National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for determine end-use product

  1. Estimating Methods for Determining End-Use Water Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Building Metering Guidance specifies buildings with water using processes and whole building water consumption that exceeds 1,000 gallons per day must have a water meter installed. Below are methods for estimating daily water use for typical end-uses that drive building-level, end-use water consumption.

  2. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  3. Energy balances in the production and end-use of methanol derived from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-10

    Analysis is performed for three combinations of fuels, specifically: net petroleum gain (petroleum only); net premium fuel gain (natural gas and petroleum); and net energy gain (includes all fuels; does not include free energy from sun). The base case selected for evaluation was that of an energy-efficient coal-to-methanol plant located in Montana/Wyoming and using the Lurgi conversion process. The following variations of the base coal-methanol case are also analyzed: gasoline from coal with methanol as an intermediate step (Mobil-M); and methanol from coal (Texaco gasification process). For each process, computations are made for the product methanol as a replacement for unleaded gasoline in a conventional spark ignition engine and as a chemical feedstock. For the purpose of the energy analysis, computations are made for three situations regarding mileage of methanol/ gasoline compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline: mileage of the two fuels equal, mileage 4 percent better with gasohol, and mileage 4 percent worse with gasohol. The standard methodology described for the base case applies to all of the variations.

  4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHASTAN: USING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY-PRODUCT SULFUR FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SECONDARY END-USE PRODUCTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.D.; VAGIN, S.; BEALL, P.W.; LEVINTOV, B.L.

    2004-09-25

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for by-product sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a low-value industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The research and development to deploy Kazakhstan recycled sulfur for secondary applications described in this paper is being conducted with support from the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (DOE IPP).

  5. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  6. ,"California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Consumption by End ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  7. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End ... 11:05:20 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  8. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Consumption by End ... 11:05:14 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Oklahoma Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  9. ,"Texas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Consumption by End ... 6:36:11 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  10. End-use taxes: Current EIA practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-17

    There are inconsistencies in the EIA published end-use price data with respect to Federal, state, and local government sales and excise taxes; some publications include end-use taxes and others do not. The reason for including these taxes in end-use energy prices is to provide consistent and accurate information on the total cost of energy purchased by the final consumer. Preliminary estimates are made of the effect on prices (bias) reported in SEPER (State Energy Price and Expenditure Report) resulting from the inconsistent treatment of taxes. EIA has undertaken several actions to enhance the reporting of end-use energy prices.

  11. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas ...

  12. ,"Arizona Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arizona Natural Gas ...

  13. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas ...

  14. Preliminary CBECS End-Use Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    For the past three CBECS (1989, 1992, and 1995), we used a statistically-adjusted engineering (SAE) methodology to estimate end-use consumption. The core of the SAE methodology...

  15. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 -- Executive...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary Executive Summary Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source:...

  16. Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses This tip sheet outlines alternative strategies for low-pressure end uses as a ...

  17. Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. DOE Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study aims to improve the understanding of lighting energy usage in U.S. residential dwellings using a regional estimation framework. The framework allows for the estimation of lamp usage and energy consumption 1) nationally and by region of the United States, 2) by certain household characteristics, 3) by location within the home, 4) by certain lamp characteristics, and 5) by certain categorical cross-classifications.

  18. Healthcare Energy End-Use Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Pless, S.; Kung, F.

    2014-08-01

    NREL partnered with two hospitals (MGH and SUNY UMU) to collect data on the energy used for multiple thermal and electrical end-use categories, including preheat, heating, and reheat; humidification; service water heating; cooling; fans; pumps; lighting; and select plug and process loads. Additional data from medical office buildings were provided for an analysis focused on plug loads. Facility managers, energy managers, and engineers in the healthcare sector will be able to use these results to more effectively prioritize and refine the scope of investments in new metering and energy audits.

  19. Realizing Building End-Use Efficiency with Ermerging Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information about the implementation of emerging technologies to maximize end-use efficiency in buildings.

  20. Engineered Products: Noncompliance Determination (2012-SE-5401)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Engineered Products Company finding that basic model 15701 of metal halide lamp fixture does not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  1. Healthcare Energy: Using End-Use Data to Inform Decisions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The relative magnitude of the energy consumption of different end uses can be a starting point for prioritizing energy investments and action, whether the scope under consideration involves new metering, targeted energy audits, or end-use equipment upgrades.

  2. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energys (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a completed table of energy end use by sector with mechanical drives broken down by pumps, fans, compressed air, and drives.

  3. Detailed End Use Load Modeling for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2010-04-09

    The field of distribution system analysis has made significant advances in the past ten years. It is now standard practice when performing a power flow simulation to use an algorithm that is capable of unbalanced per-phase analysis. Recent work has also focused on examining the need for time-series simulations instead of examining a single time period, i.e., peak loading. One area that still requires a significant amount of work is the proper modeling of end use loads. Currently it is common practice to use a simple load model consisting of a combination of constant power, constant impedance, and constant current elements. While this simple form of end use load modeling is sufficient for a single point in time, the exact model values are difficult to determine and it is inadequate for some time-series simulations. This paper will examine how to improve simple time invariant load models as well as develop multi-state time variant models.

  4. Healthcare Energy End-Use Monitoring | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Healthcare Energy End-Use Monitoring Healthcare Energy End-Use Monitoring NREL partnered with two hospitals (MGH and SUNY UMU) to collect data on the energy used for multiple thermal and electrical end-use categories, including preheat, heating, and reheat; humidification; service water heating; cooling; fans; pumps; lighting; and select plug and process loads. Additional data from medical office buildings were provided for an analysis focused on plug loads. Facility managers, energy managers,

  5. Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    End Uses for Maximum Efficiency Compressed air is one of the ... such as pneumatic tools, pneumatic controls, compressed air operated cylinders for machine actuation, ...

  6. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1995 - Index...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End-Use Analyst Contact: Joelle Michaels joelle.michaels@eia.doe.gov CBECS Manager URL: http:www.eia.govconsumptioncommercialdataarchivecbecscbec-eu1.html separater bar If...

  7. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimates The end-use estimates had two main sources: the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system....

  8. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  9. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use" ...

  10. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Hampshire ...

  11. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island ...

  12. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1989 Energy End-Use Intensities Overview Full Report Tables National estimates and analysis of energy consumption by fuel (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district...

  13. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings1992 -- Overview...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in the way that variables such as building age and employment density could interact with the engineering estimates of end-use consumption. The SAE equations were...

  14. End-Use Sector Flowchart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    End-Use Sector Flowchart End-Use Sector Flowchart This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors-transportation, industry, commercial and residential-identified in Figure 1. By clicking on any of the boxes with the word "Sector" in the title will reveal the more detailed structure within that sector. PDF icon End-Use Sector Flowchart More Documents & Publications Barriers to Industrial Energy

  15. Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Maximum Efficiency (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Maintaining System Air Quality Compressed Air Storage Strategies Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses

  16. DOE Publishes Supplemental Proposed Determination for Miscellaneous Residential Refrigeration Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a supplemental proposed determination regarding miscellaneous residential refrigeration products.

  17. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    as buildings of the 1980's. In this section, intensities are based upon the entire building stock, not just those buildings using a particular fuel for a given end use. This...

  18. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas ...

  19. Distribution Infrastructure and End Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Infrastructure and End Use Distribution Infrastructure and End Use The expanded Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) created under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 requires 36 billion gallons of biofuels to be blended into transportation fuel by 2022. Meeting the RFS2 target introduces new challenges for U.S. infrastructure, as modifications will be needed to transport and deliver renewable fuels that are not compatible with existing petroleum infrastructure. The

  20. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  1. Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

  2. DOE Issues Proposed Coverage Determination for Hearth Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has issued a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed determination regarding energy conservation standards for hearth products.

  3. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  4. End-Use Opportunity Analysis from Progress Indicator Results for ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Xie, YuLong

    2015-02-05

    This report and an accompanying spreadsheet (PNNL 2014a) compile the end use building simulation results for prototype buildings throughout the United States. The results represent he energy use of each edition of ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013). PNNL examined the simulation results to determine how the remaining energy was used.

  5. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Lobscheid, A.B.

    2006-06-01

    This study assesses for California how increasing end-use electrical energy efficiency from installing residential insulation impacts exposures and disease burden from power-plant pollutant emissions. Installation of fiberglass attic insulation in the nearly 3 million electricity-heated homes throughout California is used as a case study. The pollutants nitrous oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzo(a)pyrene, benzene, and naphthalene are selected for the assessment. Exposure is characterized separately for rural and urban environments using the CalTOX model, which is a key input to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemicals and other environmental Impacts (TRACI). The output of CalTOX provides for urban and rural populations emissions-to-intake factors, which are expressed as an individual intake fraction (iFi). The typical iFi from power plant emissions are on the order of 10{sup -13} (g intake per g emitted) in urban and rural regions. The cumulative (rural and urban) product of emissions, population, and iFi is combined with toxic effects factors to determine human damage factors (HDFs). HDF are expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per kilogram pollutant emitted. The HDF approach is applied to the insulation case study. Upgrading existing residential insulation to US Department of Energy (DOE) recommended levels eliminates over the assmned 50-year lifetime of the insulation an estimated 1000 DALYs from power-plant emissions per million tonne (Mt) of insulation installed, mostly from the elimination of PM2.5 emissions. In comparison, the estimated burden from the manufacture of this insulation in DALYs per Mt is roughly four orders of magnitude lower than that avoided.

  6. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  7. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  8. Alternative Strategies for Low-Pressure End Uses; Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... IOF focuses on the following eight energy and resource intensive industries: * Aluminum * Forest Products * Metal Casting * Petroleum * Chemicals * Glass * Mining * Steel The ...

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This volume details the end-use electricity demand and efficiency assumptions. The projection of electricity demand is an important consideration in determining the extent to which a predominantly renewable electricity future is feasible. Any scenario regarding future electricity use must consider many factors, including technological, sociological, demographic, political, and economic changes (e.g., the introduction of new energy-using devices; gains in energy efficiency and process improvements; changes in energy prices, income, and user behavior; population growth; and the potential for carbon mitigation).

  10. Advanced Distributor Products: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0304)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Advanced Distributor Products finding that basic model N2H348A(G)KB* + H,GE50560 + *8MPV125 and basic model N2H360A(G)KB* + H,GE50560 + MV16J22**B* do not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  11. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  12. ISSUANCE 2016-05-19: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Final Determination of Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products as Covered Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Final Determination of Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products as Covered Products

  13. ISSUANCE 2016-02-26: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Supplemental Proposed Determination of Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products as Covered Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Supplemental Proposed Determination of Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products as Covered Products

  14. Energy Demand: Limits on the Response to Higher Energy Prices in the End-Use Sectors (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption in the end-use demand sectorsresidential, commercial, industrial, and transportationgenerally shows only limited change when energy prices increase. Several factors that limit the sensitivity of end-use energy demand to price signals are common across the end-use sectors. For example, because energy generally is consumed in long-lived capital equipment, short-run consumer responses to changes in energy prices are limited to reductions in the use of energy services or, in a few cases, fuel switching; and because energy services affect such critical lifestyle areas as personal comfort, medical services, and travel, end-use consumers often are willing to absorb price increases rather than cut back on energy use, especially when they are uncertain whether price increases will be long-lasting. Manufacturers, on the other hand, often are able to pass along higher energy costs, especially in cases where energy inputs are a relatively minor component of production costs. In economic terms, short-run energy demand typically is inelastic, and long-run energy demand is less inelastic or moderately elastic at best.

  15. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Other(f) Code(a) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States

  16. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel --

  17. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21

  18. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547

  19. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million Other(e) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION

  20. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fue -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use 41 71 17

  1. "Code(a)","End Use","for Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "," ",,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," ","Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","for Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural ...

  2. "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,,"Distillate" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural ...

  3. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  4. An Assessment of Interval Data and Their Potential Application to Residential Electricity End-Use Modeling

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    An Assessment of Interval Data and Their Potential Application to Residential Electricity End- Use Modeling February 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | An Assessment of Interval Data and Their Potential Application to Residential Electricity End-Use Modeling i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S.

  5. GridLAB-D Technical Support Document: Residential End-Use Module Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Gowri, Krishnan; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2008-07-31

    1.0 Introduction The residential module implements the following end uses and characteristics to simulate the power demand in a single family home: • Water heater • Lights • Dishwasher • Range • Microwave • Refrigerator • Internal gains (plug loads) • House (heating/cooling loads) The house model considers the following four major heat gains/losses that contribute to the building heating/cooling load: 1. Conduction through exterior walls, roof and fenestration (based on envelope UA) 2. Air infiltration (based on specified air change rate) 3. Solar radiation (based on CLTD model and using tmy data) 4. Internal gains from lighting, people, equipment and other end use objects. The Equivalent Thermal Parameter (ETP) approach is used to model the residential loads and energy consumption. The following sections describe the modeling assumptions for each of the above end uses and the details of power demand calculations in the residential module.

  6. Table 2.11 Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption by End Use, 2003 (Trillion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption by End Use, 2003 (Trillion Btu) End Use Space Heating Cooling Ventilation Water Heating Lighting Cooking Refrigeration Office Equipment Computers Other 1 Total All Buildings 167 481 436 88 1,340 24 381 69 156 418 3,559 Principal Building Activity Education 15 74 83 11 113 2 16 4 32 21 371 Food Sales 6 12 7 Q 46 2 119 2 2 10 208 Food Service 10 28 24 10 42 13 70 2 2 15 217 Health Care 6 34 42 2 105 1 8 4 10 36 248 Inpatient 3 25 38 2 76 1 4 2 7 21

  7. ,"New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use",13,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","12/22/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of November 2016" ,"Excel

  8. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use",13,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","12/22/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of November 2016" ,"Excel File

  9. End-use Breakdown: The Building Energy Modeling Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    End-use Breakdown: The Building Energy Modeling Blog End-use Breakdown: The Building Energy Modeling Blog RSS Welcome to the Building Technologies Office's Building Energy Modeling blog. April 14, 2016 A before-and-after image of the OpenStudio Measure "AEDG K-12 school daylighting package" demonstrates the surgical power of Measures. Source: NREL. There's a Measure for That! OpenStudio Measures are short programs that can be used to transform models, create custom visualizations and

  10. Electricity end-use efficiency: Experience with technologies, markets, and policies throughout the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.; Price, L.; Geller, H.; Nadel, S.

    1992-03-01

    In its August meeting in Geneva, the Energy and Industry Subcommittee (EIS) of the Policy Response Panel of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified a series of reports to be produced. One of these reports was to be a synthesis of available information on global electricity end-use efficiency, with emphasis on developing nations. The report will be reviewed by the IPCC and approved prior to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Brazil, June 1992. A draft outline for the report was submitted for review at the November 1991 meeting of the EIS. This outline, which was accepted by the EIS, identified three main topics to be addressed in the report: status of available technologies for increasing electricity end-use efficiency; review of factors currently limiting application of end-use efficiency technologies; and review of policies available to increase electricity end-use efficiency. The United States delegation to the EIS agreed to make arrangements for the writing of the report.

  11. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  12. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  14. Table B19. Energy End Uses, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Energy End Uses, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Energy Used For (more than one may apply)",,,,,"All Buildings","Energy Used For (more than one may apply)" ,,"Space Heating","Cooling","Water Heating","Cooking","Manufact-uring",,"Space

  15. ISSUANCE 2016-04-11: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Determination of Portable Air Conditioners as a Covered Consumer Product

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Determination of Portable Air Conditioners as a Covered Consumer Product

  16. ,"U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residential",4,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 2","Commercial",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data

  17. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residential",4,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 2","Commercial",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data

  18. Table 3. Top Five Retailers of Electricity, with End Use Sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Five Retailers of Electricity, with End Use Sectors, 2014" "Alaska" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of Provider","All Sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Golden Valley Elec Assn Inc","Cooperative",1219363,276627,129773,812963,0 2,"Chugach Electric Assn Inc","Cooperative",1134527,513748,563581,57198,0 3,"Anchorage Municipal

  19. "Table B25. Energy End Uses, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Energy End Uses, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Energy Used For (more than one may apply)" ,,"Space Heating","Cooling","Water Heating","Cooking","Manu- facturing" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,56940,56478,22237,3138 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000

  20. Table 2.3 Manufacturing Energy Consumption for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by End Use, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy Consumption for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by End Use, 2006 End-Use Category Net Electricity 1 Residual Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil LPG 2 and NGL 3 Natural Gas Coal 4 Total 5 Million Kilowatthours Million Barrels Billion Cubic Feet Million Short Tons Indirect End Use (Boiler Fuel) 12,109 21 4 2 2,059 25 – – Conventional Boiler Use 12,109 11 3 2 1,245 6 – – CHP 6 and/or Cogeneration Process – – 10 1 (s) 814 19 – – Direct End Use All Process Uses 657,810

  1. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels. Part I. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2007-11-27

    This report documents a scenario analysis exploring the value of advanced technologies in the U.S. buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors in stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The analysis was conducted by staff members of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), working at the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) in support of the strategic planning process of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The conceptual framework for the analysis is an integration of detailed buildings, industrial, and transportation modules into MiniCAM, a global integrated assessment model. The analysis is based on three technology scenarios, which differ in their assumed rates of deployment of new or presently available energy-saving technologies in the end-use sectors. These technology scenarios are explored with no carbon policy, and under two CO2 stabilization policies, in which an economic price on carbon is applied such that emissions follow prescribed trajectories leading to long-term stabilization of CO2 at roughly 450 and 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv). The costs of meeting the emissions targets prescribed by these policies are examined, and compared between technology scenarios. Relative to the reference technology scenario, advanced technologies in all three sectors reduce costs by 50% and 85% for the 450 and 550 ppmv policies, respectively. The 450 ppmv policy is more stringent and imposes higher costs than the 550 ppmv policy; as a result, the magnitude of the economic value of energy efficiency is four times greater for the 450 ppmv policy than the 550 ppmv policy. While they substantially reduce the costs of meeting emissions requirements, advanced end-use technologies do not lead to greenhouse gas stabilization without a carbon policy. This is due mostly to the effects of increasing service demands over time, the high consumption of fossil fuels in the electricity sector, and the use of unconventional feedstocks in the liquid fuel refining sector. Of the three end-use sectors, advanced transportation technologies have the greatest potential to reduce costs of meeting carbon policy requirements. Services in the buildings and industrial sectors can often be supplied by technologies that consume low-emissions fuels such as biomass or, in policy cases, electricity. Passenger transportation, in contrast, is especially unresponsive to climate policies, as the fuel costs are small compared to the time value of transportation and vehicle capital and operating costs. Delaying the transition from reference to advanced technologies by 15 years increases the costs of meeting 450 ppmv stabilization emissions requirements by 21%, but the costs are still 39% lower than the costs assuming reference technology. The report provides a detailed description of the end-use technology scenarios and provides a thorough analysis of the results. Assumptions are documented in the Appendix.

