and its periodic images). The reaction yield during the shock traversal increases rapidly with velocity, then becomes a prompt, reliable detonation. A void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal. A Pop plot of the time-to-detonation at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence.

Herring, Stuart Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jensen, Niels G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon Detonation and Shock-Triggered Helium Burning in Neutron Star Superbursts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The strong degeneracy of the 12C ignition layer on an accreting neutron star results in a hydrodynamic thermonuclear runaway, in which the nuclear heating time becomes shorter than the local dynamical time. We model the resulting combustion wave during these superbursts as an upward-propagating detonation. We solve the reactive fluid flow and show that the detonation propagates through the deepest layers of fuel and drives a shock wave that steepens as it travels upward into lower density material. The shock is sufficiently strong on reaching the freshly accreted H/He layer that it triggers unstable 4He burning if the superburst occurs during the latter half of the regular type I bursting cycle; this is likely the origin of the bright type I precursor bursts observed at the onset of superbursts. The cooling of the outermost shock-heated layers produces a bright, ?0.1 s, flash that precedes the type I burst by a few seconds; this may be the origin of the spike seen at the burst onset in 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1636-54, the only two bursts observed with RXTE at high time resolution. The dominant products of the 12C detonation are 28Si, 32S, and 36Ar. Gupta et al. showed that a crust composed of such intermediate-mass elements has a larger heat flux than one composed of iron-peak elements and helps bring the superburst ignition depth into better agreement with values inferred from observations.

Nevin N. Weinberg; Lars Bildsten

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Thrust measurement method verification and analytical studies on a liquid-fueled pulse detonation engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to test the feasibility of a new thrust stand system based on impulse thrust measurement method, a liquid-fueled pulse detonation engine (PDE) is designed and built. Thrust performance of the engine is obtained by direct thrust measurement with a force transducer and indirect thrust measurement with an eddy current displacement sensor (ECDS). These two sets of thrust data are compared with each other to verify the accuracy of the thrust performance. Then thrust data measured by the new thrust stand system are compared with the verified thrust data to test its feasibility. The results indicate that thrust data from the force transducer and ECDS system are consistent with each other within the range of measurement error. Though the thrust data from the impulse thrust measurement system is a litter lower than that from the force transducer due to the axial momentum losses of the detonation jet, the impulse thrust measurement method is valid when applied to measure the averaged thrust of PDE. Analytical models of PDE are also discussed in this paper. The analytical thrust performance is higher than the experimental data due to ignoring the losses during the deflagration to detonation transition process. Effect of equivalence ratio on the engine thrust performance is investigated by utilizing the modified analytical model. Thrust reaches maximum at the equivalence ratio of about 1.1.

Jie Lu; Longxi Zheng; Zhiwu Wang; Changxin Peng; Xinggu Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

Chipman, V D

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

HELIUM SHELL DETONATIONS ON LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS AS A POSSIBLE EXPLANATION FOR SN 2005E  

SciTech Connect

Recently, several Type Ib supernovae (SNe; with the prototypical SN 2005E) have been shown to have atypical properties. These SNe are faint (absolute peak magnitude of {approx} - 15) and fast SNe that show unique composition. They are inferred to have low ejecta mass (a few tenths of a solar mass) and to be highly enriched in calcium, but poor in silicon elements and nickel. These SNe were therefore suggested to belong to a new class of calcium-rich faint SNe explosions. Their properties were proposed to be the result of helium detonations that may occur on helium accreting white dwarfs. In this paper, we theoretically study the scenario of helium detonations and focus on the results of detonations in accreted helium layers on low-mass carbon-oxygen (CO) cores. We present new results from one-dimensional simulations of such explosions, including their light curves and spectra. We find that when the density of the helium layer is low enough the helium detonation produces large amounts of intermediate elements, such as calcium and titanium, together with a large amount of unburnt helium. Alternatively, enough carbon enrichment of the accreted helium as a result of convective undershoot at the early stages of the runaway can avoid the production of iron group elements as the alpha particles are consumed avoiding iron production. Our results suggest that the properties of calcium-rich faint SNe could indeed be consistent with the helium-detonation scenario on small CO cores. Above a certain density (larger CO cores) the detonation leaves mainly {sup 56}Ni and unburnt helium, and the predicted spectrum will unlikely fit the unique features of this class of SNe. Finally, none of our studied models reproduces the bright, fast-evolving light curves of another type of peculiar SNe suggested to originate in helium detonations (SNe 1885A, 1939B, and 2002bj).

Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli; Glasner, Ami [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Sauer, Daniel [Stockholm University, Department for Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Perets, Hagai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Truran, James W. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

677http://health.usf.edu/nocms/nursing/ SECTION 20  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Health Nursing (NAH) to AdultGerontology Primary Care Nursing (NAH) Occup. Hlth Nursing (NOH) to Pediatric Health Nursing (NCH) Adult & Occup. Health Nursing (NAO) Dual to AdultGeron. Primary Care AdultGerontology Primary Care Dual Oncology/AdultGerontology Primary Care Family Health Pediatric

Meyers, Steven D.

383

A flow integrated DSD hydrodynamics strategy for computing the motion of detonation of insensitive high explosives on an Eulerian grid  

SciTech Connect

The detonation structure in many insensitive high explosives consists of two temporally disparate zones of heat release. In PBX 9502, there is a fast reaction zone ({approx} 25 ns) during which reactants are converted to gaseous products and small carbon clusters, followed by a slower regime ({approx} 250 ns) of carbon coagulation. A hybrid approach for determining the propagation of two-stage heat release detonations has been developed that utilizes a detonation shock dynamics (DSD) based strategy for the fast reaction zone with a direct hydrodynamic simulation of the flow in the slow zone. Unlike a standard DSD/programmed bum formulation, the evolution of the fast zone DSD-like surface is coupled to the flow in the slow reaction zone. We have termed this formulation flow integrated detonation shock dynamics (FIDSD). The purpose of the present paper is to show how the FIDSD formulation can be applied to detonation propagation on an Eulerian grid using an algorithm based on level set interface tracking and a ghost fluid approach.

Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aslam, Tariq D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Improved estimates of separation distances to prevent unacceptable damage to nuclear power plant structures from hydrogen detonation for gaseous hydrogen storage. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides new estimates of separation distances for nuclear power plant gaseous hydrogen storage facilities. Unacceptable damage to plant structures from hydrogen detonations will be prevented by having hydrogen storage facilities meet separation distance criteria recommended in this report. The revised standoff distances are based on improved calculations on hydrogen gas cloud detonations and structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Also, the results presented in this study do not depend upon equivalencing a hydrogen detonation to an equivalent TNT detonation. The static and stagnation pressures, wave velocity, and the shock wave impulse delivered to wall surfaces were computed for several different size hydrogen explosions. Separation distance equations were developed and were used to compute the minimum separation distance for six different wall cases and for seven detonating volumes (from 1.59 to 79.67 lbm of hydrogen). These improved calculation results were compared to previous calculations. The ratio between the separation distance predicted in this report versus that predicted for hydrogen detonation in previous calculations varies from 0 to approximately 4. Thus, the separation distances results from the previous calculations can be either overconservative or unconservative depending upon the set of hydrogen detonation parameters that are used. Consequently, it is concluded that the hydrogen-to-TNT detonation equivalency utilized in previous calculations should no longer be used.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Derivation of models for nuclear weapon terrorist arming and detonation risk analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates "use control" for the on-site arming and detonation, by terrorists, of stored weapon systems. We investigate both components of weapon "use control", which we define as: (1) weapon "use denial" * that we model as a probability, Pj (denial), that represents the chances that terrorists attempting to arm a type j weapon will commit a non-recoverable error, and (2) weapon "use delay" that we model as a random variable, Tj , that represents the arming delay imposed by the use control features of a type j weapon, before detonation can occur. Using information pertaining to the physical security system at a storage site, the postulated terrorist attack force size, and simulated combat engagement outcomes, we formulate the frequency, fj , and probability, P(dj ), of on-site detonation, for generic weapon types j. We derive a model that disjoins the performance of site physical security, from that for weapon use control, if the use control random variable Tj has a Uniform or histogram distribution. This is an especially significant result where most complex distributions can be adequately approximated with a histogram. Hence, we can conduct combat simulations to obtain the physical security performance of a specific storage site independent of the use control features associated with specific weapon types that are stored, or might be stored, at the site. In turn, we can obtain the use control performance for various weapon types, independent of where they are stored and the physical security systems surrounding them. Our models can then mathematically combine physical security performance and weapon use control performance for any combination of storage facility and weapon type.

