Sample records for determination sludge batch

  1. Determination of Reportable Radionuclides for DWPF Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch 4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that ''The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115''. As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, IAEA Safeguards Reporting for HLW, requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from High Level Waste Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the previous contents of Tank 40 (Sludge Batch 2) and the sludge that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge from Tank 51 and Tank 40 defines Macrobatch 4 (also referred to as Sludge Batch 3). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities and determines the radionuclide activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Task Technical Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-03-0005, Revision 1 entitled Sludge Batch 3 SRTC Shielded Cells Testing. Specifically, this report details results from performing, in part, Subtask 3 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 6 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2003-00249, Rev. 1 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2004-00262. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for Sludge Batch 3 (Macro Batch 4), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations.

  2. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 4 MACROBATCH 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS)1 1.2 require that 'The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115'. As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP)2 and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR)3. However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the previous contents of Tank 40 (Sludge Batch 3) and the sludge that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge from Tank 51 and Tank 40 defines Sludge Batch 4 (also referred to as Macrobatch 5 (MB5)). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities and determines the radionuclide activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Task Technical Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-2005-0034; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 4 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing4. Specifically, this report details results from performing, in part, Subtask 3 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00310, Rev. 15 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2006-00458, Rev. 16. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) (Macro Batch 5 (MB5)), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-nine radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB4 (MB5) as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 29 reportable nuclides are: Ni-59; Ni-63; Se-79; Sr-90; Zr-93; Nb-93m; Tc-99; Sn-126; Cs-137; Sm-151; U-233; U-234; Np-237; U-238; Pu-238; Pu-239; Pu-240; Am-241; Pu-241; Pu-242; Am-242m; Am-243; Cm-244; Cm-245; Cm-246; Cm-247; Bk-247; Cm-248; and Cf-251. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB4 (MB5), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the calendar year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes and other U isoto

  3. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. Twenty-seven radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b. Each of these radionuclides has a half-life greater than ten years and contributes more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis at some point from production through the 1100 year period between 2015 and 3115. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are the most extensive conducted to date. Some method development/refinement occurred during the conduct of these measurements, leading to lower detection limits and more accurate measurement of some isotopes than was previously possible.

  4. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 5 (MACROBATCH 6)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

    2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that ''The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115''. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Tank 40 (Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)), Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51, and H-Canyon Np transfers completed after the start of processing. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 6 (MB6). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities and determines the radionuclide activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010; Rev. 2 entitled Sludge Batch 5 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, 5 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2008-00137, Rev. 2 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2008-00138, Rev. 2. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB5 (MB6), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-six radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB5 as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 26 reportable radionuclides are: Cl-36, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Tc-99, Sn-126, Cs-137, Sm-151, U-233, U-234, Np-237, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Am-241, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cf-251. Chlorine-36 is reported for the first time based on the upper bounding activity determined from the aqua regia digested sludge slurry. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB5 (MB6), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for four radionuclides: Se-79, Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to

  5. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C. L.; DiPrete, D. P.

    2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2011-0004; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 7b Qualification Studies. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, Item 2 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 6 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00247, Rev. 0 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), SRNL-RP-2011-00248, Rev. 0. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB7b (MB9), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes were excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, 27 radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b as specified by WAPS 1.2. The WCP and WQR require that all of the radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100-year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes (Pu-238, -239, -240, -241, and -242) and other U isotopes (U-233, -234, and -238) identified in WAPS 1.6 were already determined to be reportable according to WAPS 1.2 This brings the total number of reportable radionuclides for SB7b to 29. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are similar to those performed in the previous SB7a MB8 work. Some method development/refine

  6. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B (MACROBATCH 9)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu- 242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2011-0004; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 7b Qualification Studies. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, Item 2 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 6 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00247, Rev. 0 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), SRNL-RP-2011-00248, Rev. 0. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB7b (MB9), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U- 235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes were excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, 27 radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b as specified by WAPS 1.2. The WCP and WQR require that all of the radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes (Pu-238, -239, -240, -241, and -242) and other U isotopes (U-233, -234, and -238) identified in WAPS 1.6 were already determined to be reportable according to WAPS 1.2 This brings the total number of reportable radionuclides for SB7b to 29. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are similar to those performed in the previous SB7a MB8 work. Some method development/ref

  7. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.; Diprete, D.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that 'The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115'. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) with H-Canyon Np transfers completed after the start of processing SB5, and Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2009-0014; Rev. 2 entitled Sludge Batch 6 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask III, Item 2 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2009-00473, Rev. 15 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), SRNL-RP-2009-00474, Rev. 1. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB6 (MB7), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes were excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, 30 radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB6 as specified by WAPS 1.2. The WCP and WQR require that all of the radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB6, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100-year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes (Pu-238, -239, -240, -241, and -242) and other U isotopes (U-233, -234, and -238) identified in WAPS 1.6 were already determined to be reportable according to WAPS 1.2 This brings the total number of reportable radionuclides for SB6 to 32. The radionuclide measurements made for SB6 are the most extensive condu

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 5 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; David Best, D; David Koopman, D

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) processing to Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in early fiscal year 2009. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB5 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processes. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2007-0007, Rev. 1 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. Initial SB5 flowsheet studies were conducted to guide decisions during the sludge batch preparation process. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB5 composition at the time of the study. The composition has changed slightly since these studies were completed due to changes in the washing plan to prepare SB5 and the estimated SB4 heel mass. Nine DWPF process simulations were completed in 4-L laboratory-scale equipment using both a batch simulant (Tank 51 simulant after washing is complete) and a blend simulant (Tank 40 simulant after Tank 51 transfer is complete). Each simulant had a set of four SRAT and SME simulations at varying acid stoichiometry levels (115%, 130%, 145% and 160%). One additional run was made using blend simulant at 130% acid that included additions of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) waste prior to acid addition and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) waste following SRAT dewatering. There are several parameters that are noteworthy concerning SB5 sludge: (1) This is the first batch DWPF will be processing that contains sludge that has had a significant fraction of aluminum removed through aluminum dissolution. (2) The sludge is high in mercury. (3) The sludge is high in noble metals. (4) The sludge is high in U and Pu--components that are not added in sludge simulants. Two SB5 processing issues were noted during testing. First, high hydrogen generation rates were measured during experiments with both the blend and batch simulant at high acid stoichiometry. Also, the reflux time was extended due to the high mercury concentration in both the batch and blend simulant. Adding ARP will extend processing times in DWPF. The ARP caustic boil took approximately six hours. The boiling time during the experiment with added MCU was 14 hours at the maximum DWPF steam flux rate. This is comparable to the DWPF processing time for dewatering plus reflux without MCU at a 5000 lbs/hr boil-up rate, but would require significantly more time at boiling at 2000-2500 lbs/hr boil-up rate. The addition of ARP and MCU did not cause any other processing issues, since foaming, rheology and hydrogen generation were less of an issue while processing with ARP/MCU.

  9. SLUDGE BATCH 7 (SB7) WASHING DEMONSTRATION TO DETERMINE SULFATE/OXALATE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY AND SETTLING BEHAVIOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    To support Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) washing, a demonstration of the proposed Tank Farm washing operation was performed utilizing a real-waste test slurry generated from Tank 4, 7, and 12 samples. The purpose of the demonstration was twofold: (1) to determine the settling time requirements and washing strategy needed to bring the SB7 slurry to the desired endpoint; and (2) to determine the impact of washing on the chemical and physical characteristics of the sludge, particularly those of sulfur content, oxalate content, and rheology. Seven wash cycles were conducted over a four month period to reduce the supernatant sodium concentration to approximately one molar. The long washing duration was due to the slow settling of the sludge and the limited compaction. Approximately 90% of the sulfur was removed through washing, and the vast majority of the sulfur was determined to be soluble from the start. In contrast, only about half of the oxalate was removed through washing, as most of the oxalate was initially insoluble and did not partition to the liquid phase until the latter washes. The final sulfur concentration was 0.45 wt% of the total solids, and the final oxalate concentration was 9,900 mg/kg slurry. More oxalate could have been removed through additional washing, although the washing would have reduced the supernatant sodium concentration.The yield stress of the final washed sludge (35 Pa) was an order of magnitude higher than that of the unwashed sludge ({approx}4 Pa) and was deemed potentially problematic. The high yield stress was related to the significant increase in insoluble solids that occurred ({approx}8 wt% to {approx}18 wt%) as soluble solids and water were removed from the slurry. Reduction of the insoluble solids concentration to {approx}14 wt% was needed to reduce the yield stress to an acceptable level. However, depending on the manner that the insoluble solids adjustment was performed, the final sodium concentration and extent of oxalate removal would be prone to change. As such, the strategy for completing the final wash cycle is integral to maintaining the proper balance of chemical and physical requirements.

  10. SLUDGE BATCH 4 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES: PHASE II RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, M; David Best, D

    2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) processing to Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) processing in early fiscal year 2007. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB4 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) process. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. Initial SB4 flowsheet studies were conducted to guide decisions during the sludge batch preparation process. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB4 composition at the time of the study. The composition has changed slightly since these studies were completed due to changes in the sludges blended to prepare SB4 and the estimated SB3 heel mass. The following TTR requirements were addressed in this testing: (1) Hydrogen and nitrous oxide generation rates as a function of acid stoichiometry; (2) Acid quantities and processing times required for mercury removal; (3) Acid quantities and processing times required for nitrite destruction; and (4) Impact of SB4 composition (in particular, oxalate, manganese, nickel, mercury, and aluminum) on DWPF processing (i.e. acid addition strategy, foaming, hydrogen generation, REDOX control, rheology, etc.).

  11. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

  12. Temperature effects on seawater batch activated sludge systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wigley, Henry Albert

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON SEAMATER BATCH ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by HENRY ALBERT WIGLEY, JR. Submitted to the Graduate Colleqe of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the deqree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1972 Major Subject: Civil Engineerinq TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON SEAWATER BATCH ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by HENRY ALBERT WIGLEY, JR. Approved as to style and content by: C ai rman o ommi ttee Head of D partmen Member Member May 1972...

  13. HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

  14. SLUDGE BATCH 4: MODEL BASED ASSESSMENTS OF THE FEBRUARY 2007 SLUDGE PROJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Kevin Fox, K

    2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed, and continues to enhance, its integrated capability to evaluate the impact of proposed sludge preparation plans on the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF's) operation. One of the components of this integrated capability focuses on frit development which identifies a viable frit or frits for each sludge option being contemplated for DWPF processing. A frit is considered viable if its composition allows for economic fabrication and if, when it is combined with the sludge option under consideration, the DWPF property/composition models (the models of DWPF's Product Composition Control System (PCCS)) indicate that the combination has the potential for an operating window (a waste loading (WL) interval over which the sludge/frit glass system satisfies processability and durability constraints) that would allow DWPF to meet its goals for waste loading and canister production. This report documents the results of SRNL's efforts to identify candidate frit compositions and corresponding predicted operating windows (defined in terms of WL intervals) for the February 2007 compositional projection of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) developed by the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO). The nominal compositional projection was used to assess projected operating windows (in terms of a waste loading interval over which all predicted properties were classified as acceptable) for various frits, evaluate the applicability of the 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} PCCS limit to the glass systems of interest, and determine the impact (or lack thereof) to the previous SB4 variability studies. It should be mentioned that the information from this report will be coupled with assessments of melt rate to recommend a frit for SB4 processing. The results of this paper study suggest that candidate frits are available to process the nominal SB4 composition over attractive waste loadings of interest to DWPF. Specifically, two primary candidate frits for SB4 processing, Frit 510 and Frit 418, have projected operating windows that should allow for successful processing at DWPF. While Frit 418 has been utilized at DWPF, Frit 510 is a higher B{sub 2}O{sub 3} based frit which could lead to improvements in melt rate. These frits provide relatively large operating windows and demonstrate robustness to possible sludge compositional variation while avoiding potential nepheline formation issues. In addition, assessments of SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility indicate that the 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit in PCCS is applicable for the Frit 418 and the Frit 510 based SB4 glass systems.

  15. OVERVIEW OF TESTING TO SUPPORT PROCESSING OF SLUDGE BATCH 4 IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, C

    2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site began processing of its third sludge batch in March 2004. To avoid a feed outage in the facility, the next sludge batch will have to be prepared and ready for transfer to the DWPF by the end of 2006. The next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), will consist of a significant volume of HM-type sludge. HM-type sludge is very high in aluminum compared to the mostly Purex-type sludges that have been processed to date. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with Liquid Waste Operations to define the sludge preparation plans and to perform testing to support qualification and processing of SB4. Significant challenges have arisen during SB4 preparation and testing to include poor sludge settling behavior and lower than desired projected melt rates. An overview of the testing activities is provided.

  16. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

  17. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J.; Pickenheim, B.; Bannochie, C.; Billings, A.; Bibler, N.; Click, D.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to initiating a new sludge batch in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is required to simulate this processing, including Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation, waste glass fabrication, and chemical durability testing. This report documents this simulation for the next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). SB6 consists of Tank 12 material that has been transferred to Tank 51 and subjected to Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), Tank 4 sludge, and H-Canyon Pu solutions. Following LTAD and the Tank 4 addition, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided SRNL a 3 L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB6 qualification. Pu solution from H Canyon was also received. SB6 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of Pu from H Canyon), DWPF CPC simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass characterization and chemical durability evaluation. The following are significant observations from this demonstration. Sludge settling improved slightly as the sludge was washed. SRNL recommended (and the Tank Farm implemented) one less wash based on evaluations of Tank 40 heel projections and projections of the glass composition following transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40. Thorium was detected in significant quantities (>0.1 wt % of total solids) in the sludge. In past sludge batches, thorium has been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), seen in small quantities, and reported with the radionuclides. As a result of the high thorium, SRNL-AD has added thorium to their suite of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) elements. The acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing of 115%, or 1.3 mol acid per liter of SRAT receipt slurry, was adequate to accomplish some of the goals of SRAT processing: nitrite was destroyed to below 1,000 mg/kg and mercury was removed to below the DWPF target with 750 g of steam per g of mercury. However, rheological properties did not improve and were above the design basis. Hydrogen generation rates did not exceed DWPF limits during the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. However, hydrogen generation during the SRAT cycle approached the DWPF limit. The glass fabricated with the Tank 51 SB6 SME product and Frit 418 was acceptable with respect to chemical durability as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The PCT response was also predictable by the current durability models of the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). It should be noted, however, that in the first attempt to make glass from the SME product, the contents of the fabrication crucible foamed over. This may be a result of the SME product's REDOX (Reduction/Oxidation - Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe) of 0.08 (calculated from SME product analytical results). The following are recommendations drawn from this demonstration. In this demonstration, at the request of DWPF, SRNL caustic boiled the SRAT contents prior to acid addition to remove water (to increase solids concentration). During the nearly five hours of caustic boiling, 700 ppm of antifoam was required to control foaming. SRNL recommends that DWPF not caustic boil/concentrate SRAT receipt prior to acid addition until further studies can be performed to provide a better foaming control strategy or a new antifoam is developed for caustic boiling. Based on this set of runs and a recently completed demonstration with the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) sample, it is recommended that DWPF not add formic acid at the design addition rate of two gallons per minute for this sludge batch. A longer acid addition time appears to be helpful in allowing slower reaction of formic acid with the sludge and possibly decreases the chance of a foam over during acid addition.

  18. Analysis of Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch4) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample for Canister s02312

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), Macrobatch 4 (MB4) in March 2004 as part of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 272. Sludge Batch 3 is a blend of the contents Tank 40 remaining from Sludge Batch 2 (SB2), the sludge that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51 and Canyon Np solution additions made directly to Tank 40. The sludge transferred from Tank 51 contained sludges from Tanks 7, 18 and 19 along with precipitated solutions of U, Pu/Gd and Am/Cm from the F and H Canyons. The blend of sludge from Tank 51, Tank 40, and the Canyon additions defines SB3 (or MB4). The sludge slurry is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Tank and fed to the melter. During the processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample. This glass sample is taken to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program and complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two glass samples were obtained while pouring Canisters S02312 and S02315 which were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility. Sample S02312 was designated for analysis, while sample S02315 was designated for archival storage. This report contains the visual observations of the as-received glass sample, results for the density, chemical composition, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the calculated and measured radionuclide results needed for the Production Record for Canister S02312. The following conclusions were drawn from the examination of this DWPF pour stream glass sample: (1) The glass sample taken during the filling of DWPF Canister S02312 weighed 41.69 g and was generally dark and reflective. (2) Minor inclusions, on the order of 1 {micro}m in size, of noble metals were seen in the glass via contained scanning electron microscopy and confirmed from their x-ray fluorescence spectra. (3) The results for the composition of glass sample S02312, except for U, are in reasonable agreement (15% or better) with the DWPF SME Batch 319 results, the SME batch being fed to the melter when the sample was collected. (4) The calculated waste dilution factor (WDF) was 2.19. The measured values of the radionuclides and noble metals in the glass sample generally corresponded well with the calculated values determined using sludge slurry results from Reference 9 and the WDF. (5) The noble metal content of the glass indicates that the noble metals are largely swept from the melter with the glass based upon the noble metals analyzed in the glass and those predicted in the sludge from the WDF. (6) Comparison of the noble metal results for the two digestion methods (mixed acid and alkali fusion) indicates that the alkali fusion method is preferred for the determination of noble metals in glass. (7) The PCT results for the glass (normalized release of B: 1.09 g/L, Na: 1.03 g/L, and Li: 0.94 g/L) indicate that it meets the waste acceptance criterion for durability. (8) The normalized release rates for the measured radionuclides were less than those for the major soluble elements in the waste (B, Na, and Li) with the exception of Tc-99 which was released at a rate similar to that the soluble elements in the leachate. (9) The measured density of the glass was 2.58 {+-} 0.11 g/cm{sup 3}.

  19. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

  20. Tank 40 Final Sludge Batch 8 Chemical Characterization Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB8 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB8. At SRNL, the 3-L Tank 40 SB8 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 553 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon(r) vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB8 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH-/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method developed by SRNL AD and previously described.

  1. SLUDGE BATCH 7 PREPARATION TANK 4 AND 12 CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.; Pareizs, J.

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 and HM sludge from Tank 12 were characterized in preparation for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) formulation in Tank 51. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 and Tank 12 were requested in separate Technical Assistance Requests (TAR). The Tank 4 samples were pulled on January 19, 2010 following slurry operations by F-Tank Farm. The Tank 12 samples were pulled on February 9, 2010 following slurry operations by H-Tank Farm. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), two 200 mL dip samples of Tank 4 and two 200 mL dip samples of Tank 12 were received in the SRNL Shielded Cells. Each tank's samples were composited into clean 500 mL polyethylene storage bottles and weighed. The composited Tank 4 sample was 428.27 g and the composited Tank 12 sample was 502.15 g. As expected there are distinct compositional differences between Tank 4 and Tank 12 sludges. The Tank 12 slurry is much higher in Al, Hg, Mn, and Th, and much lower in Fe, Ni, S, and U than the Tank 4 slurry. The Tank 4 sludge definitely makes the more significant contribution of S to any sludge batch blend. This S, like that observed during SB6 washing, is best monitored by looking at the total S measured by digesting the sample and analyzing by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Alternatively, one can measure the soluble S by ICP-AES and adjust the value upward by approximately 15% to have a pretty good estimate of the total S in the slurry. Soluble sulfate measurements by ion chromatography (IC) will be biased considerably lower than the actual total S, the difference being due to the non-sulfate soluble S and the undissolved S. Tank 12 sludge is enriched in U-235, and hence samples transferred into SRNL from the Tank Farm will need to be placed on the reportable special nuclear material inventory and tracked for total U per SRNL procedure requirements.