  3. Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study: Estimation Framework and Initial Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Will R.; Goldberg, Miriam L.; Tanimoto, Paulo M.; Celnicker, Dane R.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. DOE Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Solid-State Lighting Program that aims to improve the understanding of lighting energy usage in residential dwellings. The study has developed a regional estimation framework within a national sample design that allows for the estimation of lamp usage and energy consumption 1) nationally and by region of the United States, 2) by certain household characteristics, 3) by location within the home, 4) by certain lamp characteristics, and 5) by certain categorical cross-classifications (e.g., by dwelling type AND lamp type or fixture type AND control type).

  4. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  5. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels - part 1. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. Speciation data showed greater than 87 percent of all LPG and greater than 95 percent of all CNG hydrocarbon exhaust constituents to be composed of C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} compounds. In addition, toxic emissions from the combustion of CNG and LPG were as low as 10 percent of those generated by combustion of gasoline. A comparison of ozone forming potential of the three fuels was made based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale used by the California Air Resources Board. Post-catalyst results from stoichiometric operation indicated that LPG and CNG produced 63 percent and 88 percent less potential ozone than reformulated gasoline, respectively. On average over all equivalence ratios, CNG and LPG exhaust constituents were approximately 65 percent less reactive than those from reformulated gasoline. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Determination of {sup 140}La fission product interference factor for INAA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribeiro Jr, Iber S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Zahn, Guilherme S.

    2014-11-11

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is a technique widely used to determine the concentration of several elements in several kinds of matrices. However if the sample of interest has higher relative uranium concentration the obtained results can be interfered by the uranium fission products. One of these cases that is affected by interference due to U fission is the {sup 140}La, because this radioisotope used in INAA for the determination of concentration the La is also produced by the {sup ?}? of {sup 140}Ba, an uranium fission product. The {sup 140}La interference factor was studied in this work and a factor to describe its time dependence was obtained.

  7. Refining and end use of coal liquids. Quarterly report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    A key objective is to determine the most desirable ways of integrating coal liquefaction liquids into existing petroleum refineries to produce transportation fuels meeting current and future, e.g. year 2000, Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) standards. An intregral part of the above objectives is to test the fuels or blends produced and compare them with established ASTM fuels. The comparison will include engine tests to ascertain compliance of the fuels produced with CAAA and other applicable fuel quality and performance standards. The final part of the project includes a detailed economic evaluation of the cost of processing the coal liquids to their optimum products. The cost analyses is for the incremental processing cost; in other words, the feed is priced at zero dollars. The study reflects costs for operations using state of the art refinery technology; no capital costs for building new refineries is considered. Some modifications to the existing refinery may be required. Economy of scale dictates the minimum amount of feedstock that should be processed. To enhance management of the study, the work has been divided into two parts, the Basic Program and Option 1. The objectives of the Basic Program are to: characterize the coal liquids; develop, an optimized refinery configuration for processing indirect and direct coal liquids; and develop a LP refinery model with the Process Industry Modeling System (PICS) software. The objectives of Option 1 are to: confirm the validity of the optimization work of the Basic Program; produce large quantities of liquid transportation fuel blending stocks; conduct engine emission tests; and determine the value and the processing costs of the coal liquids. The major efforts conducted during the first quarter of 1994 were in the areas of: subcontract preparation and negotiation; and linear programming modeling.

  8. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Code(a) End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons)

  9. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23

  10. July 11 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial And Residential Building End-Use Equipment And Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain the three slide decks presented at the public meeting on the Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances, held on July 11, 2014 in Washington, DC.

  11. Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Building End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting held on April 30, 2014.

  12. Residential applliance data, assumptions and methodology for end-use forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, R.J,; Johnson, F.X.; Brown, R.E.; Hanford, J.W.; Kommey, J.G.

    1994-05-01

    This report details the data, assumptions and methodology for end-use forecasting of appliance energy use in the US residential sector. Our analysis uses the modeling framework provided by the Appliance Model in the Residential End-Use Energy Planning System (REEPS), which was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. In this modeling framework, appliances include essentially all residential end-uses other than space conditioning end-uses. We have defined a distinct appliance model for each end-use based on a common modeling framework provided in the REEPS software. This report details our development of the following appliance models: refrigerator, freezer, dryer, water heater, clothes washer, dishwasher, lighting, cooking and miscellaneous. Taken together, appliances account for approximately 70% of electricity consumption and 30% of natural gas consumption in the US residential sector. Appliances are thus important to those residential sector policies or programs aimed at improving the efficiency of electricity and natural gas consumption. This report is primarily methodological in nature, taking the reader through the entire process of developing the baseline for residential appliance end-uses. Analysis steps documented in this report include: gathering technology and market data for each appliance end-use and specific technologies within those end-uses, developing cost data for the various technologies, and specifying decision models to forecast future purchase decisions by households. Our implementation of the REEPS 2.1 modeling framework draws on the extensive technology, cost and market data assembled by LBL for the purpose of analyzing federal energy conservation standards. The resulting residential appliance forecasting model offers a flexible and accurate tool for analyzing the effect of policies at the national level.

  13. Microsoft Word - Major end uses front page v2 2015-03-31.docx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) contain equipment ... equipment stock can change over time in response to ... are in the same product class as electric resistance ...

  14. Microsoft Word - Major end uses front page v2 2015-03-31.docx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... are in the same product class as electric resistance ... the typical inch and change the venting. 20 ... closed loop) system, including tank and backup heater. ...

  15. The use of negotiated agreements to improve efficiency of end-use appliances: First results from the European experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertoldi, P.; Bowie, R.; Hagen, L.

    1998-07-01

    The European Union is pursuing measures to improve end-use equipment efficiency through a variety of policy instruments, in particular for domestic appliances. One of the most effective methods to achieve market transformation is through minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS). However, after the difficulties and controversy following the adoption of legislation for MEPS for domestic refrigerators/freezers, a new policy instrument, i.e. negotiated agreements by manufacturers, has been investigated and tested for two type of appliances: domestic washing machines and TVs and VCRs. Based on the positive experience of the above two agreements, other products (e.g. dryers, dishwasher, electric water heaters, etc.) will be the subject of future negotiated agreements. Based on the results of the two negotiated agreements, this paper describes the energy efficiency potential, the procedures, and the advantages and disadvantages of negotiated agreements compared to legislated mandatory for MEPS, as developed in the European context. The paper concludes that negotiated agreements are a viable policy option, which allow flexibility in the implementation of the efficiency targets and therefore the adoption of cost-effective solutions for manufacturers. In addition, negotiated agreements can be implemented more quickly compared to mandatory MEPS and they allow a closer monitoring of the results. The main question asked in the paper is whether the negotiated agreements can deliver the results in the long term compared to what could be achieved through legislation. The European experience indicates that this instrument can deliver the results and that it offer a number of advantages compared to MEPS.

  16. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  17. Results of Scoping Studies for Determining Radiolytic Hydrogen Production from Moist CST and CST Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1998-12-11

    In support of the Salt Disposition team, scoping studies have been performed on the radiolysis of moist and aqueous slurries of Crystalline Silicotitanate(CST). If CST is used for removal of Cs-137 from SRS salt solutions, radiolysis of the water by Cs-137 on the CST will produce H2. Also it has been shown that the presence of a solid in the system can enhance the production of H2 by transferring absorbed energy from the solid to the water (1). As indicated in the test plan (2) for this scoping study, it is the intent of this study to determine if CST enhances the radiolytic production of H2 and to estimate the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate from an aqueous CST slurry in a column at the maximum expected Cs-137 loading on the CST.Initially several CST slurry systems were irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays and the radiolytic yield of H2 measured in terms of its G value (molecules of H2 produced per 100 eV of energy absorbed). Based on the results of these tests it was determined that CST did not enhance the radiolytic production of H2 by transferring energy to the water and causing it to decompose.Calculations were then performed to estimate the rate of H2 production from a process column 16ft. long by 5ft. in diameter containing CST that was fully loaded with Cs-137. The maximum rate of H2 production based on the G values measured in this study was one liter per minute at STP (0.04 cfm). This was for a 63 percent water/CST slurry with a G value of 0.2 molecules/100eV for H2 production and a loading of 1 gram of Cs-137 per 100 grams of resin. The present work also indicates that for a column containing salt solution and CST rather than water and CST, the rate would be 4X lower. This lower value is much more realistic.

  18. Understanding Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology, applications, and economics, for end-use workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferraro, R.J.; McConnell, B.W.

    1993-06-01

    The overall objective of this project was to determine the state-of-the-art and to what extent existing SMES is a viable option in meeting the needs of utilities and their customers for improving electric service power quality. By defining and analyzing SMES electrical/mechanical performance characteristics, and comparing SMES application benefits with competitive stored energy systems, industry will be able to determine SMES unique applications and potential market penetration. Building on this information base, it would also be possible to evaluate the impact of high temperature superconductors (77 K and 20-35 K) on SMES technology applications. The authors of this report constructed a network of industry contacts and research consultants that were used to collect, update, and analyze ongoing SMES R&D and marketing activities in industries, utilities, and equipment manufacturers. These key resources were utilized to assemble performance characteristics on existing SMES, battery, capacitor, flywheel, and high temperature superconductor (HTS) stored energy technologies. From this information, preliminary stored energy system comparisons were accomplished. In this way, the electric load needs would be readily comparable to the potential solutions and applications offered by each aforementioned energy storage technology.

  19. Determination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of a Minimum Soiling Level to Affect Photovoltaic Devices Patrick D. Burton and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA...

  20. End Uses Mechanical Properties Settled By The Modified Sintering Conditions Of The Metal Injection Molding Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marray, Tarek [Laboratoire Materiaux, ECAM, 40 montee Saint Barthelemy, 69321, Lyon, Cedex 05 (France); Arts et Metiers ParisTech, MecaSurf Laboratory (EA 4496), 2, Cours des Arts et Metiers, 13617 Aix en Provence (France); Jaccquet, Philippe; Moinard-Checot, Delphine [Laboratoire Materiaux, ECAM, 40 montee Saint Barthelemy, 69321, Lyon, Cedex 05 (France); Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LaBoMaP, Rue Porte de Paris, 71250 CLUNY (France); Fabre, Agnes; Barrallier, Laurent [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, MecaSurf Laboratory (EA 4496), 2, Cours des Arts et Metiers, 13617 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-01-17

    Most common mechanical applications require parts with specific properties as hard faced features. It is well known that treating parts under suitable atmospheres may improve hardness and strength yield of steels. Heat treatment process and more particularly thermo-chemical diffusion processes (such as carburizing or its variation: carbonitriding) can be performed to reach the industrial hardness profile requirements. In this work, a low-alloyed steel feedstock based on water soluble binder system is submitted to the MIM process steps (including injection molding, debinding and sintering). As-sintered parts are then treated under a low pressure carbonitriding treatment. This contribution focuses on preliminary results such as microstructural analyses and mechanical properties which are established at each stage of the process to determine and monitor changes.

  1. Table 10.9 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts 1 ) Year By Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 3 Industrial 4 Electric Power 5 Other 6 Grid-Connected 2 Off-Grid 2 Centralized 7 Distributed 8 Domestic 9 Non-Domestic 10 Total Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules 11<//td> 1989 1,439 6,057 [R] 3,993 785 551 [12] 1,251 [12] 2,620 8,954 12,825 1990 1,701 8,062 [R] 2,817 826 432 [12] 469 [12] 3,097 10,271 13,837 1991 3,624 5,715 [R] 3,947

  2. Residential sector end-use forecasting with EPRI-Reeps 2.1: Summary input assumptions and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, J.G.; Brown, R.E.; Richey, R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes current and projected future energy use by end-use and fuel for the U.S. residential sector, and assesses which end-uses are growing most rapidly over time. The inputs to this forecast are based on a multi-year data compilation effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. We use the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) REEPS model, as reconfigured to reflect the latest end-use technology data. Residential primary energy use is expected to grow 0.3% per year between 1995 and 2010, while electricity demand is projected to grow at about 0.7% per year over this period. The number of households is expected to grow at about 0.8% per year, which implies that the overall primary energy intensity per household of the residential sector is declining, and the electricity intensity per household is remaining roughly constant over the forecast period. These relatively low growth rates are dependent on the assumed growth rate for miscellaneous electricity, which is the single largest contributor to demand growth in many recent forecasts.

  3. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  4. Cost guide. Volume 2. Standard procedures for determining revenue requirements (product cost)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The DOE has conducted economic analyses of alternative energy projects over the past several years which compared emerging technologies to conventional technologies and also to competing emerging technologies. The method used was to determine and compare the product costs of the technologies being assessed. A review of the application of this product cost technique over the past few years revealed that slightly different financial assumptions, economic factors, and scope were used. Therefore, it is not meaningful to compare results. Consistent comparison of the economic benefits of programs and projects being evaluated by DOE is essential to accomplish the assigned missions and functions. The process of reviewing much of the work accomplished by DOE and its support contractors failed to disclose a single source document or methodology which had potential application across the full range of DOE interests. However, the 1981 version of the Technical Assessment Guide published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) appears to have all of the necessary elements, economic factors, assumptions, and cost performance information necessary to meet the DOE's needs. A review of the document indicates that the methodology described by EPRI can be applied to almost any energy project so long as appropriate business and financial assumptions are made.The financial and business assumptions presented in EPRI technical report P-2410-SR are typical of the electric utility industry. Moreover, using a methodology already widely accepted by the utility industry, DOE can help reduce proliferation of different methods and promote the adoption of a standard. This guide presents a summary of the methodology, data on fuel price projections, and cost and performance information for transmission and generation technologies, and reflects an explanation of the economic methodology to include sample problems.

  5. " Row: End Uses;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...-",347224,"*",5,116,1,"*","--" " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",55414,"--","--","--","--...--",33354,"*","*",5,"*",0,"--" " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",5538,"--","--","--","--"...

  6. " Row: End Uses;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ve",511864,"*",3,106,1,"*",4.8 " Electro-Chemical Processes",86360,"--","--","--","--","--...ive",53477,"*","*",7,"*",0,8.8 " Electro-Chemical Processes",6295,"--","--","--","--","--"...

  7. " Row: End Uses;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",1746,2,16,109,4,5,4.8 " Electro-Chemical Processes",295,"--","--","--","--","--",... Drive",182,"*",2,7,1,0,8.8 " Electro-Chemical Processes",21,"--","--","--","--","--",1 ...

  8. " Row: End Uses;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...--",1560,5,13,99,7,7,"--",12.9 " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",298,"--","--","--","--",... *","--",8.1 " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",23,"--","--","--","--","...

  9. " Row: End Uses;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",1454,"*",28,120,3,1 " Electro-Chemical Processes",263,"--","--","--","--","--" ... Drive",139,"*",2,5,"*",0 " Electro-Chemical Processes",19,"--","--","--","--","--" " ...

  10. " Row: End Uses;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...-",422408,"*",4,126,"*",3,"--" " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",60323,"--","--","--","--...,"--",38962,"*",1,5,"*",0,"--" " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",6558,"--","--","--","--"...