Parziale, A A

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Courses: Nursing (NURS) Page 357Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog Nursing (NURS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

care system reform including nursing's expanded professional role in promoting health and mitigating, and Nursing majors only. nurS 303 MAternity & WoMen'S HeALtH CAre (6) Seminar, 4 hours; practicum, 2 hours to the principles of mental health and illness. Nursing care therapeutics with populations experienc- ing mental

Ravikumar, B.

387

Fundamental Properties of Non-equilibrium Laser-Supported Detonation Wave  

SciTech Connect

For developing laser propulsion, it is very important to analyze the mechanism of Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), because it can generate high pressure and high temperature to be used by laser propulsion can be categorized as one type of hypersonic reacting flows, where exothermicity is supplied not by chemical reaction but by radiation absorption. I have numerically simulated the 1-D and Quasi-1-D LSD waves propagating through an inert gas, which absorbs CO2 gasdynamic laser, using a 2-temperature model. Calculated results show the fundamental properties of the non-equilibrium LSD Waves.

Shiraishi, Hiroyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Daido Institute of Technology, 10-3 Taki-haru-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

388

A compilation of nuclear weapons test detonation data for U.S. Pacific ocean tests  

SciTech Connect

Prior to December 1993, the explosive yields of 44 of 66 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands were still classified. Following a request from the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands to the U.S. Department of Energy to release this information, the Secretary of Energy declassified and released to the public the explosive yields of the Pacific nuclear tests. This paper presents a synopsis of information on nuclear test detonations in the Marshall Islands and other locations in the mid-Pacific including dates, explosive yields, locations, weapon placement, and summary statistics. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Simon, S.L. [Radiation Effects Research, Washington, DC (United States); Robison, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

High-temperature hydrogen-air-steam detonation experiments in the BNL small-scale development apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is a 10-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperatures between 300K and 650K at a fixed initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen composition from 9 to 60 percent by volume and steam fractions up to 35 percent by volume were studied for stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K-650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside diameter SSDA test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent hydrogen at 300K down to between 9 and 10 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsburg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sato, K.; Kinoshita, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Intervention addresses restraint overuse in nursing homes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

MedWire News: A multifaceted evidence-based intervention has shown promise for reducing the use of physical restraints in nursing homes, German researchers report.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

HEALTH PROMOTION AND HEALTH EDUCATION: NURSING STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to determine student nurses’ perceptions of (1) the role of the nurse in health promotion, and (2) how the… (more)

Halcomb, Kathleen Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Quality care and financial viability of rural nursing homes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This sequential mixed methods study examined factors associated with quality care and financial viability of rural nursing homes in the Mountain West. Rural nursing homes… (more)

Towsley, Gail L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The Culture Change Movement in Ohio's Nursing Homes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??THE CULTURE CHANGE MOVEMENT IN OHIO’S NURSING HOMES By Anne E. Johnston Nursing home culture change is a national movement with the specific goal of… (more)

Johnston, Anne E

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Effect of Spatial Heterogeneity on Near-Limit Propagation of a Stable Detonation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of introducing a spatial heterogeneity into an explosive medium is studied computationally by examining the detonation velocity near the limit to propagation in a thin explosive layer. The explosive system studied is an ideal gas with a single exothermic reaction governed by a pressure-dependent reaction rate ($p^n$) with a pressure exponent of $n = 3$. A pressure-dependent reaction rate, rather than the exponential dependence of reaction on temperature of Arrhenius kinetics, is used so that the detonation wave is stable in the homogeneous case and can be modelled with simple, analytical techniques, and thus the effect of introducing heterogeneity can be clearly identified. The two-dimensional slab of explosive is bounded by a layer of inert gas with the same thermodynamic properties as the explosive. The heterogeneity is introduced into the explosive via a large-amplitude, two-dimensional sinusoidal ripple in density in the initialization of the simulation, while maintaining a constant pressure. T...

Li, Jianling; Higgins, Andrew J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Photoionization in the Precursor of Laser Supported Detonation by Ultraviolet Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The propagation mechanism of laser-supported detonation (LSD) is important for designing laser propulsion for a detonation type thruster. The purpose of this work to was to confirm that photo-ionization in precursor is the predominant LSD sustainment mechanism. First of all, we tried to investigate the dependency of LSD duration on ambient gas species, air and argon. We took a series of high-speed images using the laser shadow-graphy. Besides, to estimate the UV photons emitted from the plasma, we used plasma emission spectroscopy and determined the electron temperature and density. As a result, the LSD duration of argon plasma and air plasma are 0.7 {mu}s and 0.3 {mu}s, resp. Besides, argon plasma emitted 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 14} photons/seconds, which was higher than air plasma. These results reveal that LSD propagation depends on the photon-contributing photoionization. The threshold photon-emission rate of LSD termination gives the elucidation of the LSD termination condition.

Shimamura, Kohei; Michigami, Keisuke; Wang, Bin; Komurasaki, Kimiya [Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8561 (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshihiro [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

396

Thermonuclear .Ia Supernovae from Helium Shell Detonations: Explosion Models and Observables  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the early evolution of an AM Canum Venaticorum system, helium is accreted onto the surface of a white dwarf under conditions suitable for unstable thermonuclear ignition. The turbulent motions induced by the convective burning phase in the He envelope become strong enough to influence the propagation of burning fronts and may result in the onset of a detonation. Such an outcome would yield radioactive isotopes and a faint rapidly rising thermonuclear ".Ia" supernova. In this paper, we present hydrodynamic explosion models and observable outcomes of these He shell detonations for a range of initial core and envelope masses. The peak UVOIR bolometric luminosities range by a factor of 10 (from 5 ? 1041 to 5 ? 1042 erg s–1), and the R-band peak varies from M R,peak = –15 to –18. The rise times in all bands are very rapid (40Ca through 56Ni) and unburnt He. Thus, the spectra around peak light lack signs of intermediate-mass elements and are dominated by Ca II and Ti II features, with the caveat that our radiative transfer code does not include the nonthermal effects necessary to produce He features.

Ken J. Shen; Dan Kasen; Nevin N. Weinberg; Lars Bildsten; Evan Scannapieco

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Embedded Fiber Optic Probes to Measure Detonation Velocities Using the Photonic Doppler Velocimeter  

SciTech Connect

Detonation velocities for high explosives can be in the 7 to 8 km/s range. Previous work has shown that these velocities may be measured by inserting an optical fiber probe into the explosive assembly and recording the velocity time history using a Fabry-Perot velocimeter. The measured velocity using this method, however, is the actual velocity multiplied times the refractive index of the fiber core, which is on the order of 1.5. This means that the velocimeter diagnostic must be capable of measuring velocities as high as 12 km/s. Until recently, a velocity of 12 km/s was beyond the maximum velocity limit of a homodyne-based velocimeter. The limiting component in a homodyne system is usually the digitizer. Recently, however, digitizers have come on the market with 20 GHz bandwidth and 50 GS/s sample rate. Such a digitizer coupled with high bandwidth detectors now have the total bandwidth required to make velocity measurements in the 12 km/s range. This paper describes measurements made of detonation velocities using a high bandwidth homodyne system.

Hare, D E; Holtkamp, D B; Strand, O T

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

398

Truman State University Department of Nursing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOL 100 Biology # 4 COMM 170 Fundamentals of Speech* 3 CHEM 100 Chemistry % 4 ENG 190 Writing & Fundamentals I 3 NU 280 Assessmnt & Fundamentals II 3 BIOL 215 Anatomy & Physiology II 4 NU 310 See the Nursing Student Handbook for more information: http://nursing.truman.edu Italicized courses

Gering, Jon C.

399

The Valley Foundation School of Nursing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Valley Foundation School of Nursing One Washington Square San José, CA 95192-0057 Voice: 408, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Maritime Academy Monterey Bay, Northridge, Pomona Sacramento, San Bernardino 2012-2013 is a busy one at The Valley Foundation School of Nursing! Our new curriculum will be fully

Su, Xiao

400

SCHOOL OF NURSING: TEXTBOOK MASTER LIST Fall 2012 Contact Person: Melissa Swathwood (494-4045, mswathwo@purdue.edu)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment in Nursing Fundamentals of Nursing Clinical Nursing Skills DVD Nursing Diagnosis Handbook Handbook Publication manual of the APA A PDA and Skyscape program. See http

Pittendrigh, Barry

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401

Three-Dimensional Simulations of the Deflagration Phase of the Gravitationally Confined Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the results of a series of three-dimensional (3-D) simulations of the deflagration phase of the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism for Type Ia supernovae. In this mechanism, ignition occurs at one or several off-center points, resulting in a burning bubble of hot ash that rises rapidly, breaks through the surface of the star, and collides at a point opposite breakout on the stellar surface. We find that detonation conditions are robustly reached in our 3-D simulations for a range of initial conditions and resolutions. Detonation conditions are achieved as the result of an inwardly-directed jet that is produced by the compression of unburnt surface material when the surface flow collides with itself. A high-velocity outwardly-directed jet is also produced. The initial conditions explored in this paper lead to conditions at detonation that can be expected to produce large amounts of $^{56}$Ni and small amounts of intermediate mass elements. These particular simulations are therefore relevant only to high luminosity Type Ia supernovae. Recent observations of Type Ia supernovae imply a compositional structure that is qualitatively consistent with that expected from these simulations.