  2. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  3. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently, radiological decay and in-growth were calculated over the time period from 2015 to 3115. This provided a basis for characterizing the radionuclide content of SB7a over time and for identifying the 'reportable radionuclides.' Details of the characterization methodology and the analytical results are the focus of this report. This work was performed at the request of the Waste Solidification Engineering Department of Savannah River Remediation, initiated via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. A minor revision in the reporting requirements was requested via a subsequent email communication. The work was conducted in accordance with the protocols identified in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01218 and Analytical Study Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01219. All of the raw data related to this scope have been recorded in laboratory notebook SRNL-NB-2011-00061. The overall goal of this task was to characterize the radionuclide content of the SB7a waste sufficiently to meet the WAPS and DWPF reporting requirements. The specific objectives were: (1) Quantify the current concentrations of all radionuclides impacting (or potentially-impacting) the total curie content between calendar years 2011 and 3115. Also quantify the current concentrations of other radionuclides specifically requested in the TTR or required by the WAPS. (2) Calculate future concentrations of decayed and in-grown radionuclides impacting the total curie content between calendar years 2015 and 3115; (3) Identify as 'reportable' all radionuclides contributing {ge} 0.01% of the total curie content from 2015 to 3115 and having half-lives {ge} 10 years.

  4. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on Sludge Batch 3 as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellinger, T. L.

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing and immobilizing radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF has already processed three sludge batches (Sludge Batch 1A, Sludge Batch 1B, and Sludge Batch 2) and is currently processing the fourth sludge batch (Sludge Batch 3). A sludge batch is defined as a single tank of sludge slurry or a combination of sludge slurries from different tanks that has been or will be qualified before being transferred to DWPF. As a part of the Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) qualification task, rheology measurements of the sludge slurry were requested at different insoluble solids loadings. These measurements were requested in order to gain insight into potential processing problems that may occur as the insoluble solids are adjusted up or down (by concentration or dilution) during the process. As a part of this study, a portion of the ''as received'' SB3 sample was washed with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO2) to target 0.5M Na versus a measured 1M Na in the supernate. The purpose of the ''washing'' step was to allow a comparison of the SB3 rheological data to the rheological data collected for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and to determine if there was a dependence of the yield stress and consistency as a function of washing. The ''as received'' SB3 rheology data was also compared to SB3 simulants prepared by the Simulant Development Program in order to provide guidance for selecting a simulant that is more representative of the rheological properties of the radioactive sludge slurry. A summary of the observations, conclusions are: (1) The yield stress and plastic viscosity increased as the weight percent insoluble solids were increased for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples, at a fixed pH. (2) For the same insoluble solids loading, the yield stress for the SB2 sample is approximately a factor of three higher than the ''as received'' SB3 sample. There also appears to be small difference in the plastic viscosity. This difference is probably due to the different Na concentrations of the slurries. (3) The yield stress for the SB2 sample at 17.5 wt. % insoluble solids loading is four times higher than the ''washed'' SB3 sample at 16.5 wt. % insoluble solids. There also appears to be small difference in the plastic viscosity. The differences for the yield stress and consistency can be explained by the differences in the Fe and Na concentrations of the sludge slurry and the anion concentrations of the resulting supernates. (4) The rheological properties (i.e. yield stress and plastic viscosity), as the insoluble solids are adjusted, for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples are different. The plastic viscosity curve for the ''as received'' SB3 sample was higher than the plastic viscosity curve for SB3 ''washed'' sample. The yield stress curve for the ''washed'' SB3 sample is slightly lower than the ''as received'' SB3 sample up until {approx}19 wt. % insoluble solids. The ''washed'' SB3 sample then exceeds the yield stress curve for the ''as received'' SB3 sample. This rheological behavior is probably due to the difference in the Na concentration of the supernate for the samples. (5) No unusual behavior, such as air entrainment, was noted for the ''as received'' SB3 sample. (6) The observed physical properties of the SB3 sample changed after washing. The ''washed'' SB3 sample entrained air readily at higher insoluble solids loadings (i.e. 14.1, 16.5, 19.5 wt. %) as it did for SB2. The air entrainment appeared to dissipate for the SB3 sample at the lower insoluble solids loadings (i.e. 9.7 and 11.7 wt. %). (7) The physical behavior of SB3 can be influenced by controlling the Na concentration in the supernate and the wt. % insoluble solids. The cause for the air entrainment in the ''washed'' SB3 sample could be due to a change in the particle size during the washing step. (8) The SB3 simulants prepared for the Simulant Development Program were approximately a factor of 1.6 to 4 times higher for yield stress and 2.6 to 4 times higher

  5. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry, and significant mercury was not accounted for in the highest acid run. Coalescence of elemental mercury droplets in the mercury water wash tank (MWWT) appeared to degrade with increasing stoichiometry. Observations were made of mercury scale formation in the SRAT condenser and MWWT. A tacky mercury amalgam with Rh, Pd, and Cu, plus some Ru and Ca formed on the impeller at 159% acid. It contained a significant fraction of the available Pd, Cu, and Rh as well as about 25% of the total mercury charged. Free (elemental) mercury was found in all of the SME products. Ammonia scrubbers were used during the tests to capture off-gas ammonia for material balance purposes. Significant ammonium ion formation was again observed during the SRAT cycle, and ammonia gas entered the off-gas as the pH rose during boiling. Ammonium ion production was lower than in the SB6 Phase II and the qualification simulant testing. Similar ammonium ion formation was seen in the ARP/MCU simulation as in the 120% flowsheet run. A slightly higher pH caused most of the ammonium to vaporize and collect in the ammonia scrubber reflux solution. Two periods of foaminess were noted. Neither required additional antifoam to control the foam growth. A steady foam layer formed during reflux in the 120% acid run. It was about an inch thick, but was 2-3 times more volume of bubbles than is typically seen during reflux. A similar foam layer also was seen during caustic boiling of the simulant during the ARP addition. While frequently seen with the radioactive sludge, foaminess during caustic boiling with simulants has been relatively rare. Two further flowsheet tests were performed and will be documented separately. One test was to evaluate the impact of process conditions that match current DWPF operation (lower rates). The second test was to evaluate the impact of SRAT/SME processing on the rheology of a modified Phase III simulant that had been made five times more viscous using ultrasonication.

  6. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7), in June 2010. SB6 is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), H-Canyon Np transfers and SB6 that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51.1 SB6 was processed using Frit 418. Sludge is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Tank (SME). The treated sludge slurry is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and fed to the melter. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP) and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. The DWPF requested various analyses of radioactive glass samples obtained from the melter pour stream during processing of SB6 as well as reduction/oxidation (REDOX) analysis of MFT samples to determine the impact of Argon bubbling. Sample analysis followed the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and an Analytical Study Plan (ASP). Four Pour Stream (PS) glass samples and two MFT slurry samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from the DWPF. Table 1-1 lists the sample information for each pour stream glass sample. SB6 PS3 (S03472) was selected as the official pour stream sample for SB6 and full analysis was requested. This report details the visual observations of the as-received SB6 PS No.3 glass sample as well as results for the chemical composition, Product Consistency Test (PCT), radionuclide content, noble metals, and glass density. REDOX results will be provided for all four pour stream samples and vitrified samples of MFT-558 and MFT-568A. Where appropriate, data from other pour stream samples will be provided.

  8. Sludge Batch 2 (Macrobatch 3) Rheology Studies with Simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-radioactive sludge-only process simulations of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were conducted for a 50:50 blend of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge and Tank 40 washed sludge by itself. Rheological characterization of the sludge, SRAT product, and SME product material was requested as part of the simulant program.

  9. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

    2011-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non-radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7a related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7a processing.

  10. FRIT OPTIMIZATION FOR SLUDGE BATCH PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2009-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

  11. RECOMMENDED FRIT COMPOSITION FOR INITIAL SLUDGE BATCH 5 PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

  12. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF.

  13. Sludge Washing And Demonstration Of The DWPF Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells For Sludge Batch 8 Qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J. M.; Crawford, C. L.

    2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The current Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks to Tank 51. Tank 51 sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes using a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). WSE requested the SRNL to perform characterization on a Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) sample and demonstrate the DWPF flowsheet in the SRNL shielded cells for SB8 as the final qualification process required prior to SB8 transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40. A 3-L sample from Tank 51 (the SB8 qualification sample; Tank Farm sample HTF-51-12-80) was received by SRNL on September 20, 2012. The as-received sample was characterized prior to being washed. The washed material was further characterized and used as the material for the DWPF process simulation including a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, and glass fabrication and chemical durability measurements.

  14. ANALYSIS OF SLUDGE BATCH 4 (MACROBATCH 5) FOR CANISTER S02902 AND SLUDGE BATCH 5 (MACROBATCH 6) FOR CANISTER S03317 DWPF POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), Macrobatch 5 (MB5) on May 29, 2007. Sludge Batch 4 was a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and SB4 material qualified in Tank 51. On November 28, 2008, DWPF began processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) from Tank 40 which is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from SB4, SB5 material qualified in Tank 51 and H-Canyon Pu and Np transfers. SB4 was processed using Frit 510 and SB5 used Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. During the processing of SB4 and SB5, glass samples were obtained during the pouring of canisters S02902 and S03317, respectively. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed (durability, chemical and radionuclide composition). The following observations and conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of the oxides for the chemical composition of both the SB4 and SB5 pour stream glasses is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) acceptance limits (95 {le} sum of oxides {le} 105). (2) The calculated Sludge Dilution Factor (SDF) for SB4 is 2.52. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB4 Waste Acceptance Production Specification (WAPS) sample (References 1 and 19). (3) The calculated SDF for SB5 is 2.60. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB5 WAPS sample (References 2 and 20). (4) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis shows there are noble metal inclusions, primarily ruthenium, present in both pour stream samples. (5) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results show that the SB4 pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.67 g/L which is an order of magnitude lower than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. (6) The PCT results show that the SB5 pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.72 g/ which is an order of magnitude lower than the EA glass. (7) The density of the SB4 glass is 2.5 g/cm{sup 3}. (8) The density of the SB5 glass is 2.6 g/cm{sup 3}.

  15. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition.

  16. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  17. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F. C.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed.

  18. SULFATE RETENTION IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 GLASSES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Early projections of the Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) composition predicted relatively high concentrations of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 23.5 wt%) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, 1.2 wt%) in the sludge. A high concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the sludge, combined with Na{sub 2}O additions in the frit, raises the potential for nepheline crystallization in the glass. However, strategic frit development efforts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have shown that frits containing a relatively high concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} can both suppress nepheline crystallization and improve melt rates. A high sulfate concentration is a concern to the DWPF as it can lead to the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten, sulfate-rich phase atop the melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit of 0.4 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass was originally set in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) used at DWPF. It was later shown that this limit could be increased to 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass for the Frit 418, Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) system.

  19. Investigation of Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch 4) Glass Sample Anomalous Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Bibler, N. E.; Peeler, D. K.

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass samples from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) (Macrobatch 4) were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on February 23, 2005. One sample, S02244, was designated for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and elemental and radionuclide analyses. The second sample, S02247, was designated for archival storage. The samples were pulled from the melter pour stream during the feeding of Melter Feed Tank (MFT) Batch 308 and therefore roughly correspond to feed from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Batches 306-308. During the course of preparing sample S02244 for PCT and other analyses two observations were made which were characterized as ''unusual'' or anomalous behavior relative to historical observations of glasses prepared for the PCT. These observations ultimately led to a series of scoping tests in order to determine more about the nature of the behavior and possible mechanisms. The first observation was the behavior of the ground glass fraction (-100 +200 mesh) for PCT analysis when contacted with deionized water during the washing phase of the PCT procedure. The behavior was analogous to that of an organic compound in the presence of water: clumping, floating on the water surface, and crawling up the beaker walls. In other words, the glass sample did not ''wet'' normally, displaying a hydrophobic behavior in water. This had never been seen before in 18 years SRNL PCT tests on either radioactive or non-radioactive glasses. Typical glass behavior is largely to settle to the bottom of the water filled beaker, though there may be suspended fines which result in some cloudiness to the wash water. The typical appearance is analogous to wetting sand. The second observation was the presence of faint black rings at the initial and final solution levels in the Teflon vessels used for the mixed acid digestion of S02244 glass conducted for compositional analysis. The digestion is composed of two stages, and at both the intermediate and the final content levels in the digestion vessel the rings were present. The rings had not been seen previously during glass digestions and were not present in the Analytical Reference Glass (ARG) standard samples digested, in separate vessels, along with the DWPF glass. What follows in this report are the results and analyses from various scoping experiments done in order to explain the anomalous behavior observed with DWPF glass S02244, along with a comparison with tests on sample S02247 where the anomalous wetting behavior was not observed.

  20. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY'S (DWPF) PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Click, D.; Edwards, T.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO{sub 3} acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestions of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples. The SB7a SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constituates the SB7a Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), to form the Sb7a Blend composition.

  1. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Stone, M. E.

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of ARP and SE (up to 2 wt% B2O3 contained in the SRAT and up to 2000 gallons of ARP). It should be noted that 0.95 wt% B2O3 is the nominal projected concentration in the SRAT based on a 0.0125M boric acid flowsheet with 70,000 liters of SE being added to the SRAT. The impact on CPC processing of a 0.01M boric acid solution for elution of cesium during Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing has previously been evaluated by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Increasing the acid strength to 0.0125M boric acid to account for variations in the boric acid strength has been reviewed versus the previous evaluation. The amount of acid from the boric acid represented approximately 5% of the total acid during the previous evaluation. An increase from 0.01 to 0.0125M boric acid represents a change of approximately 1.3% which is well within the error of the acid calculation. Therefore, no significant changes to CPC processing (hydrogen generation, metal solubilities, rheological properties, REDOX control, etc.) are expected from an increase in allowable boric acid concentration from 0.01M to 0.0125M.

  2. Analysis Of The Sludge Batch 7b (Macrobatch 9) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F. C.; Crawford, C. L.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9), in January 2012. SB7b is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and the SB7b material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7b was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Form Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two pour stream glass samples were collected while processing SB7b. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where one was analyzed and the other was archived. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The sum of oxides for the official SB7b pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%); The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7b is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7b pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7b Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample; As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the SB7b pour stream sample; The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7b pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.8 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass; The measured density of the SB7b pour stream glass was 2.70 g/cm{sup 3}; The Fe{sup 2+}/?Fe ratio of the SB7b pour stream samples was 0.07.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) POUR STREAM SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. (5) The measured density of the SB7a pour stream glass was 2.7 g/cm{sup 3}. (6) The Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios of the SB7a pour stream samples were in the range of 0.04-0.13, while the MFT sample glasses prepared by SRNL were in the range of 0.02-0.04.

  4. NEPHELINE FORMATION STUDY FOR SLUDGE BATCH 4: PHASE 3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phase 3 study was undertaken to complement the previous phases of the nepheline formation studies1, 2 by continuing the investigation into the ability of the nepheline discriminator to predict the occurrence of nepheline crystallization in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) glasses and into the impact of such phases on the durability of the SB4 glasses. The Phase 3 study had two primary objectives. The first was to continue to demonstrate the ability of the discriminator value to adequately predict the nepheline formation potential for specific glass systems of interest. The second was to generate additional data that have a high probability of supporting the SB4 variability study. To support these two objectives, sixteen glasses were selected based on the most recent SB4 compositional projection, Case 15C Blend 1.3 Four different frits were included, based on previous assessments of projected operating windows and melt rate,4, 5 with four WLs selected for each frit. Eight of these frit-sludge combinations covered WLs which tightly bound the nepheline discriminator value of 0.62, with the intent of refining this value to a level of confidence where it can be incorporated into offline administrative controls and/or the Process Composition Control System (PCCS) to support Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability decisions. The remaining eight frit-sludge combinations targeted lower WLs (35 and 40%) and were prepared and analyzed to contribute needed data to the ComPro database6 to support a potential variability study for SB4.

  5. ELIMINATION OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF POUR STREAM SAMPLE AND THE GLASS FABRICATION AND TESTING OF THE DWPF SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In contrast, the variability study has significantly added value to the DWPF's qualification strategy. The variability study has evolved to become the primary aspect of the DWPF's compliance strategy as it has been shown to be versatile and capable of adapting to the DWPF's various and diverse waste streams and blending strategies. The variability study, which aims to ensure durability requirements and the PCT and chemical composition correlations are valid for the compositional region to be processed at the DWPF, must continue to be performed. Due to the importance of the variability study and its place in the DWPF's qualification strategy, it will also be discussed in this report. An analysis of historical data and Production Records indicated that the recommendation of the Six Sigma team to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and PCT performed with the qualification glass does not compromise the DWPF's current compliance plan. Furthermore, the DWPF should continue to produce an acceptable waste form following the remaining elements of the Glass Product Control Program; regardless of a sludge-only or coupled operations strategy. If the DWPF does decide to eliminate the characterization of pour stream samples, pour stream samples should continue to be collected for archival reasons, which would allow testing to be performed should any issues arise or new repository test methods be developed.

  6. Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yanjie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection in Water Transport Engineering Ministry of Communications, Tianjin Research Institute of Water Transport Engineering, Tianjin 300456 (China); Ji Min, E-mail: jmtju@yahoo.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Ruying [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin Feifei [Tianjin Tanggu Sino French Water Supply Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300450 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

  7. CONTINUOSLY STIRRED TANK REACTOR PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT SLUDGE BATCH 6 SIMULANT PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Fernandez, A.

    2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Sludge in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks was produced over a period of over 60 years by neutralizing the acidic waste produced in the F and H Separations Canyons with sodium hydroxide. The HLW slurries have been stored at free hydroxide concentrations above 1 M to minimize the corrosion of the carbon steel waste tanks. Sodium nitrite is periodically added as a corrosion inhibitor. The resulting waste has been subjected to supernate evaporation to minimize the volume of the stored waste. In addition, some of the waste tanks experienced high temperatures so some of the waste has been at elevated temperatures. Because the waste is radioactive, the waste is transforming through the decay of shorter lived radioactive species and the radiation damage that the decay releases. The goal of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) simulant development program is to develop a method to produce a sludge simulant that matches both the chemical and physical characteristics of the HLW without the time, temperature profile, chemical or radiation exposure of that of the real waste. Several different approaches have been taken historically toward preparing simulated waste slurries. All of the approaches used in the past dozen years involve some precipitation of the species using similar chemistry to that which formed the radioactive waste solids in the tank farm. All of the approaches add certain chemical species as commercially available insoluble solid compounds. The number of species introduced in this manner, however, has varied widely. All of the simulant preparation approaches make the simulated aqueous phase by adding the appropriate ratios of various sodium salts. The simulant preparation sequence generally starts with an acidic pH and ends up with a caustic pH (typically in the 10-12 range). The current method for making sludge simulant involves the use of a temperature controlled continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Precipitated MnO{sub 2} is combined with metal nitrates and fed into the CSTR. The metals are precipitated by a caustic NaOH stream. The rates at which these streams are added allows for pH adjustment of the mixture. A graphical representation of this process is given in Figure 1. In using the CSTR method for developing simulant, there are various parameters that can be adjusted in order to effectuate a physical change in the resulting simulant: pH, temperature, mixing speed, and flow rate. How will changing these parameters affect the physical properties of the sludge simulant? The ability to determine which parameter affects a particular property could allow one to develop a simulant that would better match the physical characteristics of HLW sludge.