  11. " Row: End Uses;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...--",1426,2,16,109,4,5,"--",4.8 " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",242,"--","--","--","--",...,"--",152,"*",2,7,1,0,"--",8.8 " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",21,"--","--","--","--","...

  12. " Row: End Uses;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",507223,"*",4,126,"*",3 " Electro-Chemical Processes",74825,"--","--","--","--","--... Drive",46977,"*",1,5,"*",0 " Electro-Chemical Processes",6569,"--","--","--","--","--" ...

  13. " Row: End Uses;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,"--",1185,"*",28,120,3,1,"--" " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",189,"--","--","--","--",...e","--",114,"*",2,5,"*",0,"--" " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",19,"--","--","--","--","...

  14. " Row: End Uses;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,457344,1,2,96,2,"*","--",12.7 " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",87200,"--","--","--","--...8832,1,"*",11,"*","*","--",8.1 " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",6858,"--","--","--","--"...

  15. " Row: End Uses;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","--",1441,2,24,129,2,56,"--" " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",206,"--","--","--","--",...e","--",133,"*",6,5,"*",0,"--" " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",22,"--","--","--","--","...

  16. " Row: End Uses;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",1731,2,24,129,2,56 " Electro-Chemical Processes",255,"--","--","--","--","--" ... Drive",160,"*",6,5,"*",0 " Electro-Chemical Processes",22,"--","--","--","--","--" " ...

  17. " Row: End Uses;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",426121,"*",5,116,1,"*" " Electro-Chemical Processes",77146,"--","--","--","--","--... Drive",40701,"*","*",5,"*",0 " Electro-Chemical Processes",5597,"--","--","--","--","--" ...

  18. " Row: End Uses;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...17998,"*",3,106,1,"*","--",4.8 " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",71045,"--","--","--","--...44630,"*","*",7,"*",0,"--",8.8 " Electro-Chemical Processes","--",6260,"--","--","--","--"...

  19. " Row: End Uses;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...rive",551318,1,2,96,2,"*",11.3 " Electro-Chemical Processes",103615,"--","--","--","--","-...ve",57198,1,"*",11,"*","*",8.1 " Electro-Chemical Processes",6905,"--","--","--","--","--"...

  20. Table 7. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by End-Use Sector, 1990-20

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by End-Use Sector, 1990-2009" " (Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide)" ,,1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009 " Residential",,963.38,980.093,981.418,1039.553,1032.275,1039.099,1099.143,1089.835,1097.465,1121.649,1185.104,1171.525,1203.666,1230.086,1227.758,1261.459,1192.007,1242.002,1228.992,1162.154 "

  1. Table 2.6 Household End Uses: Fuel Types, Appliances, and Electronics, Selected Years, 1978-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Household End Uses: Fuel Types, Appliances, and Electronics, Selected Years, 1978-2009 Appliance Year Change 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 1980 to 2009 Total Households (millions) 77 78 82 83 84 86 91 94 97 101 107 111 114 32 Percent of Households<//td> Space Heating - Main Fuel 1 Natural Gas 55 55 55 56 57 55 55 55 53 52 55 52 50 -5 Electricity 2 16 17 18 17 16 17 20 23 26 29 29 30 35 17 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 0 Distillate

  2. The examination of pretreatment and end use technologies for dirty fuels produced from coal gasification, coal pyrolysis, oil shale processing, and heavy oil recovery: Final technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raden, D.P.; Page, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify pretreatment (upgrading) and end use technologies which: (1) reduce environmental, health and safety impacts, (2) reduce pollution control costs, or (3) reduce upgrading costs of ''dirty fuels'' while producing higher value energy products. A comprehensive list of technologies was developed for upgrading the various dirty fuels to higher value and products. Fifty-two process flow concepts were examined and from these four process flow concepts were chosen for further development. These are: heavy oil recovery and in situ hydrotreating; wet air oxidation in a downhole reactor; total raw gas shift; and high density fuels via vacuum devolatilization. Each of these four process flow concepts described exhibit the potential for reducing environmental, health and safety impacts and/or pollution control costs. In addition these concepts utilize dirty fuels to produce an upgraded or higher value energy product. These concepts should be developed and evaluated in greater detail to assess their technical and economical viability. Therefore, it is recommended that a program plan be formulated and a proof-of-concept research program be performed for each process concept. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Table 2.5 Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End Use, Selected Years, 1978-2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Household 1 Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End Use, Selected Years, 1978-2005 Year Space Heating Air Conditioning Water Heating Appliances, 2 Electronics, and Lighting Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Electricity 3 Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 LPG 5 Total Consumption (quadrillion Btu)<//td> 1978 4.26 0.40 2.05 0.23 6.94 0.31 1.04 0.29 0.14 0.06 1.53 0.28 1.46 0.03 1.77 1980 3.41 .27 1.30 .23 5.21 .36 1.15 .30 .22

  4. Table 3.6 Consumer Expenditure Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 1970-2010 (Million Dollars )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumer Expenditure Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector, 1970-2010 (Million Dollars 1) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Natural Gas 2 Petroleum Retail Electricity 3 Total 4 Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Retail Electricity 3 Total 6,7 Coal Natural Gas 2 Petroleum 5 Biomass 8 Retail Electricity 3 Total 7,9 Petroleum 5 Total 7,10 1970 5,272 4,186 10,352 20,112 1,844 1,440 7,319 10,678 2,082 2,625 6,069 366 5,624 16,691 35,327 35,379 1971 5,702 4,367 11,589 21,934 2,060 1,574

  5. 2014-04-30 Public Meeting Presentation Slides: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting held on April 30, 2014.

  6. Agenda for Public Meeting on the Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download the agenda below for the July 11 Public Meeting on the Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial and  Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances.

  7. 2014-04-30 Public Meeting Agenda: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agenda for the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting being held on April 30, 2014.

  8. Determining the Cause of a Header Failure in a Natural Gas Production Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthes, S.A.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-03-01

    An investigation was made into the premature failure of a gas-header at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) natural gas production facility. A wide variety of possible failure mechanisms were considered: design of the header, deviation from normal pipe alloy composition, physical orientation of the header, gas composition and flow rate, type of corrosion, protectiveness of the interior oxide film, time of wetness, and erosion-corrosion. The failed header was examined using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis. A comparison of the failure site and an analogous site that had not failed, but exhibited similar metal thinning was also performed. From these studies it was concluded that failure resulted from erosion-corrosion, and that design elements of the header and orientation with respect to gas flow contributed to the mass loss at the failure point.

  9. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  10. Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: Implications on the 'L-arginine paradox'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Soyoung; Mohan, Srinidi; Fung, Ho-Leung

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our findings provide a possible solution to the 'L-arginine paradox'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular L-arginine concentration is the major determinant of NO production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular L-arginine action is limited by cellular ARG transport, not the K{sub m} of NOS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain how L-arginine supplementation can work to increase endothelial function. -- Abstract: We examined the relative contributory roles of extracellular vs. intracellular L-arginine (ARG) toward cellular activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, ARG, or L-arginine ethyl ester (ARG-EE) for 2 h. To modulate ARG transport, siRNA for ARG transporter (CAT-1) vs. sham siRNA were transfected into cells. ARG transport activity was assessed by cellular fluxes of ARG, {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, dimethylarginines, and L-citrulline by an LC-MS/MS assay. eNOS activity was determined by nitrite/nitrate accumulation, either via a fluorometric assay or by{sup 15}N-nitrite or estimated {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline concentrations when {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG was used to challenge the cells. We found that ARG-EE incubation increased cellular ARG concentration but no increase in nitrite/nitrate was observed, while ARG incubation increased both cellular ARG concentration and nitrite accumulation. Cellular nitrite/nitrate production did not correlate with cellular total ARG concentration. Reduced {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG cellular uptake in CAT-1 siRNA transfected cells vs. control was accompanied by reduced eNOS activity, as determined by {sup 15}N-nitrite, total nitrite and {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline formation. Our data suggest that extracellular ARG, not intracellular ARG, is the major determinant of NO production in endothelial cells. It is likely that once transported inside the cell, ARG can no longer gain access to the membrane-bound eNOS. These observations indicate that the 'L-arginine paradox' should not consider intracellular ARG concentration as a reference point.

  11. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  12. Direct Determination of Equilibrium Potentials for Hydrogen Oxidation/Production by Open Circuit Potential Measurements in Acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, John A.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-03-14

    Open circuit potentials were measured for acetonitrile solutions of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm H2. Acids examined include triethylammonium, dimethylformamidium, 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-anisidinium salts. These potentials, together with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in acetonitrile as ?0.028(4) V vs the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple. Dimethylformamidium is shown to form homoconjugates and other aggregates with dimethylformamide; open circuit potentials are used to quantify the extent of these reactions. Overpotentials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation were determined from open circuit potentials and voltammograms of acidic or basic catalyst solutions under H2. This method requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation constants, nor an estimate for the SHE potential and thus allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media.

  13. April 30 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Building End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting held on April 30, 2014. The first document includes the first presentation from the meeting: DOE Vision and Objectives. The second document includes all other presentations from the meeting: Terminology and Definitions; End-User and Grid Services; Physical Characterization Framework; Value, Benefits & Metrics.

  14. The National Fuel End-Use Efficiency Field Test: Energy Savings and Performance of an Improved Energy Conservation Measure Selection Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of an advanced residential energy conservation measure (ECM) selection technique was tested in Buffalo, New York, to verify the energy savings and program improvements achieved from use of the technique in conservation programs and provide input into determining whether utility investments in residential gas end-use conservation are cost effective. The technique analyzes a house to identify all ECMs that are cost effective in the building envelope, space-heating system, and water-heating system. The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) for each ECM is determined and cost-effective ECMs (BCR > 1.0) are selected once interactions between ECMs are taken into account. Eighty-nine houses with the following characteristics were monitored for the duration of the field test: occupants were low-income, houses were single-family detached houses but not mobile homes, and primary space- and water-heating systems were gas-fired. Forty-five houses received a mix of ECMs as selected by the measure selection technique (audit houses) and 44 served as a control group. Pre-weatherization data were collected from January to April 1988 and post-weatherization data were collected from December 1988 to April 1989. Space- and waterheating gas consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the two winters. A house energy consumption model and regression analysis were employed to normalize the space-heating energy savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and a 68 F indoor temperature. Space and water-heating energy savings for the audit houses were adjusted by the savings for the control houses. The average savings of 257 therms/year for the audit houses was 17% of the average pre-weatherization house gas consumption and 78% of that predicted. Average space-heating energy savings was 252 therms/year (25% of pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption and 85% of the predicted value) and average water-heating savings was 5 therms/year (2% of pre-weatherization water-heating energy consumption and 17% of predicted). The overall BCR for the ECMs was 1.24 using the same assumptions followed in the selection technique: no administration cost, residential fuel costs, real discount rate of 0.05, and no fuel escalation. A weatherization program would be cost effective at an administration cost less than $335/house. On average, the indoor temperature increased in the audit houses by 0.5 F following weatherization and decreased in the control houses by 0.1 F. The following conclusions regarding the measure selection technique were drawn from the study: (1) a significant cost-effective level of energy savings resulted, (2) space-heating energy savings and total installation costs were predicted with reasonable accuracy, indicating that the technique's recommendations are justified, (3) effectiveness improved from earlier versions and can continue to be improved, and (4) a wider variety of ECMs were installed compared to most weatherization programs. An additional conclusion of the study was that a significant indoor temperature take-back effect had not occurred.

  15. WATER PRODUCTION IN COMETS 2001 Q4 (NEAT) AND 2002 T7 (LINEAR) DETERMINED FROM SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2009-06-15

    The SWAN all-sky camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft detected the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Ly{alpha}) comae of comets 2001 Q4 NEAT and 2002 T7 LINEAR for large portions of their perihelion apparitions in 2003 and 2004. C/2001 Q4 NEAT was observed from 2003 September 14 through 2004 November 2, covering heliocentric distances from 3.23 AU before perihelion to 2.75 AU after, and C/2002 T7 LINEAR was observed from 2003 December 4 through 2004 August 6, covering heliocentric distances from 2.52 AU before perihelion to 2.09 AU after. We combined the full set of comet specific and full-sky observations and used our time-resolved model (TRM), which enables us to extract continuous values of the daily-average value of the water production rate throughout most of this entire period. The average power-law fit to the production rate variation of C/2001 Q4 NEAT with heliocentric distance, r, gives 3.5 x 10{sup 29} r {sup -1.7} and that for C/2002 T7 LINEAR gives 4.6 x 10{sup 29} r {sup -2.0}. Both comets show roughly a factor of 2 asymmetry in activity about perihelion, being more active before perihelion. C/2001 Q4 NEAT showed a production rate outburst about 30 days before perihelion (2004 April 15) and then a large extended increase above the nominal trend from 50 to 70 days after perihelion (2004 July 5-July 25)

  16. Determination of the potential for release of mercury from combustion product amended soils: Part 1 - Simulations of beneficial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mae Sexauer Gustin; Jody Ericksen; George C. Fernandez

    2008-05-15

    This paper describes a project that assessed the potential for mercury (Hg) release to air and water from soil amended with combustion products to simulate beneficial use. Combustion products (ash) derived from wood, sewage sludge, subbituminous coal, and a subbituminous coal-petroleum coke mixture were added to soil as agricultural supplements, soil stabilizers, and to develop low permeability surfaces. Hg release was measured from the latter when intact and after it was broken up and mixed into the soil. Air-substrate Hg exchange was measured for all materials six times over 24 hr, providing data that reflected winter, spring, summer, and fall meteorological conditions. Dry deposition of atmospheric Hg and emission of Hg to the atmosphere were both found to be important fluxes. Measured differences in seasonal and diel (24 hr) fluxes demonstrated that to establish an annual estimate of air-substrate flux from these materials data on both of these time steps should be collected. Air-substrate exchange was highly correlated with soil and air temperature, as well as incident light. Hg releases to the atmosphere from coal and wood combustion product-amended soils to simulate an agricultural application were similar to that measured for the unamended soil, whereas releases to the air for the sludge-amended materials were higher. Hg released to soil solutions during the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure for ashamended materials was higher than that released from soil alone. On the basis of estimates of annual releases of Hg to the air from the materials used, emissions from coal and wood ash-amended soil to simulate an agricultural application could simply be re-emission of Hg deposited by wet processes from the atmosphere; however, releases from sludge-amended materials and those generated to simulate soil stabilization and disturbed low-permeability pads include Hg indigenous to the material. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Production of ?Cu by the natZn(p,?) reaction: Improved separation and specific activity determination by titration with three chelators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asad, Ali H.; Smith, Suzanne V.; Morandeau, Laurence M.; Chan, Sun; Jeffery, Charmaine M.; Price, Roger I.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the cyclotron-based production of position-emitting ?Cu using the (p,?) reaction at 11.7 MeV was investigated starting from natural-zinc (natZn) and enriched ??Zn-foil targets, as well as its subsequent purification. For natZn, a combination of three resins were assessed to separate ?Cu from contaminating 66,67,68Ga and natZn. The specific activity of the purified ?Cu determined using ICP-MS analysis ranged from 143.314.3(SD) to 506.250.6 MBq/?g while the titration method using p-SCN-Bn-DOTA, p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and diamsar gave variable results (4.70.2 to 412.515.3 MBq/?g), with diamsar lying closest to the ICP-MS values. Results suggest that the p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and p-SCN-Bn-NOTA titration methods are significantly affected by the presence of trace-metal contaminants.

  18. Production of ⁶¹Cu by the natZn(p,α) reaction: Improved separation and specific activity determination by titration with three chelators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Asad, Ali H.; Smith, Suzanne V.; Morandeau, Laurence M.; Chan, Sun; Jeffery, Charmaine M.; Price, Roger I.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the cyclotron-based production of position-emitting ⁶¹Cu using the (p,α) reaction at 11.7 MeV was investigated starting from natural-zinc (natZn) and enriched ⁶⁴Zn-foil targets, as well as its subsequent purification. For natZn, a combination of three resins were assessed to separate ⁶¹Cu from contaminating 66,67,68Ga and natZn. The specific activity of the purified ⁶¹Cu determined using ICP-MS analysis ranged from 143.3±14.3(SD) to 506.2±50.6 MBq/μg while the titration method using p-SCN-Bn-DOTA, p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and diamsar gave variable results (4.7±0.2 to 412.5±15.3 MBq/μg), with diamsar lying closest to the ICP-MS values. Results suggest that the p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and p-SCN-Bn-NOTA titration methods aremore » significantly affected by the presence of trace-metal contaminants.« less

  19. Minnesota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    22,872 27,097 35,845 NA NA NA 2001-2016 Residential 2,362 5,207 10,741 18,067 24,809 NA 1989-2016 Commercial 2,786 5,206 8,381 12,550 16,259 14,811 1989-2016 Industrial 11,305 ...