G C Jordan IV; R T Fisher; D M Townsley; A C Calder; C Graziani; S Asida; D Q Lamb; J W Truran

2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

402

The use of post detonation analysis of stable isotope ratios to determine the type and production process of the explosive involved  

SciTech Connect

The detonation of a series of explosives was performed in a controlled manner to collect the resulting, solid residue or {open_quotes}soot.{close_quotes} This residue was examined to determine the ratios of the stable carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopes. The goal of the experiment was to determine if these ratios could be used to indicate, from the post detonation residues, the type and origin of the detonated explosive. The ratios of the stated stable isotopes in the undetonated explosive were also determined. Despite some reservations in the quality of the data resulting from contamination by nonexplosive components, certain trends can be discerned. (1) Carbon isotopes allow aromatic explosives to be distinguished from nonaromatic explosives. This trend seems to carry through the detonation so that the distinction might be made after the fact. (2) The amination process for TATB can be detected through the hydrogen and, to some extent, the nitrogen isotope ratios. Unfortunately, the data are not sufficiently good to determine if this differential carries through the detonation. (3) The relative magnitude and sign of the nitrogen isotope ratio seems to carry through the detonation: some exchange with atmospheric nitrogen is probable. Even though this set of experiments must also be viewed as preliminary, there is a definite indication that certain qualitative characteristics of explosives can be detected after the detonation. This {open_quotes}signature{close_quotes} could have application to both intelligence and counter terrorism.

McGuire, R.R.; Velsko, C.A.; Lee, C.G.; Raber, E.

1993-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

403

Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (ABSN) Truman State University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. History 1 Summer 1 NU 240 Assessment & Fundamentals I 3 NU 280 Assessment & Fundamentals II 3 Total 6 Fall. Suggested program of study; course choices are up to student. See the Nursing Student Handbook for more information: http://www.truman.edu/majors-programs/ majors-minors/nursing-major/nursing-resources/nursing-student-handbook

Gering, Jon C.

404

March 1, 2013 University of Saskatchewan Nursing | 1 Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

March 1, 2013 University of Saskatchewan Nursing | 1 Academic Information and Policies The. Nursing Education Program of Saskatchewan (NEPS) Post-Degree B.S.N. Option 3. Master of Nursing Program in the program. CollegeofNursing 15 Campus Drive Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A6 Tel: (306) 966-5869 Fax: (306

Peak, Derek

405

Verification of 2-D Detonation Shock Dynamics in conjunction with Los Alamos Lagrangian hydrocode  

SciTech Connect

As the latest version of the fast-tube Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) solver is linked with the Los Alamos Lagrangian hydrocode, verification problems from a 2006 DSD report (LA-14277 [1]) have been duplicated with some of the verification criteria changed to more quantitative ones. The observed error convergence is as good as or better than reported in [1], quite possibly due to the careful treatment of floating point numbers to ensure that their precision level is maintained throughout the code. This report duplicates the three sample verification problems in LA-14277 [1] using the Los Alamos ASC Lagrangian hydrocode (FLAG), official release of 3.2 Alpha6 with a few modifications. This version of FLAG is linked with the latest fast-tube Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) version beta 2 solver released in 2011 as part of the LanlDSD software product [2]. New verification criteria are used for the arcwave problem where two specific locations are chosen for burn arrival time comparison. For this report FLAG's internal driver code prepares the distance function ({Psi}) and material ID fields from its hydro setup, instead of the stand-alone driver that is being utilized by the other LANL hydrocodes currently interfaced to LanlDSD. As it is implemented in version 3.2 Alpha6, the {Psi} and material ID fields and other parameters are passed from FLAG to the DSD solver directly, and the burn table is directly passed back to FLAG as part of the calling arguments. The burn-front arrival time 'exact' solutions, mentioned in the sequel for the rate-stick and 'arc-wave' problems, are computed using a pair of special-purpose Fortran codes provided by Aslam [3]. In each case an ansatz for the form of the solution is made in which the radius from the detonator center point is used as the independent space coordinate. This leads to a simplified, problem-specific, 1D form of the governing equation. This equation is solved using 2nd-order spatial differencing and the forward Euler method on a very fine temporal and geometric mesh. The boundary conditions are handled exactly at the correct location, with second order accuracy. Care has been taken to ensure that this solution is fully converged. Most other technical details are omitted here as they are comprehensively discussed in [1].

Aida, Toru [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walter, John W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aslam, Tariq D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

406

Comparison of the Growth of Pore and Shear Band Driven Detonations  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the effect of ignition site topology on the rate of reaction of a detonating material. The hot plane, hot line, and hot finite patch topologies are added to previous work on hot spot ignition. The hot plane and hot patch ignition forms would arise from ignition due to shear banding, and the hot line ignition form is shown to complete the topological set. The limiting behavior of instantaneous ignition is considered and used to construct simple reaction rate vs. extent of reaction forms. they fit simple form factor reaction rates, as might be available in most hydro codes with reactive flow modes, to the simple topologies. The difference between the rate vs. extent forms are examined with the objective that one should be able to use this information to distinguish between the different topological ignition forms.

Nichols, A L

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

407

Emotions in organisational research in nursing homes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emotions clearly play an important role in living and working in nursing homes. Therefore research in cooperation with nursing homes or other long term care settings has to find a way to deal with these phenomena. This paper presents emotions as an integrated part of doing organisational research. The paper draws on transdisciplinary collaborative research with nursing homes on gender, ethical decisions and needs management. Feelings and emotions are core dimensions for knowledge construction and theory building on these issues. Working within a qualitative paradigm and a relational approach, it will be argued that care ethics serves as important source of basic principles.

Elisabeth Reitinger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic flux compression generators rely on the expansion of thin ductile shells to generate magnetic fields. These thin shells are filled with high explosives, which when detonated, cause the shell to expand to over 200% strain at strain-rates on the order of 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. Experimental data indicate the development and growth of multiple plastic instabilities which appear in a quasi-periodic pattern on the surfaces of the shells. These quasi-periodic instabilities are connected by localized zones of intense shear that are oriented approximately 45{degree} from the outward radial direction. The quasi-periodic instabilities continue to develop and eventually become through-cracks, causing the shell to fragment. A viscoplastic constitutive model is formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion and provide insight into the development of plastic instabilities. The formulation of the viscoplastic constitutive model includes the effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence in the expanding shell. This model uses the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. The constitutive model includes the modifications proposed by Tvergaard and the plastic strain controlled nucleation introduced by Neeleman. The constitutive model is implemented as a user material subroutine into ABAQUS/Explicit, which is a commercially available nonlinear explicit dynamic finite element program. A cylindrical shell is modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. Two experiments were conducted involving plane wave detonated, explosively filled, copper cylinders. Instability, displacement, and velocity data were recorded using a fast framing camera and a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Good agreement is shown between the numerical results and experimental data. An additional explosively bulged cylinder experiment was also performed and a photomicrograph of an instability is shown to provide a qualitative comparison between the experimental observations and the numerical predictions.

Martineau, R.L.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Measurement of critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} mixtures  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure hydrogen-oxygen mixtures are measured and investigated to look at the effect of explosion limits on the detonation sensitivity. Results up to an initial pressure of 20 atm are obtained. Experiments are carried out in a spherical bomb and direct initiation is achieved via spark ignition from a high-voltage capacitor discharge. A detailed description of different methods to obtain a good estimate of the correct amount of energy deposited into the mixture used to initiate the detonation, including the calorimeter method and current method, is provided. It is demonstrated that at elevated initial pressure, the second explosion limit effect plays a significant role leading to slow-branching reactions and the detonation sensitivity of hydrogen mixtures is comparable to other common hydrocarbon mixtures at such condition. (author)

Kamenskihs, Vsevolods; Lee, John H.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ng, Hoi Dick [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Nursing and climate change: An emerging connection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Summary Awareness of the importance of climate change to public health has been growing. Calls for health professionals, including nurses, to take action to prepare for, and mitigate, climate change have been coming from a number of credible sources. This paper will assist nurses to recognise the health consequences of climate change, to generate and disseminate knowledge about these health consequences, to be active in mitigating emissions locally and within their organisations and to advocate and have input into policy processes. It is valuable for nurses to understand the health co-benefits of emission mitigation and the current health costs of fossil fuels. As advocates for evidence-based public health initiatives, nurses have a role to play in communicating to the public and to policy makers accurate information, including about the health costs of fossil fuel policies and the affordability of renewable energy technologies.