  8. SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) DWPF POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLE FOR CANISTER S03619

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Specifications in Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8), Savannah River National Laboratory personnel characterized the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) pour stream glass sample collected while filling canister S03619. This report summarizes the results of the compositional analysis for reportable oxides and radionuclides, and the normalized Product Consistency Test (PCT) results. The PCT responses indicate that the DWPF produced glass that is significantly more durable than the Environmental Assessment glass. Results and further details are documented in 'Analysis of DWPF Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples,' SRNL-STI-2012-00017.

  9. SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) DWPF POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLE FOR CANISTER S03472

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Specifications in Sludge Batch 6 (Macrobatch 7), Savannah River National Laboratory personnel performed characterization analyses on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) pour stream glass sample collected while filling canister S03472. This report summarizes results of the characterization, which indicate that the DWPF produced glass that is significantly more durable than the Environmental Assessment glass. Results and further details are documented in 'Analysis of DWPF Sludge Batch 6 (Macrobatch 7) Pour Stream Glass Samples,' SRNL-STI-2011-00555.

  10. Analytical Plans Supporting The Sludge Batch 8 Glass Variability Study Being Conducted By Energysolutions And Cua's Vitreous State Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.

    2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    EnergySolutions (ES) and its partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of The Catholic University of America (CUA), are to provide engineering and technical services support to Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) for ongoing operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet as well as for modifications to improve overall plant performance. SRR has requested via a statement of work that ES/VSL conduct a glass variability study (VS) for Sludge Batch 8. SRR issued a technical task request (TTR) asking that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide planning and data reduction support for the ES/VSL effort. This document provides two analytical plans for use by ES/VSL: one plan is to guide the measurement of the chemical composition of the study glasses while the second is to guide the measurement of the durability of the study glasses. The measurements generated by ES/VSL are to be provided to SRNL for data reduction and evaluation. SRNL is to review the results of its evaluation with ES/VSL and SRR. The results will subsequently be incorporated into a joint report with ES/VSL as a deliverable to SRR to support the processing of SB8 at DWPF.

  11. NEPHELINE FORMATION POTENTIAL IN SLUDGE BATCH 4 AND ITS IMPACT ON DURABILITY: SELECTING GLASSES FOR A PHASE 3 STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K

    2006-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory's frit development effort for SB4 is being driven by the most current CBU option for this sludge, referred to as Case 15C Blend 1. Candidate frits have been identified for this option via a paper study approach developed by Peeler and Edwards with the intent of down-selecting to a set of key frits whose operating windows (i.e., WL intervals that meet PCCS MAR criteria) are robust to and/or selectively optimal for this sludge option. The primary frits that appear attractive on paper (i.e., down-selected via the paper study) are now being incorporated into this experimental study. The potential for the formation of a nepheline primary crystalline phase is an important factor in frit development for SB4, due to the high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content of this sludge. Based upon earlier work by Li et al., glasses that do not satisfy the constraint: (SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Na{sub 2}O + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) > 0.62 where the oxides are expressed as mass fractions in the glass, will precipitate nepheline as their primary crystalline phase, hindering the durability of the glass. Based on the most recent compositional projection from the CBU for SB4 (Case 15C Blend 1), 16 glasses have been selected to complement the earlier work by continuing the investigation into the ability of the above constraint to predict the occurrence of a nepheline primary crystalline phase for SB4 glasses and into the impact of such phases on the durability of the SB4 glasses. Glasses were selected to cover WLs which tightly bound the nepheline discriminator value of 0.62, with the intent of refining this value to a level of confidence where it can be incorporated into offline administrative controls and/or the PCCS to support SME acceptability decisions. In addition, glass specimens at WLs of 35 and 40% will be prepared and analyzed to contribute needed data to the ComPro{trademark} database in anticipation of a variability study for SB4. The glasses in Table 4-3 are to batched and fabricated using standard procedures. Visual observations and other analytical techniques are to be used, as needed, to assess the presence of crystals with specific interest in the nepheline primary phase. The durability of these glasses (for both quenched and centerline canister cooled versions) is to be measured using the ASTM PCT Method A. The results from these efforts are to be documented in a subsequent report. The results of this study will provide valuable input for the frit development efforts and subsequent feedback to the CBU regarding the relative viability of the current SB4 option under consideration. The refined nepheline discriminator value will provide a guideline for the avoidance of nepheline crystallization in SB4 glasses and aid in down-selection of frit compositions. These data will be combined with the results of melt rate studies and a paper study of the frits robustness with regard to variability in the sludge composition to provide an optimized frit recommendation to DWPF for immobilization of SB4.

  12. Nepheline Formation Study for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4): Phase 1 Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Reamer, I.A.; Workman, R. J.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it is well known that the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses enhances the durability of the waste form (through creation of network-forming tetrahedral Na+-[AlO{sub 4/2}]{sup -} pairs), the combination of high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O can lead to the formation of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4})--which can negatively impact durability. Given the projected high concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in SB4 (Lilliston 2005) and the potential use of a high Na{sub 2}O based frit to improve melt rate and a high Na{sub 2}O sludge due to settling problems, the potential formation of nepheline in various SB4 systems continues to be assessed. Twelve SB4-based glasses were fabricated and their durabilities (via the Product Consistency Test [PCT]) measured to assess the potential for nepheline formation and its potential negative impact on durability. In terms of ''acceptability'', the results indicate that all of the study glasses produced are acceptable with respect to durability as defined by the PCT (normalized boron release values for all nepheline (NEPH) glasses were much lower than that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass (16.695 g/L)). The most durable glass is NEPH-04 (quenched) with a normalized boron release (NL [B]) of 0.61 g/L, while the least durable glass is NEPH-01 centerline canister cooled (ccc) with an NL [B] of 2.47 g/L (based on the measured composition). In terms of predictability, most of the study glasses are predictable by the {Delta}G{sub p} model. Those that are not predictable (i.e., they fall outside of the prediction limits) actually fall below the prediction interval (i.e., they are over predicted by the model) suggesting the model is conservative. The Phase 1 PCT results suggest that for those glasses prone to nepheline formation (using the 0.62 value developed by Li et al. (2003) as a guide), a statistically significant difference in PCT response was observed for the two heat treatments but the impact on durability was of little or no practical concern. When one couples the PCT responses with the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results and/or visual observations, one could conclude that the formation of nepheline in these glasses does have a negative impact on durability. However, that impact may be of statistical significance, but the practical impact may not be sufficient to avoid a specific candidate frit for the SB4 glass system. The results of this study not only suggest that the 0.62 value appears to be a reasonable guide to monitor sludge--frit systems with respect to potential nepheline formation, but also that the impact of nepheline, although statistically significant, has little or no practical impact in the SB4 system to durability as measured by the PCT. This latter statement must be qualified to some extent given only two glasses were selected which were actually ''prone to nepheline formation'' based on this general guide and the relatively volume % of nepheline formed based on XRD results ({approx} 0.5 vol%). If the presence of nepheline has no appreciable, adverse impact on durability for the recently revised SB4 systems, then as decisions regarding the viability of the SB4 options and the down select of candidate frits are pursued, little weight will be given to minimizing the likelihood of nepheline and the decisions will be dominated by waste throughput criteria. That is, the frit selection process will not have to consider the impact of nepheline on the ultimate durability of the product and can focus on recommending a frit that when coupled with the sludge can be processed over a waste loading (WL) interval of interest to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with melt rates meeting production expectations.

  13. Analyses by the Defense Waste Processing Facility Laboratory of Thorium Glasses from the Sludge Batch 6 Variability Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.; Click, D.; Feller, M.

    2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with Frit 418. At times during the processing of this glass system, thorium is expected to be at concentrations in the final wasteform that make it a reportable element for the first time since startup of radioactive operations at the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) supported the qualification of the processing of this glass system at the DWPF. A recommendation from the SRNL studies was the need for the DWPF Laboratory to establish a method to measure thorium by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES). This recommendation led to the set of thorium-bearing glasses from the SB6 Variability Study (VS) being submitted to the DWPF Laboratory for chemical composition measurement. The measurements were conducted by the DWPF Laboratory using the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method routinely employed for analysis of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). These measurements are presented and reviewed in this report. The review indicates that the measurements provided by the DWPF Laboratory are comparable to those provided by Analytical Development's laboratory at SRNL for these same glasses. As a result, the authors of this report recommend that the DWPF Laboratory begin using its routine peroxide fusion dissolution method for the measurement of thorium in SME samples of SB6. The purpose of this technical report is to present the measurements generated by the DWPF Laboratory for the SB6 VS glasses and to compare the measurements to the targeted compositions for these VS glasses as well as to SRNL's measurements (both sets, targeted and measured, of compositional values were reported by SRNL in [2]). The goal of these comparisons is to provide information that will lead to the qualification of peroxide fusion dissolution as a method for the measurement by the DWPF Laboratory of thorium in SME glass samples.

  14. SCOPING STUDIES TO DEVELOP A METHOD TO DETERMINE PARTICLE SIZE IN SIMULANT SLUDGE SLURRIES BY SIEVING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DAMON, CLICK

    2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A physical separation method (i.e. sieving) was investigated to determine particle size distribution in non-radioactive sludge slurry simulants with the goal of implementation into the SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) shielded cells for use with radioactive sludge slurries. The investigation included obtaining the necessary experimental equipment, developing accessory equipment for use with the sieve shaker (to be able to sieve simulant slurries with aqueous solutions), sieving three different simulant slurries through a number of sieves and determining the particle size distribution gravimetrically, and developing a sufficient cleaning protocol of the sieves for re-use. The experimental protocol involved successive sieving of a NIST standard (to check the particle size retention of the sieves) and three non-radioactive slurry simulants (Batch 3 Tank 40 Test 3, Tank 40 Drum 3 and CETL Sludge Batch 2, which had been previously characterized by Microtrac analysis) through smaller and smaller sieves (150 microns x 5 microns) via use of the wet sieving system or by hand. For each of the three slurries, duplicate experiments were carried out using filtered supernate and DI water (to check the accuracy of the method versus Microtrac data) to sieve the slurry. Particle size determinations using the wet sieving system with DI water agree well with Microtrac data on a volume basis and in some cases the sieving data may be more accurate particularly if the material sieved had large particles. A correction factor had to be applied to data obtained from experiments done with supernate due to the dissolved solids which dried upon the sieves in the drying stage of the experiments. Upon subtraction of the correction factors, the experimental results were very similar to those obtained with DI water. It should be noted that approximately 250 mL of each of three simulant slurries was necessary to have enough filtered supernate available to carry out the experiments. The experimental results for the slurries are below with Microtrac data. The design of the experimental equipment was sufficient initially, but some pieces of the equipment began failing over time due to the caustic nature of the supernate and the vibrations from the sieve shaker. It is therefore recommended that upgrades to the experimental equipment be done before implementation into the SRNL shielded cells. Theses upgrades include using manipulator friendly connections, changing brass parts for stainless steel parts, using Teflon rather than polycarbonate, and possibly a change of pumps used to re-circulate the sieving fluid.

  15. Integration of the Uncertainties of Anion and TOC Measurements into the Flammability Control Strategy for Sludge Batch 8 at the DWPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T. B.

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of a flammability control strategy for DWPF’s melter operation during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). SRNL’s support has been in response to technical task requests that have been made by SRR’s Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) organization. The flammability control strategy relies on measurements that are performed on Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples by the DWPF Laboratory. Measurements of nitrate, oxalate, formate, and total organic carbon (TOC) standards generated by the DWPF Laboratory are presented in this report, and an evaluation of the uncertainties of these measurements is provided. The impact of the uncertainties of these measurements on DWPF’s strategy for controlling melter flammability also is evaluated. The strategy includes monitoring each SME batch for its nitrate content and its TOC content relative to the nitrate content and relative to the antifoam additions made during the preparation of the SME batch. A linearized approach for monitoring the relationship between TOC and nitrate is developed, equations are provided that integrate the measurement uncertainties into the flammability control strategy, and sample calculations for these equations are shown to illustrate the impact of the uncertainties on the flammability control strategy.

  16. Frit Development Efforts for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4): Operating Window Assessments fo Scenarios Leading Up to the Selected Preparation Plan for SB4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to document technical information that has been provided to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Closure Business Unit (CBU) personnel as part of the frit development support for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The information presented in this report includes projected operating windows (expressed in terms of waste loading) for various sludge blending and/or washing options coupled with candidate frits of interest. Although the Nominal Stage assessment serves as the primary tool for these evaluations, select systems were also evaluated using a Variation Stage assessment in which compositional variations were introduced. In addition, assessments of the impacts of nepheline formation potential and the SO{sub 4}{sup -} solubility limit on the projected operating windows are also provided. Although this information was used as part of the technical basis leading to CBU's development of the preferred SB4 preparation plan, none of the options presented in this report was selected as the preferred plan. Therefore, the information is presented without significant interpretation of the resulting operating windows, but the projected windows are provided so additional insight can be explored if desired. Detailed assessments of the projected operating windows (using both Nominal and Variation Stage assessments) of the preferred sludge preparation plan with candidate frits are to be documented elsewhere. The information provided in this report is focused solely on model-based projections of the operating windows for various SB4 blending strategies of interest. Although nepheline formation potential is monitored via model predictions as a part of this assessment, experimental work investigating the impact of nepheline on glass quality is also being addressed in a parallel study. The results of this paper study and the experimental assessments of melt rate, SO{sub 4} solubility, and/or nepheline formation potential are all critical components of the inputs into the frit selection process for SB4.

  17. The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign} and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W).

  18. Determination of Uranium Metal Concentration in Irradiated Fuel Storage Basin Sludge Using Selective Dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Welsh, Terri L.; Pool, Karl N.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium metal corroding in water-saturated sludges now held in the US Department of Energy Hanford Site K West irradiated fuel storage basin can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage. Knowledge of uranium metal concentration in sludge thus is essential to safe sludge management and process design, requiring an expeditious routine analytical method to detect uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of 30 wt% or higher total uranium concentrations.

  19. Summary Report For The Analysis Of The Sludge Batch 7b (Macrobatch 9) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample For Canister S04023

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F. C.

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to comply with the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Waste Form Compliance Plan for Sluldge Batch 7b, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel characterized the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) pour stream (PS) glass sample collected while filling canister S04023. This report summarizes the results of the compositional analysis for reportable oxides and radionuclides and the normalized Product Consistency Test (PCT) results. The PCT responses indicate that the DWPF produced glass that is significantly more durable than the Environmental Assessment glass.

  20. WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION TANK 51 SLUDGE SLURRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M

    2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The remaining contents of Tank 51 from Sludge Batch 4 will be blended with Purex sludge from Tank 7 to constitute Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has completed caustic addition to Tank 51 to perform low temperature Al dissolution on the H-Modified (HM) sludge material to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and Al being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) has also completed aluminum dissolution tests using a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry through funding by DOE EM-21. This report documents assessment of downstream impacts of the aluminum dissolved sludge, which were investigated so technical issues could be identified before the start of SB5 processing. This assessment included washing the aluminum dissolved sludge to a Tank Farm projected sodium concentration and weight percent insoluble solids content and DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing using the washed sludge. Based on the limited testing, the impact of aluminum dissolution on sludge settling is not clear. Settling was not predictable for the 3-L sample. Compared to the post aluminum dissolution sample, settling after the first wash was slower, but settling after the second wash was faster. For example, post aluminum dissolution sludge took six days to settle to 60% of the original sludge slurry height, while Wash 1 took nearly eight days, and Wash 2 only took two days. Aluminum dissolution did impact sludge rheology. A comparison between the as-received, post aluminum dissolution and washed samples indicate that the downstream materials were more viscous and the concentration of insoluble solids less than that of the starting material. This increase in viscosity may impact Tank 51 transfers to Tank 40. The impact of aluminum dissolution on DWPF CPC processing cannot be determined because acid addition for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle was under-calculated and thus under-added. Although the sludge was rheologically thick throughout the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles, this may have been due to the under addition of acid. Aluminum dissolution did, however, impact analyses of the SRAT receipt material. Two methods for determining total base yielded significantly different results. The high hydroxide content and the relatively high soluble aluminum content of the washed post aluminum dissolution sludge likely contributed to this difference and the ultimate under addition of acid. It should be noted that the simulant used to provide input for the SRAT cycle was an inadequate representation of the waste in terms of acid demand, likely due to the differences in the form of aluminum and hydroxide in the simulant and actual waste. Based on the results of this task, it is recommended that: (1) Sludge settling and rheology during washing of the forthcoming Sludge Batch 5 qualification sample be monitored closely and communicated to the Tank Farm. (2) SRNL receive a sample of Tank 51 after all chemical additions have been made and prior to the final Sludge Batch 5 decant for rheological assessment. Rheology versus wt% insoluble solids will be performed to determine the maximum amount of decant prior to the Tank 51 to Tank 40 transfer. (3) As a result of the problem with measuring total base and subsequently under-calculating acid for the DWPF CPC processing of the post aluminum dissolution sludge; (4) Studies to develop understanding of how the sludge titrates (i.e., why different titration methods yield different results) should be performed. (5) Simulants that better match the properties of post aluminum dissolution sludge should be developed. (6) Work on developing an acid calculation less dependant on the total base measurement should be continued.

  1. The determination of settling velocities for sewage sludge disposed at 106-Mile Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Daniel Saul

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DBTERMZNATZON OF SETTLING VELOCZTZES FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE DZSPOSED AT 106-MILE SITE A Thesis by DANIEL SAUL HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THB DETERMZNATZON OF SBTTLZNG VELOCZTZES FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE DZSPOSBD AT 106-MZLE SZTB A Thesis by DANIEL SAUL HERNANDEZ Approved as to style and content by: James S. Bonner '(Chair...

  2. Hazardous Waste Code Determinations for the First/Second Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbon, Rodney Edward

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  3. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y. [and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign}) and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated.

  4. PDSF Interactive Batch Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactive Batch Jobs Running Interactive Batch Jobs You cannot login to the PDSF batch nodes directly but you can run an interactive session on a batch node using either qlogin...

  5. Location and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and aerobic granular sludge A. Mańasa,b,c,e , M. Spérandioa,b,c , F. Deckerd and B. Biscanse aINSA, UPS, INP X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) applied to granular sludge used for biological treatment of high sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and two aerobic granular sequenced batch reactors (GSBR) were evaluated

  6. Sludge sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Ralph C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

  7. Sludge sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, R.C.

    1981-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

  8. Incineration of biological sludge in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, W.C.P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Incineration rate, ash properties, and percentage destruction of the combustible material were evaluated under different operating conditions. Experimental measurements were made for temperature, air flow rate, sludge size, ash size and sludge composition. A model based on the heat transfer consideration was derived to describe the drying and devolatilization process during sludge incineration. The model assumes that the drying and devolatilization of a sludge particle is manly caused by the heat flowing into the sludge particle from the bed. Parameters affecting the simulation results included sludge size, inert particle size, sludge heat capacity, sludge heat conductivity, operating flow rate and incinerator temperature. A model developed to simulate a batch type air-sand fluidized bed considered the incineration process as being composed of three consecutive operations, namely, drying, devolatilization, and char combustion. The simulation model predicted the dynamic characteristics of sludge incineration in the bed including its percentage completion and the incinerator temperature. The effects of sludge moisture level, sludge size and incinerator operating conditions on the incinerator behavior were also evaluated. The model developed to simulate the behavior of a fluidized bed incinerator under continuous operation was capable of predicting the time to reach steady state, the stack gas composition, the percentage combustion and the auxiliary heat required under various operating conditions, including sludge feed rate and size, air feed rate, and incinerator temperature.