  20. Tennessee Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    18,246 18,807 24,268 29,015 44,796 37,150 2001-2016 Residential 1,163 1,982 4,847 7,765 16,024 12,051 1989-2016 Commercial 2,259 3,080 4,707 5,273 10,237 7,613 1989-2016 Industrial 8,683 9,162 9,248 9,813 12,165 11,147 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 8 9 8 9 10 9 2010-2016 Electric Power 6,133 4,574 5,458 6,156 6,360 6,331

  1. Texas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    291,178 276,726 267,183 307,656 333,433 290,730 2001-2016 Residential 5,116 5,934 9,793 24,772 40,886 32,681 1989-2016 Commercial 9,558 10,313 12,553 17,584 22,844 19,794 1989-2016 Industrial 125,076 128,958 134,340 141,897 145,142 132,333 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 290 300 290 300 333 301 2010-2016 Electric Power 151,139 131,222 110,207 123,103 124,228 105,622

  2. Utah Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10,440 10,855 20,739 27,782 28,211 22,064 2001-2016 Residential 1,320 2,002 8,290 12,265 12,761 9,010 1989-2016 Commercial 1,170 1,474 4,732 6,881 7,089 5,319 1989-2016 Industrial 2,757 2,969 3,120 3,612 3,608 3,634 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 22 22 22 22 25 22 2010-2016 Electric Power 5,171 4,387 4,575 5,002 4,727 4,079

  3. Vermont Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    566 875 1,024 1,168 1,695 1,459 2001-2016 Residential 79 164 288 393 576 541 1989-2016 Commercial 336 522 557 586 899 714 1989-2016 Industrial 150 188 178 188 220 204 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010-2016 Electric Power 1 0 1 1 0 --

  4. Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33,817 27,516 36,489 44,149 NA 54,140 2001-2016 Residential 1,913 3,395 6,309 7,966 17,223 14,368 1989-2016 Commercial 3,658 4,647 6,019 6,065 11,580 9,235 1989-2016 Industrial 6,116 7,701 7,582 7,259 NA 7,756 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 20 21 20 21 23 21 2010-2016 Electric Power 22,109 11,752 16,558 22,839 23,125 22,761

  5. Washington Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,103 25,442 NA NA NA 29,337 2001-2016 Residential 2,519 4,019 9,599 14,167 13,821 9,280 1989-2016 Commercial 2,709 3,462 5,744 8,090 7,971 5,823 1989-2016 Industrial 5,921 6,680 NA NA NA 6,785 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 40 42 40 42 46 42 2010-2016 Electric Power 10,914 11,239 10,383 9,481 9,841 7,407

  6. Wisconsin Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,582 29,272 38,845 49,528 66,422 57,410 2001-2016 Residential 2,498 6,080 11,070 16,428 24,782 19,769 1989-2016 Commercial 2,867 4,985 7,776 10,352 15,417 13,091 1989-2016 Industrial 9,103 10,742 12,289 12,859 15,948 14,197 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 10 10 10 10 11 10 2010-2016 Electric Power 9,104 7,455 7,700 9,879 10,264 10,342

  7. Office Buildings - End-Use Equipment

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information Administration, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. More computers, dedicated servers, printers, and photocopiers were used in office buildings than in...

  8. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 39979,13144,2270,2201,4272,,4401 40009,12199,1930,1901,4243,,4126 40040,12779,1884,1920,4390,,4585 40071,10268,2000,2321,4322,,1626 40101,13672,4317,3170,4983,,1203 ...

  9. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...8,3440,1884,,1201 38883,9251,1972,3084,1899,,2296 38913,11438,1654,2479,1813,,5490 38944,11236,1617,2784,1978,,4856 38975,8042,2121,3434,1374,,1114 39005,11895,4315,4622,1884,,1074 ...

  10. ,"Utah Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...7787,5612,1540,1026,1902,,1145 37817,6174,1358,902,1911,,2002 37848,6166,1355,973,1955,,1884 37879,6229,1856,1243,1950,,1181 37909,7898,2988,1718,2117,,1076 37940,13299,6914,3783,2...

  11. Arkansas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    17,958 14,702 18,552 22,561 30,965 24,701 2001-2016 Residential 546 731 2,155 3,933 7,500 5,665 1989-2016 Commercial 2,571 3,048 3,863 4,724 7,048 6,010 1989-2016 Industrial 6,286 6,790 7,098 7,148 7,825 7,184 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 3 3 3 3 3 3 2010-2016 Electric Power 8,552 4,130 5,434 6,754 8,589 5,839

  12. Colorado Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9,128 22,856 40,791 49,929 48,740 38,586 2001-2016 Residential 3,036 5,976 16,679 23,229 22,390 17,313 1989-2016 Commercial 1,694 2,859 6,789 9,397 9,251 7,255 1989-2016 Industrial 4,790 5,823 7,640 8,931 9,107 7,704 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 26 27 26 27 30 27 2010-2016 Electric Power 9,582 8,172 9,658 8,346 7,962 6,288

  13. Delaware Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,939 6,849 6,797 7,386 9,040 8,389 2001-2016 Residential 157 378 720 978 2,084 1,879 1989-2016 Commercial 432 812 1,065 1,177 2,003 1,658 1989-2016 Industrial 2,448 2,590 2,682 3,040 2,821 2,517 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010-2016 Electric Power 4,903 3,068 2,330 2,190 2,132 2,335

  14. Florida Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    118,468 114,127 106,003 105,637 106,331 97,329 2001-2016 Residential 632 1,081 1,216 1,440 2,848 2,446 1989-2016 Commercial 4,441 5,003 5,214 5,660 7,017 6,427 1989-2016 Industrial 7,385 7,997 7,774 8,933 9,502 8,746 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 17 18 17 18 19 18 2010-2016 Electric Power 105,993 100,028 91,782 89,587 86,943 79,693

  15. Georgia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    49,172 52,445 55,858 56,505 79,308 67,395 2001-2016 Residential 3,794 5,873 10,248 11,943 26,193 19,976 1989-2016 Commercial 2,417 3,159 4,695 5,185 10,325 7,942 1989-2016 Industrial 12,244 13,714 13,291 13,391 14,101 13,756 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 96 99 96 99 111 100 2010-2016 Electric Power 30,621 29,598 27,527 25,887 28,578 25,621

  16. Hawaii Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    233 240 228 251 259 247 2001-2016 Residential 41 44 44 47 52 47 1989-2016 Commercial 153 152 148 167 159 155 1989-2016 Industrial 37 43 36 36 47 44 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 1 1 1 1 1 1 2010-2016 Electric Power -- -- -- -- -- --

  17. Idaho Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,838 7,606 11,261 13,715 13,779 11,067 2001-2016 Residential 638 995 3,624 4,740 4,467 3,241 1989-2016 Commercial 694 1,066 2,068 2,719 2,781 2,076 1989-2016 Industrial 2,564 3,032 3,315 3,403 3,647 3,335 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 13 13 13 13 15 13 2010-2016 Electric Power 2,930 2,500 2,240 2,840 2,870 2,401

  18. Illinois Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    43,969 57,973 NA 107,844 151,423 128,292 2001-2016 Residential 8,021 18,056 35,960 50,744 78,595 62,355 1989-2016 Commercial 7,821 12,312 NA 24,179 35,911 30,543 1989-2016 Industrial 19,312 21,016 24,322 25,140 28,674 26,493 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 28 29 28 29 32 29 2010-2016 Electric Power 8,788 6,560 7,008 7,753 8,211 8,872

  19. Indiana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    39,873 48,080 59,575 72,031 92,671 79,178 2001-2016 Residential 2,432 5,799 11,746 16,881 27,835 21,691 1989-2016 Commercial 2,784 4,720 6,409 8,381 14,495 11,554 1989-2016 Industrial 26,713 28,848 29,980 33,462 36,985 34,155 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 2 2 2 2 2 2 2010-2016 Electric Power 7,942 8,711 11,439 13,305 13,353 11,776

  20. Iowa Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    17,814 21,170 NA 32,191 40,243 34,191 2001-2016 Residential 1,260 2,268 5,686 8,921 13,190 10,164 1989-2016 Commercial 1,716 3,156 NA 6,246 8,771 7,041 1989-2016 Industrial 13,086 14,826 14,751 15,399 16,580 15,443 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 1 2 1 2 2 2 2010-2016 Electric Power 1,750 918 530 1,623 1,700 1,542

  1. Kansas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,628 12,195 NA 24,751 31,236 23,125 2001-2016 Residential 1,075 1,701 NA 8,698 13,126 9,206 1989-2016 Commercial 1,164 1,755 2,731 4,161 5,913 4,247 1989-2016 Industrial 7,725 8,738 8,919 11,086 11,471 9,114 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 1 1 1 1 1 1 2010-2016 Electric Power 1,662 W W 804 725 55

  2. Connecticut Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    27,870 20,353 15,426 14,745 16,786 17,440 2001-2015 Residential 8,998 4,902 2,172 1,368 1,120 997 1989-2015 Commercial 7,504 4,556 2,676 2,295 2,379 2,512 1989-2015 Industrial...

  3. Alaska Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  4. Kentucky Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  5. Michigan Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  6. Oregon Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  7. Minnesota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  8. Montana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  9. Ohio Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  10. Oregon Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  11. Nebraska Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  12. California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  13. Maine Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  14. Wyoming Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  15. Connecticut Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  16. Michigan Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  17. Colorado Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  18. Ohio Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  19. Delaware Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  20. Vermont Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  1. Alaska Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  2. Indiana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  3. Maryland Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  4. Wisconsin Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  5. Mississippi Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  6. Georgia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  7. Louisiana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  8. Maryland Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  9. Massachusetts Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  10. Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  11. Louisiana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  12. Tennessee Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  13. Alabama Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  14. Nevada Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  15. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  16. Florida Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  17. Mississippi Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  18. Nebraska Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  19. Wyoming Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  20. Utah Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  1. Washington Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  2. Missouri Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,873 1,770 3,351 8,236 1989-2015 Commercial 1,960 2,021 2,299 2,254 3,585 5,631 1989-2015 Industrial 4,605 4,716 4,376 4,527 4,939 5,585 2001-2015 Vehicle Fuel 4 4 4 4 4 4...

  3. California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9,015 189,292 186,757 195,837 235,282 222,856 2001-2016 Residential 17,560 17,188 19,412 44,802 73,730 69,466 1989-2016 Commercial 16,537 15,250 16,321 26,389 29,820 26,589 ...

  4. Nevada Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential 1,854 1,467 1,108 1,176 1,209 1,436 1989-2015 Commercial 2,079 1,807 1,598 1,709 1,668 2,052 1989-2015 Industrial NA NA 1,165 NA NA 1,182 2001-2015 Vehicle Fuel 56 55...

  5. Kentucky Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1,294 858 858 912 845 1,565 1989-2015 Commercial 1,336 1,075 1,139 1,330 1,154 1,709 1989-2015 Industrial 8,722 8,564 8,478 8,791 8,464 8,840 2001-2015 Vehicle Fuel 0 2 2 2...

  6. Missouri Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease and Plant Fuel 1967-1998 Lease Fuel 0 0 0 0 * 1984-2014 Pipeline & Distribution Use 5,820 7,049 4,973 5,626 6,184 1997-2014 Volumes Delivered to Consumers 274,361 265,534 ...

  7. Oklahoma Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    38,010 34,185 42,019 50,354 55,937 NA 2001-2016 Residential 1,169 1,308 2,614 6,999 11,199 NA 1989-2016 Commercial 1,509 1,638 2,339 4,093 6,177 NA 1989-2016 Industrial 15,155 14,917 16,551 16,204 16,775 NA 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 33 34 33 34 38 35 2010-2016 Electric Power 20,143 16,289 20,482 23,024 21,749 16,047

  8. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    67,203 78,980 87,069 96,515 133,446 119,940 2001-2016 Residential 4,892 11,789 18,582 24,976 46,310 38,599 1989-2016 Commercial 5,319 10,093 13,175 15,188 27,618 22,317 1989-2016 Industrial 17,224 18,923 19,211 20,699 23,708 23,498 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 30 31 30 31 35 31 2010-2016 Electric Power 39,738 38,145 36,071 35,621 35,776 35,495

  9. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...457344,1,2,96,2,"*","--",12.7 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",87200,"--","--","--","--...,31301,0,"*",7,"*",0,"--",1.2 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",57,"--","--","--","--","...

  10. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...-",1560,5,13,99,7,7,"--",12.9 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",298,"--","--","--","--",... *",8," *",0,"--",1.2 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--"," *","--","--","--","--"...

  11. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ive",551318,1,2,96,2,"*",11.3 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",103615,"--","--","--","--","-...rive",35070,0,"*",7,"*",0,1.2 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",72,"--","--","--","--","--",1 ...

  12. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",1731,2,24,129,2,56 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",255,"--","--","--","--","--" ... Drive",121,"*",3,11,"*",0 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","*","--","--","--","--","--" ...

  13. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",507223,"*",4,126,"*",3 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",74825,"--","--","--","--","--... Drive",35339,"*","*",10,"*",0 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",113,"--","--","--","--","--" ...

  14. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...e",511864,"*",3,106,1,"*",4.8 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",86360,"--","--","--","--","--... Drive",36479,0,1,13,"*",0,11 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","Q","--","--","--","--","--",...

  15. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",1454,"*",28,120,3,1 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",263,"--","--","--","--","--" ... Drive",124,"*","*",4,"*","*" ," Electro-Chemical Processes",1,"--","--","--","--","--" ," ...

  16. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...7998,"*",3,106,1,"*","--",4.8 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",71045,"--","--","--","--...-",32187,0,1,13,"*",0,"--",11 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--","Q","--","--","--","--",...

  17. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,"--",1441,2,24,129,2,56,"--" ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",206,"--","--","--","--",...,"--",110,"*",3,11,"*",0,"--" ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--","*","--","--","--","--",...

  18. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...",347224,"*",5,116,1,"*","--" ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",55414,"--","--","--","--...,32764,"*","*",4,"*","*","--" ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",158,"--","--","--","--",...

  19. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",1746,2,16,109,4,5,4.8 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",295,"--","--","--","--","--",... Drive",124,0,3,13,"*",0,11 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","*","--","--","--","--","--",...

  20. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",1881,5,13,99,7,7,11.5 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",354,"--","--","--","--","--",... *",8," *",0,1.2 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","*","--","--","--","--","--",...

  1. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...",422408,"*",4,126,"*",3,"--" ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",60323,"--","--","--","--...",32259,"*","*",10,"*",0,"--" ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",112,"--","--","--","--",...

  2. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...-",1426,2,16,109,4,5,"--",4.8 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",242,"--","--","--","--",..."--",110,0,3,13,"*",0,"--",11 ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--","*","--","--","--","--",...

  3. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ..."--",1185,"*",28,120,3,1,"--" ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",189,"--","--","--","--",...-",112,"*","*",4,"*","*","--" ," Electro-Chemical Processes","--",1,"--","--","--","--","-...

  4. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive",426121,"*",5,116,1,"*" ," Electro-Chemical Processes",77146,"--","--","--","--","--...rive",36373,"*","*",4,"*","*" ," Electro-Chemical Processes",159,"--","--","--","--","--" ...

  5. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcuspam.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavngngconssumdcuspam.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ...

  6. Massachusetts Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25,692 29,699 31,148 36,395 52,994 46,930 2001-2016 Residential 2,465 5,784 9,387 12,553 20,032 18,664 1989-2016 Commercial 4,066 7,399 9,210 10,044 17,790 13,347 1989-2016 Industrial 2,507 3,055 4,108 4,110 5,486 5,065 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 67 70 67 70 77 70 2010-2016 Electric Power 16,586 13,391 8,375 9,618 9,608 9,783

  7. Montana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,662 4,787 7,811 9,316 9,465 7,453 2001-2016 Residential 494 1,042 2,634 3,260 3,276 2,376 1989-2016 Commercial 689 1,158 2,508 3,107 3,244 2,434 1989-2016 Industrial 1,709 1,873 2,004 2,173 2,128 1,911 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010-2016 Electric Power 770 714 666 777 816 73

  8. Alabama Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    454,456 534,779 598,514 666,712 615,407 634,678 1997-2014 Lease and Plant Fuel 1967-1998 Lease Fuel 10,460 10,163 10,367 12,389 12,456 10,055 1983-2014 Plant Fuel 6,470 6,441 6,939...

  9. Idaho Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    78,166 75,647 77,343 83,274 98,843 87,647 1997-2014 Residential 25,531 23,975 26,666 23,924 27,370 24,616 1967-2014 Commercial 15,740 15,033 16,855 15,838 18,485 16,963...

  10. Oklahoma Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    675,727 655,919 691,661 658,569 640,607 1997-2014 Lease and Plant Fuel 1967-1998 Lease Fuel 39,489 40,819 43,727 45,581 50,621 1983-2014 Plant Fuel 23,238 24,938 27,809 32,119 ...

  11. Arizona Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    369,739 330,914 288,802 332,068 332,073 307,946 1997-2014 Lease and Plant Fuel 1967-1998 Lease Fuel 17 19 17 12 4 3 1983-2014 Pipeline & Distribution Use 20,846 15,447 13,158...