William Adlong; Elaine Dietsch

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

ENVIRONMENTAL IlONITORING REPORT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE AND OTHER TEST AREAS USED FOR UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR DETONATIONS  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

IlONITORING REPORT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE IlONITORING REPORT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE AND OTHER TEST AREAS USED FOR UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR DETONATIONS January through December 1975 Nonitoring Operations Division Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Las Vegas, Nevada 89114 APRIL 1976 This work performed under a Memorandum of Understanding No. AT(26-1)-539 for the U . S . ENERGY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION EMSL-LV-5 39-4 May 1976 ENVIRONMENTAL 14ONITORING REPORT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE AND OTHER TEST AREAS USED FOR UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR DETONATIONS January through December I975 Monitoring Operations Division Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Las Vegas, Nevada 89114 APRIL 1976 This work performed under a Memorandum of

412

Failed-detonation Supernovae: Subluminous Low-velocity Ia Supernovae and their Kicked Remnant White Dwarfs with Iron-rich Cores  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate from the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen (C-O) white dwarfs (WDs). The single-degenerate scenario is a well-explored model of SNe Ia where unstable thermonuclear burning initiates in an accreting, Chandrasekhar-mass WD and forms an advancing flame. By several proposed physical processes, the rising, burning material triggers a detonation, which subsequently consumes and unbinds the WD. However, if a detonation is not triggered and the deflagration is too weak to unbind the star, a completely different scenario unfolds. We explore the failure of the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism of SNe Ia, and demonstrate through two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations the properties of failed-detonation SNe. We show that failed-detonation SNe expel a few 0.1 M ? of burned and partially burned material and that a fraction of the material falls back onto the WD, polluting the remnant WD with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements that likely segregate to the core forming a WD whose core is iron rich. The remaining material is asymmetrically ejected at velocities comparable to the escape velocity from the WD, and in response, the WD is kicked to velocities of a few hundred km s–1. These kicks may unbind the binary and eject a runaway/hypervelocity WD. Although the energy and ejected mass of the failed-detonation SN are a fraction of typical thermonuclear SNe, they are likely to appear as subluminous low-velocity SNe Ia. Such failed detonations might therefore explain or are related to the observed branch of peculiar SNe Ia, such as the family of low-velocity subluminous SNe (SN 2002cx/SN 2008ha-like SNe).

George C. Jordan, IV; Hagai B. Perets; Robert T. Fisher; Daniel R. van Rossum

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

FAILED-DETONATION SUPERNOVAE: SUBLUMINOUS LOW-VELOCITY Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR KICKED REMNANT WHITE DWARFS WITH IRON-RICH CORES  

SciTech Connect

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate from the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen (C-O) white dwarfs (WDs). The single-degenerate scenario is a well-explored model of SNe Ia where unstable thermonuclear burning initiates in an accreting, Chandrasekhar-mass WD and forms an advancing flame. By several proposed physical processes, the rising, burning material triggers a detonation, which subsequently consumes and unbinds the WD. However, if a detonation is not triggered and the deflagration is too weak to unbind the star, a completely different scenario unfolds. We explore the failure of the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism of SNe Ia, and demonstrate through two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations the properties of failed-detonation SNe. We show that failed-detonation SNe expel a few 0.1 M{sub Sun} of burned and partially burned material and that a fraction of the material falls back onto the WD, polluting the remnant WD with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements that likely segregate to the core forming a WD whose core is iron rich. The remaining material is asymmetrically ejected at velocities comparable to the escape velocity from the WD, and in response, the WD is kicked to velocities of a few hundred km s{sup -1}. These kicks may unbind the binary and eject a runaway/hypervelocity WD. Although the energy and ejected mass of the failed-detonation SN are a fraction of typical thermonuclear SNe, they are likely to appear as subluminous low-velocity SNe Ia. Such failed detonations might therefore explain or are related to the observed branch of peculiar SNe Ia, such as the family of low-velocity subluminous SNe (SN 2002cx/SN 2008ha-like SNe).

Jordan, George C. IV; Van Rossum, Daniel R. [Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Perets, Hagai B. [Physics Department, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Fisher, Robert T. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

414

Detailed Spectral Modeling of a 3-D Pulsating Reverse Detonation Model: Too Much Nickel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate detailed NLTE synthetic spectra of a Pulsating Reverse Detonation (PRD) model, a novel explosion mechanism for Type Ia supernovae. While the hydro models are calculated in 3-D, the spectra use an angle averaged hydro model and thus some of the 3-D details are lost, but the overall average should be a good representation of the average observed spectra. We study the model at 3 epochs: maximum light, seven days prior to maximum light, and 5 days after maximum light. At maximum the defining Si II feature is prominent, but there is also a prominent C II feature, not usually observed in normal SNe Ia near maximum. We compare to the early spectrum of SN 2006D which did show a prominent C II feature, but the fit to the observations is not compelling. Finally we compare to the post-maximum UV+optical spectrum of SN 1992A. With the broad spectral coverage it is clear that the iron-peak elements on the outside of the model push too much flux to the red and thus the particular PRD realizations studied would be intrinsically far redder than observed SNe Ia. We briefly discuss variations that could improve future PRD models.

E. Baron; David J. Jeffery; David Branch; Eduardo Bravo; Domingo Garcia-Senz; Peter H. Hauschildt

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

415

Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

Studebaker, Irving G. (Grand Junction, CO); Hefelfinger, Richard (Grand Junction, CO)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Evaluating Systematic Dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae: The Influence of Deflagration to Detonation Density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of Ni-56 in thermonuclear supernova explosions (type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear supernovae with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of Ni-56 masses to those inferred from observations. Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic "simmered" white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of Ni-56 and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range 1-3x10^7 g/cc. We find a quadratic dependence ...

Jackson, Aaron P; Townsley, Dean M; Chamulak, David A; Brown, Edward F; Timmes, F X

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The effect of turbulent intermittency on the deflagration to detonation transition in SN Ia explosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the effects of turbulent intermittency on the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) in Type Ia supernovae. The Zel'dovich mechanism for DDT requires the formation of a nearly isothermal region of mixed ash and fuel that is larger than a critical size. We primarily consider the hypothesis by Khokhlov et al. and Niemeyer and Woosley that the nearly isothermal, mixed region is produced when the flame makes the transition to the distributed regime. We use two models for the distribution of the turbulent velocity fluctuations to estimate the probability as a function of the density in the exploding white dwarf that a given region of critical size is in the distributed regime due to strong local turbulent stretching of the flame structure. We also estimate lower limits on the number of such regions as a function of density. We find that the distributed regime, and hence perhaps DDT, occurs in a local region of critical size at a density at least a factor of 2-3 larger than predicted for mean conditions that neglect intermittency. This factor brings the transition density to be much larger than the empirical value from observations in most situations. We also consider the intermittency effect on the more stringent conditions for DDT by Lisewski et al. and Woosley. We find that a turbulent velocity of $10^8$ cm/s in a region of size $10^6$ cm, required by Lisewski et al., is rare. We expect that intermittency gives a weaker effect on the Woosley model with stronger criterion. The predicted transition density from this criterion remains below $10^7$ g/cm$^3$ after accounting for intermittency using our intermittency models.

Liubin Pan; J. Craig Wheeler; John Scalo

2008-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

418

Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc  

SciTech Connect

We report a study of materials recovered from a uranium-containing plasma generated by an electric arc. The device used to generate the arc is capable of sustaining temperatures of an eV or higher for up to 100??s. Samples took the form of a 4??m-thick film deposited onto 8 pairs of 17??m-thick Cu electrodes supported on a 25??m-thick Kapton backing and sandwiched between glass plates. Materials recovered from the glass plates and around the electrode tips after passage of an arc were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Recovered materials included a variety of crystalline compounds (e.g., UO{sub 2}, UC{sub 2}, UCu{sub 5},) as well as mixtures of uranium and amorphous glass. Most of the materials collected on the glass plates took the form of spherules having a wide range of diameters from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. The composition and size of the spherules depended on location, indicating different chemical and physical environments. A theoretical analysis we have carried out suggests that the submicron spherules presumably formed by deposition during the arc discharge, while at the same time the glass plates were strongly heated due to absorption of plasma radiation mainly by islands of deposited metals (Cu, U). The surface temperature of the glass plates is expected to have risen to ?2300?K thus producing a liquefied glass layer, likely diffusions of the deposited metals on the hot glass surface and into this layer were accompanied by chemical reactions that gave rise to the observed materials. These results, together with the compact scale and relatively low cost, suggest that the experimental technique provides a practical approach to investigate the complex physical and chemical processes that occur when actinide-containing material interacts with the environment at high temperature, for example, during fallout formation following a nuclear detonation.