  9. Sewage Sludge (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sewage sludge utilization permits are required prior to the use, processing, and disposal of sewage sludge in Maryland.

  10. Adding coal dust to coal batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

  11. Sludge digester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wight, J.L.; Cook, L.W.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A ballasted, gas-holding, liquid sludge digester is described comprising: a main liquid sludge tank having a bottom wall and upwardly projecting sidewall; a cover having a top and depending side skirt structure which telescopes with respect to the upwardly projecting sidewall of the main tank; ballast supported near the lower edge of said side skirt; a ballast-engaging, liquid-containing well joined to said sidewall of said main tank such that said cover provides a gas-tight seal when said ballast interacts with liquid in said well so as to be partially emerged or fully submerged in the liquid; liquid fill means interacting with said well to maintain a predetermined liquid level in the well when said ballast is at least partially emerged from the liquid in said well; and overflow means interacting with said well to maintain a predetermined liquid level in the well when said ballast is submerged in the liquid in the well.

  12. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  13. Sociological adaptation among bacterial populations in an activated sludge ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Robert George

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacillus Corynebacterium, and Micrococcus being much less abundant. Unz and Dondero (70) isolated two-hundred and three strains from fifty-one trickling filters and activated sludge zoogloeas, with one-hundred and forty-seven of the strains forming... in the aeration basin or secondary sedimentation biomass; instead, members of the Flavobacterium C'~oh~as group, the genus Achromobacter, and a Pseudomonas-l&e group were most numerous. METHODS AND MATERIALS Batch fermentation s stem. The bench scale batch...

  14. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION ­ EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1 The experimental verification of the operation of a multivessel batch distillation column, operated under total vessels, provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. We propose a simple

  15. Submitting Batch Jobs on Franklin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pacific Time, 256 nodes are reserved for debugging and interactive use. See also, running Interactive Jobs. Sample Batch Scripts The following batch script requests 8 cores on...

  16. Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were determined. In a laboratory-scale activated sludge

  17. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process using SRS sludge tank sample material. A Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) details the experimental plan as outlined by the Technical Task Request (TTR). The TTR identifies that the data produced by this testing and results included in this report will support the technical baseline with portions having a safety class functional classification. The primary goals for SRNL RWT are as follows: (1) to confirm ECC performance with real tank sludge samples, (2) to determine the impact of ECC on fate of actinides and the other sludge metals, and (3) to determine changes, if any, in solids flow and settling behavior.

  18. NDA Batch 2002-13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  19. CX-009118: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sludge Batch 8 Qualification: Washing and Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulations (Rad) CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/14/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  20. CX-010491: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/21/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  1. CX-010653: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sludge Batch 8 Processability Study CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/25/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  2. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDY FOR TANK 241-AY-102 SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB

    2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the analyses performed on core samples from the sludge region of the waste in Tank 241-AY-102 to determine the electrochemical corrosion potential.

  3. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Louisville, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  4. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  5. Acceptance Test Plan for the Sludge Pickup Adaptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PITNER, A.L.

    2000-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This test plan documents the acceptance testing of the sludge pickup adapter for potential use during PSI Phases 3 and 4 fuel cleanliness inspection activities. The adaptex is attached to the strainer tip of the vacuum wand and used to suction up residual sludge captured in a sludge collection tray. The material is vacuumed into a chamber of known volume in the sludge pickup adapter. The device serves as an aid in helping to determine whether the observed quantity of sludge is within allowable limits (1.4 cm{sup 3} per fuel assembly). This functionality test involves underwater testing in the 305 Building Cold Test Facility to verify that sludge can be successfully vacuumed from a collection tray. Ancillary activities in this acceptance test include demonstration that the sludge pickup adapter CM be successfully attached to and detached from the vacuum wand underwater.

  6. Monitoring Uranium Transformations Determined by the Evolution of Biogeochemical Processes: Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criddle, Craig S.; Wu, Weimin

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    With funds provided by the US DOE, Argonne National Laboratory subcontracted the design of batch and column studies to a Stanford University team with field experience at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN. The contribution of the Stanford group ended in 2011 due to budget reduction in ANL. Over the funded research period, the Stanford research team characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments and set up microcosm reactors and columns at ANL to ensure that experiments were relevant to field conditions at Oak Ridge. The results of microcosm testing demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) with the addition of ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but were instead U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. The Stanford team communicated with the ANL team members through email and conference calls and face to face at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings.

  7. Conversion of batch to molten glass, I: Volume expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Samuel H.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Swearingen, Kevin J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Marcial, Jose; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Batches designed to simulate nuclear high-level waste glass were compressed into pellets that were heated at a rate of 5°C/min and photographed to obtain the profile area as a function of temperature. Three types of batches were prepared with different nitrate-carbonate ratios. To determine the impact of the heat supply by an exothermic reaction and the batch expansion, the nitrated batches were prepared with varying addition of sucrose. To obtain the impact of the grain size of the quartz component, the mixed nitrate-carbonate batches were prepared with silica particles ranging in size from 5 µm to 195 µm. One batch containing only carbonates was also tested. Sucrose addition had little effect on the batch expansion, while the size of silica was very influential. The 5-?m grains had a strongest effect, causing the generation of both primary and secondary foam, whereas only secondary foam was produced in batches with grains of 45 µm and larger. The retention of gases evolved as the batch melts creates primary foam. Gases evolved from oxidation-reduction reactions once the batch has melted produce secondary foam. We suggest that the viscosity of the melt and the amount of gas evolved are the main influences on foam production. As more gas is produced in the melt and as the glass becomes less viscous, the bubbles of gas coalesce into larger and larger cavities, until the glass can no longer contain the bubbles and they burst, causing the foam to collapse.

  8. Evaluation of vitrification factors from DWPF's macro-batch 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.B.

    2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is evaluating new sampling and analytical methods that may be used to support future Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) batch acceptability decisions. This report uses data acquired during DWPF's processing of macro-batch 1 to determine a set of vitrification factors covering several SME and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batches. Such values are needed for converting the cation measurements derived from the new methods to a ``glass'' basis. The available data from macro-batch 1 were used to examine the stability of these vitrification factors, to estimate their uncertainty over the course of a macro-batch, and to provide a recommendation on the use of a single factor for an entire macro-batch. The report is in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-980015.

  9. Example Hopper Batch Scripts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /Email Announcements12:25Sequedex:Example Batch

  10. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Humrickhouse, Carissa J.; Moody, J. Adam; Tate, Rachel M.; Rainsdon, Timothy T.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5-?m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800°C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass-forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, ?75 ?m in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800°C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160°C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, MgO, and Na2O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  11. EFFECT OF GLASS-BATCH MAKEUP ON THE MELTING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA P

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5 {micro}m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800 C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, {+-}75 {micro}m in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800 C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160 C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, Li{sub 2}O, MgO, and Na{sub 2}O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  12. Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maine Department of Environmental Protection's Residuals, Sludge, and Composting program regulates the land application and post-processing of organic wastes, including sewage sludge, septage,...

  13. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM SLUDGE SAMPLE BOTTLES CAUSED BY RADIOLYSIS AND CHEMISTRY WITH CONCETNRATION DETERMINATION IN A STANDARD WASTE BOX (SWB) OR DRUM FOR TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RILEY DL; BRIDGES AE; EDWARDS WS

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A volume of 600 mL of sludge, in 4.1 L sample bottles (Appendix 7.6), will be placed in either a Super Pig (Ref. 1) or Piglet (Ref. 2, 3) based on shielding requirements (Ref. 4). Two Super Pigs will be placed in a Standard Waste Box (SWB, Ref. 5), as their weight exceeds the capacity of a drum; two Piglets will be placed in a 55-gallon drum (shown in Appendix 7.2). The generation of hydrogen gas through oxidation/corrosion of uranium metal by its reaction with water will be determined and combined with the hydrogen produced by radiolysis. The hydrogen concentration in the 55-gallon drum and SWB will be calculated to show that the lower flammability limit of 5% hydrogen is not reached. The inner layers (i.e., sample bottle, bag and shielded pig) in the SWB and drum will be evaluated to assure no pressurization occurs as the hydrogen vents from the inner containers (e.g., shielded pigs, etc.). The reaction of uranium metal with anoxic liquid water is highly exothermic; the heat of reaction will be combined with the source term decay heat, calculated from Radcalc, to show that the drum and SWB package heat load limits are satisfied. This analysis does five things: (1) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water; (2) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from radiolysis (using Radcalc 4.1); (3) Combines both H{sub 2} generation amounts, from Items 1 and 2, and determines the percent concentration of H{sub 2} in the interior of an SWB with two Super Pigs, and the interior of a 55-gallon drum with two Piglets; (4) From the combined gas generation rate, shows that the pressure at internal layers is minimal; and (5) Calculates the maximum thermal load of the package, both from radioactive decay of the source and daughter products as calculated/reported by Radcalc 4.1, and from the exothermic reaction of uranium metal with water.

  14. Permeation of Tank C-103 sludge simulant by organic solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plan for stabilizing underground storage tanks (USTs) calls for draining the supernate from the tanks; however, there is concern that draining the supernate from Tank C-103 will degrade safety in the tank. The sludge in Tank C-103 contains ranges in depth from 1 to 1.5 m and is covered by both an aqueous phase and a separate organic layer. The main concern is that draining the supernate will cause the solvent to permeate the sludge solids and provide a source of fuel for a fire on the surface of the drained sludge. The question of whether the solvent will permeate sludge that is 1 to 1.5 m deep after the tank is dewatered is the purpose of the tests conducted and described in this report. Evaluation of the solvent permeation mechanism required the preparation of solvent, supernate, and sludge simulants based on the known chemistry of Tank C-103. Solvent and aqueous phase supernate simulants are based on the results of fiscal year 1994 sampling of the tank solvent and supernate. Sludge simulant is based on the chemical analyses of tank sludge samples retrieved in 1986. Experiments were conducted with each simulant to evaluate solvent permeation under matric potentials ranging from 0.8 m to 1.8 m of supernate. The amount of solvent recovered for each experiment was recorded as well as the maximum amount of solvent that could be din the sludge based on solvent recovered from resuspended sludge and solvent not recovered. The wt% of water remaining in the sludge was also recorded for each experiment, which was determined by measuring the weight of the sludge after drying it. One observation noted from the test results is that the finer sludge material tended to have a greater amount of solvent loss compared to the coarser sludge material at comparable levels of vacuum. At this time, there is no explanation.

  15. NDA BATCH 2009-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The testing facility is LLNL plutonium facility segmented gamma scanner. 100% of the radioassay data in the batch data report is reviewed.

  16. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  17. Metagenomic analysis of phosphorus removing sludge communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kinase from activated sludge performing enhanced biologicalbetween flocculation of activated sludge and composition oforganisms from activated sludge systems. Wat Res 31,

  18. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic... production than the conventional process used in most studies to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate a batch load digestion process for methane production from dairy manure to determine the optimum influent total solids concentration...

  19. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA SŘRENSEN in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback been built and the experiments verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation

  20. Multivessel Batch Distillation Potential Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multivessel Batch Distillation ­ Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  1. Multivessel Batch Distillation -Potential Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multivessel Batch Distillation - Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  2. Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.

  3. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected. The sand filter is then backwashed into the STSC. The STSC and STS cask are then inerted and transported to T Plant.

  4. DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

  5. Composting Manure and Sludge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeten, John M.

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Composted manure and sludge can be a valuable fertilizer, but special equipment is required. Composting can be done with windrow operations, aerated windrow operations or aerated bins. Factors that affect composting rates are included....

  6. Viscous sludge sample collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beitel, George A [Richland, WA

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

  7. Transferring Data from Batch Jobs at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (see HPSS Passwords) you can access HPSS within batch scripts. You can add the following lines at the end of your batch script. HSI will accept one-line commands on the HSI...

  8. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal ? uraninite ? metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO2.25 and UO3•2H2O.

  9. POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  10. POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  11. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA S RENSEN a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for total re verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation generally is less energy e cient than

  12. Waste Acceptance Radionuclides To Be Reported In Tank 51 Sludge Only Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M. Lee

    1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The first high level waste glass to be generated at SRS will incorporate sludge from Tank 51. This sludge has been characterized by Bibler et al., who measured and estimated the radioisotope composition of the glass that might be derived from this sludge. In this report this characterization is used to determine which isotopes must be quantified to meet the legal criteria for repository placement.

  13. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  14. Modelling and Control of Activated Sludge Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Modelling and Control of Activated Sludge Processes Michela Mulas Dottorato di Ricerca of Activated Sludge Processes Michela Mulas Supervisors: Prof. Roberto Baratti Ing. Stefania Tronci Dottorato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 ASP Models and Simulations 7 2.1 The Activated Sludge Process

  15. Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit locations. Despite both strong sludges having relatively high iron concentrations, attribution of their high strengths to this factor could not be made with confidence as other measured sludge samples, also from the KE Basin floor and of high iron concentration, were relatively weak. The observed UCS and shear strengths for the two strong sludges were greater than observed in any prior testing of K Basin sludge except for sludge processed at 185 C under hydrothermal conditions.

  16. Materials selection for kraft batch digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wensley, A. [Bacon Donaldson Consulting Engineers, Richmond, British Columbia (Canada); Moskal, M. [Stone Container Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Wilton, W. [Stone-Consolidated Corp., Fort Frances, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several candidate materials were evaluated by corrosion testing in autoclaves containing white and black liquors for batch digesters. The relationship between corrosion rate and corrosion potential was determined for ASTM SA516-Grade 70 carbon steel, UNS S30403 (Type 304L) austenitic stainless steel, UNS S31803 (2205) and UNS S32550 (2605) duplex stainless steels, and two stainless steel weld overlays, applied by the GMAW (gas metal arc welding) and SAW (submerged arc welding) processes. The tests revealed that SA516-Grade 70 carbon steel and type 304L stainless steel can experience high rates of corrosion. For the duplex stainless steels and weld overlays, corrosion resistance improved with chromium content. A chromium content of at least 25% was found to be necessary for good corrosion resistance.

  17. Long-term investigation of microbial fuel cells treating primary sludge or digested sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Microbial fuel cell Primary sludge Digested sludge Energy Biogas a b s t r a c t The long-term performance. Digested sludge can be further composted for agriculture uses, and biogas can be con- vertedLong-term investigation of microbial fuel cells treating primary sludge or digested sludge Zheng Ge

  18. CX-006395: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006395: Categorical Exclusion Determination Corrosion Tests on Carbon Steel Exposed to Oxalic Acid and a Sludge Simulant CX(s) Applied:...

  19. CX-005861: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Exclusion Determination CX-005861: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Sludge Simulant Preparation CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03172011...

  20. Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation S. Skouras and S. Skogestad Dept.interscience.wiley.com). The separation of close-boiling and azeotropic mixtures by heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is addressed. The results show that heteroazeotropic batch distillation exhibits substantial flexibility. The column profile

  1. CASCADE OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL OF BATCH REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jutan, Arthur

    CASCADE OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL OF BATCH REACTORS Xiangming Hua, Sohrab Rohani and Arthur Jutan ajutan@uwo.ca Abstract: In this study, a cascade closed-loop optimization and control strategy for batch reactor. Using model reduction a cascade system is developed, which can effectively combine optimization

  2. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

  3. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

  4. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

  5. Thermal Analysis of Waste Glass Batches: Effect of Batch Makeup on Gas-Evolving Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, David A.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Batches made with a variety of precursors were subjected to thermo-gravimetric analysis. The baseline modifications included all-nitrate batch with sucrose addition, all-carbonate batch, and batches with different sources of alumina. All batches were formulated for a single glass composition (a vitrified simulated high-alumina high-level waste). Batch samples were heated from the ambient temperature to 1200°C at constant heating rates ranging from 1 K/min to 50 K/min. Major gas evolving reactions began at temperatures just above 100°C and were virtually complete by 650°C. Activation energies for major reactions were obtained with the Kissinger’s method. A rough model for the overall kinetics of the batch-conversion was developed to be eventually applied to a mathematical model of the cold cap.

  6. Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by alkyl lithiums

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Rashmi R

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -butyl lithium using cyclohexane as the solvent, The polymerization is carried out in an isothermal batch reactor at a temperature of. 5D C. The proposed reaction proceeds by a homogenous anionic mechanism. The mathematical model developed by Edgar (6..., propagat)on and their kinetics, In this work the experimentally detersnined molecu]ar weight distribution and monomer conversions are compared with the results predicted by a mathematical model developed by Edgar (11). Rate constants determined by Hsieh...

  7. Resuspension and Settling of Monosodium Titanate and Sludge in Supernate Simulate for the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.A.; Mattus, C.H.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is testing several methods for their effectiveness in removing the major radionuclides from the supernate solutions that are stored in the high-level waste tanks at the site. One option is to mix the tank contents (sludge and supernate), in situ, with monosodium titanate (MST) powder to remove 90Sr and transuranics. The sludge and MST would be allowed to settle, and thet reated supernate would then be decanted. The sludge and MST would need to be resuspended later so that the solids could be pumped to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. Small-scale tests evaluated the effect of various storage conditions on the rheological properties of the sludge/MST slurry. Laboratory-scale and pilot-scale tests were conducted to determine the mixing requirements for resuspending slurries of sludge simulant and MST, following settleing periods of various lengths.`

  8. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  9. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process control competition ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Keywords: optimal control, fed-batch process, network enabled optimization. 1 INTRODUCTION ... input, the output for each batch would not be the problem is ...

  10. IMPACT OF IRRADIATION AND THERMAL AGING ON DWPF SIMULATED SLUDGE PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R; Michael Stone, M

    2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The research and development programs in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other high-level waste vitrification processes require the use of both nonradioactive waste simulants and actual waste samples. While actual waste samples are the ideal materials to study, acquiring large quantities of actual waste is difficult and expensive. Tests utilizing actual high-level waste require the use of expensive shielded cells facilities to provide sufficient shielding for the researchers. Nonradioactive waste simulants have been used for laboratory testing, pilot-scale testing and full-scale integrated facility testing. These waste simulants were designed to reproduce the chemical and, if possible, the physical properties of the actual high-level waste. This technical report documents a study on the impact of irradiating a Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and of additional tests on aging a SB3 simulant by additional thermal processing. Prior simulant development studies examined methods of producing sludge and supernate simulants and processes that could be used to alter the physical properties of the simulant to more accurately mimic the properties of actual waste. Development of a precipitated sludge simulant for the River Protection Project (RPP) demonstrated that the application of heat for a period of time could significantly alter the rheology of the sludge simulant. The RPP precipitated simulant used distillation to concentrate the sludge solids and produced a reduction in sludge yield stress of up to 80% compared to the initial sludge properties. Observations at that time suggested that a substantial fraction of the iron hydroxide had converted to the oxide during the distillation. DWPF sludge simulant studies showed a much smaller reduction in yield stress ({approx}10%), demonstrated the impact of shear on particle size, and showed that smaller particle sizes yielded higher yield stress products. The current study documented in this report focuses on the SB3 sludge composition and recipe developed during the previous year as part of the simulant development program. The study examines the impact of a rapid dose of radiation on the physical properties of the SB3 simulant, the effect of temperature and time on the application of heat as a simulant aging mechanism, and the application of crossflow filtration to the production of an all-metals-precipitated SB3 sludge simulant.