  12. Maine Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,575 71,690 68,266 64,091 60,661 1997-2014 Pipeline & Distribution Use 1,753 2,399 762 844 1,300 1997-2014 Volumes Delivered to Consumers 75,821 69,291 67,504 63,247 59,362 NA ...

  13. End-Use Taxes: Current EIA Practices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    However, many States levy taxes on aviation fuel, as shown in Table B3 in Appendix B, based on information obtained from State TaxationRevenue Offices. The use of the national...

  14. ,"Wisconsin Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    67,2429,2389,7792,5,7152 40405,20798,2472,2385,8311,5,7624 40436,16423,2833,2891,8505,5,2189 40466,21523,5597,4616,9601,5,1704 40497,33652,12885,8423,10973,5,1366...

  15. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    32582,,8377,3462 32613,,4724,2362 32643,,2816,1790 32674,,2321,1479 32704,,2189,1399 32735,,2026,1340 32766,,2035,1433 32796,,2513,1568 32827,,4166,2035...

  16. Texas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    85,549 138,429 294,316 274,451 1997-2014 Volumes Delivered to Consumers 2,947,542 3,185,011 3,305,730 3,377,217 3,350,645 3,415,789 1997-2014 Residential 192,153 226,445 199,958...

  17. Hawaii Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,607 2,627 2,619 2,689 2,855 2,928 1997-2014 Pipeline & Distribution Use 2 2 2 3 1 1 2004-2014 Volumes Delivered to Consumers 2,605 2,625 2,616 2,687 2,853 2,927 1997-2014...

  18. ,"Delaware Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8817,1663,1627,2865,0,2661 41654,9350,2463,2128,2676,0,2083 41685,8446,2138,1696,2644,0,1968 41713,9361,1858,1502,2871,0,3129 41744,6829,825,740,2340,0,2924 41774,6637,496,615,2477...

  19. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (MMcf)" 32523,,7006,4202 32554,,7911,4825 32582,,6742,4252 32613,,3687,2505 32643,,1968,1648 32674,,1137,1757 32704,,1078,3381 32735,,1007,4240 32766,,1212,1634...

  20. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusinm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  1. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusohm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  2. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusmim.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  3. ,"Massachusetts Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusmam.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  4. ,"Vermont Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusvtm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  5. ,"Washington Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcuswam.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  6. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusarm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  7. ,"Iowa Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusiam.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  8. ,"Florida Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusflm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  9. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusmnm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  10. ,"Illinois Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcusilm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  11. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","1292016" ,"Next Release Date:","2292016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcushim.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

  12. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    32978,,1820,1550 33008,,1476,1268 33039,,1206,1157 33069,,704,821 33100,,560,769 ... 37726,13784,3838,2544,5408,,1994 37756,12066,3058,2088,5382,,1537 ...

  13. ,"Alaska Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33649,,1933,2372 33678,,1764,2319 33709,,1346,1935 33739,,1012,1597 33770,,628,1206 33800,,474,1084 33831,,438,1013 33862,,643,1252 33892,,1209,1790 33923,,1442,1928 ...

  14. ,"Montana Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33131,,450,347 33161,,1040,782 33192,,1694,1206 33222,,2673,1889 33253,,3533,2425 ...,3279,1081,737,1444,,16 38153,2725,856,647,1206,,16 38183,2154,553,456,1129,,16 ...

  15. ,"Maine Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 38671,4236,102,416,513,,3205 38701,2234,170,664,563,,836 38732,3888,153,605,1206,,1923 38763,4850,166,636,1426,,2622 38791,5239,142,620,2121,,2355 38822,4090,87,355,124...

  16. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 35504,,3058,2114 35535,,1916,1532 35565,,1472,1305 35596,,926,1174 35626,,815,1206 35657,,761,1309 35688,,778,924 35718,,902,1224 35749,,2561,2027 35779,,4355,2937 ...

  17. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 40283,14937,4022,3553,7241,1,119 40313,11682,1468,2245,7020,1,948 40344,12260,1206,2041,6804,1,2209 40374,14350,1036,1878,6882,1,4553 40405,13862,956,1725,7350,1,3829 ...

  18. ,"Nevada Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 37118,14023,996,1238,910,,10878 37149,12067,1034,1655,858,,8520 37179,12854,1245,1383... 40954,22161,5815,3266,972,47,12062 40983,20389,4325,2888,1019,50,12107 ...

  19. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 39675,9545,1103,1409,1439,,5594 39706,8662,1081,1554,1477,,4549 39736,12106,1610,2113,1929,,6454 39767,13148,3699,3254,2087,,4108 39797,17393,6259,4754,2126,,4253 ...

  20. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 39736,4922,738,610,3480,,94 39767,5595,1207,908,3394,,86 39797,7419,1929,1386,4005,,100 39828,7385,2040,1589,3639,,117 39859,6193,1754,1416,2927,,96 ...

  1. ,"Idaho Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    34196,,251,360 34227,,310,381 34257,,481,507 34288,,1159,947 34318,,2057,1543 34349,,1929,1510 34380,,1926,1457 34408,,1432,1121 34439,,1001,771 34469,,568,480 34500,,367,377 ...

  2. Arkansas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    244,193 271,515 284,076 296,132 282,120 268,453 1997-2014 Lease and Plant Fuel 1967-1998 Lease Fuel 4,091 5,340 6,173 6,599 6,605 6,452 1983-2014 Plant Fuel 489 529 423 622 797 871...

  3. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Excel File Name:","ngconssumdcuskym.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavngngconssumdcuskym.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ...

  4. Kansas Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    86,973 275,184 279,724 262,316 283,177 285,969 1997-2014 Lease and Plant Fuel 1967-1998 Lease Fuel 15,169 13,461 12,781 17,017 17,110 14,851 1983-2014 Plant Fuel 2,126 2,102 2,246...

  5. Arizona Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9,020 35,358 38,296 42,000 35,461 29,557 2001-2015 Residential 1,805 1,303 1,056 971 1,072 1,334 1989-2015 Commercial 2,204 1,878 1,758 1,654 1,714 1,918 1989-2015 Industrial 1,611...

  6. ,"Georgia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,5851,3726,10622,93,22727 41228,52299,12989,6200,12742,90,20277 41258,61950,16188,6843,13500,93,25326 41289,62324,18331,7191,13879,85,22838 41320,63455,19031,7667,12703,77,23978 ...

  7. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    34288,,8984,6080 34318,,14527,9396 34349,,16252,10134 34380,,15391,9633 34408,,13500,8295 34439,,9732,6300 34469,,6819,4573 34500,,3474,2745 34530,,2546,2268 ...

  8. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Scenario Model. iv List of Acronyms AEO Annual Energy Outlook BAM Biomass Allocation Model ... Today, traditional use of biomass accounts for 14% of world energy usage, which is ...

  9. Measurement of cross section of quark pair production top with the D0 experiment at the Tevatron and determination the top quark mass using this measure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chevalier-Thery, Solene; /Paris U., VI-VII /Saclay

    2010-06-01

    The top quark has been discovered by CDF and D0 experiments in 1995 at the proton-antiproton collider Tevatron. The amount of data recorded by both experiments makes it possible to accurately study the properties of this quark: its mass is now known to better than 1% accuracy. This thesis describes the measurement of the top pair cross section in the electron muon channel with 4, 3 fb{sup -1} recorded data between 2006 and 2009 by the D0 experiment. Since the final state included a muon, improvements of some aspects of its identification have been performed : a study of the contamination of the cosmic muons and a study of the quality of the muon tracks. The cross section measurement is in good agreement with the theoretical calculations and the other experimental measurements. This measurement has been used to extract a value for the top quark mass. This method allows for the extraction of a better defined top mass than direct measurements as it depends less on Monte Carlo simulations. The uncertainty on this extracted mass, dominated by the experimental one, is however larger than for direct measurements. In order to decrease this uncertainty, the ratio of the Z boson and the top pair production cross sections has been studied to look for some possible theoretical correlations. At the Tevatron, the two cross sections are not theoretically correlated: no decrease of the uncertainty on the extracted top mass is therefore possible.

  10. Continuous Production of Biodiesel Via an Intensified Reactive/Extractive Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsouris, Costas; McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. For a number of reasons ranging from production issues to end use, biodiesel represents only a small fraction of the transportation fuel used worldwide. This work addresses the aspect of biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. Conventional production methods are batch in nature, based on the assumption that the rates of the key chemical reactions are slow. The hypothesis motivating this work is that the reaction kinetics for the transesterification of the reagent triglyceride is sufficiently fast, particularly in an excess of catalyst, and that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the process. If this is the case, an intensified two-phase reactor adapted from solvent extraction equipment may be utilized to greatly increase biodiesel production rates by increasing interphase transport and phase separation. To prove this idea, we are investigating two aspects: (1) determining the rate-limiting step in biodiesel production by evaluating the reaction kinetics, and (2) enhancing biodiesel production rates by using an intensified reactor. A centrifugal contactor combining interphase mass transfer, chemical reaction, and phase separation is employed for process intensification.

  11. Determination of the top-quark pole mass and strong coupling constant from the t t-bar production cross section in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 7 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-08-21

    The inclusive cross section for top-quark pair production measured by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is compared to the QCD prediction at next-to-next-to-leading order with various parton distribution functions to determine the top-quark pole mass,more » $$m_t^{pole}$$, or the strong coupling constant, $$\\alpha_S$$. With the parton distribution function set NNPDF2.3, a pole mass of 176.7$$^{+3.0}_{-2.8}$$ GeV is obtained when constraining $$\\alpha_S$$ at the scale of the Z boson mass, $m_Z$, to the current world average. Alternatively, by constraining $$m_t^{pole}$$ to the latest average from direct mass measurements, a value of $$\\alpha_S(m_Z)$$ = 0.1151$$^{+0.0028}_{-0.0027}$$ is extracted. This is the first determination of $$\\alpha_S$$ using events from top-quark production.« less

  12. Gamma-ray spectrometric determination of UF/sub 6/ assay with 1 percent precision for international safeguards. Part 1: product and feed in 1S and 2S sample cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricci, E.

    1981-06-15

    The method is based on counting the 186-keV gamma rays emitted by /sup 235/U using a Pb-collimated Ge(Li) detector. Measurements of fifty UF/sub 6/ product and feed cylinders reveal the following precisions and counting times: Product - 2S, 0.98% (600 s); Feed - 2S, 0.48% (2500 s); Product - 1S, 0.62% (1000 s); Feed - 1S, 0.73% (3000 s). A 1% precision is desired for variables - attributes verification measurements of /sup 235/U assay in UF/sub 6/ sample cylinders for safeguards inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Statistically, these measurements stand between fine, high-precision (or variables) measurements and gross, low-precision (or attributes) ones. Because of their intermediate precisions, the variables-attributes measurements may not require analysis of all samples, and this could result in significant savings of IAEA inspector time. Although the precision of the above results is satisfactory, the average relative differences between gamma-ray and mass-spectrometric determinations for the last two sets of measurements (1S cylinders) have positive biases.

  13. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Determination of Sugars, Byproducts, and Degradation Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 14.6 Sample size: 15 - 80 mL (50 mL minimum recommended) 14.7 Sample storage: Store samples in sealed containers so the volatile component concentration remains consistent. ...

  15. CX-003164: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003164: Categorical Exclusion Determination Optimization of Biomass Production Across a Landscape CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 07262010...

  16. 2014-02-21 Issuance: Proposed Determination of Computer Servers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issuance: Proposed Determination of Computer Servers as a Covered Consumer Product; ... previously proposed determination that computer servers qualify as a covered product, as ...

  17. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  18. CX-100604 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Determination of Coverage for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products RIN 1904-AC66 CX(s) Applied: A6 EERE-Buildings Technology Program Date: 05/04/2016 Location(s): Nationwide Office(s): Golden Field Office

  19. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Equipment: Proposed Determination of Computer Servers as a Covered Consumer Product, ... Equipment: Proposed Determination of Computer Servers as a Covered Consumer Product, ...

  20. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycerine phase and the continuous lost of catalyst. A maximum soy biodiesel yield of 85% was obtained by BaO in 14 minutes, whereas, PbO, MnO2, CaO and MgO gave a maximum yields of 84%, 80%, 78% and 66% respectively at 215°C. The overall reaction order of PbO, MnO2, BaO, CaO and MgO was found to be 1, 1, 3, 1 and 1 respectively. The highest rate constant was observed for BaO, which was 0.0085 g2.mole-2.min-1. The performance of biodiesel in terms of type (e.g., NOx, and CO) and quantity of emissions was tested using soy biodiesel, blends of biodiesel and ethanol, and differently aged diesel engines. It was determined that saturated methyl esters, and relatively high oxygen content in the fuel, caused by addition of ethanol, increased the NOx emissions from new diesel engines compared to petroleum diesel.

  1. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Determination of Coverage for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products (1904-AC66) EERE- Buildings Technology Program Nationwide Under this Final Determination DOE is determining that miscellaneous refrigeration products (MREFs), which include coolers (wine chillers and similar products) and combination cooler refrigeration products (products with a warm-temperature compartment combined with a refrigerator and/ or freezer compartment), qualify as a covered product under Part A of Title III of

  3. CX-003608: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CX-003608: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sustainable Algal Energy Production and Environmental Remediation CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08252010 Location(s): Virginia ...

  4. CX-006863: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CX-006863: Categorical Exclusion Determination Production ... Minnesota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable ... aims to establish a sustainable supply of ...

  5. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Oklahoma | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... June 17, 2013 CX-010520: Categorical Exclusion Determination Silica Polymer Initiator ... PetrophysicsTight Rock Characterization for Improved Stimulation and Production ...

  6. Morris: Noncompliance Determination (2013-SE-5403)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Morris Products, Inc. finding that various models of metal halide lamp fixtures do not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  7. U.S. Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland ... Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio ...

  8. U.S. Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New ...

  9. Rhode Island Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,837 6,216 7,643 6,847 8,611 7,986 2001-2016 Residential 385 1,038 1,591 1,903 3,421 2,876 1989-2016 Commercial 244 624 1,007 1,106 2,008 1,770 1989-2016 Industrial 694 683 704 750 730 799 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 7 7 7 7 8 7 2010-2016 Electric Power 3,507 3,864 4,334 3,081 2,443 2,533

  10. South Carolina Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20,307 22,863 25,780 24,364 28,082 23,581 2001-2016 Residential 542 1,020 2,345 2,982 6,837 5,615 1989-2016 Commercial 1,380 1,827 2,136 1,907 3,896 3,003 1989-2016 Industrial 6,616 7,238 7,342 7,873 7,803 7,191 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 2 2 2 2 2 2 2010-2016 Electric Power 11,768 12,777 13,955 11,601 9,544 7,772

  11. South Dakota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,529 4,893 6,660 8,123 9,012 7,556 2001-2016 Residential 226 473 1,162 1,996 2,371 1,689 1989-2016 Commercial 315 571 1,127 1,564 1,995 1,376 1989-2016 Industrial 3,469 3,452 3,849 3,907 4,111 3,866 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010-2016 Electric Power 519 396 521 656 535 625

  12. West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    914 6,180 6,835 NA 12,049 10,209 2001-2016 Residential 387 1,242 2,132 2,485 5,340 4,215 1989-2016 Commercial 1,107 1,547 1,923 2,034 3,648 3,015 1989-2016 Industrial 1,677 1,849 2,014 NA 2,842 2,743 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 1 1 1 1 1 1 2010-2016 Electric Power 1,742 1,541 765 522 219 236

  13. New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    41,194 241,137 246,418 243,961 245,502 246,178 1997-2014 Lease and Plant Fuel 1967-1998 Lease Fuel 49,655 49,070 47,556 47,696 47,018 49,406 1983-2014 Plant Fuel 36,827 35,289...

  14. U.S. Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions,

  15. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1992 - Index...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Author Contact: Joelle.Michaels@eia.doe.gov Joelle Michaels CBECS Survey Manager URL: http:www.eia.govconsumptioncommercialdataarchivecbecscbecs1d.html separater bar...

  16. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intensities The purpose of this section is to provide information on how energy was used for space conditioning--heating, cooling, and ventilation--in commercial...

  17. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Active Solar: As an energy source, energy from the sun collected and stored using mechanical pumps or fans to circulate heat-laden fluids or air between solar collectors and the...

  18. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Energy Use in Commercial Buildings The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of how energy was used in commercial buildings. Focusing on 1989 buildings, the section...

  19. ,"South Carolina Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 35139,,3741,2190 35170,,2996,1884 35200,,954,1154 35231,,547,997 ... 35626,,517,989 35657,,449,1004 35688,,471,1884 35718,,637,1167 35749,,2424,1757 ...

  20. District of Columbia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,072 1,740 2,437 2,907 5,148 4,776 2001-2016 Residential 253 520 911 1,335 2,524 2,285 1989-2016 Commercial 736 1,135 1,443 1,487 2,528 2,405 1989-2016 Industrial 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 83 86 83 86 95 86 2010-2016 Electric Power -- -- -- -- -- --

  1. South Dakota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  2. District of Columbia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  3. New York Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  4. Rhode Island Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  5. West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  6. North Dakota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  7. North Carolina Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  8. New Jersey Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  9. North Dakota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey...