Dai, Z. R., E-mail: dai1@llnl.gov; Crowhurst, J. C.; Grant, C. D.; Knight, K. B.; Tang, V.; Chernov, A. A.; Cook, E. G.; Lotscher, J. P.; Hutcheon, I. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

419

The Journal of Doctoral Nursing Practice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.springerpub.com/csr SPRINGER PUBLISHING COMPANY Columbia University School of Nursing With the Compliments of Springer Publishing Company, LLC #12;Clinical Scholars Review, Volume 5, Number 1, 2012 © Springer Publishing Company a search for curricular meeting points is possible.One such meeting point involved student exchanges

Grishok, Alla

420

Faculty of Science & Health School of Nursing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the perspective of a publicly funded health service in relation to health and social care costs but it will also of Ireland, from a public health care payer perspective · To determine the direct medical costs of overweightFaculty of Science & Health School of Nursing Research Officer (16 month contract until 31st July

Humphrys, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Faculty of Science & Health School of Nursing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to undergraduate and postgraduate syllabus development across all disciplines in mental health and primary careFaculty of Science & Health School of Nursing Research Officer ­ Expert by Experience (contract at DCU has well- developed, collaborative relationships with its key stakeholders and partner health

Humphrys, Mark

422

Aerothermoballistics of pyrophoric metal shrapnel in high speed, high Weber number flows. [From non-nuclear detonation of nuclear weapon  

SciTech Connect

A numerical simulation is presented on the aerothermoballistic behavior of pyrophoric metal shrapnel ejected at supersonic speeds from a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear weapon. The model predicts the aerodynamic and chemical heat transfer rates and the particle thermal responses including the time and position of melt initiation. Due to the high Weber number environment, the melting particle undergoes liquid layer stripping. The theoretical model, which is incorporated in the PLUTO computer code, predicts the liquid mass loss rate, characteristic liquid droplet diameter, temperature rise across the liquid film, and the coupled particle trajectory.

Connell, L.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Making IT Work in Practice Integrating the EPR-based nursing record with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Making IT Work in Practice Integrating the EPR-based nursing record with nursing work Glenn of healthcare work through the Electronic-Based Record (EPR). In this thesis I explore one particular aspect of these efforts: nursing care and the formalization of nurse's written accounts in the EPR- based nursing record

Langseth, Helge

424

One-dimensional delayed-detonation models of Type Ia supernovae: Confrontation to observations at bolometric maximum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The delayed-detonation explosion mechanism applied to a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf offers a very attractive model to explain the inferred characteristics of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The resulting ejecta are chemically stratified, have the same mass and roughly the same asymptotic kinetic energy, but exhibit a range in 56Ni mass. We investigate the contemporaneous photometric and spectroscopic properties of a sequence of delayed-detonation models, characterized by 56Ni masses between 0.18 and 0.81 Msun. Starting at 1d after explosion, we perform the full non-LTE, time-dependent radiative transfer with the code CMFGEN, with an accurate treatment of line blanketing, and compare our results to SNe Ia at bolometric maximum. Despite the 1D treatment, our approach delivers an excellent agreement to observations. We recover the range of SN Ia luminosities, colours, and spectral characteristics from the near-UV to 1 micron, for standard as well as low-luminosity 91bg-like SNe Ia. Our models predict an increase...

Blondin, Stéphane; Hillier, D John; Khokhlov, Alexei M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Plane thermonuclear detonation waves initiated by proton beams and quasi-one-dimensional model of fast ignition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The one-dimensional (1D) problem on bilatiral irradiation by proton beams of the plane layer of condensed DT mixture with length $2H$ and density $\\rho_0 \\leqslant 100\\rho_s$, where $\\rho_s$ is the fuel solid-state density at atmospheric pressure and temperature of 4 K, is considered. The proton kinetic energy is 1 MeV, the beam intensity is $10^{19}$ W/cm$^2$ and duration is 50 ps. A mathematical model is based on the one-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamics with a wide-range equation of state of the fuel, electron and ion heat conduction, DT fusion reaction kinetics, self-radiation of plasma and plasma heating by alpha-particles. If the ignition occurs, a plane detonation wave, which is adjacent to the front of the rarefaction wave, appears. Upon reflection of this detonation wave from the symmetry plane, the flow with the linear velocity profile along the spatial variable $x$ and with a weak dependence of the thermodynamic functions of $x$ occurs. An appropriate solution of the equations of hydrodynamics is...

Charakhch'yan, Alexander A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

NUMBER OF CLINICAL HOURS IN THE NURSING PROGRAMS AND NATIONAL COUNCIL LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR REGISTERED NURSES (NCLEX-RN) PASSING RATE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUMBER OF CLINICAL HOURS IN THE NURSING PROGRAMS AND NATIONAL COUNCIL LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR REGISTERED NURSES (NCLEX-RN) PASSING RATE By Tanya Longabach Submitted to the Department of Psychology and Research in Education... of the following thesis: NUMBER OF CLINICAL HOURS IN THE NURSING PROGRAMS AND NATIONAL COUNCIL LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR REGISTERED NURSES (NCLEX-RN) PASSING RATE ________________________________ Vicki Peyton, Ph. D. Chairperson...

Longabach, Tanya

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

427

Accident Investigation of the December 11, 2013, Integrated Device Fireset and Detonator Accidental Discharge at the Sandia National Laboratory Site 9920, Albuquerque, NM  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Accident Investigation Board investigated an accident at Sandia National Laboratories, Site 9920 on December 11, 2013. Site 9920 personnel were testing an integrated explosive device, containing a fireset and detonator when the IED unexpectedly went off during handling, causing injury to the firing officer’s left hand.

428

Relative performance of alumina coatings prepared by micro arc oxidation and detonation gun spray on AA 6063 under plain fatigue and fretting fatigue loading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study compares the performance of alumina coatings prepared by two different methods (micro arc oxidation (MAO) and detonation gun (D-gun...2O3 and ?-Al2O3, D-gun sprayed coating contained ?-Al2O3 wit...

S. Ganesh Sundara Raman; B. Rajasekaran

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines  

SciTech Connect

This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

Hicks, H.G.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Benefits and challenges experienced by elderly living in nursing homes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract: The purpose of nursing homes is to meet the physical needs, emotional and social needs of the residents. In Finland 11.4% of people aged… (more)

Kimondo, Juliah

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Economic determinants of quality of care in nursing homes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This dissertation examines the factors that will affect nursing home quality of care using several national data sources on market regulation, county demographic characteristics,… (more)

Lu, Wei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Payer source for single, elderly women in nursing homes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This study seeks to determine the payer source for single, elderly women in nursing homes. By determining the payer source for single, elderly women,… (more)

Nakagawa, Sage

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

E-Print Network 3.0 - american nursing research Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Public... . Using nursing process, students apply nursing and ... Source: Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria - Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College, City University of New...

434

E-Print Network 3.0 - american nursing home Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCHOOL OF NURSING Summary: roles in community health nursing in a variety of health care settings including home care, public... requirements for specialty...

435

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced nursing practice Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

excellence in each area. Expanded roles for advanced practice nurses under the health care reform law make... care doctors, nurse practitioners are increasingly called upon to...

436

Team based vs patient allocation systems in nursing: a comparative evaluation and socio-cultural discussion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis reports on an effort to promote, implement and experimentally evaluate the ?team nursing? model of nursing care in comparison with an ?individual patient… (more)

Fairbrother, Greg Scott

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Effect of composition changes on the structure and properties of W-Cr-Ni-C detonation gun coatings  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the microstructure and wear behavior of W-Cr-Ni-C coatings as a function of the composition of the starting powder were studied. The experimental powder compositions were chosen so that the results could be analyzed statistically as a mixture problem with the extreme vertices design. All coatings were deposited by identical detonation gun operating conditions. Although the variation of powder chemistry resulted in distinctively different powder morphologies, all coatings were found to be composed of the same 4 (possibly more) complex carbides. The amount and, to some degree, morphology of a particular carbide was found to change with composition. However, neither amount nor morphology could be correlated to microhardness or wear test results. Predictive equations based on powder composition were obtained which fit the wear test results very well.

Stavros, A.J. [Praxair Surface Technologies Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

438

The Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing in partnership with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

! Multidisciplinary approaches to management and policy ! Preparation for leadership roles across health care settings multidisciplinary approaches to management and policy in nursing and health care. Graduates of the program meet of Science in nursing from Hunter College and a Master of Public Administration from Baruch College

Qiu, Weigang

439

Gainful Employment Program Disclosure Duke University School of Nursing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Post-Master's Certificate - Gerontology CIP Code: 30.1101 CIP Description: Gerontology Program Length Research Management CIP Code: 51.3802 CIP Description: Nursing Administration Program Length in Credits: 19 Name: Post-Master's Certificate - Nursing and Healthcare Leadership CIP Code: 51.3802 CIP Description

Zhou, Pei

440

A longitudinal evaluation of residents’ health outcomes in nursing homes and residential care homes in Taiwan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The role of nursing homes (NHs) and residential care homes (RHs) frequently overlaps in Taiwan, raising...