  11. A STUDY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEWATERING IN EXPERIMENTAL REED-PLANTED OR UNPLANTED SLUDGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    94/0169 A STUDY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEWATERING IN EXPERIMENTAL REED-PLANTED OR UNPLANTED SLUDGE of the reeds in bed 2 died in spite of the influent sludge dose of 70 g. of SS.m"2.d~l. During the second phase (917 days) the 3 beds were aerated from the bottom and fed with sludge, directly extracted from

  12. Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment S. Troesch.troesch@cemagref.fr, dirk.esser@sint.fr Abstract Sludge drying reed beds have been used for dewatering and mineralization of sludge since the beginning of the 90's, but their insufficient performances in terms of Dry Matter [DM

  13. Wastewater sludge management options for Honduras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Mahua, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sludge management is a fundamental area of concern across wastewater treatment systems in Honduras. The lack of timely sludge removal has led to declining plant performance in many facilities throughout the country. In ...

  14. Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation by Efstathios Skouras and distillation is the dominating unit operation for such separations. However, the presence of azeotropes and non distillation as the best suited process. Among, various techniques to enhance distillation, heterogeneous

  15. Conversion of batch to molten glass, II: Dissolution of quartz particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose; Swearingen, Kevin J.; Henager, Samuel H.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.

    2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Quartz dissolution during the batch-to-glass conversion influences the melt viscosity and ultimately the temperature at which the glass forms. Batches to make a high-alumina borosilicate glass (formulated for the vitrification of nuclear waste) were heated as 5°C min-1 and quenched from the temperatures of 400-1200°C at 100°C intervals. As a silica source, the batches contained quartz with particles ranging from 5 to 195 µm. The content of unreacted quartz in the samples was determined with x-ray diffraction. Most of fine quartz has dissolved during the early batch reactions (at temperatures <800°C), whereas coarser quartz dissolved mostly in a continuous glass phase via diffusion. The mass-transfer coefficients were assessed from the data as functions of the initial particle sizes and the temperature. A series of batch was also tested that contained nitrated components and additions of sucrose known to accelerate melting. While sucrose addition had no discernible impact on quartz dissolution, nitrate batches melted somewhat more slowly than batches containing carbonates and hydroxides in addition to nitrates.

  16. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  17. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations.

  18. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  19. CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Submitted to AICheĆcient operation, multicomponent distillation, batch distillation, total re ux operation ABSTRACT. The multivessel batch distillation column, as well as conven- tional batch distillation, may be operated in a closed

  20. Rheology of spinel sludge in molten glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mika, M (.); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schweiger, M J. (.)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinel sludge, which forms while vitrifying high-level waste, obstructs the flow of molten glass and damages the melter. The effectiveness of removing spinel sludge from a high-level waste glass melter depends on its rheological behavior. We prepared spinel sludge in a laboratory crucible by allowing spinel to settle from molten glass and measured the response of the sludge to shear using a rotating spindle viscometer. The shear stress increased nonlinearly with the velocity gradient (the shear rate) and with time at a constant velocity gradient, as is typical for a pseudoplastic rheopectic liquid. The apparent viscosity of the sludge substantially increased when RuO-2 needles were present.

  1. Parameters influencing calcium phosphate precipitation in granular sludge sequencing batch reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    effluents, damaging aquatic ecosystems and the quality of water. In a wastewater treatment plant, biological to contribute to phosphorus removal during wastewater treatment. Whereas hydroxyapatite (HAP) is proven is a promising technology for wastewater treatment, performing simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal (Liu

  2. Treatment of dredged sludge by mechanical dehydration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maekawa, T.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sludge deposits in the water area damage the ecosystems and environments; their elimination has always been an urgent task for human communities. Generally, sludge deposits are dredged out of the bottom of the water area, transported to, and discharged at a large disposal area on land. Recently, however, it has become increasingly difficult to secure disposal areas and routes of speedy transportation for disposal of dredged sludge. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water that can be returned to the water area through mechanical centrifugal dehydration. Sludge deposits are distributed thin and wide on the bottom of the water area, and a pump dredge has been proved effective in many cases for dredging the upper layers of sludge deposits accurately and without creating turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers the following advantages: (a) It requires smaller space for treatment and disposal of dredged sludge than the conventional method. (b) Facilities and costs for transportation can be reduced. (c) Various systems can be adopted for transportation of sludge cakes. (d) This system is transportable and compact and can be constructed anywhere either on land or on water.

  3. How to batch upload video files with Unison How to batch upload video files with Unison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

    How to batch upload video files with Unison How to batch upload video files with Unison There are two different ways to upload already existing video files into Unison: Upload from the New Session page (only allows one video file to be uploaded at a time) Launching the editor in Composer (allows

  4. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  5. AFTER: Batch jobs on the Apollo ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofstadler, P.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes AFTER, a system that allows users of an Apollo ring to submit batch jobs to run without leaving themselves logged in to the ring. Jobs may be submitted to run at a later time or on a different node. Results from the batch job are mailed to the user through some designated mail system. AFTER features an understandable user interface, good on line help, and site customization. This manual serves primarily as a user's guide to AFTER although administration and installation are covered for completeness.

  6. A STATISTICAL REVIEW OF DWPF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS GENERATED DURING THE PROCESSING OF BATCHES 300 THROUGH 356

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides summaries and comparisons of composition measurements for glass samples that were generated during the processing of batches 300 through 356 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These analyses, which include measurements of samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as samples of glass standards, were provided to SCS by the DWPF Laboratory (DWPF Lab) of Waste Laboratory Services. The comparisons made by SCS were extensive given that these data allowed for contrasts between preparation methods and between the two spectrometers that are currently in use at the DWPF Lab. In addition to general comparisons, specific questions that were posed in the Technical Task Request (TTR) behind this effort were addressed in this report.

  7. Remote Batch Invocation for Compositional Object Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryder, Barbara G.

    Remote Batch Invocation for Compositional Object Services Ali Ibrahim2 , Yang Jiao1 , Eli Tilevich1 Remote Procedure Calls do not compose efficiently, design- ers of distributed object systems use Data Transfer and Remote Fac¸ade patterns to create large-granularity interfaces, hard-coded for particular

  8. Your Unanswered Questions…. Answered- Batch 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Chu hosted an online town hall to discuss President Obama's clean energy innovation agenda -- and while he was able to answer about 10 questions submitted online during the event, we received more than 200! Here is our second batch of questions and answers.

  9. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  10. Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENAC/ Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment David G Research, Microbiology of Interfaces, Magdeburg (Germany) EDCE 2011 / From activated sludge flocs

  11. activated sludge oxygen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Effects of oxygen transport limitation on nitrification in the activated sludge process Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: sludge age (MCRT), pH,...

  12. Batch” Kinetics in Flow: Online IR Analysis and Continuous Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Jason S.

    Currently, kinetic data is either collected under steady-state conditions in flow or by generating time-series data in batch. Batch experiments are generally considered to be more suitable for the generation of kinetic ...

  13. Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge Attila Bai & László Stündl & Péter Bársony & Milán- ied an economical method of algae production on pig sludge that can be operated on animal farms in Hungary with modest levels of investment. We analyzed four algae spe- cies, Chlorella vulgaris

  15. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  16. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

  17. Disposable sludge dewatering container and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Clifford M. (1905 Cottonwood Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for preparing sludge for disposal comprising a box with a thin layer of gravel on the bottom and a thin layer of sand on the gravel layer, an array of perforated piping deployed throughout the gravel layer, and a sump in the gravel layer below the perforated piping array. Standpipes connect the array and sump to an external ion exchanger/fine particulate filter and a pump. Sludge is deposited on the sand layer and dewatered using a pump connected to the piping array, topping up with more sludge as the aqueous component of the sludge is extracted. When the box is full and the free standing water content of the sludge is acceptable, the standpipes are cut and sealed and the lid secured to the box.

  18. Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aquino, Froilan Ludana

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cotton-gin trash (CGT) was pyrolyzed at different temperatures and reaction times using an externally-heated batch reactor. The average yields of output products (solid/char, liquid/bio-oil, and gaseous) were determined. The heating value (HV...

  19. FIELD PERFORMANCE OF GEOTEXTILE REINFORCED SLUDGE CAPS AHMET H. AYDILEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    589 FIELD PERFORMANCE OF GEOTEXTILE REINFORCED SLUDGE CAPS AHMET H. AYDILEK UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN the filtration performance of sludge-geotextile systems and investigate their durability, ten sludge lagoon test be effectively used in filtering contaminated wastewater treatment sludges. Considering the constructability

  20. IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    1 IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS Jacek Makinia*, Scott A in a full-scale activated sludge reactor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 was used to describe for dissolved oxygen. KEYWORDS Activated sludge; dispersion; dissolved oxygen dynamics; mass transfer

  1. BEHAVIOR CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS) FOLLOWING A SEWAGE SLUDGE TREATMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    especially Zn. Key words: heavy metals, accumulation, Brassica Napus, urban sludge, industrial sludge. 1. When purifying wastewater, heavy metals accumulate in the sludge. Thus, the sludge contains significant activities, heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr) actually raise issues of particular concern. These non

  2. Cone Penetrometer Shear Strength Measurements of Sludge Waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the resulting shear strength profiles for sludge waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106, as determined with a full-flow cone penetrometer. Full-flow penetrometer measurements indicate shear strength profiles that increase roughly uniformly with depth. For Tank 241-AN-101, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 3,300 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom. For 241-AN-106, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 5,000 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom.

  3. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Soil and Cassava Plant on Sewage Sludge Dump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igbozuruike, Chris Washington Ifeanyi Mr.; Opara-Nadi, Achilihu Oliver Prof; Okorie, Ikechukwu Kennedy DR

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    JM. (1989). Assessment of sludge regulation assumptions: AMunicipal Wasteland and Sludge on Land. Univ. of California,1998). Effects of sewage sludge pre-treatment on microbial

  4. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

  5. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is dependent on the confidence that DOE has in the long term mission for T Plant, is proposed: (1) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is high, then the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) would continue to implement the path forward previously described in the Alternatives Report (HNF-39744). Risks to the sludge project can be minimized through the establishment of an Interface Control Document (ICD) defining agreed upon responsibilities for both the STP and T Plant Operations regarding the transfer and storage of sludge and ensuring that the T Plant upgrade and operational schedule is well integrated with the sludge storage activities. (2) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is uncertain, then the ASF conceptual design should be pursued on a parallel path with preparation of T Plant for sludge storage until those uncertainties are resolved. (3) Finally, if the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is low, then the ASF design should be selected to provide independence from the T Plant mission risk.

  6. Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    February 2012 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Operational Awareness Review HIAR-RL-2012-02-27 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within...

  7. aerobic batch fermentations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    motivating application we try to optimize the power output of nano-enhanced Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). MFCsHybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization Javad Azimi...

  8. Elink Batch Upload Instructions | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    includes reporting for contract proposals, funding status, routine construction or inventory, and similar products. AN 241.1 Submission Options Batch Upload allows you to upload...

  9. Optimization of A Fed-batch Fermentation Process Control ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinsong Liang

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 1, 2003 ... Optimization of A Fed-batch Fermentation Process Control Competition Problem Using NEOS. Jinsong Liang (jinsongliang ***at*** cc.usu.edu)

  10. MECHANISMS OF PHASE FORMATION IN THE VITRIFICATION OF HIGH-FERROUS SAVANNAH RIVER SITE SB2 HLW SLUDGE SURROGATE - 9300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J

    2008-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase formation mechanisms associated with the vitrification of high-ferrous Savannah River Site (SRS) Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) high level waste surrogate were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IRS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Two mixtures at 50 wt% waste loading with commercially available Frit 320 (Li{sub 2}O - 8 wt %, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 8 wt %, Na{sub 2}O - 12 wt %, SiO{sub 2} - 72 wt %) and batch chemicals (LiOH {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}) to represent the frit formulation were prepared as slurries with a water content of {approx}50 wt%. The mixtures were air-dried at a temperature of 115 C and heat-treated at 500, 700, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1300 C for 1 hr at each temperature. Infrared spectra and XRD patterns of the products produced at each temperature were recorded. In both mixtures prepared using frit and batch chemicals to represent the frit, phase formation reactions were completed within the temperature range between 900 and 1000 C. However, residual quartz was still present in glass produced from the mixture with batch chemicals even at 1100 C. Although, the phase composition and structure of the glassy products obtained from both mixtures at temperatures over 1000 C were similar, the products obtained from the mixture using actual frit were more homogeneous than those from the mixture with batch chemicals. Thus, the use of frit rather than batch chemicals reduced the temperature range of phase formation and provided for production of higher quality glass.

  11. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.B.

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline.

  12. An Assessment of Technologies to Provide Extended Sludge Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JA Bamberger

    2000-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to identify sludge mobilization technologies that can be readily installed in double-shell tanks along with mixer pumps to augment mixer pump operation when mixer pumps do not adequately mobilize waste. The supplementary technologies will mobilize sludge that may accumulate in tank locations out-of-reach of the mixer-pump jet and move the sludge into the mixer-pump range of operation. The identified technologies will be evaluated to determine if their performances and configurations are adequate to meet requirements developed for enhanced sludge removal systems. The study proceeded in three parallel paths to identify technologies that: (1) have been previously deployed or demonstrated in radioactive waste tanks, (2) have been specifically evaluated for their ability to mobilize or dislodge waste simulants with physical and theological properties similar to those anticipated during waste retrieval, and (3) have been used in similar industrial conditions, bu t not specifically evaluated for radioactive waste retrieval.

  13. Assessment of Jet Erosion for Potential Post-Retrieval K-Basin Settled Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Beric E.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Packaged K-Basin sludge will be transported to the T Plant on the Hanford Site where it will be interim stored. The sludge will be retrieved from the storage containers and processed for disposal. A sample of high uranium content canister sludge, designated 96-13, "self-cemented" during laboratory storage. This sample was uncharacteristically strong compared to expected K-Basin material. The purpose for this work is to evaluate the potential retrieval of such sludge after storage at the T Plant via jet erosion. The specific objectives of this report are to determine the modes of erosion and the methods used to measure/assess the erodibility parameters of sludge and identify those parameters applicable to jet erosion. The erodibility parameters of sample 96-13 are characterized to the extent possible. These objectives have been met based on literature review, past experience at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and observation of sample 96-13 video during hot-cell activities.

  14. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.

  15. Reducing variance in batch partitioning measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariner, Paul E.

    2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The partitioning experiment is commonly performed with little or no attention to reducing measurement variance. Batch test procedures such as those used to measure K{sub d} values (e.g., ASTM D 4646 and EPA402 -R-99-004A) do not explain how to evaluate measurement uncertainty nor how to minimize measurement variance. In fact, ASTM D 4646 prescribes a sorbent:water ratio that prevents variance minimization. Consequently, the variance of a set of partitioning measurements can be extreme and even absurd. Such data sets, which are commonplace, hamper probabilistic modeling efforts. An error-savvy design requires adjustment of the solution:sorbent ratio so that approximately half of the sorbate partitions to the sorbent. Results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this simple step can markedly improve the precision and statistical characterization of partitioning uncertainty.

  16. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total re ux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

  17. Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures using Elementary) diagrams like distillation lines and isotherms maps may be used in analysis of the closed (total reflux) multivessel batch distillation column. An indirect level control strategy is implemented that eliminates

  18. Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S, Norway SCOPE OF THE PROJECT ·How can we separate ternary mixtures in closed batch distillation-up period is required, followed by a heteroazeotropic distillation step (Figure 3) Modified: The separation

  19. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SŘRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total reflux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

  20. COMPARATIVE HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENTS ON FECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    i COMPARATIVE HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENTS ON FECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF KLONG Fecal sludge (FS) is widely acknowledged as a major source of infectious pathogens. However, the proper

  1. CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2...

  2. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

  3. Maintenance and Operations study for K basins sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates maintenance and operating concepts for the chemical treatment of sludge from the 100 K Basins at Hanford. The sludge treatment equipment that will require remote operation or maintenance was identified. Then various maintenance and operating concepts used in the nuclear industry were evaluated for applicability to sludge treatment. A hot cell or cells is recommended as the best maintenance and operating concept for a sludge treatment facility.

  4. Caustic Leaching of Sludges from Selected Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to measure the caustic dissolution behavior of sludge components from selected Hanford waste tank sludge samples under different conditions. The dissolution of aluminum, chromium, and other constituents of actual sludge samples in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was evaluated using various values of temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration, volume of caustic solution per unit mass of sludge (liquid:solids ratio), and leaching time.

  5. Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Krumhansl

    2002-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate nearby groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Performance assessment (PA) calculations must be carried out prior to closing the tanks. This requires developing radionuclide release models from the sludges so that the PA calculations can be based on credible source terms. These efforts continued to be hindered by uncertainties regarding the actual nature of the tank contents and the distribution of radionuclides among the various phases. In particular, it is of vital importance to know what radionuclides are associated with solid sludge components. Experimentation on actual tank sludges can be difficult, dangerous and prohibitively expensive. The research funded under this grant for the past three years was intended to provide a cost-effective method for developing the needed radionuclide release models using non-radioactive artificial sludges. Insights gained from this work will also have more immediate applications in understanding the processes responsible for heel development in the tanks and in developing effective technologies for removing wastes from the tanks.

  6. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  7. Review article The use of urban sewage sludge on pastures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article The use of urban sewage sludge on pastures: the cysticercosis threat Jacques appears to be one of the major pathological threats when sewage sludge is used to fertilise cattle highly prevalent) and Asia (Taenia saginata-like are prevalent). The processing of sludge and the delay

  8. PROPERTIES OF TREATMENT SLUDGE DURING SEDIMENTATION AND CONSOLIDATION TESTS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubertin, Michel

    PROPERTIES OF TREATMENT SLUDGE DURING SEDIMENTATION AND CONSOLIDATION TESTS1 Lincar Pedroni2 , Jean on sludge produced from an acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment plant. The testing program involved test, physical and geotechnical properties of the resulting sludge were measured. In this paper

  9. Temperature Modeling in Activated Sludge Systems: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    Temperature Modeling in Activated Sludge Systems: A Case Study Jacek Makinia, Scott A. Wells, Piotr Zima ABSTRACT: A model of temperature dynamics was developed as part of a general model of activated-sludge biochemical-energy inputs and other activated-sludge, heat-balance terms. All the models were tested under

  10. Sensitivity of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Sensitivity of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model Antonio Araujo, Simone sensitivity analysis of optimal operation conducted on an activated sludge process model based on the test.[7] applied a systematic procedure for control structure design of an activated sludge process

  11. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the production of biogas based power and heat besides reduce the power consumption from handling and treatment of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The Esbjerg Renseanlæg Vest is a traditional build plant base don the activated sludge concept besides traditional digester technology

  12. Determination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential Application to ARM MeasurementsDetermination of

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Uraninite (UO2) and metaschoepite (UO3·2H2O) are the uranium phases most frequently observed in K Basin sludge. Uraninite arises from the oxidation of uranium metal by anoxic water and metaschoepite arises from oxidation of uraninite by atmospheric or radiolytic oxygen. Studies of the oxidation of uraninite by oxygen to form metaschoepite were performed at 21°C and 50°C. A uranium oxide oxidation state characterization method based on spectrophotometry of the solution formed by dissolving aqueous slurries in phosphoric acid was developed to follow the extent of reaction. This method may be applied to determine uranium oxide oxidation state distribution in K Basin sludge. The uraninite produced by anoxic corrosion of uranium metal has exceedingly fine particle size (6 nm diameter), forms agglomerates, and has the formula UO2.004±0.007; i.e., is practically stoichiometric UO2. The metaschoepite particles are flatter and wider when prepared at 21°C than the particles prepared at 50°C. These particles are much smaller than the metaschoepite observed in prolonged exposure of actual K Basin sludge to warm moist oxidizing conditions. The uraninite produced by anoxic uranium metal corrosion and the metaschoepite produced by reaction of uraninite aqueous slurries with oxygen may be used in engineering and process development testing. A rapid alternative method to determine uranium metal concentrations in sludge also was identified.