  10. New Hampshire Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New...

  11. Louisiana Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    514,474 1,744,771 1,873,769 1,488,986 1,405,392 1,375,580 1984-2014 Residential 1,036 140 34 53 84 89 1984-2014 Commercial 59,689 38,695 39,659 36,840 17,590 21,197 1984-2014 Industrial 21,826 26,063 20,770 33,052 31,744 33,670 1984-2014 Oil Company 243,789 319,394 364,261 245,303 183,801 178,810 1984-2014 Farm 42,624 44,027 49,985 48,462 40,785 46,134 1984-2014 Electric Power 4,321 4,775 5,464 2,733 4,610 4,826 1984-2014 Railroad 18,345 25,425 32,515 28,110 39,578 45,790 1984-2014 Vessel

  12. Mississippi Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    835,855 800,065 771,577 830,756 806,396 819,763 1984-2014 Residential 5 5 4 7 7 8 1984-2014 Commercial 26,641 23,713 26,383 26,386 24,019 28,803 1984-2014 Industrial 21,853 18,362 15,450 20,153 21,186 19,595 1984-2014 Oil Company 3,955 4,262 4,058 6,226 7,450 6,419 1984-2014 Farm 41,080 57,087 52,559 81,878 84,753 79,443 1984-2014 Electric Power 3,796 3,393 2,019 1,674 2,223 1,921 1984-2014 Railroad 24,727 17,936 37,741 29,848 32,550 35,578 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering 141,302 93,384 58,285 58,505

  13. New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    09,709 554,352 574,557 608,490 621,430 669,923 1984-2014 Residential 55 46 37 27 72 53 1984-2014 Commercial 11,030 9,435 9,609 9,145 9,112 12,114 1984-2014 Industrial 33,804 24,429 27,110 31,316 32,029 32,917 1984-2014 Oil Company 9,871 1,705 2,127 5,857 11,218 27,016 1984-2014 Farm 11,278 14,821 10,955 12,816 15,784 11,752 1984-2014 Electric Power 4,321 4,000 1,689 5,155 4,816 3,826 1984-2014 Railroad 245 1,780 1,707 19,123 38,543 45,446 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014

  14. New York Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20,336 33,321 1989-2015 Commercial 12,774 14,178 14,539 13,736 18,646 24,042 1989-2015 Industrial 5,333 5,249 5,770 5,562 6,203 6,620 2001-2015 Vehicle Fuel 305 331 331 320...

  15. End Use and Fuel Certification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels Market Opportunities High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super ...

  16. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings1995 -- Overview...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) building energy simulations provided by the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. The...

  17. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings1995 -- Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    model using survey data from the 1995 commercial buildings energy consumption survey and building energy simulations provided by the Facility Energy Decision Screening system....

  18. Alabama Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    987,571 1,038,133 1,094,359 1,132,711 1,047,981 1,027,777 1984-2014 Residential 3,971 4,895 432 750 639 722 1984-2014 Commercial 39,802 46,009 48,475 46,654 30,536 27,874 1984-2014 Industrial 90,659 77,542 81,120 120,347 77,119 65,322 1984-2014 Oil Company 0 328 1,035 2,640 2,929 2,985 1984-2014 Farm 17,882 19,881 24,518 24,503 24,651 20,459 1984-2014 Electric Power 8,276 10,372 22,490 9,375 6,514 10,071 1984-2014 Railroad 44,546 42,465 97,177 125,439 63,570 56,873 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering

  19. Florida Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    840,100 2,027,012 1,914,621 1,918,039 2,023,650 2,038,923 1984-2014 Residential 1,551 1,820 1,085 572 451 728 1984-2014 Commercial 126,292 113,313 100,791 104,860 113,873 110,082 1984-2014 Industrial 36,512 43,088 35,652 32,087 31,458 42,894 1984-2014 Oil Company 236 2,255 4,038 4,359 4,427 3,802 1984-2014 Farm 86,642 204,866 109,177 103,325 122,563 98,418 1984-2014 Electric Power 31,161 43,675 35,577 16,137 16,244 12,182 1984-2014 Railroad 33,651 42,353 46,461 66,711 93,844 92,435 1984-2014

  20. Energy Information Administration - Table 2. End Uses of Fuel...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    -- -- -- Net Electricity 74 79 76 Residual Fuel Oil 19 * 11 Natural Gas 369 329 272 Machine Drive -- -- -- Net Electricity 68 86 77 Notes 1. The North American Industry...

  1. New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10,219 10,795 14,369 19,223 19,201 15,207 2001-2016 Residential 854 1,282 3,863 6,379 6,677 4,728 1989-2016 Commercial 1,106 1,689 3,294 4,321 3,911 3,120 1989-2016 Industrial 1,348 1,479 1,616 1,575 1,730 1,461 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 15 16 15 16 17 16 2010-2016 Electric Power 6,895 6,330 5,581 6,933 6,866 5,881

  2. North Carolina Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5,685 35,342 43,008 NA 60,449 55,952 2001-2016 Residential 1,121 2,814 6,342 7,028 16,311 13,029 1989-2016 Commercial 3,004 4,282 5,548 NA 10,328 8,034 1989-2016 Industrial 7,974 9,044 8,911 9,049 10,520 10,075 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 7 7 7 7 8 7 2010-2016 Electric Power 23,579 19,195 22,200 22,474 23,283 24,806

  3. Driving Biofuels End Use: BETO/VTO Collaborations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conventional Engine + Realistic Fuels GEFORCE - Near term technology exploration 6 6 | Vehicle Technologies Program Efficiency Through Biofuels Biofuel blends enhance ...

  4. Table 5.5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Drive -- 347,224 * 5 116 1 * -- Electro-Chemical Processes -- 55,414 -- -- -- -- -- -- ... Drive -- 33,354 * * 5 * 0 -- Electro-Chemical Processes -- 5,538 -- -- -- -- -- -- ...

  5. Table 5.6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive -- 1,185 * 28 120 3 1 -- Electro-Chemical Processes -- 189 -- -- -- -- -- -- Other ... Drive -- 114 * 2 5 * 0 -- Electro-Chemical Processes -- 19 -- -- -- -- -- -- Other ...

  6. Table 5.1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive -- 347,224 * 5 116 1 * -- Electro-Chemical Processes -- 55,414 -- -- -- -- -- -- ... Drive -- 32,764 * * 4 * * -- Electro-Chemical Processes -- 158 -- -- -- -- -- -- Other ...

  7. Table 5.4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Machine Drive 1,454 * 28 120 3 1 Electro-Chemical Processes 263 -- -- -- -- -- Other ... * 0 Machine Drive 124 * * 4 * * Electro-Chemical Processes 1 -- -- -- -- -- Other Process ...

  8. Table 5.3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Drive 426,121 * 5 116 1 * Electro-Chemical Processes 77,146 -- -- -- -- -- Other ... 0 Machine Drive 36,373 * * 4 * * Electro-Chemical Processes 159 -- -- -- -- -- Other ...

  9. Table 5.7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Drive 426,121 * 5 116 1 * Electro-Chemical Processes 77,146 -- -- -- -- -- Other ... 0 Machine Drive 40,701 * * 5 * 0 Electro-Chemical Processes 5,597 -- -- -- -- -- Released: ...

  10. Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Machine Drive 1,454 * 28 120 3 1 Electro-Chemical Processes 263 -- -- -- -- -- Other ... * 0 Machine Drive 139 * 2 5 * 0 Electro-Chemical Processes 19 -- -- -- -- -- Other ...

  11. Table 5.2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drive -- 1,185 * 28 120 3 1 -- Electro-Chemical Processes -- 189 -- -- -- -- -- -- Other ... Drive -- 112 * * 4 * * -- Electro-Chemical Processes -- 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- Other ...

  12. New Hampshire Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA 5,978 NA 2001-2016 Residential 148 242 657 854 1,334 1,136 1989-2016 Commercial 232 377 823 1,017 1,584 1,320 1989-2016 Industrial NA NA NA NA 856 NA 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 6 6 6 6 7 6 2010-2016 Electric Power 3,922 3,375 3,795 2,706 2,196 1,145

  13. CBECS 1989 - Energy End-use Intensities in Commercial Buildings...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the sampling error is nonzero and unknown for the particular sample chosen, the sample design permits sampling errors to be estimated. Due to the complexity of the sample design,...

  14. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 data...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Divider Bar To View andor Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader If you experience any difficulties,...

  15. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption Survey. divider line To View andor Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader If you experience any difficulties,...

  16. Distribution Category UC-98 Consumption End-Use A Comparison...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    buildings) as well as a list of large buildings in each metropolitan area. MECS is based upon a comprehensive list of manufactures that is maintained by the Census Bureau for...

  17. End-use Breakdown: The Building Energy Modeling Blog

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Blog en EnergyPlus Logo Debuts on Revit Toolbar http:energy.goveerebuildingsarticlesenergyplus-logo-debuts-revit-toolbar

  18. Texas Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,329,790 5,693,270 6,373,078 6,688,629 6,914,481 7,837,118 1984-2014 Residential 67 28 127 102 16 59 1984-2014 Commercial 136,419 100,886 184,312 173,303 142,268 132,601 1984-2014 ...

  19. South Carolina Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline & Distribution Use 3,452 3,408 3,416 2,529 2,409 1997-2014 Volumes Delivered to Consumers 216,783 226,089 241,434 229,768 229,454 270,546 1997-2015 Residential 32,430 ...

  20. New Jersey Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential 219,141 213,630 191,371 226,195 247,742 237,164 1967-2015 Commercial 181,480 ... Vehicle Fuel 150 191 191 195 229 222 1988-2015 Electric Power 199,059 199,594 226,469 ...

  1. Biogas end-use in the European community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constant, M.; Naveau, H.; Nyns, E.J. ); Ferrero, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    In Europe over the past few years the generation of biogas for energy and environmental purposes has been gaining in importance. Industrial wastewaters, cattle manure, sewage sludges, urban wastes, crop residues, algae and aquatic biomass are all typical of the materials being utilized. In contrast to the extensive inventory of biomethanation processes which has been carried out within the EEC, until recently a detailed, up-to-date investigation of the end-sues of biogas had not been undertaken. To supply the necessary information, the Commission of the European Communities and the Belgian Science Policy Office jointly entrusted a study to the Unit of Bioengineering at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. This book is record of the study and has the following key features: it gives a broad overview of the ongoing use of biogas in Europe; it summarizes available data on storage, purification and engines using biogas; it draws several conclusions concerning the technical and economic viability of the processes; it discusses the problems of using biogas; and it outlines recommendations and future R and D and demonstration projects in the field.

  2. End-Use Intensity in Commercial Buildings 1992 (TABLES)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 9 21 5 64 1 9 Food Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 43 53 9 37 28 116 17 1 5 Health Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 88 32 11 128 52 30 6 15 41 Lodging . . . . . ....

  3. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    lighting intensities per lighted square foot-hour (Figure 23). * Food service and health care buildings had the highest water-heating intensities per square foot--more than...

  4. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and stored using mechanical pumps or fans to circulate heat-laden fluids or air between solar collectors and the building. Examples include the use of solar collectors for water...

  5. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    34380,,9487,6269 34408,,6623,4727 34439,,3521,2761 34469,,1704,1844 34500,,1206,1605 34530,,866,1487 34561,,806,1647 34592,,903,1831 34622,,1568,2115 34653,,3655,2817 ...

  6. U.S. Adjusted Sales of Kerosene by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  7. U.S. Sales of Kerosene by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  8. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 37909,2054,590,533,836,,95 37940,3715,1464,1166,995,,90 37970,4455,1929,1485,988,,54 38001,5515,2506,1871,1023,,115 38032,4940,2214,1653,1049,,24 ...

  9. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, G.

    1998-05-01

    A conceptual design and ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation model was developed for a Battelle biomass-based gasification, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefaction and combined-cycle power plant. This model was developed in a similar manner to those coal liquefaction models that were developed under DOE contract DE-AC22-91PC90027. As such, this process flowsheet simulation model was designed to be a research guidance tool and not a detailed process design tool. However, it does contain some process design features, such as sizing the F-T synthesis reactors. This model was designed only to predict the effects of various process and operating changes on the overall plant heat and material balances, utilities, capital and operating costs.

  10. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--End-Use Equipment

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Cooling Equipment Packaged air conditioning units were the predominant type of cooling...

  11. Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View ...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: Biofuels End-Use Research | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of biofuels with internal combustion engines. This work includes: Developing detailed kinetic reaction models to better describe components of advanced biofuels and then testing ...

  13. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,20576,14730,6914,,10275 38122,39871,8867,9693,5860,,15451 38153,33708,6026,8360,5823,,13500 38183,33345,5433,7004,5549,,15358 38214,34799,5428,7656,5364,,16351 ...

  14. Ethanol as a fuel: design and construction of an ethanol production facility for a farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelger, E.C. III

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation describes the production of ethanol from biomass. It includes descriptions of photosynthesis, feedstock preparation, fermentation, distillation and end use. Technical problems and limitations as well as social, political, and economic aspects of producing ethanol are addressed. The potential of small-scale ethanol production and specific case studies are reviewed. A low-cost efficient design for a single farm ethanol facility is included. (DMC)

  15. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  16. Proceedings of the alcohol fuel production and utilization conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A conference was held to provide farmers, businesses, industries, and specialty groups with the best available information on current and projected activities related to the production and utilization of biomass for alcohol fuels. All aspects of the alcohol fuel production and utilization process were discussed. From biomass sources, through conversion processes to end-use products and applications were topics discussed by numerous experts. Other experts took this basic information and put it together into total systems. Speakers presented overviews on alcohol fuel related activities on state, regional, and national levels. Finally, commercialization incentives, funding sources, environmental considerations, research developments, safety considerations, and regulatory requirements were discussed as factors which must be addressed when considering the production and utilization of alcohol fuels. Separate abstracts have been prepared for items within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  17. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes Products Isotopes Products Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole stress-inducible lateral wall and apical ischemia. (http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/image/machac/machaci.htm#f2,3,4) Strontium-82 is supplied to our customers for use in Sr-82/Rb-82 generator technologies. The generators in turn are supplied to

  18. Measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and determination of the strong coupling constant in the TeV range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section at a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector. The analysis is based on the three jets with the highest transverse momenta. The cross section is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the three jets in a range of 445-3270 GeV and in two bins of the maximum rapidity of the jets up to a value of 2. A comparison between the measurement and the prediction from perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order is performed. Within uncertainties, data and theory are in agreement. The sensitivity of the observable to parameters of the theory such as the parton distribution functions of the proton and the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_S$ is studied. A fit to all data points with 3-jet masses larger than 664 GeV gives a value of the strong coupling constant of $\\alpha_S(M_\\mathrm{Z})$ = 0.1171 $\\pm$ 0.0013 (exp) $^{+0.0073}_{-0.0047}$ (theo).

  19. Measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section in proton–proton collisions at 7 TeV and determination of the strong coupling constant in the TeV range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section at a proton–proton centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5fb–1 collected with the CMS detector. The analysis is based on the three jets with the highest transverse momenta. The cross section is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the three jets in a range of 445–3270 GeV and in two bins of the maximum rapidity of the jets up to a value of 2. A comparison between the measurement and the prediction from perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order is performed. Within uncertainties, data and theory are in agreement. The sensitivity of the observable to the strong coupling constant αS is studied. A fit to all data points with 3-jet masses larger than 664 GeV gives a value of the strong coupling constant of αS(MZ) = 0.1171 ± 0.0013(exp)+0.0073–0.0047(theo).

  20. Measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section in proton–proton collisions at 7 TeV and determination of the strong coupling constant in the TeV range

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section at a proton–proton centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5fb–1 collected with the CMS detector. The analysis is based on the three jets with the highest transverse momenta. The cross section is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the three jets in a range of 445–3270 GeV and in two bins of the maximum rapidity of the jets up to a value of 2. A comparison between the measurement and the prediction from perturbative QCD at next-to-leadingmore » order is performed. Within uncertainties, data and theory are in agreement. The sensitivity of the observable to the strong coupling constant αS is studied. A fit to all data points with 3-jet masses larger than 664 GeV gives a value of the strong coupling constant of αS(MZ) = 0.1171 ± 0.0013(exp)+0.0073–0.0047(theo).« less

  1. Measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and determination of the strong coupling constant in the TeV range

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section at a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector. The analysis is based on the three jets with the highest transverse momenta. The cross section is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the three jets in a range of 445-3270 GeV and in two bins of the maximum rapidity of the jets up to a value of 2. A comparison between the measurement and the prediction from perturbative QCD atmorenext-to-leading order is performed. Within uncertainties, data and theory are in agreement. The sensitivity of the observable to parameters of the theory such as the parton distribution functions of the proton and the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_S$ is studied. A fit to all data points with 3-jet masses larger than 664 GeV gives a value of the strong coupling constant of $\\alpha_S(M_\\mathrm{Z})$ = 0.1171 $\\pm$ 0.0013 (exp) $^{+0.0073}_{-0.0047}$ (theo).less

  2. CX-100474 Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-100474 Categorical Exclusion Determination Final Determination of Coverage for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products RIN 1904-AC66 CX(s) Applied: A6 EERE-Buildings Technology Program Date: 02/18/2016 Location(s): Nationwide Office(s): Golden Field Office Under this Supplemental Proposed Determination DOE proposes that miscellaneous refrigeration products (MREFs), which include coolers (wine chillers and similar products) and combination cooler

  3. Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) Production Component Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    determine the hydrogen selling cost given a specified after-tax internal rate of return. ... Production model evaluates cost of hydrogen production from any primary energy source for ...