Li-Fan Liu; Miin-Jye Wen

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Microenergetic research involving a coupled experimental and computational approach to evaluate microstructural effects on detonation and combustion at sub-millimeter geometries.  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to explosive sample preparation is described in which microelectronics-related processing techniques are utilized. Fused silica and alumina substrates were prepared utilizing laser machining. Films of PETN were deposited into channels within the substrates by physical vapor deposition. Four distinct explosive behaviors were observed with high-speed framing photography by driving the films with a donor explosive. Initiation at hot spots was directly observed, followed by either energy dissipation leading to failure, or growth to a detonation. Unsteady behavior in velocity and structure was observed as reactive waves failed due to decreasing channel width. Mesoscale simulations were performed to assist in experiment development and understanding. We have demonstrated the ability to pattern these films of explosives and preliminary mesoscale simulations of arrays of voids showed effects dependent on void size and that detonation would not develop with voids below a certain size. Future work involves experimentation on deposited films with regular patterned porosity to elucidate mesoscale explosive behavior.

Nogan, John; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew; Brundage, Aaron L.; Long, Gregory T.; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Tappan, Alexander Smith; Renlund, Anita Mariana; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Baer, Melvin R.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

The College of Nursing will be conducting live, informational webinars regarding the V-CARE program. Webinars will be conducted by a USF pre-Nursing Advisor and a USF Nursing Advisor and include information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Webinars will be conducted by a USF pre-Nursing Advisor and a USF Nursing Advisor and include information-CARE Admission and pre-Nursing advisor by calling 813-974-3819, emailing KirstenManzi@health.usf.edu, or making

Meyers, Steven D.

443

Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hillbrook Nursing Home Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Clancy, Montana Coordinates 46.4652096°, -111.9863826° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

444

Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (ABSN) Truman State University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. History 1 Summer 1 NU 240 Assessment & Fundamentals I 3 NU 280 Assessment & Fundamentals II 3 Total 6 Fall. Suggested program of study; course choices are up to student. See the Nursing Student Handbook for more

Gering, Jon C.

445

Perceived Readiness for Practice of Senior Baccalaureate Nursing Students  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experiences. This mixed method study examined the psychometric properties of a readiness for practice tool, and explored the effects of a clinical internship experience on the perception of readiness for practice of 483 senior baccalaureate nursing students...

Reagor, Janet

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

Motivational Factors in Registered Nurses Completing a Baccalaureate Completion Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to investigate what motivates associate degree (ADN) and diploma prepared registered nurses (RN) to pursue a baccalaureate degree (BSN) through an RN-to-BSN program. Studies have shown...

Alonzo, Amanda Leigh

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

447

Traditional and Accelerated Nursing Programs| A Comparison of Outcomes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Many avenues award nursing degrees, those being 2 year, 3 year, 4 year, accelerated or fast-track, and on-line. Using Knowles' adult learning theory as… (more)

Branson, Regina M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

White House honors Sandia nurse for helping women veterans, children |  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

White House honors Sandia nurse for helping women veterans, children | White House honors Sandia nurse for helping women veterans, children | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > White House honors Sandia nurse for helping ... White House honors Sandia nurse for helping women veterans, children Posted By Office of Public Affairs

449

Safety and efficacy of long-term use of rimantadine for prophylaxis of type A influenza in nursing homes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rimantadine for prophylaxis of type A influenza in nursing homes AS Monto SE Ohmit K Hornbuckle CL Pearce School of...were evaluated among elderly residents in 10 nursing homes. Within each nursing home, participating residents were randomly assigned...

A S Monto; S E Ohmit; K Hornbuckle; C L Pearce

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Data triage enables extreme-scale computing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

transmitted over a network. August 1, 2014 Spatial partitioning for the ocean simulation data set. Spatial partitioning for the ocean simulation data set. The main focus for ADR...

451

Radiological Triage | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Data results provided back to the field within 30-60 minutes. All NNSA teams that conduct search, detection and identification operations, to include the Radiological...

452

Taxonomic triage and the poverty of phylogeny  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...take advantage of new information technology capabilities...and manage biological information. We do not study phylogeny...store and retrieve information where it is known and...chromosome libraries and the Human Genome Project. Second, as observed...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Taxonomic triage and the poverty of phylogeny  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...clinging to archaic practices? Were they truly too dull-wit- ted to grasp the implications of Darwin? On the contrary...Klopper, R. R., Siebert, S. J. & Arnold, T. H. 2003 The price of collecting life. Nature 422, 375376. Tautz, D., Arctander...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Nursing and Patient Care Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Planning NIH-CC-DH-13-780235 Supervisory Nurse Consultant, Recruitment, Outreach and Workforce Management-778887 Office of the Chief Vacancy Announcement Number Supervisory Clinical Nurse, Staffing and Workforce

455

HUNTER COLLEGE OF THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK HUNTER-BELLEVUE SCHOOL OF NURSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The program emphasizes multidisciplinary approaches to management and policy in nursing offer a program of study leading to the Master of Science (MS) degree Courses (33 credits) N 700 Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Science

Qiu, Weigang

456

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute care nurses Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nurse Practitioner - Acute Care Sum of Applied 9 13 16 9 9 19 18 20 34 40 15 202 Adult Health Nurse... Practitioner - Acute Care Sum of Admitted 7 9 8 3 4 15 13 11 20 14 6 110...

457

In situ analysis of soil at an open burning/open detonation disposal facility: J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Investigators have used a field-portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer to screen soils for a suite of metals indicative of the open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) activities that occurred at the J-Field site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The field XRF results were incorporated into a multiphase investigation of contaminants at the Toxic Burning Pits Area of Concern at J-Field. The authors determined that the field-portable XRF unit used for the study and the general concept of field XRF screening are invaluable tools for investigating an OB/OD site where intrusive sampling techniques could present unacceptable hazards to site workers.

Martino, L.; Cho, E. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Wrobel, J. [US Army Directorate of Safety, Health, and the Environment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Effectiveness of a Nurse-Managed, Lay-Led Tobacco Cessation Intervention Among Ohio Appalachian Women  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effectiveness of a Nurse-Managed, Lay-Led Tobacco Cessation Intervention Among Ohio...was to evaluate a nurse-managed, lay-led tobacco cessation intervention delivered...enrolled in a nurse-managed, lay-led protocol that incorporated nicotine replacement...

Mary Ellen Wewers; Amy K. Ferketich; Judith Harness; Electra D. Paskett

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

HUNTER-BELLEVUE SCHOOL OF NURSING & BARUCH COLLEGE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and agencies. The program emphasizes multidisciplinary approaches to management and policy in nursing School of Public Affairs offer a program of study leading to both the Master of Science (MS) degree of Nursing Science N 702 Nursing Research N 704 Urban Health Care Systems N 749 Health Promotion

Qiu, Weigang

460

HUNTER-BELLEVUE SCHOOL OF NURSING & BARUCH COLLEGE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and agencies. The program emphasizes multidisciplinary approaches to management and policy in nursing School of Public Affairs offer a program of study leading to both the Master of Science (MS) degree (33 credits) N 700 Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Science N 702 Nursing Research N 704 Urban

Qiu, Weigang

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

HUNTER-BELLEVUE SCHOOL OF NURSING & BARUCH COLLEGE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and agencies. The program emphasizes multidisciplinary approaches to management and policy in nursing School of Public Affairs offer a program of study leading to both the Master of Science (MS) degree Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Science N 702 Nursing Research N 704 Urban Health Care Systems N 749 Health

Qiu, Weigang

462

Edinburgh Research Explorer PROSPECTIV-a pilot trial of a nurse-led psychoeducational  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Edinburgh Research Explorer PROSPECTIV-a pilot trial of a nurse-led psychoeducational intervention, 'PROSPECTIV-a pilot trial of a nurse-led psychoeducational intervention delivered in primary care to prostate date: 16. Jun. 2014 #12;PROSPECTIV--a pilot trial of a nurse-led psychoeducational intervention

Millar, Andrew J.

463

October 23, 2011 Hospitals, nursing homes team up to cut high  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

October 23, 2011 Hospitals, nursing homes team up to cut high readmission rates Letitia Stein, Times Staff Writer A new policy pushes hospital and nursing home coordination. Florida's hospitals and nursing homes. For example, St. Anthony's Hospital in St. Petersburg recently realized that some heart

Belogay, Eugene A.