  14. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  15. Evaluation of Shear Strength Threshold of Concern for Retrieval of Interim-Stored K-Basin Sludge in the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K-Basin sludge will be recovered into the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and will be stored in the T Plant for interim storage (at least 10 years). Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show that high uranium content K Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has "paste" and "chunks" with shear strengths of approximately 3~5 kPa and 380 ~ 770 kPa, respectively. High uranium content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185°C, 10 h) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. After interim storage at T Plant, the sludge in the STSCs will be mobilized by water jets impinging the sludge. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the range of sludge shear strength for which there is high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from STSCs. The shear strength at which the sludge can be retrieved is defined as the "shear strength threshold of concern." If the sludge shear strength is greater than the value of the shear strength threshold of concern, a water-jet retrieval system will be unlikely to mobilize the sludge up to the container’s walls. The shear strength threshold of concern can be compared with the range of possible shear strengths of K-Basin stored sludge to determine if the current post interim-storage, water-jet retrieval method is adequate. Fourteen effective cleaning radius (ECR) models were reviewed, and their validity was examined by applying them to Hanford 241-SY-101 and 241-AZ-101 Tanks to reproduce the measured ECR produced by the mixer pumps. The validation test identified that the Powell-3 and Crowe-2 ECR models are more accurate than other ECR models reviewed. These ECR models were used to address a question as to whether the effective cleaning radius of a water jet is sufficient or if it can be readily expanded to cover the range of possible shear strengths. These results will assist CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to establish the technical basis of the feasibility of the sludge retrieval and storage plan and to develop an adequate water jet system to retrieve the stored K-Basin sludge in the STSCs. The STSCs are 2:1 elliptical-head vessels, 58 inches in diameter and 105 inches tall. Each STSC will contain 0.5 to 2.1 m3 of settled sludge with the specific loading dependent upon sludge type.

  16. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  17. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and potential for erosion, it is important to compare the measured shear strength to penetrometer measurements and to develop a correlation (or correlations) between UCS measured by a pocket penetrometer and direct shear strength measurements for various homogeneous and heterogeneous simulants. This study developed 11 homogeneous simulants, whose shear strengths vary from 4 to 170 kPa. With these simulants, we developed correlations between UCS measured by a Geotest E-280 pocket penetrometer and shear strength values measured by a Geonor H-60 hand-held vane tester and a more sophisticated bench-top unit, the Haake M5 rheometer. This was achieved with side-by-side measurements of the shear strength and UCS of the homogeneous simulants. The homogeneous simulants developed under this study consist of kaolin clay, plaster of Paris, and amorphous alumina CP-5 with water. The simulants also include modeling clay. The shear strength of most of these simulants is sensitive to various factors, including the simulant size, the intensity of mixing, and the curing time, even with given concentrations of simulant components. Table S.1 summarizes these 11 simulants and their shear strengths.

  18. Integrating BES in the wastewater and sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    , denitrification, and anaerobic digester treatment systems, while chemical methods include phosphate removal, dye of WAS, including treatment of influent or the accumulated sludge with anaerobic digesters (Rulkens 2008; Seghezzo et al. 1998). This is a more sustainable treatment method because methane in biogas can partly

  19. NORDIC WASTE WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE TREATMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biogas, electricity and fertilizer from 30 000 tons of annually waste. The plant was opened in March 2008 together it an- nually produces 18,9 GWh biogas and around 10 GWh of elec- tricity. The Cambi THP ­process biological sludge, which normally is very difficult to digest and dewater. The THP treats both municipal

  20. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end we shall use an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined.

  1. Combustion of sludge waste in FBC. Distribution of metals and particle sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozinski, J.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rink, K.K.; Lighty, J.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the increases in the amounts of sludge generated and increasingly stringent regulations regarding its disposal, alternative methods to landfilling are becoming more important. Fluidized bed combustion is one such alternative, providing permanent disposal of the sludge. In this research, metal-solid particle characteristics during combustion of a sludge waste were studied. The sludge was a result of de-inking process. Experiments were carried out using a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion facility (CFB). The fluidized bed was operated in the bubbling mode. The sludge was separately burned with silica sand particles, ultrasorb particles, and alumina particles as bed materials. Major flue gas components (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}) were measured continuously. Gas temperature profiles were determined using a water-cooled suction pyrometer. Solid particle samples were collected at multiple locations using a dilution tunnel sampling system. The solid samples were analyzed to determine ash structure, size and composition distributions. Metal analyses were performed using a computer-controlled Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) equipped with four Wavelength-Dispersive Spectrometers. Analyses of individual fly ash particles indicated that heavy metal elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni) were generally located in regions near the particle`s core. Lighter metals (Si, Al, Ca, Na, K) were present across the entire cross-section of a particle, with the highest concentrations at the particle surface. These distributions were found to be similar regardless of the type of bed material. This suggests that the light metal layers are formed because of the internal rearrangements of a chemical nature as opposed to physical deposition of light metal fragments on particle surfaces.

  2. ESTIMATION OF THE TEMPERATURE RISE OF A MCU ACID STREAM PIPE IN NEAR PROXIMITY TO A SLUDGE STREAM PIPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Effluent streams from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) will transfer to the tank farms and to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These streams will contain entrained solvent. A significant portion of the Strip Effluent (SE) pipeline (i.e., acid stream containing Isopar{reg_sign} L residues) length is within one inch of a sludge stream. Personnel envisioned the sludge stream temperature may reach 100 C during operation. The nearby SE stream may receive heat from the sludge stream and reach temperatures that may lead to flammability issues once the contents of the SE stream discharge into a larger reservoir. To this end, personnel used correlations from the literature to estimate the maximum temperature rise the SE stream may experience if the nearby sludge stream reaches boiling temperature. Several calculation methods were used to determine the temperature rise of the SE stream. One method considered a heat balance equation under steady state that employed correlation functions to estimate heat transfer rate. This method showed the maximum temperature of the acid stream (SE) may exceed 45 C when the nearby sludge stream is 80 C or higher. A second method used an effectiveness calculation used to predict the heat transfer rate in single pass heat exchanger. By envisioning the acid and sludge pipes as a parallel flow pipe-to-pipe heat exchanger, this method provides a conservative estimation of the maximum temperature rise. Assuming the contact area (i.e., the area over which the heat transfer occurs) is the whole pipe area, the results found by this method nearly matched the results found with the previous calculation method. It is recommended that the sludge stream be maintained below 80 C to minimize a flammable vapor hazard from occurring.

  3. Behavior of Uranium(VI) during HEDPA Leaching for Aluminum Dissolution in Tank Waste Sludges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Martin, Leigh

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolution in Tank Waste Sludges Brian A. Powell 1 ,to produce a clay-like sludge layer, a slurry phase, and anto be concentrated in the sludge phase, which is primarily

  4. Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Brian A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Hanford waste tank sludge simulants. J. Nucl. Sci.from simulated tank waste sludges. Sep. Sci. Tech. 38(2),Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates. In preparation,

  5. Use of nutrients of sewage sludge in the initial development of Copaifera langsdorffii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sampaio, Thalita Fernanda; Guerrini, Iraę Amaral; Croce, Ciro; de Toledo, Maria Angélica; Morales, Marina

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    under the 20 t ha -1 of sludge rate. Figure 1: CopaibaSupl. K) and sewage sludge doses (2.5, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha -dm Fe Mn Zn Table 2: Sewage sludge chemical characteristics.

  6. Field-Measured Oxidation Rates of Biologically Reduced Selenium in Sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Sally M.; Daggett, John; Zawislansi, Peter

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduced Selenium in Sludge Sally M. Benson, John Daggett andCalifornia 94720 U.S.A. Sludge generated during surface-Finding safe and economical sludge disposal methods requires

  7. Functions and requirements for 105-KE Basin sludge retrieval and packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Sludge, and the clouding due to sludge, interferes with basin operation and maintenance activities. This document defines the overall functions and requirements for sludge retrieval and packaging activities to be performed in the 105-KE Basin.

  8. Hydration and leaching characteristics of cement pastes made from electroplating sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ying-Liang [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Ko, Ming-Sheng [Institute of Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chunghsiao E. Rd., Taipei City 10608, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yi-Chieh [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, No. 200, Chung-Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Chang, Juu-En, E-mail: juuen@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration and leaching characteristics of the pastes of belite-rich cements made from electroplating sludge. The compressive strength of the pastes cured for 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days was determined, and the condensation of silicate anions in hydrates was examined with the {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. The leachabilities of the electroplating sludge and the hardened pastes were studied with the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (MTCLP) and the tank leaching test (NEN 7345), respectively. The results showed that the electroplating sludge continued to leach heavy metals, including nickel, copper, and zinc, and posed a serious threat to the environment. The belite-rich cement made from the electroplating sludge was abundant in hydraulic {beta}-dicalcium silicate, and it performed well with regard to compressive-strength development when properly blended with ordinary Portland cements. The blended cement containing up to 40% the belite-rich cement can still satisfy the compressive-strength requirements of ASTM standards, and the pastes cured for 90 days had comparable compressive strength to an ordinary Portland cement paste. It was also found that the later hydration reaction of the blended cements was relatively more active, and high fractions of belite-rich cement increased the chain length of silicate hydrates. In addition, by converting the sludge into belite-rich cements, the heavy metals became stable in the hardened cement pastes. This study thus indicates a viable alternative approach to dealing with heavy metal bearing wastes, and the resulting products show good compressive strength and heavy-metal stability.

  9. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention from simulated tank sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; LIU,J.; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; QIAN,MORRIS; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Decommissioning high level nuclear waste tanks will leave small amounts of residual sludge clinging to the walls and floor of the structures. The permissible amount of material left in the tanks depends on the radionuclide release characteristics of the sludge. At present, no systematic process exists for assessing how much of the remaining inventory will migrate, and which radioisotopes will remain relatively fixed. Working with actual sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive. Consequently, methods were developed for preparing sludge simulants and doping them with nonradioactive surrogates for several radionuclides and RCRA metals of concern in actual sludges. The phase chemistry of these mixes was found to be a reasonable match for the main phases in actual sludges. Preliminary surrogate release characteristics for these sludges were assessed by lowering the ionic strength and pH of the sludges in the manner that would occur if normal groundwater gained access to a decommissioned tank. Most of the Se, Cs and Tc in the sludges will be released into the first pulse of groundwater passing through the sludge. A significant fraction of the other surrogates will be retained indefinitely by the sludges. This prolonged sequestration results from a combination coprecipitated and sorbed into or onto relatively insoluble phases such as apatite, hydrous oxides of Fe, Al, Bi and rare earth oxides and phosphates. The coprecipitated fraction cannot be released until the host phase dissolves or recrystallizes. The sorbed fraction can be released by ion exchange processes as the pore fluid chemistry changes. However, these releases can be predicted based on a knowledge of the fluid composition and the surface chemistry of the solids. In this regard, the behavior of the hydrous iron oxide component of most sludges will probably play a dominant role for many cationic radionuclides while the hydrous aluminum oxides may be more important in governing anion releases.

  10. Chemical and Radiochemical Analysis of Consolidated Sludge Samples from the K East Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmore, Monte R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Thornton, Brenda M.; Gano, Susan R.

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Consolidated sludge samples described in this report were collected from the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool in March and April 1999. Material for the samples was collected from both the basin floor and fuel canisters within the basin. Analyses persented include weight percent solids determination, uranium analysis by kinetic phosphorescence (KPA), plutonium isotope analysis by alpha energy analysis (AEA), gross beta analysis, gamma energy analysis (GEA), and metals analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  11. activated sludge wastewater: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The wastewater shows 7 Temperature Modeling in Activated Sludge Systems: A Case Study Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: steady-state and dynamic...

  12. Fate of Endogenous Steroid Hormones in Runoff from Cattle Feedlots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansell, David Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural and synthetic estrogens at activated sludge sewagenatural and synthetic estrogens by activated sludge in batch

  13. Dissolution retardation of solid silica during glass batch-melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During glass-batch melting, solid silica (quartz) usually dissolves last. A retardation function was defined as a measure of the progressive inhibition of silica dissolution that occurs during batch melting. This function is based on the comparison of the measured rate of dissolution of silica particles with the hypothetical diffusion-controlled volume flux from regularly distributed particles with uniform concentration layers around them. The severe inhibition of silica dissolution has been attributed to the irregular spatial distribution of silica particles that is associated with the formation of nearly saturated melt at a portion of their surfaces. Irregular shapes and unequal sizes of particles also contribute to their extended lifetime.

  14. Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S to obtain a light and a heavy fraction simultaneously from the top and the bottom of the column, while an intermediate fraction may also be recovered in the middle vessel. Two modifications of the multivessel

  15. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SŘRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total reflux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy efficient than continuous distillation, it has received increased

  16. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total re ux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy e cient than continuous distillation, it has received increased attention

  17. On the Impossibility of Batch Update for Cryptographic Accumulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the Impossibility of Batch Update for Cryptographic Accumulators Philippe Camacho Dept@dcc.uchile.cl December 15, 2009 Abstract A cryptographic accumulator is a scheme where a set of elements is represented into the set. In their survey on accumulators [FN02], Fazzio and Nicolisi noted that the Camenisch

  18. On the Impossibility of Batch Update for Cryptographic Accumulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hevia, Alejandro

    On the Impossibility of Batch Update for Cryptographic Accumulators Philippe Camacho and Alejandro. {pcamacho,ahevia}@dcc.uchile.cl Abstract. A cryptographic accumulator is a scheme where a set of elements membership into the set. If new values are added or existent values are deleted from the accumulator

  19. Improving SSL Handshake Performance via Batching Hovav Shacham Dan Boneh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boneh, Dan

    Improving SSL Handshake Performance via Batching Hovav Shacham Dan Boneh hovav@cs.stanford.edu dabo@cs.stanford.edu Abstract We present an algorithmic approach for speeding up SSL's performance on a web server. Our approach improves the performance of SSL's handshake protocol by up to a factor of 2.5 for 1024-bit RSA keys

  20. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the production of biogas based power and heat besides reduce the power consumption from handling and treatment selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system . The Esbjerg digester technology .l'he plant treats combined household and industrial wastewater with a considerable

  2. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focuses on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report presents results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. This report was originally published in March 2001. In January 2004, a transcription error was discovered in the value reported for the uranium metal content of KE North Loadout Pit sample FE-3. This revision of the report corrects the U metal content of FE-3 from 0.0013 wt% to 0.013 wt%.

  3. APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration harmful organisms (plant, animal and human pathogens) in insufficiently composted materials · If C NOTE 6 PAGE 2 Applications of sewage sludges and composts Forestry Tree growth on nutrient

  4. Resources recovery of oil sludge by pyrolysis: Kinetics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shie, J.L.; Chang, C.Y.; Lin, J.P.; Wu, C.H.; Lee, D.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil sludge, if unused, is one of the major industrial wastes needed to be treated for the petroleum refinery plant or petrochemical industry. It contains a large amount of combustibles with high heating values. The treatment of waste oil sludge by burning has certain benefit; however, it cannot provide the useful resource efficiently. On the other hand, the conversion of oil sludge to lower molecule weight organic compounds by pyrolysis not only solves the disposal problem but also matches the appeal of resource utilization. The major sources of oil sludge include the oil storage tank sludge, the biological sludge, the dissolve air flotation (DAF) scum, the American Petroleum Institute (API) separator sludge and the chemical sludge. In this study, the oil sludge from the oil storage tank of a typical petroleum refinery plant located in the northern Taiwan is used as the raw material of pyrolysis. Its heating value of dry basis and low heating value of wet basis are about 10,681 k cal/kg and 5,870 k cal/kg, respectively. The removal of the moisture of oil sludge significantly increases its heating value. The pyrolysis of oil sludge is conducted by the use of nitrogen as the carrier gas in the temperature range of 380 {approximately} 1,073 K and at various constant heating rates of 5.2, 12.8 and 21.8 K/min. The pyrolytic reaction is significant in 450 {approximately} 800 K and complex. For the sake of simplicity and engineering use, a one-reaction kinetic model is proposed for the pyrolysis of oil sludge, and is found to satisfactorily fit the experimental data. The activation energy, reaction order and frequency factor of the corresponding pyrolysis reaction in nitrogen for oil sludge are 78.22 kJ/mol, 2.92 and 9.48 105 l/min, respectively. These results are very useful for the proper design of the pyrolysis system of the oil sludge under investigation.

  5. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  6. Solidification of low-volume power plant sludges. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, N.E.; Halverson, M.A.; Mercer, B.M.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review was conducted to obtain information on the status of hazardous waste solidification technology and application of this technology to low-volume power plant waste sludges. Because of scarcity of sludge composition data, anticipated major components were identified primarily by chemical reactions that are known to occur during treatment of specific wastewaters. Chemical and physical properties of these sludges were critically analyzed for compatibility with several types of commercially available solidification processes. The study pointed out the need for additional information on the nature of these sludges, especially leaching characteristics and the presence of substances that will interfere with solidification processes. Laboratory studies were recommended for evaluation of solidification process which have the greatest potential for converting hazardous low-volume sludges to non-hazardous waste forms.

  7. Sludge Treatment Evaluation: 1992 Technical progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, L J; Felmy, A R; Ding, E R

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents Fiscal Year 1992 technical progress on the Sludge Treatment Evaluation Task, which is being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of this task is to develop a capability to predict the performance of pretreatment processes for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste stored at Hanford and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Significant cost savings can be achieved if radionuclides and other undesirable constituents can be effectively separated from the bulk waste prior to final treatment and disposal. This work is initially focused on chemical equilibrium prediction of water washing and acid or base dissolution of Hanford single-shell tank (SST) sludges, but may also be applied to other steps in pretreatment processes or to other wastes. Although SST wastes contain many chemical species, there are relatively few constituents -- Na, Al, NO[sub 3], NO[sub 2], PO[sub 4], SO[sub 4], and F -- contained in the majority of the waste. These constituents comprise 86% and 74% of samples from B-110 and U-110 SSTS, respectively. The major radionuclides of interest (Cs, Sr, Tc, U) are present in the sludge in small molal quantities. For these constituents, and other important components that are present in small molal quantities, the specific ion-interaction terms used in the Pitzer or NRTL equations may be assumed to be zero for a first approximation. Model development can also be accelerated by considering only the acid or base conditions that apply for the key pretreatment steps. This significantly reduces the number of chemical species and chemical reactions that need to be considered. Therefore, significant progress can be made by developing all the specific ion interactions for a base model and an acid dissolution model.