  4. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole...

  5. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  6. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  7. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  8. Product separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  9. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.15 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Savannah River Operations Office April 27, 2015 CX-013759: Categorical Exclusion Determination Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) Production Support Complex 3rd Floor General Plant ...

  10. Kinetics following addition of sulfur fluorides to a weakly ionized plasma from 300 to 500 K: Rate constants and product determinations for ion-ion mutual neutralization and thermal electron attachment to SF{sub 5}, SF{sub 3}, and SF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, A. A.; Hazari, Nilay; Luzik, Eddie D. Jr.

    2010-12-21

    Rate constants for several processes including electron attachment to SF{sub 2}, SF{sub 3}, and SF{sub 5} and individual product channels of ion-ion mutual neutralization between SF{sub 6}{sup -}, SF{sub 5}{sup -}, and SF{sub 4}{sup -} with Ar{sup +} were determined by variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry. The experiments were conducted with a series of related neutral precursors (SF{sub 6}, SF{sub 4}, SF{sub 5}Cl, SF{sub 5}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, and SF{sub 3}C{sub 6}F{sub 5}) over a temperature range of 300-500 K. Mutual neutralization rate constants for SF{sub 6}{sup -}, SF{sub 5}{sup -}, and SF{sub 4}{sup -} with Ar{sup +} are reported with uncertainties of 10-25% and show temperature dependencies in agreement with the theoretical value of T{sup -0.5}. Product branching in the mutual neutralizations is temperature independent and dependent on the electron binding energy of the anion. A larger fraction of product neutrals from the SF{sub 6}{sup -} mutual neutralization (0.9 {+-}0.1) are dissociated than in the SF{sub 5}{sup -} mutual neutralization (0.65 {+-} 0.2), with the SF{sub 4}{sup -} (0.7 {+-} 0.3) likely lying in between. Electron attachment to SF{sub 5} (k= 2.0 x 10{sup -8} {+-}{sub 1}{sup 2} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 300 K) and SF{sub 3} (4 {+-} 3 x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 300 K) show little temperature dependence. Rate constants of electron attachment to closed-shell SF{sub n} species decrease as the complexity of the neutral decreases.

  11. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, David L.

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  12. EIS-0310-SA-02: Notice of Availability of Supplement Analysis and Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis Determination for Plutonium-238 Production for Radioisotope Power Systems

  13. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production capacity and production million gallons Period Annual Production ... B100 is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  14. Product Information Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When planning to present a new product to the EERE Product Governance Team, complete this product information form and email it to ee.communications@ee.doe.gov.

  15. CX-100189 Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    89 Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-100189 Categorical Exclusion Determination Proposed Rulemaking for Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products RIN: 1904-AD15 CX(s) Applied: B5.1 EERE- Buildings Technology Program Date: 02/26/2015 Location(s): Nationwide Office(s): Golden Field Office In this proposed rule, DOE proposes new and amended energy conservation standards for residential conventional cooking products. DOE has determined that the amended energy

  16. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G.; Gurary, Alexander I.; Boguslavskiy, Vadim

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  17. NEPA Determination Complete

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has determined that this proposed project is a major Federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. To comply with the National Environmental Policy Act ...

  18. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  19. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  20. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  1. Suggest a New Product Category | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The product category you would like FEMP to consider. An industry-recognized standard test procedure that determines annual energy consumption (including standby energy ...

  2. AeroSys: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0302) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0302) AeroSys: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0302) April 13, 2010 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to AeroSys, Inc. finding that basic model THDC-24SG does not comport with the energy conservation standards. DOE determined the product was noncompliant based on DOE testing. AeroSys must immediately notify each person (or company) to whom AeroSys distributed the noncompliant product that the product does not meet Federal standards. In

  3. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Golden Field Office | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Golden Field Office Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Golden Field Office Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Golden Field Office. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD May 10, 2016 CX-100608 Categorical Exclusion Determination Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (SNOPR) for Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products RIN 1904-AD15 CX(s) Applied: B5.1 EERE-Buildings Technology Program Date:

  4. Seaga: Noncompliance Determination (2015-SE-52001) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Seaga: Noncompliance Determination (2015-SE-52001) Seaga: Noncompliance Determination (2015-SE-52001) June 19, 2015 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Seaga Manufacturing, Inc. finding that the refrigerated bottle and canned beverage vending machine (BVM) basic model with name plate model SP536R does not comport with the energy conservation standards. DOE determined the product was noncompliant based on DOE testing. Seaga must immediately notify each person (or company) to

  5. Philips: Noncompliance Determination (2014-SE-48006) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Noncompliance Determination (2014-SE-48006) Philips: Noncompliance Determination (2014-SE-48006) March 26, 2015 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Philips Lighting North America Corp. finding that a variety of illuminated exit sign models do not comport with the energy conservation standards, based on information provided to DOE by Philips. DOE determined the products were noncompliant based on testing information provided by the company. Philips must immediately notify each

  6. Grid-based Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid-based Production Grid-based Production PDSF is a Tier 2 site for ALICE and as such has the infrastructure in place to run automated grid-based ALICE production jobs. The main...

  7. Communications Product Governance Team

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Product Governance Team (PGT) reviews and approves the publications, exhibits, logos, and templates for all EERE communications products. The PGT manages the product review process.

  8. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Environmental Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consolidated Business Service Center Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Environmental Management Consolidated Business Service Center Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued ...

  9. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Minnesota | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Minnesota Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Minnesota Location Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued for actions in Minnesota. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD December ...

  10. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuan Hoang Nguyen

    2003-05-31

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  11. Fluid properties determine flow line blockage potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.

    1996-07-15

    A thorough understanding of fluid properties helps in determining the potential of hydrates, paraffins, or asphaltenes to block subsea flow lines. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical methods are the main ways for preventing deposition. Already in both the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, blockages have led to significant losses in production and reserves recovery. This first article in a two-part series discusses thermal and chemical methods in overcoming fluid behavior problems caused by hydrate and other fluid constituents in subsea multiphase flow. The paper discusses subsea production, possible problems, nucleation, growth, deposition, preventing deposition, hydrate predictions, multiphase flow, and hydrate inhibition.

  12. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Rebecca D.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility encompassing approximately 800 square kilometers near Aiken, South Carolina which began operations in the 1950's with the mission to produce nuclear materials. The SRS contains fifty-one tanks (2 stabilized, 49 yet to be closed) distributed between two liquid radioactive waste storage facilities at SRS containing carbon steel underground tanks with storage capacities ranging from 2,800,000 to 4,900,000 liters. Treatment of the liquid waste from these tanks is essential both to closing older tanks and to maintaining space needed to treat the waste that is eventually vitrified or disposed of onsite. Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) provides the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a methodology to determine that certain waste resulting from prior reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are not high-level radioactive waste if it can be demonstrated that the waste meets the criteria set forth in Section 3116(a) of the NDAA. The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the NRC, signed a determination in January 2006, pursuant to Section 3116(a) of the NDAA, for salt waste disposal at the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility. This determination is based, in part, on the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site and supporting references, a document that describes the planned methods of liquid waste treatment and the resulting waste streams. The document provides descriptions of the proposed methods for processing salt waste, dividing them into 'Interim Salt Processing' and later processing through the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Interim Salt Processing is separated into Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) and Actinide Removal Process/Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU). The Waste Determination was signed by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  13. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2016 State Number of ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  14. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel (B100) production by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  15. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.1 Existing Regulations B1.1: Changing rates and prices Changing rates for services or prices for products marketed by parts of DOE other ...

  16. Transmission Losses Product (pbl/products)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Smoothing and Intertie Service (Pilot) Firstgov Pricing for Transmission Losses Product Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Power Services offers to sell transmission...

  17. Interim Action Determination

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Interim Action Determination Processing of Plutonium Materials from the DOE Standard 3013 Surveillance Program in H-Canyon at the Savannah River Site The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SPD SEIS, DOE/EIS-0283-S2). DOE is evaluating alternatives for disposition of non-pit plutonium that is surplus to the national security needs of the United States. Although the Deputy Secretary of Energy approved Critical

  18. NEPA Determination Form

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    LA NEPA COMPLIANCE DETERMINATION FORM PRID - 09P-0059 V2 Page 1 of 8 Project/Activity Title: TA-3 Substation Replacement Project PRID: 09P-0059 V2 Date: February 16, 2016 Purpose: The proposed demolition and replacement of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Technical Area (TA)-3 electrical power substation is needed to provide reliable and efficient electrical distribution systems with sufficient electrical capacity to support the national security missions. The electrical distribution

  19. Award Fee Determination Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company Contract Number: DE-AC06-08RL14788 Final Fee Determination for Base funded Performance Measures Basis of Evaluation: Completion of Performance Measures contained in Section J, Attachment J.4, Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan, according to the identified completion criteria. Evaluation Results: FY 2012 Base Period Fee Available Fee allocated to FY 2012* Performance Measures $10,399,033.60 Incremental Fee $4,490,000.00 Provisional Fee

  20. Award Fee Determination Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company Contract Number: DE-AC06-08RL14788 Final Fee Determination for Base funded and American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery) funded Performance Measures Basis of Evaluation: Completion of Performance Measures contained in Section J, AttachmentJ.4, Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan, according to the identified completion criteria. Evaluation Results: Fiscal Year 2011 (Oct 1, 2010 - Sept 30, 2011) Base Funded Fee Recovery Funded Fee Available

  1. Westinghouse Lighting: Noncompliance Determination (2010-CE-09/1001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Westinghouse Lighting Corporation finding that model F40T12/CWE (Westinghouse product code 07521000), a general service fluorescent lamp, and model 15GLOBE/65/2 (Westinghouse product code 3800400), a medium base compact fluorescent lamp, do not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  2. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-04-08

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission products on each type of graphite site. The model will include multiple simultaneous adsorbing species, which will allow for competitive adsorption effects between different fission product species and O and OH (for modeling accident conditions).

  3. President Roosevelt Approves Production of Atomic Bomb | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Approves Production of Atomic Bomb President Roosevelt Approves Production of Atomic Bomb Washington, DC President Roosevelt approves production of the atomic bomb following receipt of a National Academy of Sciences report determining that a bomb is feasible

  4. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: California | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... February 25, 2016 CX-100493 Categorical Exclusion Determination Integrated Glass Coating ... February 25, 2016 CX-100514 Categorical Exclusion Determination Crop Protection Utilizing ...

  5. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Connecticut | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 11, 2014 CX-100033: Categorical Exclusion Determination "Smart" Matrix Development ... May 22, 2014 CX-012145: Categorical Exclusion Determination Connecticut Clean Cities ...

  6. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Louisiana | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    March 4, 2016 CX-100533 Categorical Exclusion Determination Pump Station Improvements ... February 18, 2015 CX-100185 Categorical Exclusion Determination Pump Station Improvements ...

  7. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Mississippi | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 30, 2015 CX-013741: Categorical Exclusion Determination Statistical Analysis of ... March 30, 2015 CX-013758: Categorical Exclusion Determination Statistical Analysis of ...

  8. CX-100406 Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-100406 Categorical Exclusion Determination Final Rulemaking for Energy Conservation Standards for Pumps RIN 1904-AC54 CX(s) Applied: B5.1 EERE-Buildings Technology Program Date: 11/20/2015 Location(s): Nationwide Office(s): Golden Field Office In this final rule, DOE proposes new energy conservation standards for pumps. DOE has determined that the energy conservation standards for these products would result in significant conservation of energy, and are

  9. Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Date Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date May 10, 2016 CX-100608 Categorical Exclusion Determination Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (SNOPR) for Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products RIN 1904-AD15 CX(s) Applied: B5.1 EERE-Buildings Technology Program Date: 05/10/2016 Location(s): Nationwide Office(s): Golden Field Office May 9, 2016 CX-100607 Categorical Exclusion Determination Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for New Energy Conservation

  10. 2014-02-21 Issuance: Proposed Determination of Computer Servers as a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Covered Consumer Product; Withdrawal | Department of Energy Servers as a Covered Consumer Product; Withdrawal 2014-02-21 Issuance: Proposed Determination of Computer Servers as a Covered Consumer Product; Withdrawal This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice withdrawing the previously proposed determination that computer servers qualify as a covered product, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 21, 2014. Though it is not intended or

  11. MTBE Production Economics

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production ... End Notes 1. For an analysis of MTBE economics through 1999 refer to: U.S. ...

  12. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Inputs to biodiesel production million pounds Period Canola oil Corn oil Cottonseed ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  13. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks million gallons Period B100 production Sales of B100 Sales of B100 included in biodiesel blends Ending stocks of B100 B100 stock change ...

  14. Energy Efficiency Product Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey Energy Efficiency Product Standards, enacted in 2005, include minimum standards for eight products, which were preempted by the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. Future standards, if...

  15. Shale Gas Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Notes: Shale Gas production data collected in conjunction with proved reserves data on Form EIA-23 are unofficial. Official Shale Gas production data from Form EIA-895 can be found ...

  16. State Energy Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2012 2012 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2012 Alabama 19,455 215,710 9,525 0 Alaska 2,052 351,259...

  17. 2014-03-26 Issuance: Proposed Determination of Computer and Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Computer and Battery Backup Systems as a Covered Consumer Product; Extension of Public Comment Period 2014-03-26 Issuance: Proposed Determination of Computer and Battery ...

  18. 2014-02-21 Issuance: Proposed Determination of Computer and Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Computer and Battery Backup Systems as a Covered Consumer Product This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed determination regarding computer ...

  19. Nuclear Dependence of Charm Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Engelfried, J.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Ayan, A.S.; Balatz, M.Y.; Bondar, N.F.; Cooper, P.S.; Dauwe, Loretta J.; /Michigan U., Flint /Moscow, ITEP

    2009-02-01

    With data taken by SELEX, which accumulated data during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, we study the production of charmed hadrons on copper and carbon targets with {Sigma}{sup -}, p, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +} beams. Parameterizing the production cross section {infinity} A{sup {alpha}}, A being the atomic number, we determine {alpha} for D{sup +}, D{sup 0}, D{sub s}{sup +}, D{sup +}(2010), {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}, and their respective anti-particles, as a function of their transverse momentum p{sub t} and scaled longitudinal momentum x{sub F}. Within our statistics there is no dependence of {alpha} on x{sub F} for any charm species for the interval 0.1 < x{sub F} < 1.0. The average value of {alpha} for charm production by pion beams is {alpha}{sub meson} = 0.850 {+-} 0.028. This is somewhat larger than the corresponding average {alpha}{sub baryon} = 0.755 {+-} 0.016 for charm production by baryon beams ({Sigma}{sup -}, p).

  20. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali T-Raissi

    2005-01-14

    The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

  1. Hydrogen Production: Photobiological

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The photobiological hydrogen production process uses microorganisms and sunlight to turn water, and sometimes organic matter, into hydrogen.

  2. Bistatic SAR: Imagery & Image Products.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-10-01

    While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.

  3. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  5. Continuous Succinic Acid Production by Actinobacillus succinogenes on Xylose-Enriched Hydrolysate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bradfield, Michael F. A.; Mohagheghi, Ali; Salvachua, Davinia; Smith, Holly; Black, Brenna A.; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T.; Nicol, Willie

    2015-11-14

    Bio-manufacturing of high-value chemicals in parallel to renewable biofuels has the potential to dramatically improve the overall economic landscape of integrated lignocellulosic biorefineries. However, this will require the generation of carbohydrate streams from lignocellulose in a form suitable for efficient microbial conversion and downstream processing appropriate to the desired end use, making overall process development, along with selection of appropriate target molecules, crucial to the integrated biorefinery. Succinic acid (SA), a high-value target molecule, can be biologically produced from sugars and has the potential to serve as a platform chemical for various chemical and polymer applications. However, the feasibility ofmore » microbial SA production at industrially relevant productivities and yields from lignocellulosic biorefinery streams has not yet been reported.« less

  6. Continuous Succinic Acid Production by Actinobacillus succinogenes on Xylose-Enriched Hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradfield, Michael F. A.; Mohagheghi, Ali; Salvachua, Davinia; Smith, Holly; Black, Brenna A.; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T.; Nicol, Willie

    2015-11-14

    Bio-manufacturing of high-value chemicals in parallel to renewable biofuels has the potential to dramatically improve the overall economic landscape of integrated lignocellulosic biorefineries. However, this will require the generation of carbohydrate streams from lignocellulose in a form suitable for efficient microbial conversion and downstream processing appropriate to the desired end use, making overall process development, along with selection of appropriate target molecules, crucial to the integrated biorefinery. Succinic acid (SA), a high-value target molecule, can be biologically produced from sugars and has the potential to serve as a platform chemical for various chemical and polymer applications. However, the feasibility of microbial SA production at industrially relevant productivities and yields from lignocellulosic biorefinery streams has not yet been reported.