464

Chemical Concentrations in Field Mice from Open-Detonation Firing Sites TA-36 Minie and TA-39 Point 6 at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.) were collected at two open-detonation (high explosive) firing sites - Minie at Technical Area (TA) 36 and Point 6 at TA-39 - at Los Alamos National Laboratory in August of 2010 and in February of 2011 for chemical analysis. Samples of whole body field mice from both sites were analyzed for target analyte list elements (mostly metals), dioxin/furans, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, high explosives, and perchlorate. In addition, uranium isotopes were analyzed in a composite sample collected from TA-36 Minie. In general, all constituents, with the exception of lead at TA-39 Point 6, in whole body field mice samples collected from these two open-detonation firing sites were either not detected or they were detected below regional statistical reference levels (99% confidence level), biota dose screening levels, and/or soil ecological chemical screening levels. The amount of lead in field mice tissue collected from TA-39 Point 6 was higher than regional background, and some lead levels in the soil were higher than the ecological screening level for the field mouse; however, these levels are not expected to affect the viability of the populations over the site as a whole.

Fresquez, Philip R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Flexible nurse staffing based on hourly bed census predictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during the upcoming years. Keywords. Probability; workforce planning; inpatient care; nurse interaction between staffing requirements and several interrelated planning issues such as case mix, care unit partition- ing and size, and surgical block planning. Inspired by the numerical results, the AMC decided

Boucherie, Richard J.

466

UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER COLLEGE OF NURSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the course requirements. The Nurse Anesthesia Program assigns students with the assistance of the designated Anesthesia Program. The site designates a clinical coordinator which can be either a CRNA Attendance Policy, Inclement Weather, and Sick Policy which can be found in the Handbook on pages 46, 59

Cui, Yan

467

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 3 Nursing Practice Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROCEDURE FOR: Infusion Therapy: Preparation infusions must be infused via an infusion pump using guardrails, as applicable. Specific documentation is required for dose and volume infused on the paper or electronic record. 2. Verify and document dose and

Oliver, Douglas L.

468

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 4 Nursing Practice Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROCEDURE FOR: Infusion Therapy: Accessing Implanted transparent dressing Solution to be infused 10 ml NS drawn up in 10 or 12 ml syringe Heparin solution (100 of Connecticut Health Center PROCEDURE FOR: Infusion Therapy: Accessing Implanted Central Venous Access Ports

Oliver, Douglas L.

469

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 5 Nursing Practice Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROCEDURE FOR: Infusion Therapy: Blood Draws from: ACTION POINTS OF EMPHASIS 1. Explain procedure to the patient. 2. Assess all medications and infusions. Clamp catheter and disconnect infusion from entering the port being sampled. 5. Prep the injection site

Oliver, Douglas L.

470

ASC/Nursing Engineering and Applied Science September 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASC/Nursing Engineering and Applied Science September 2010 5 11 6 6 7 8 Residence Days Residence First date to apply to graduate for Spring 2011 (tentative) First date to apply to graduate for Spring April Exam Period 22 25 Extended Program Spring Term begins Last date to apply to graduate for Spring

Offin, Dan

471

High-resolution numerical simulation and analysis of Mach reflection structures in detonation waves in low-pressure H2 - O2 - Ar mixtures: a summary of results obtained with the adaptive mesh refinement framework AMROC  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multi-dimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the non-equilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniques in practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, i.e. under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Post detonation nuclear forensics  

SciTech Connect

The problem of working backwards from the debris of a nuclear explosion to attempt to attribute the event to a particular actor is singularly difficult technically. However, moving from physical information of any certainty through the political steps that would lead to national action presents daunting policy questions as well. This monograph will outline the operational and physical components of this problem and suggest the difficulty of the policy questions that remain.

Davis, Jay [The Hertz Foundation, 2300 First Street, Suite 250, Livermore, California (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

473

Signatures of Delayed Detonation, Asymmetry, and Electron Capture in the Mid-Infrared Spectra of Supernovae 2003hv and 2005df  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first mid-infrared (5.2-15.2 micron) spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2003hv and 2005df). The detection of Ni emission in SN 2005df 135 days after the explosion provides direct observational evidence of high-density nuclear burning forming a significant amount of stable Ni in a Type Ia supernova. The observed emission line profiles in the SN 2005df spectrum indicate a chemically stratified ejecta structure. The SN 2005df Ar lines also exhibit a two-pronged emission profile implying that the Ar emission deviates significantly from spherical symmetry. The spectrum of SN 2003hv also shows signs of asymmetry, exhibiting blueshifted [Co III] which matches the blueshift of [Fe II] lines in nearly coeval NIR spectra. Finally, local thermodynamic equilibrium abundance estimates for the yield of radioactive 56Ni give ~0.5 Msun, for SN 2003hv, but only ~0.13-0.22 Msun for the apparently subluminous SN 2005df, supporting the notion that the luminosity of SNe Ia is primarily a function of the radioactive 56Ni yield. The chemically stratified ejecta structure observed in SN 2005df matches the predictions of delayed-detonation (DD) models, but is entirely incompatible with current three-dimensional deflagration models. Furthermore the degree that this layering persists to the innermost regions of the supernova is difficult to explain even in a DD scenario, where the innermost ejecta are still the product of deflagration burning. Thus, while these results are roughly consistent with a delayed detonation, it is clear that a key piece of physics is still missing from our understanding of the earliest phases of SN Ia explosions.

Christopher L. Gerardy; W. P. S. Meikle; Rubina Kotak; Peter Hoeflich; Duncan Farrah; Alexei V. Filippenko; Ryan J. Foley; Peter Lundqvist; Seppo Mattila; Monica Pozzo; Jesper Sollerman; Schuyler D. Van Dyk; J. Craig Wheeler

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

474

Abstract P3-08-04: Survivorship care involving a nurse-led survivorship consultation, community support and shared care with primary practitioners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Survivorship care involving a nurse-led survivorship consultation, community support...breast cancer were invited to a Nurse-led consultation where the disease, its pathology...definitive treatment were offered Nurse-led survivorship consultation. 29 declined...

GB Mann; M Pitcher; K Shanahan; L Storer; I Rio; B Bell; S Hookey; M Hickey; L Kennedy; R Curwen-Walker; S Vij; A Park; C Bell

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced nurse practitioner Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

advanced certificate psychiatric nurse practitioner... on the ... Source: Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria - Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College, City University of New...

476

Acceptance of Hip Protectors for Hip Fracture Prevention in Nursing Homes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to prevent hip fractures 548 fall-prone senior citizens living in 20 nursing homes participated in a randomized controlled trial of...

M. Hubacher; A. Wettstein

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - addressing nursing services Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: JUNE 26 2011 2pm - 5pm THEME: MEANINGFUL USE: IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING SERVICE & EDUCATION HYATT... CALL FOR ABSTRACTS PRESENTATIONS - POSTERS - WORKSHOPS TWENTY NINTH...

478

E-Print Network 3.0 - army nursing students Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Research Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 For College of Nursing student, David Weigel, jumping out of airplanes, physical training and military science are...

479

Service quality in nursing homes. A construct, measurement and performance model to increase client focus.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis is concerned with the quality of care for the elderly in nursing homes, responding to a critical social and demographic imperative. The aim… (more)

Lapré, Frederik Albert Ludwig

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Relationship between Quality of Care and Negligence Litigation in Nursing Homes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of nursing home care target the facility, not the individual clinicians who work in the facility. Quality measures for nearly all nursing homes in the United States are collected routinely, are detailed, and are widely used in research. In addition, the predominance of large nursing home chains provides... In this analysis of a large national sample of nursing homes, those rated as having more deficiencies in quality of care were more likely to have malpractice claims brought against them; however, the difference was modest.

Studdert D.M.Spittal M.J.Mello M.M.O'Malley A.J.Stevenson D.G.

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "detonation nurse triage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Descriptive study and pharmacotherapeutic intervention in patients with epilepsy or Parkinson's disease at nursing homes in southern Sweden  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objectives...: To describe the drug use in epilepsy and Parkinson's patients living in nursing homes and to evaluate the impact of multi-...Methods: Nursing home residents with epilepsy or Parkin...

Patrik Midlöv; Åsa Bondesson; Tommy Eriksson…

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

HUNTER COLLEGE OF THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK HUNTER-BELLEVUE SCHOOL OF NURSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

professionals in providing preventive mental health services to target populations and design and implement new nursing content and guided learning experiences in a variety of settings and roles for a total of 600 with HIV/AIDS, Integrative Modalities, and Nursing Education are available. Requirements for Admission

Qiu, Weigang

483

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 2 Clinical Manual -Nursing Practice Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be maintained in a Pyxis machine or double locked refrigerator box, without exception. 2. Monitoring. A discrepancy review is performed every shift. The charge nurse or designee will check to see that no open discrepancies exist and will relate this to the incoming charge nurse at change of shift. 2

Oliver, Douglas L.