  8. Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Yuan Ma-scale reactors were operated at the LaPrairie Wastewater Treatment plant (one control and one ozonated) to investigate the sludge reduction potential of partially ozonating sludge return activated sludge (RAS

  9. Feedback Stabilization of Fed-Batch Bioreactors: Non-Monotonic Growth Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastin, Georges

    Feedback Stabilization of Fed-Batch Bioreactors: Non-Monotonic Growth Kinetics Ilse Y. Smets's yeast, food additives, and recom- binant proteins), optimization and control of fed-batch bioreactors

  10. Minimal time problem for a fed-batch bioreactor with saturating singular control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Minimal time problem for a fed-batch bioreactor with saturating singular control T´erence Bayen in the present work is a fed-batch bioreactor with one species and one substrate. Our aim is to find an optimal

  11. Control of Job Arrivals with Processing Time Windows into Batch Processor Buffer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tajan, John Benedict Cheng

    Consider a two-stage manufacturing system composed of a batch processor and its upstream feeder processor. Jobs exit the feeder processor and join a queue in front of the batch processor, where they wait to be processed. ...

  12. Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.P.

    2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

  13. pH control of a fed batch reactor with precipitation J. Barraud a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pH control of a fed batch reactor with precipitation J. Barraud a , Y. Creff a , N. Petit b,* a IFP of controlling the pH, in a fed batch reactor where precipitation occurs, is con- sidered. Due to the batch Keywords: pH control Fed batch process Precipitation a b s t r a c t In this paper, the problem

  14. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008. “Utilization of sewage sludge in EU application of old2007. “Cost evaluation of sludge treatment options andwastewater treatment plant sludge treating leather tanning

  15. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    no date) Use of biogas from anaerobic sludge digestion for2010). The biogas produced by sludge anaerobic digestion canThickener Sludge pretreatment Biogas Digester Residual

  16. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 2 and RAJAB LITTO column presented in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The economic potential of the multivessel batch distillation under total re ux is demon- strated

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Start-Up Operation of a Multivessel Batch Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Start-Up Operation of a Multivessel Batch DistillationVersity of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Multivessel batch distillation is a promising alternative to conventional batch distillation. Earlier studies proved the feasibility of temperature control in a closed

  18. On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns sensitivity in batch distillation processes. By considering the effect of small changes in the operating #12; 1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance in industry during the last

  19. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad1 The experimental veri cation of the operation of a multivessel batch distillation column, operated under total re vessels, provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. We propose a simple

  20. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SRENSEN 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SŘRENSEN 2 and RAJAB LITTO column presented in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The economic potential of the multivessel batch distillation under total reflux is demon­ strated

  1. Minimal time control of fed-batch bioreactor with product Terence Bayen Francis Mairet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Minimal time control of fed-batch bioreactor with product inhibition T´erence Bayen · Francis-batch bioreactors, in presence of an inhibitory product, which is released by the biomass proportionally to its Introduction Fed-batch operation of bioreactor is a popular operating mode used in industry as the limiting

  2. Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated with Nuclear Waste Glass Batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, David A.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The melting behaviors of three glass batches formulated to vitrify high-level waste were compared. These batches, otherwise identical, differed in the alumina source: one was prepared with corundum (Al2O3), another with gibbsite [Al(OH)3], and the other with boehmite [AlO(OH)]. Batch samples, in the form of loose batches or pressed pellets, were heated at 5°C/min up to 1200°C. The expansion of pellets was monitored photographically. Quenched samples of batches, heated in crucibles, were thin-sectioned, investigated with optical microscopy, and analyzed with X-ray diffraction to quantify crystalline phases. Finally, batch-to-glass conversion was investigated with thermal analysis. Corundum was still present in one batch up to 900°C whereas gibbsite and boehmite dissolved below 500°C. In the batch with corundum, quartz, the source of silica, dissolved marginally earlier than in the batches with gibbsite and boehmite. Unlike the batch with corundum that exhibited considerable foaming, the batches with gibbsite and boehmite did not produce primary foam and made a more homogeneous glass. The occurrence of primary foam in the batch with corundum is a likely cause of a low rate of melting within the cold cap of a large-scale electric melter.

  3. Optimisation of sanitary landfill leachate treatment in a sequencing batch reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimisation of sanitary landfill leachate treatment in a sequencing batch reactor A. Spagni, S al. 1988; Kjeldsen et al. 2002). Among several technologies, sequen- cing batch reactors (SBRs) haveH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) have been frequently used for monitoring and control of batch reactors

  4. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During second quarter 1993, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During second quarter 1993, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS or any other flagging criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. During first quarter 1993, aluminum and iron exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the KSS and the PSS wells. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 35 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells, except for a single measurement of 1 mg/L in well PSS 1D. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow direction is south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates). The groundwater flow direction at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site could not be determined second quarter 1993.

  5. A new method of petroleum sludge disposal and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanakamedala, R.D.; Islam, M.R. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of the oil sludge is one of the fundamental problems of petroleum production. Increasingly stringent environmental control regulations, lack of final disposal sites, and high costs involved in disposal have resulted in limitations off oil sludge disposal options. In this study, two options for disposing the oil sludge are investigated. One option is the use of solid-liquid centrifugal separation. The second option is the use of the oil sludge as a cementing material. It is shown that the two options can be used in tandem for total remediation of the petroleum sludge. If the initial oil concentration in the sludge is high, high temperature centrifugation with biodegradable surfactant is recommended to lower the concentration to a reasonable value. The resulting solid extract was mixed with cement and silica fume and examined for cementing properties. Evaluation of compressive strengths of the mortar cubes indicates that it is possible to produce cement from the oil sludge which will satisfy the strength requirements in the ASTM standard for masonry cement.

  6. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  7. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  8. Dynamic Control for Batch Process Systems Using Stochastic Utility Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Hongsuk

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Amarnath Banerjee Committee Members, César O. Malavé James A. Wall Yoonsuck Choe Head of Department, Brett A. Peters August 2011 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering...: Dr. Amarnath Banerjee Most research studies in the batch process control problem are focused on optimizing system performance. The methods address the problem by minimizing single criterion such as cycle time and tardiness, or bi...

  9. 15th International Conference Ramiran, May 3-6, 2013, Versailles Accounting GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal routes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sludge treatment and disposal routes ­ methodological problems focused on sludge land spreading% of sewage sludge is directly land spreading or composted before land spreading. Sludge application to quantify GHG emissions emitted during sludge treatment and disposal routes. This paper aims to present how

  10. Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (?) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

  11. Growth of chrysanthemums in sewage sludge amended media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlutt, Edward Frederick

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979 ABSTRACT Growth of Chrysanthemums in Sewage Sludge Amended Media. (December 1979) Edwaz d Fnedez ick Schlutt, Jr . B. S. , Texas AFN University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Everett R. Emino Chr santhemum morifolium cv. 'Bz ight Golden... porosity, total postharvest porosity, non-capillazy pore space, pre- harvest pH and postharvest pH in sewage sludge amended peat-perlite media. 40 TABLE 14. Average heavy metal content in 100% sewage sludge (ug/gm) . 42 TABLE 16. Zinc content (ug/gm...

  12. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  13. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  14. Kinetic model for quartz and spinel dissolution during melting of high-level-waste glass batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution of quartz particles and the growth and dissolution of crystalline phases during the conversion of batch to glass potentially affects both the glass melting process and product quality. Crystals of spinel exiting the cold cap to molten glass below can be troublesome during the vitrification of iron-containing high-level wastes. To estimate the distribution of quartz and spinel fractions within the cold cap, we used kinetic models that relate fractions of these phases to temperature and heating rate. Fitting the model equations to data showed that the heating rate, apart from affecting quartz and spinel behavior directly, also affects them indirectly via concurrent processes, such as the formation and motion of bubbles. Because of these indirect effects, it was necessary to allow one kinetic parameter (the pre-exponential factor) to vary with the heating rate. The resulting kinetic equations are sufficiently simple for the detailed modeling of batch-to-glass conversion as it occurs in glass melters. The estimated fractions and sizes of quartz and spinel particles as they leave the cold cap, determined in this study, will provide the source terms needed for modeling the behavior of these solid particles within the flow of molten glass in the melter.

  15. anaerobic sewage sludge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and staff available for flue gas scrubbing test with dry lime sludge. The Ames Power Plant provided fly ash for the construction of the test embankment. iii Disclaimer "The...

  16. aerobic activated sludge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and staff available for flue gas scrubbing test with dry lime sludge. The Ames Power Plant provided fly ash for the construction of the test embankment. iii Disclaimer "The...

  17. Proper Lagoon Management to Reduce Odor and Excessive Sludge Accumulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper management techniques to reduce odor and excessive sludge accumulation include maintaining pH and salt levels, pumping regularly, maintaining adequate bacteria levels, and designing for efficiency. Definitions of key words are boxed for easy...

  18. Rules and Regulations for Sewage Sludge Management (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of these rules and regulations is to ensure that sewage sludge that is treated, land applied, disposed, distributed, stockpiled or transported in the State of Rhode Island is done so in...

  19. acid tar sludges: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to my peers Jaewoo Chung, Drew Harry, Andrea Colaco, Dori Lin, and Matt 10 Composting Manure and Sludge Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: composting,thefinalproductgener-...

  20. Proper Lagoon Management to Reduce Odor and Excessive Sludge Accumulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper management techniques to reduce odor and excessive sludge accumulation include maintaining pH and salt levels, pumping regularly, maintaining adequate bacteria levels, and designing for efficiency. Definitions of key words are boxed for easy...

  1. activated sludge samples: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on website http:www.wrc.org.za Plant-soil interactions of sludge-borne heavy metals and the Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: of the wastewater treatment works in...

  2. Ahmet H. Aydilek, 1 Tuncer B. Edil, 1 Patrick J. Fox2 Consolidation Characteristics of Wastewater Sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Sludge ________________________________________________________________________ Reference: Aydilek, A. H., Edil, T. B., and Fox, P. J., "Consolidation Characteristics of Wastewater Sludge", Geotechnics of High contaminated sludge. The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District evaluated different remediation alternatives

  3. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT [VOLUME 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FREDERICKSON JR; ROURK RJ; HONEYMAN JO; JOHNSON ME; RAYMOND RE

    2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9.

  4. Caustic Leaching of SRS Tank 12H Sludge With and Without Chelating Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study was to measure the effect of adding triethanolamine (TEA) to caustic leaching solutions to improve the solubility of aluminum in actual tank-waste sludge. High-level radioactive waste sludge that had a high aluminum assay was used for the tests. This waste, which originated with the processing of aluminum-clad/aluminum-alloy fuels, generates high levels of heat because of the high {sup 90}Sr concentration and contains hard-to-dissolve boehmite phases. In concept, a chelating agent, such as TEA, can both improve the dissolution rate and increase the concentration in the liquid phase. For this reason, TEA could also increase the solubility of other sludge components that are potentially problematic to downstream processing. Tests were conducted to determine if this were the case. Because of its relatively high vapor pressure, process design should include methods to minimize losses of the TEA. Sludge was retrieved from tank 12H at the Savannah River Site by on-site personnel, and then shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the study. The sludge contained a small quantity of rocky debris. One slate-like flat piece, which had approximate dimensions of 1 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/8 in., was recovered. Additional gravel-like fragments with approximate diameters ranging from 1/8 to 1/4 in. were also recovered by sieving the sludge slurry through a 1.4-mm square-pitch stainless steel mesh. These particles ranged from a yellow quartz-like material to grey-colored gravel. Of the 32.50 g of sludge received, the mass of the debris was only 0.89 g, and the finely divided sludge comprised {approx}97% of the mass. The sludge was successfully subdivided into uniform aliquots during hot-cell operations. Analytical measurements confirmed the uniformity of the samples. The smaller sludge samples were then used as needed for leaching experiments conducted in a glove box. Six tests were performed with leachate concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 m NaOH, 0 to 3.0 m TEA and 0 to 2.9 m NaNO{sub 3}. Figure ES.1 illustrates the leaching of aluminum in all six tests. One test was performed at an operating temperature of 80 C to obtain baseline data, and the remaining five tests were all performed at 60 C. A leaching solution of 3.0 m NaOH was used for the test performed at 80 C and for one of the tests performed at 60 C. These results indicated that more aluminum entered the solution at the higher temperature, though equilibrium was achieved at both temperatures within {approx}10 days. The addition of TEA significantly increased the concentration of aluminum in the leachate, and the concentration continued to increase even after 11 days of processing. The fraction of aluminum dissolved at 60EC increased from {approx}35% using 3.0 m NaOH alone to {approx}87% using a combination of 3.0 m NaOH and 3.0 m TEA. The high-nitrate, low-hydroxide solutions did not significantly dissolve the aluminum, because aluminate ion could not be produced. A small addition of TEA had no effect on this process. The use of TEA also increased the solubility of some other sludge components. The fractions of copper, nickel, and iron that were dissolved increased to 72, 13, and 52%, respectively. However, the original fractions of these metals were only 0.055, 0.72, and 3.1%, respectively, of the dry mass of the sludge and therefore represent minor constituents. The presence of nickel in the leachate did have a dramatic effect on its color, which changed from light yellow to deep green as the nickel concentration increased. By comparison, the baseline leaching with 3.0 m NaOH at 60 C removed {approx}14% of the copper; iron and nickel were below the detectable limit.

  5. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by continuously adding approximately 5 L of 0.01-M NaOH and then removing it through the filter as permeate. The purpose of this washing step with 0.01-MNaOH was to remove water-soluble components that might inhibit dissolution of salts during caustic leaching, while avoiding peptization of the solids that occurs at a pH below 12. After washing the sludge with dilute caustic, it was combined with 3-M caustic, and the slurry was leached in a stainless steel vessel at 85 C for 8 hours. This leaching was followed by two 0.01-M caustic washes, each conducted in a stainless steel vessel to dilute remaining analytes from the interstitial liquids. Each rinse was performed at 85 C for 8 hours. Permeate from each of these process steps was removed using the crossflow filter system. Samples of the permeate from each slurry-washing activity and all intermediate process steps were taken and analyzed for chemical and radiochemical constituents. The fraction of each component removed was calculated. Key results are presented in Table S.1.

  6. Biotechnology to separate and treat metals in sludge and wastewater: A literature review. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.; Cha, D.K.; Song, J.S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Army industrial sludge may be classified as a hazardous waste when it contains oil and grease, metals, and energetic compounds. Biologic separation/treatment of metals from industrial sludge has been identified as a possible alternative to conventional technologies for treating industrial sludge. Biologic treatment of sludge uses naturally occurring biochemical reactions in which pollutants can be used as resources. The process offers a low-cost, highly efficient alternative to existing sludge treatment methods. This report summarizes a literature review that examined the development and status of biotechnology to separate and treat metals in sludge and wastewater.

  7. UO{sub 2} corrosion in high surface-area-to-volume batch experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J. K.; Finch, R. J.; Hanchar, J. M.; Wolf, S. F.

    1997-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Unsaturated drip tests have been used to investigate the alteration of unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent UO{sub 2} fuel in an unsaturated environment such as may be expected in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. In these tests, simulated groundwater is periodically injected onto a sample at 90 C in a steel vessel. The solids react with the dripping groundwater and water condensed on surfaces to form a suite of U(VI) alteration phases. Solution chemistry is determined from leachate at the bottom of each vessel after the leachate stops interacting with the solids. A more detailed knowledge of the compositional evolution of the leachate is desirable. By providing just enough water to maintain a thin film of water on a small quantity of fuel in batch experiments, we can more closely monitor the compositional changes to the water as it reacts to form alteration phases.

  8. UO2 CORROSION IN HIGH SURFACE-AREA-TO-VOLUME BATCH EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, Robert J.; Wolf, Stephen F.; Hanchar, John M.; Bates, John K.

    1998-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Unsaturated drip tests have been used to investigate the alteration of unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent UO{sub 2} fuel in an unsaturated environment, such as may be expected in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. In these tests, simulated groundwater is periodically injected onto a sample at 90 C in a steel vessel. The solids react with the dripping groundwater and water condensed on surfaces to form a suite of U(VI) alteration phases. Solution chemistry is determined from leachate at the bottom of each vessel after the leachate stops interacting with the solids. A more detailed knowledge of the compositional evolution of the leachate is desirable. By providing just enough water to maintain a thin film of water on a small quantity of fuel in batch experiments, we can more closely monitor the compositional changes to the water as it reacts to form alteration phases.

  9. K Basin sludge polychlorinated biphenyl removal technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The two Hanford K Basins are water-filled concrete pools that contain over 2,100 metric tons of N Reactor fuel elements stored in aluminum or stainless steel canisters. During the time the fuel has been stored, approximately 50 m3 of heterogeneous solid material have accumulated in the basins. This material, referred to as sludge, is a mixture of fuel corrosion products, metallic bits of spent fuel and zirconium clad iron and metal corrosion products and silica from migrating sands. Some of the sludges also contain PCBs. The congener group of PCBs was identified as Aroclor 1254. The maximum concentration of sludge PCBS was found to be 140 ppm (as settled wet basis). However, the distribution of the PCBs is non-uniform throughout the sludge (i.e., there are regions of high and low concentrations and places where no PCBs are present). Higher concentrations could be present at various locations. Aroclors 1016/1242, 1221, 1248, 1254, and 1260 were identified and quantified in K West (KW) Canister sludge. In some of these samples, the concentration of 1260 was higher than 1254. The sludge requires pre-treatment to meet tank farm waste acceptance criteria, Among the numerous requirements, the sludge should be retreated so that it does not contain regulated levels of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) compounds. Because of their stable chemistry and relative insolubility in water, PCBs are difficult to treat. They also resist degradation from heat and electrical charges. This stability has resulted in environmental persistence which has prompted the development of a variety of new cleanup processes including supercritical processes, advanced oxidation, dehalogenation and others. Hopefully, most of the new processes are discussed herein. Information on new processes are being received and will be evaluated in a future revision.

  10. Systematic Multimodeling Methodology Applied to an Activated Sludge Reactor Anca Maria Nagy,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Systematic Multimodeling Methodology Applied to an Activated Sludge Reactor Model Anca Maria Nagy for analysis or control purpose. This method is applied to an activated sludge reactor model. Introduction

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE ON FECAL SLUDGE COLLECTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL IN THACHIN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    i DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE ON FECAL SLUDGE COLLECTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL IN THACHIN, CHAOPRAYA Sludge (FS) management and lacking of data on FS collection, treatment and disposal. Nevertheless, FS

  12. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N nature of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) they are mostly bound to the sludge and escape aerobic

  13. Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development: Results of FY 1993 studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Barrington, R.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Carlson, C.D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes experimental results from work conducted in FY 1993 under the Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experiments were conducted in the following six general areas: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge leaching, (3) sludge dissolution, (4) actinide separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, (5) Sr separation by solvent extraction, and (6) extraction of Cs from acidic solution.

  14. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

  15. INTEC SBW Solid Sludge Surrogate Recipe and Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maio, Vince; Janikowski, Stuart; Johnson, Jim; Maio, Vince; Pao, Jenn-Hai

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonhazardous INTEC tank farm sludge surrogate that incorporated metathesis reactions to generate solids from solutions of known elements present in the radioactive INTEC tank farm sodium-bearing waste sludges was formulated. Elemental analyses, physical property analyses, and filtration testing were performed on waste surrogate and tank farm waste samples, and the results were compared. For testing physical systems associated with moving the tank farm solids, the surrogate described in this report is the best currently available choice. No other available surrogate exhibits the noted similarities in behavior to the sludges. The chemical morphology, particle size distribution, and settling and flow characteristics of the surrogate were similar to those exhibited by the waste sludges. Nonetheless, there is a difference in chemical makeup of the surrogate and the tank farm waste. If a chemical treatment process were to be evaluated for final treatment and disposition of the waste sludges, the surrogate synthesis process would likely require modification to yield a surrogate with a closer matching chemical composition.