  7. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  8. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Adj SalesDeliveries to Oil Company Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Adj SalesDeliveries to Elect. ...

  9. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Northern States Power Co - Minnesota","Investor-owned...

  10. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Northern States Power Co - Minnesota","Investor-ow...

  11. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"NorthWestern Energy LLC - (MT)","Investor-owned",597...

  12. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Puget Sound Energy Inc","Investor-owned",20568948...

  13. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC","Investor-owned",567506...

  14. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"NextEra Energy Power Marketing","Investor-owned",19844...

  15. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"MidAmerican Energy Co","Investor-owned",20585461,570529...

  16. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Reliant Energy Retail Services","Investor-owned",38670...

  17. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"First Energy Solutions Corp.","Investor-owned",...

  18. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Westar Energy Inc","Investor-owned",9973395,3434301,4...

  19. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"First Energy Solutions Corp.","Investor-owned",41994756...

  20. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Duke Energy Indiana Inc","Investor-owned",28224148,9...

  1. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Alabama Power Co","Investor-Owned",56854751,18726485,14329217,23799049,0 2,"Tennessee Valley Authority","Federal",5374405,0,0,5374405,0 3,"City of Huntsville - (AL)","Public",5277748,2559875,2127737,590136,0 4,"Joe Wheeler

  2. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Entergy Arkansas Inc","Investor-owned",21049257,8069917,6170936,6808318,86 2,"Southwestern Electric Power Co","Investor-owned",4018839,1121436,1354356,1543047,0 3,"Mississippi County Electric

  3. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ned",27584533,12837752,12477518,2269263,0 2,"Salt River Project","Public",27548529,12293633,11099759,4155137,0 3,"Tucson Electric Power Co","Investor-owned",9165355,3726983,2202954...

  4. Table 3.4 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by End-Use Sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... coal coke imports and exports, which are not separately displayed. 3Retail electricity prices paid by ultimate customers, reported by electric utilities and, beginning in ...

  5. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,"Pacific Gas & Electric Co","Investor-owned",75114523,29289082,28107971,17717470,0 3,"Los Angeles Department of Water & Power","Public",23456101,8165544,13342552,1817959,130046 ...

  6. Microsoft Word - Major end uses front page v2 2015-03-31.docx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 APPENDIX A FINAL EIA - Technology Forecast Updates - Residential and Commercial Building Technologies - Reference Case Presented to: U.S. Energy Information Administration Prepared by Navigant Consulting, Inc. 1200 19 St. NW, Suite 700 Washington, D.C. 20036 With SAIC 8301 Greensboro Drive McLean, VA 22102 March 2014 Final DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency

  7. Microsoft Word - Major end uses front page v2 2015-03-31.docx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 APPENDIX C EIA - Technology Forecast Updates - Residential and Commercial Building Technologies - Reference Case Presented to: U.S. Energy Information Administration Prepared by: Navigant Consulting, Inc. 1200 19th Street, NW, Suite 700 Washington, D.C. 20036 And SAIC 8301 Greensboro Drive McLean, VA 22102 December 19, 2012 Confidential and Proprietary, ©2012 Navigant Consulting, Inc. Do not distribute or copy Final DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared as an account of work sponsored by

  8. Microsoft Word - Major end uses front page v2 2015-03-31.docx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 APPENDIX D EIA - Technology Forecast Updates - Residential and Commercial Building Technologies - Advanced Case Presented to: U.S. Energy Information Administration Prepared by: Navigant Consulting, Inc. 1200 19th Street, NW, Suite 700 Washington, D.C. 20036 And SAIC 8301 Greensboro Drive McLean, VA 22102 December 19, 2012 Confidential and Proprietary, ©2012 Navigant Consulting, Inc. Do not distribute or copy Advanced Case Final DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared as an account of work

  9. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Services, Inc.","Investor-owned",1270636,59707,1210929,0,0 4,"Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC","Investor-owned",1208043,0,839195,220720,148128 5,"Direct Energy ...

  10. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Co","Investor-owned",1771412,1179978,547455,43979,0 4,"TransCanada Power Marketing, Ltd.","Investor-owned",1347975,0,0,1347975,0 5,"Direct Energy Business","Investor-ow...

  11. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corp.","Investor-owned",13152596,8914956,3220135,1017505,0 5,"Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC","Investor-owned",8604263,0,4198880,4405383,0 " ","Total sales, top five ...

  12. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...1,0,296950,149198,23573 4,"TransCanada Power Marketing, Ltd.","Investor-owned",301970,0,0,301970,0 5,"Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC","Investor-owned",210924,0,63277,147647,...

  13. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NewEnergy, Inc","Investor-owned",3073373,0,2140922,923167,9284 5,"TransCanada Power Marketing, Ltd.","Investor-owned",2374650,0,0,2374650,0 " ","Total sales, top five ...

  14. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Power & Light Co","Investor-owned",8554331,2571510,4454312,1528509,0 3,"KCP&L Greater Missouri Operations Co.","Investor-owned",8195101,3576410,3259502,1359189,0 ...

  15. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee E M C","Cooperative",5743330,3134733,1993358,615239,0 5,"Knoxville Utilities Board","Public",5536187,2506771,2279472,749944,0 " ","Total sales, top five ...

  16. Control Limits for Building Energy End Use Based on Engineering Judgment, Frequency Analysis, and Quantile Regression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henze, G. P.; Pless, S.; Petersen, A.; Long, N.; Scambos, A. T.

    2014-02-01

    Approaches are needed to continuously characterize the energy performance of commercial buildings to allow for (1) timely response to excess energy use by building operators; and (2) building occupants to develop energy awareness and to actively engage in reducing energy use. Energy information systems, often involving graphical dashboards, are gaining popularity in presenting energy performance metrics to occupants and operators in a (near) real-time fashion. Such an energy information system, called Building Agent, has been developed at NREL and incorporates a dashboard for public display. Each building is, by virtue of its purpose, location, and construction, unique. Thus, assessing building energy performance is possible only in a relative sense, as comparison of absolute energy use out of context is not meaningful. In some cases, performance can be judged relative to average performance of comparable buildings. However, in cases of high-performance building designs, such as NREL's Research Support Facility (RSF) discussed in this report, relative performance is meaningful only when compared to historical performance of the facility or to a theoretical maximum performance of the facility as estimated through detailed building energy modeling.

  17. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Cooperative","Cooperative",1301698,1060347,241351,0,0 3,"Direct Energy Business","Investor-owned",709072,0,709072,0,0 4,"City of Dover - (DE)","Public",703096,199449...

  18. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Power & Lt Co","Investor-owned",9957517,7264641,2445207,247669,0 3,"Direct Energy Business","Investor-owned",5025230,0,5025230,0,0 4,"Constellation NewEnergy, ...

  19. "Code(a)","End Use","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Machine Drive",2,4,14,6,21,4 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",1,0,0,0,0,0 ," Other Process ... Machine Drive",4,0,45,45,78,0 ," Electro-Chemical Processes",73,0,0,0,0,0 ," Other Process ...

  20. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,"Southwestern Public Service Co","Investor-owned",5014741,1127323,1655334,2232084,0 3,"El Paso Electric Co","Investor-owned",1640996,651515,910681,78800,0 4,"City of Farmington - ...

  1. Assessment of U.S. Electric End-Use Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gellings, Clark W.; Wikler, Greg; Ghosh, Debyani

    2006-11-15

    Demand-side management holds significant potential to reduce growth in U.S. energy consumption and peak demand, and in a cost-effective manner. But significant policy interventions will be required to achieve these benefits. (author)

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  3. U.S. Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    57,082,558 57,020,840 58,107,155 60,827,930 1984-2014 Residential 4,103,881 3,930,517 3,625,747 3,473,310 3,536,111 3,802,848 1984-2014 Commercial 2,785,246 2,738,304 2,715,335 ...

  4. Industrial end-use forecasting that incorporates DSM and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tutt, T.; Flory, J.

    1995-05-01

    The California Energy Commission (CEC) and major enregy utilities in California have generally depended on simple aggregate intensity or economic models to forecast energy use in the process industry sector (which covers large industries employing basic processes to transform raw materials, such as paper mills, glass plants, and cement plants). Two recent trends suggests that the time has come to develop a more disaggregate process industry forecasting model. First, recent efforts to improve air quality, especially by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), could significantly affect energy use by the process industry by altering the technologies and processes employed in order to reduce emissions. Second, there is a renewed interest in Demand-Side Management (DSM), not only for utility least-cost planning, but also for improving the economic competitiveness and environmental compliance of the pro{minus}cess industries. A disaggregate forecasting model is critical to help the CEC and utilities evaluate both the air quality and DSM impacts on energy use. A crucial obstacle to the development and use of these detailed process industry forecasting models is the lack of good data about disaggregate energy use in the sector. The CEC is nearing completion of a project to begin to overcome this lack of data. The project is testing methds of developing detailed energy use data, collecting an initial database for a large portion of southern California, and providing recommendations and direction for further data collection efforts.

  5. ,"U.S. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Oil Company Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Electric Utility Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to...

  6. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1930" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_cons_sum_dcu_nus_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_cons_sum_dcu_nus_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"4/29/2016

  7. "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,"Distillate" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS",,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End ...

  8. "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for Table 5.6;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End ...

  9. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Public Service Co of Colorado","Investor-owned",28671219,9008526,12886370,6712282,64041 2,"City of Colorado Springs - (CO)","Public",4477715,1425423,1097160,1955132,0 3,"Intermountain Rural Elec

  10. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Florida Power & Light Co","Investor-owned",104431096,55224658,46172611,2942385,91442 2,"Duke Energy Florida, Inc","Investor-owned",37240099,19002681,14970106,3267312,0 3,"Tampa Electric

  11. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Georgia Power Co","Investor-Owned",83740365,27132065,32894391,23548775,165134 2,"Jackson Electric Member Corp - (GA)","Cooperative",5201199,3003210,1476773,721216,0 3,"Cobb Electric Membership

  12. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Hawaiian Electric Co Inc","Investor-owned",6781665,1611149,2270495,2900021,0 2,"Maui Electric Co Ltd","Investor-owned",1132056,381979,373947,376130,0 3,"Hawaii Electric Light Co

  13. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Idaho Power Co","Investor-owned",13462077,4784073,3792971,4885033,0 2,"PacifiCorp","Investor-owned",3495174,665344,457510,2372320,0 3,"Avista Corp","Investor-owned",3083614,1188464,1029305,865845,0 4,"City of Idaho Falls -

  14. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Commonwealth Edison Co","Investor-owned",18061768,9114941,7890441,1056386,0 2,"Constellation Energy Services, Inc.","Investor-owned",10686139,5208659,5477480,0,0 3,"Homefield

  15. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Kentucky Utilities Co","Investor-owned",18888411,6334638,5483135,7070638,0 2,"Louisville Gas & Electric Co","Investor-owned",11817164,4157326,4885866,2773972,0 3,"Kenergy Corp","Cooperative",9670080,757715,325857,8586508,0

  16. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Entergy Louisiana LLC","Investor-owned",32904509,9047299,6757407,17099803,0 2,"Entergy Gulf States - LA LLC","Investor-owned",20822523,5368421,5529206,9924896,0 3,"Cleco Power

  17. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Baltimore Gas & Electric Co","Investor-owned",12270475,8927905,3147168,195402,0 2,"WGL Energy Services, Inc.","Investor-owned",7202209,1077458,6124751,0,0 3,"Potomac Electric Power

  18. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"DTE Electric Company","Investor-owned",41923906,14932840,16790364,10199382,1320 2,"Consumers Energy Co","Investor-owned",33253922,12593983,11045552,9614387,0 3,"Constellation Energy Services,

  19. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Entergy Mississippi Inc","Investor-owned",13204945,5672166,5235681,2297098,0 2,"Mississippi Power Co","Investor-owned",9960184,2136509,2905744,4917931,0 3,"Tennessee Valley Authority","Federal",4527039,0,0,4527039,0

  20. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Omaha Public Power District","Public",10659655,3561537,3640059,3458059,0 2,"Nebraska Public Power District","Public",3353118,895508,1211817,1245793,0 3,"Lincoln Electric System","Public",3219685,1193586,1526628,499471,0

  1. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Public Service Co of NH","Investor-owned",3799020,2390026,1240068,168926,0 2,"Constellation Energy Services, Inc.","Investor-owned",1008956,3870,1005086,0,0 3,"Constellation NewEnergy,

  2. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Oklahoma Gas & Electric Co","Investor-owned",24307160,8652606,9472917,6181637,0 2,"Public Service Co of Oklahoma","Investor-owned",17947669,6320906,6389387,5237376,0 3,"Grand River Dam

  3. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Portland General Electric Co","Investor-owned",17603187,7461863,6849512,3283792,8020 2,"PacifiCorp","Investor-owned",12958735,5309295,5109334,2524679,15427 3,"City of Eugene - (OR)","Public",2336296,919175,872330,544791,0

  4. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"South Carolina Electric&Gas Company","Investor-owned",22374515,8155692,7985229,6233594,0 2,"Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC","Investor-owned",21202789,6633843,5727023,8841923,0 3,"South Carolina Public Service

  5. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Northern States Power Co - Minnesota","Investor-owned",2056587,714040,997932,344615,0 2,"NorthWestern Energy - (SD)","Investor-owned",1579926,582064,711070,286792,0 3,"Black Hills Power

  6. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"PacifiCorp","Investor-owned",24105301,6605139,8564346,8875134,60682 2,"Provo City Corp","Public",784886,236348,410174,138364,0 3,"City of St George","Public",616490,276947,68066,271477,0 4,"Moon Lake Electric Assn

  7. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Green Mountain Power Corp","Investor-Owned",4281682,1551471,1572378,1157833,0 2,"Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc","Cooperative",446870,222366,122807,101697,0 3,"City of Burlington Electric -

  8. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Virginia Electric & Power Co","Investor-owned",75562974,29406355,39038242,6916360,202017 2,"Appalachian Power Co","Investor-owned",15954286,6461192,4013267,5479827,0 3,"Rappahannock Electric

  9. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Appalachian Power Co","Investor-owned",14185260,5721741,3637041,4826478,0 2,"Monongahela Power Co","Investor-owned",11426122,3814821,2840690,4770611,0 3,"The Potomac Edison

  10. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Wisconsin Electric Power Co","Investor-owned",23909329,7778541,8832104,7298684,0 2,"Wisconsin Power & Light Co","Investor-owned",10646058,3533105,2424249,4688704,0 3,"Wisconsin Public Service

  11. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"PacifiCorp","Investor-owned",9568272,1041412,1503050,7023810,0 2,"Powder River Energy Corp","Cooperative",2640812,221881,891312,1527619,0 3,"Cheyenne Light Fuel & Power Co","Investor-owned",1175006,259090,533610,382306,0

  12. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Florida Power & Light Co","Investor-owned",104431096,55224658,46172611,2942385,91442 2,"Georgia Power Co","Investor-owned",83740365,27132065,32894391,23548775,165134 3,"Southern California Edison

  13. U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  14. U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  15. U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  16. U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  17. U.S. Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  18. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,"Colorado River Comm of Nevada","Public",1035947,0,146029,889918,0 5,"Silver State Energy Association","Investor-owned",1000339,0,1000339,0,0 " ","Total sales, top ...

  19. End-use load control for power system dynamic stability enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Winiarski, D.W.; Donnelly, M.K.

    1997-02-01

    Faced with the prospect of increasing utilization of the transmission and distribution infrastructure without significant upgrade, the domestic electric power utility industry is investing heavily in technologies to improve network dynamic performance through a program loosely referred to as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). Devices exploiting recent advances in power electronics are being installed in the power system to offset the need to construct new transmission lines. These devices collectively represent investment potential of several billion dollars over the next decade. A similar development, designed to curtail the peak loads and thus defer new transmission, distribution, and generation investment, falls under a category of technologies referred to as demand side management (DSM). A subset of broader conservation measures, DSM acts directly on the load to reduce peak consumption. DSM techniques include direct load control, in which a utility has the ability to curtail specific loads as conditions warrant. A novel approach has been conceived by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to combine the objectives of FACTS and the technologies inherent in DSM to provide a distributed power system dynamic controller. This technology has the potential to dramatically offset major investments in FACTS devices by using direct load control to achieve dynamic stability objectives. The potential value of distributed versus centralized grid modulation has been examined by simulating the western power grid under extreme loading conditions. In these simulations, a scenario is analyzed in which active grid stabilization enables power imports into the southern California region to be increased several hundred megawatts beyond present limitations. Modeling results show distributed load control is up to 30 percent more effective than traditional centralized control schemes in achieving grid stability.

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/