484

UCHC Competency Checklist: ANNUAL Position Title:Nursing Care Associate Employee Name: Unit: _______  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: CLUSTER SPECIFIC COMPETENCIES 1. Reports to charge nurse at the beginning of shift for assignment and daily checklist 2. Completes the daily checklist; communicates with charge nurse regarding unfinished. 4. Documents follow up to out of range refrigerator, freezer, and warmer temperatures. 5. Docks

Oliver, Douglas L.

485

USF Graduate Catalog 20142015 680http://health.usf.edu/nocms/nursing/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

health care issues such as heart disease, Alzheimer's/dementia, and cancer. b. Through the CON RESTOREUSF Graduate Catalog 20142015 680http://health.usf.edu/nocms/nursing/ SECTION 20http://health.usf.edu/nocms/nursing/ Changes to Note The follow curricular changes for the College

Meyers, Steven D.

486

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 3 Clinical Manual -Nursing Practice Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

documentation system, the admission database consists of an admission history and a past medical-surgical history. The past medical and surgical history will be prepopulated from the previous admission. a. If a nurse partially completes the admission database a second nurse can use the "Revise

Oliver, Douglas L.

487

Modeling the Spread of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Nursing Homes for Elderly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the Spread of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Nursing Homes for Elderly hospital settings, including nursing homes. It is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes mortality homes is both hospital- and community-like. Transmission occurs via hands of health care workers (HCWs

Ruan, Shigui

488

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 5 Clinical Manual -Nursing Practice Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­ Department of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROTOCOL FOR: Infusion Therapy: Management infusion of irritant or vesicant agents. The status of the IV site will be documented using the Phlebitis and Infiltration Recording Scales (see Appendix A). 2. The nurse should immediately stop all infusions when

Oliver, Douglas L.

489

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 2 Clinical Manual -Nursing Practice Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­ Department of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROTOCOL FOR: Infusion Therapy: Equipment Hospital ­ Department of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROTOCOL FOR: Infusion Therapy should coincide with administration set changes. 11. Infusion pumps and other flow control devices should

Oliver, Douglas L.

490

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 3 Clinical Manual -Nursing Practice Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­ Department of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROTOCOL FOR: Infusion Therapy: Infection protective equipment (PPE) shall be worn during all infusion procedures that potentially expose the nurse. Appropriate hand hygiene shall be performed before and after handling any component of the entire infusion

Oliver, Douglas L.

491

Diagnostic accuracy of Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism in nursing homes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractIntroduction Management of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism in nursing homes depends on a timely and accurate diagnosis. However, little is known about the diagnostic accuracy of these parkinsonian syndromes in nursing homes. We examined this issue in a large group of Dutch nursing home residents. Methods Twelve large nursing home organizations in the Netherlands accounting for 100 nursing homes with a total population of 5480 residents participated. Residents with PD or atypical parkinsonism were identified according to their nursing home medical chart diagnosis. Additionally, local pharmacists provided a list of all residents using antiparkinson medication. We compared the admission diagnosis to a clinical diagnosis made in the study, based upon interview and detailed neurological examination by movement disorders experts. Diagnoses were based on accepted clinical criteria for PD and atypical parkinsonism. Results In the total population of 5480 residents, 258 had previously been diagnosed with a form of parkinsonism according to their medical record. In 53 of these residents (20.5%) we changed or rejected the diagnosis. Specifically, we found no parkinsonism in 22 of these 53 residents (8.5% of all patients with suspected parkinsonism). In the remaining 31 residents (12%), we established a new diagnosis within the parkinsonian spectrum. Conclusions In a large population of Dutch nursing home residents, 20% of diagnoses within the parkinsonian spectrum were inaccurate. Almost 9% of residents had inadvertently received a diagnosis of parkinsonism. Better recognition of parkinsonism in nursing homes is important, because of the consequences for management and prognosis.

N.J. Weerkamp; G. Tissingh; P.J.E. Poels; S.U. Zuidema; M. Munneke; R.T.C.M. Koopmans; B.R. Bloem

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Patricia Flatley Brennan, PhD, RN, FAAN Lillian S. Moehlman-Bascom Professor of Nursing and Industrial Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Industrial Engineering UW­Madison School of Nursing Because the majority of health care takes place MSN in nursing from the University of Pennsylvania, and her MSIE and PhD in industrial engineering. With an MSN in nursing and a PhD in engineering, Brennan is uniquely qualified to address patient care

Sheridan, Jennifer

493

Safety of prolonged administration of rimantadine hydrochloride in the prophylaxis of influenza A virus infections in nursing homes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...influenza A virus infections in nursing homes. P A Patriarca N A Kater A P Kendal D...placebo-controlled trial in three nursing homes during a community epidemic of influenza...influenza A virus infections in nursing homes. | We evaluated the safety of rimantadine...

P A Patriarca; N A Kater; A P Kendal; D J Bregman; J D Smith; R K Sikes

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Diversity of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Residents of 26 Nursing Homes in Orange County, California  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Strains Isolated from Residents of 26 Nursing Homes in Orange County, California Lyndsey O...Bath, Bath, United Kingdom. Nursing homes represent a unique and important methicillin-resistant...transported back into these settings from nursing homes. Since MRSA bacteria are prevalent in...

Lyndsey O. Hudson; Courtney Reynolds; Brian G. Spratt; Mark C. Enright; Victor Quan; Diane Kim; Paul Hannah; Lydia Mikhail; Richard Alexander; Douglas F. Moore; Daniel Godoy; Cynthia J. Bishop; Susan S. Huang

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

495

Implications of an Improvised Nuclear Device Detonation on Command and Control for Surrounding Regions at the Local, State and Federal Levels  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses command and control issues relating to the operation of Incident Command Posts (ICPs) and Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) in the surrounding area jurisdictions following the detonation of an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). Although many aspects of command and control will be similar to what is considered to be normal operations using the Incident Command System (ICS) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS), the IND response will require many new procedures and associations in order to design and implement a successful response. The scope of this white paper is to address the following questions: • Would the current command and control framework change in the face of an IND incident? • What would the management of operations look like as the event unfolded? • How do neighboring and/or affected jurisdictions coordinate with the state? • If the target area’s command and control infrastructure is destroyed or disabled, how could neighboring jurisdictions assist with command and control of the targeted jurisdiction? • How would public health and medical services fit into the command and control structure? • How can pre-planning and common policies improve coordination and response effectiveness? • Where can public health officials get federal guidance on radiation, contamination and other health and safety issues for IND response planning and operations?

Pasquale, David A.; Hansen, Richard G.

2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

496

Diversity in graduate nursing education: an experience in collaboration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recent shift in public policy away from the use of affirmative action programs in the admissions process of institutes of higher learning has motivated colleges and universities to explore alternative means for achieving their goal to increase the diversity of their student bodies. The imperative to promote diversity is particularly relevant in nursing education because there is an emphasis on preparing students to enter a profession that is committed to providing health care to all regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. In 1997, the nursing programs at 2 Florida schools—Bethune-Cookman College (B-CC), a historic African-American college, and the University of Florida (UF), a land-grant university—initiated a collaborative relationship with the goals of improving access to graduate education for B-CC graduates and increasing the diversity of the graduate student body at UF. A central component of the collaboration is the Gator-Cats Mentoring Program in which students are recruited through career counseling and financial planning, mentored through the application process and the program, and offered continuing support in the skills required in graduate studies. This collaboration can serve as a model for other institutions seeking effective ways of increasing the diversity of their student populations.

Gloria McWhirter; Myrna Courage; Alma Yearwood-Dixon

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

UCSF School of Nursing Honor Roll of Giving 2006/2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Doctoral Reunion 6 School of Nursing Board Members 6 Leadership Giving 8 Donors 2006/2007 10 Hester the world over. U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, for example, marked the occasion by submitting a Record

Soloveichik, David

498

Effect of an infection control programme in enteral feeding bacterial contamination in nursing homes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was to investigate the effectiveness of an Infection Control Programme (ICP) in knowledge and practice of enteral feeding of nursing home staff, and to explore any enteral feed contamination and correl...

SSK Ho; MMY Tse; MV Boost

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Urinary tract infection (UTI) and infection control in municipal nursing homes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A formalized infection control organization does not exist in the Danish municipal sector. The prevalence of infections among residents in nursing homes is unknown and knowledge is sparse on...

A-M Andersen; B Kristensen

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

School Nurses' Role as Opinion Leaders Regarding the HPV Vaccine for Youth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

opinion leaders regarding the HPV vaccine. The purpose of this study was to: (1) explain how the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory explains school nurses' roles as opinion leaders regarding the HPV vaccine; (2) document current literature regarding...

Rosen, Brittany Leigh

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z