  16. A nonlinear observer design for an activated sludge wastewater treatment process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A nonlinear observer design for an activated sludge wastewater treatment process B. Boulkrounea , M of the proposed observer are shown through the application to an activated sludge process model. Keywords : Activated sludge, wastewater treatment process, Lyapunov function, Lips- chitz singular discrete

  17. Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by metal hydroxide sludge from the metal finishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by metal hydroxide sludge from the metal finishing Loďc Perrin Ecole sludge (MHS) during the treatment of their liquid effluents charged with heavy metals. Generally, a small part of these sludge is valorized because of their important metal fickleness. Consequently

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model for Economic Controlled Variable Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Sensitivity Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model for Economic operation conducted on an activated sludge process model based on the test-bed benchmark simulation model no. 1 (BSM1) and the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). The objective is to search for a control

  19. IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON SOIL AND PLANTS (COLZA and WHEAT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON SOIL AND PLANTS (COLZA and WHEAT) Najla LASSOUED1@emse.fr Abstract We are testing the impact of heavy metals in sludge from urban and industrial wastewater treatment> Cu> Ni> Co> Cd The contents of heavy metals in the sludge is made very high and exceed European

  20. Improving rheological sludge characterization with electrical measurements1 Dieud-Fauvel E.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Improving rheological sludge characterization with electrical measurements1 2 Dieudé-Fauvel E.1 to obtain information on the rheological behaviour of sewage11 sludge by performing electrical resistivity suitable for implementation in the field. The viscosity and resistivity of sludges containing17 between 4

  1. ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795% was incinerated (with or without household wastes) or landfilled. Nowadays, sludge reduction is a major concern

  2. Effects of oxygen transport limitation on nitrification in the activated sludge process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stenstrom, Michael K.

    Effects of oxygen transport limitation on nitrification in the activated sludge process ABSTRACT: Apseudohomogeneous model ofthe nitrifying activated sludge process was developed to investigate the effects ofmass and autotrophic ammonia oxidation within activated sludge flocs were described by an interactive-type, multiple

  3. Total nitrogen removal in a hybrid, membrane-aerated activated sludge process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nerenberg, Robert

    Total nitrogen removal in a hybrid, membrane-aerated activated sludge process Leon S. Downing wastewater. Air-filled hollow-fiber membranes are incorporated into an activated sludge tank removal in activated sludge. Ş 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The removal

  4. The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft confronted with a dramatically increasing flow of sewage sludge. To improve treatment efficiency, process reliable flow properties to simulate the process, this work is an attempt to approach sludge rheological

  5. Optimal Siting of Regional Fecal Sludge Treatment Facilities: St. Elizabeth, Jamaica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    Optimal Siting of Regional Fecal Sludge Treatment Facilities: St. Elizabeth, Jamaica Ana Martha- ated with their mismanagement and deterioration. Historically, fecal sludge management has been-9496 2008 134:1 55 CE Database subject headings: Sludge; System analysis; Waste stabilization ponds

  6. Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds S. Troesch***, A systems by local authorities. This will result in a large increase of the quantity of sludge from septic to treat this sludge because they may have reached their nominal load or they are not so numerous in rural

  7. Study of two sampling procedures for the valorization of metal hydroxide sludge as pollutant trapper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Study of two sampling procedures for the valorization of metal hydroxide sludge as pollutant@emse.fr Abstract: For the valorisation of metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent of pollutant, it is necessary to make sure that the adsorption matrix (sludge) has characteristics allowing a reproducibility

  8. Using water activity measurements to evaluate rheological consistency and structure strength of sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of sludge G. Agoda-Tandjawa, E. Dieudé-Fauvel*, R. Girault. and J.-C. Baudez Irstea, UR TSCF, Domaine des/solid matter interactions in sewage sludge has been developed, based on both rheological characteristics parameters (G' and G'') of both raw and flocculated sewage sludge at optimal dose of polymer increase

  9. Effect of Processing Mode on Trace Elements in Dewatered Sludge Products Brian K. Richards1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Effect of Processing Mode on Trace Elements in Dewatered Sludge Products Brian K. Richards1 *, John considering the land application of wastewater sludges. The effects of pelletization/drying, composting compared. A single day's production of dewatered anaerobically-digested sludge (Syracuse, NY) was used

  10. Impact of sludge mechanical behaviour on spatial distribution parameters obtained with centrifugal spreader

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Impact of sludge mechanical behaviour on spatial distribution parameters obtained to analyse organic spreading and opens the way to more developments. Keywords: sludge rheological behaviour a large amount of residues which are spread on agricultural fields. This process of sludge reuse is mainly

  11. A modified Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) with two-step nitrificationedenitrification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A modified Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) with two-step nitrificationedenitrification Ilenia of the Activated Sludge Models (ASM) [Henze, M., Gujer, W., Mino, T., van Loosdrecht, M.C.M., 2000. Ac- tivated Sludge Models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d, and ASM3. IWA Scientific and Technical Report No. 9. IWA Publishing

  12. Assessing nitrogen losses after sewage sludge spreading: A method based on simulation models and spreader

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Assessing nitrogen losses after sewage sludge spreading: A method based on simulation models performances. We define 45 sewage sludge spreading scenarios covering a wide range of situations in France. Several models are used to (i) assess nitrogen losses due to sewage sludge spreading and (ii) calculate

  13. Water Research 36 (2002) 11811192 Accuracy analysis of a respirometer for activated sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Research 36 (2002) 1181­1192 Accuracy analysis of a respirometer for activated sludge dynamic transfer, pH, and the influence of sludge condition on ``start-up'' behaviour. It is shown to what extent Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Respirometry; Oxygen uptake rate; Activated sludge

  14. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.

  15. Uranium Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon – Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The uranium adsorption performance of two activated carbon samples (Tusaar Lot B-64, Tusaar ER2-189A) was tested using unadjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests support ongoing performance optimization efforts to use the best material for uranium treatment in the Hanford Site 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. A linear response of uranium loading as a function of the solution-to-solid ratio was observed for both materials. Kd values ranged from ~380,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the B-64 material and ~200,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the ER2-189A material. Uranium loading values ranged from 10.4 to 41.6 ?g/g for the two Tusaar materials.

  16. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samolada, M.C. [Dept. Secretariat of Environmental and Urban Planning – Decentralized Area Macedonian Thrace, Taki Oikonomidi 1, 54008 Thessaloniki (Greece); Zabaniotou, A.A., E-mail: azampani@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University Box 455, University Campus, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  17. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  18. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  19. USE OF AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TO FORECAST DISSOLUTION EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY IMPACTS, AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESSABILITY FROM OXALIC ACID AIDED SLUDGE REMOVAL IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS 1-15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters.

  20. Dose potential of sludge contaminated and/or TRU contaminated waste in B-25s for tornado and straight wind events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aponte, C.I.

    2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    F and H Tank Farms generate supernate and sludge contaminated Low-Level Waste. The waste is collected, characterized, and packaged for disposal. Before the waste can be disposed of, however, it must be properly characterized. Since the radionuclide distribution in typical supernate is well known, its characterization is relatively straight forward and requires minimal effort. Non-routine waste, including potentially sludge contaminated, requires much more effort to effectively characterize. The radionuclide distribution must be determined. In some cases the waste can be contaminated by various sludge transfers with unique radionuclide distributions. In these cases, the characterization can require an extensive effort. Even after an extensive characterization effort, the container must still be prepared for shipping. Therefore a significant amount of time may elapse from the time the waste is generated until the time of disposal. During the time it is possible for a tornado or high wind scenario to occur. The purpose of this report is to determine the effect of a tornado on potential sludge contaminated waste, or Transuranic (TRU) waste in B-25s [large storage containers], to evaluate the potential impact on F and H Tank Farms, and to help establish a B-25 control program for tornado events.

  1. On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns distillation processes. By considering the e ect of small changes in the operating parameters, e.g., initial-mail: jacobsen@elixir.e.kth.se 1 #12;1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance

  2. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum-boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  3. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum­boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  4. SEPARATION OF TERNARY HETEROAZEOTROPIC MIXTURES IN A CLOSED MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION-DECANTER HYBRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    SEPARATION OF TERNARY HETEROAZEOTROPIC MIXTURES IN A CLOSED MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION, Trondheim, Norway The feasibility of a novel multivessel batch distillation-decanter hybrid for simultaneous enables us to make direct use of the distillation line (or residue curve) map. Simple rules for predicting

  5. THE TEMPERATURE-LIMITED FED-BATCH TECHNIQUE FOR CONTROL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI CULTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enfors, Sven-Olof

    from 18 to 37 °C. A dynamic simulation model of the TLFB technique was developed and the results wereTHE TEMPERATURE-LIMITED FED-BATCH TECHNIQUE FOR CONTROL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI CULTURES MARIE SVENSSON with emphasis on the temperature-limited fed-batch (TLFB) culture. The TLFB technique controls the oxygen

  6. Robust controller design for temperature tracking problems in jacketed batch reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanki, Srinivas

    Robust controller design for temperature tracking problems in jacketed batch reactors Vishak for temperature tracking problems in batch reactors in the presence of parametric uncertainty. The controller has]. Control is achieved by manipulating the heat content from the jacket to the reactor. In the past

  7. APPLIED MICROBIAL AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY Electricity production from xylose in fed-batch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -batch and continuous-flow microbial fuel cells Liping Huang & Bruce E. Logan Received: 23 March 2008 /Revised: 30 May-scale (0.77 l) air-cathode, brush- anode microbial fuel cell (MFC) operated in fed-batch mode using xylose vary with xylose loading. Keywords Microbial fuel cell . Xylose . Degradation . Power production

  8. Production Leveling (Heijunka) Implementation in a Batch Production System: a Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Production Leveling (Heijunka) Implementation in a Batch Production System: a Case Study Luciano a case study of an implementation of a new method for Production Leveling designed for batch production. It includes prioritizing criteria of products and level production plan. Moreover, it was applied

  9. Design of Batch Tube Reactor 377 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 9193, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Design of Batch Tube Reactor 377 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 91­93, 2001 Copyright unparalleled environmental, economic, and strategic benefits. However, low-cost, high-yield technologies for varying reaction con- ditions. In this article, heat transfer for batch tubes is analyzed to derive

  10. Integrated Scheduling and Dynamic Optimization of Batch Processes Using State Equipment Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integrated Scheduling and Dynamic Optimization of Batch Processes Using State Equipment Networks value to existing assets Improving plant reliability 1 J.M. Wassick and J. Ferrio. Extending A batch plant with existing equipment A time horizon to make products Dynamic models of process operations

  11. Optimization of Fed-Batch Saccharomyces cereWisiae Fermentation Using Dynamic Flux Balance Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    ARTICLES Optimization of Fed-Batch Saccharomyces cereWisiae Fermentation Using Dynamic Flux Balance metabolism with dynamic mass balances on key extracellular species. Model-based dynamic optimization concentration profiles, and the final batch time are treated as decision variables in the dynamic optimization

  12. A batch reactor heat recovery challenge problem Johannes Jschke, Sigurd Skogestad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    A batch reactor heat recovery challenge problem Johannes Jäschke, Sigurd Skogestad Department reactors, which are discharged periodically. A cold process stream is to be used as a utility, and is split periods of the batch reactors, the reactor effluents are fed into the secondary sides of the heat

  13. Intelligent monitoring system for long-term control of Sequencing Batch Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instruments Italy to test the potentials of monitoring systems applied to biological wastewater treatment Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) are widely used as a flexible and low-cost process for biological wastewater-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) treating nitrogen-rich wastewater (sanitary landfill leachate). The paper

  14. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  15. Design, implementation, and operation of a class based batch queue scheduler for VAX/VMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadwick, K.

    1988-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermilab found that the standard VMS batch configuration options were inadequate for the job mix that exists on the Fermilab central computer facility VAX cluster. Accordingly, Fermilab designed and implemented a class based batch queue scheduler. This scheduler makes use of the standard VMS job controller and batch system. Users interact with the scheduler at job submission time by specification of CPU time limits and batch job characteristics. This scheduler allows Fermilab to make efficient use of our large heterogeneous VAX cluster which contains machines ranging from a VAX 780 to a VAX 8800. The scheduler was implemented using the VMS system services $GETQUI and $SNDJBC, without changes to the existing VMS job scheduler. As a result, the scheduler should remain compatible with future VMS versions. This session will discuss the design goals, implementation, and operational experience with Fermilab's class based batch queue scheduler.

  16. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

  17. SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.

    2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct. SRNL issued a Task Technical and Quality Assurance (TT&QA) plan [4] in response to the SRR request. The conclusions provided in this report are that no changes need to be made to the SME acceptability process (i.e., no modifications to WSRC-TR-95-00364, Revision 5, are needed) and no changes need to be made to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) itself (i.e. the spreadsheet utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) for acceptability decisions does not require modification) in response to thorium becoming a reportable element for DWPF operations. In addition, the inputs and results for the two test cases requested by WSE for use in confirming the successful activation of thorium as a reportable element for DWPF operations during the processing of SB6 are presented in this report.

  18. Sludge application and monitoring program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1986 through 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, C.A.; Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H., Morris, J.L.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E.; Adler, T.C.; Bradburn, D.M.; Huq, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal sewage sludge has been applied to forests and pastures on the DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983 as a method of both disposal and beneficial reuse. Application was carried out under State of Tennessee permits issued to the City of Oak Ridge for land disposal of. sewage sludge. In conjunction with these applications, information has been collected concerning sludge quantity and characteristics, soil parameters, soil water constituents, groundwater quality, surface runoff water quality, and various chemical constituents in vegetation on application sites. This information provides (1) a record of sludge application on the DOE ORR, and (2) documentation of changes in soil parameters following sludge application. The information also provides a basis for evaluating the implications of the land application of municipal sewage sludge for soil and water quality and for evaluating the fate of sludge constituents when sludge is either sprayed onto or injected into pasture sites or applied to the surface of forested sites. This report covers in detail sludge applications conducted from 1986 through 1993, with some data from the period between 1983 and 1986. Land application has been recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a desirable alternative for disposal of ORR waste. Municipal sewage sludge is in many ways similar to dilute animal manure fertilizer, but it also contains metals, organic chemicals, human pathogens, and other constituents reflective of inputs into the municipal sewage treatment plant. When applied to land, nutrients in the sludge improve soil fertility, and minerals and organic matter in the sludge improve soil structure. Under optimal conditions, metals are immobilized, and organic chemicals and pathogens are immobilized or destroyed. If the sludge is not managed effectively, however, sludge constituents have the potential to affect human health and the environment.

  19. Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge: Results of the second design basis experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G.J.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For several years, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating methods to pretreat Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge. In the past, Zircaloy-clad metallic U fuel was chemically decladded using the Zirflex process; NCRW sludge was formed when the decladding solution was neutralized for storage in carbon-steel tanks. This sludge, which is currently stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW on the Hanford Site, primarily consists of insoluble Zr hydroxides and/or oxides and NaF. Significant quantities of Al, La, U, as well as other insoluble minor constituents are present in the sludge, along with sodium and potassium nitrates, nitrites, and hydroxides in the interstitial liquid. The sludge contains about 2,000 nCi of transuranic (TRU) material per gram of dry sludge, and mixed fission products. Therefore, the sludge must be handled as high-level waste (HLW). The NCRW sludge must be pretreated before treatment (e.g., vitrification) and disposal, so that the overall cost of disposal can be minimized. The NCRW pretreatment flowsheet was designed to achieve the following objectives: (a) to separate Am and Pu from the major sludge constituents (Na, Zr). (b) to separate Am and Pu from U. (c) to concentrate Am and Pu in a small volume for immobilization in borosilicate glass, based on Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The flowsheet involves: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge dissolution, (3) extraction of U with tributyl phosphate (TBP), and (4) extraction of TRUs with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutlycarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO). As presented in the flowsheet, the NCRW sludge is first washed with 0.I M NaOH to remove interstitial liquid and soluble salts from the sludge including sodium and potassium fluorides, carbonates, hydroxides, nitrates, and nitrites. The washed sludge is then subjected to two dissolution steps to achieve near complete dissolution of Zr.

  20. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and Testing for DWPF High AI2O3 HLW Sludges, VSL-10R1670-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/20/10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to develop and identify glass frit compositions for a specified DWPF high-aluminum based sludge waste stream that maximizes waste loading while maintaining high production rate for the waste composition provided by ORP/SRS. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale, vertical gradient furnace, and confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system. The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests. The DM100-BL was used for previous tests on HLW glass compositions that were used to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter. It was also used to process compositions with waste loadings limited by aluminum, bismuth, and chromium, to investigate the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition, to process glass formulations at compositional and property extremes, and to investigate crystal settling on a composition that exhibited one percent crystals at 963{degrees}C (i.e., close to the WTP limit). The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. The tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Specific objectives for the melter tests are as follows: Determine maximum glass production rates without bubbling for a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 19 (SB19). Demonstrate a feed rate equivalent to 1125 kg/m{sup 2}/day glass production using melt pool bubbling. Process a high waste loading glass composition with the simulated SRS SB19 waste and measure the quality of the glass product. Determine the effect of argon as a bubbling gas on waste processing and the glass product including feed processing rate, glass redox, melter emissions, etc.. Determine differences in feed processing and glass characteristics for SRS SB19 waste simulated by the co-precipitated and direct-hydroxide methods. The above tests were proposed based on previous tests for WTP in which there were few differences in the melter processing characteristics, such as processing rate and melter emissions, between precipitated and direct hydroxide simulants, even though there were differences in rheological properties. To the extent this similarity is found also for simulants for SRS HLW, the direct hydroxide methods may offer the potential for faster, simpler, and cheaper simulant production. There was no plan to match the yield stress and particle size of the direct hydroxide simulant to that of the precipitated simulant because that would have increased the preparation cost and complexity and defeated the purpose of the tests. These objectives were addressed by first developing a series of glass frits and then conducting a crucible scale study to determine the waste loading achievable for the waste composition and to select the preferred frit. Waste loadings were increased until the limits of a glass property were exceeded experimentally. Glass properties for evaluation included: viscosity, electrical conductivity, crystallinity (including liquidus temperature and nepheline formation after canister centerline cooling (CCC) heat-treatment), gross glass phase separation, and the 7- day Product Consistency Test (PCT, ASTM-1285) response. Glass property limits were based upon the constraints used for DWPF process control.

  1. Novel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This project researches the use of nanoscale materials (a broadly defined set of substances that haveNovel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge Dewatering Industrial process, requiring up to 6000 kilowatt hours/year per million gallons per day. Project Description

  2. Example of latest techniques for bottom-sludge dredging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamasuna, J.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently in Japan, the biggest problems of the bottom sludge dredging are lack of enough room for dumping areas and preventing water contamination during dredging in terms of environmental aspects. The new dredging system introduced at this time has been developed for the above purposes.

  3. Hanford K-Basin Sludge Characterization Overview February 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    irradiated fuel prior to Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) processing. In 1980, irradiated N-Reactor fuel was placed products and uranium. This sludge must be removed and disposed as part of the basin decommissioning) and the definition of High Level Waste (HLW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

  4. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modolo, R., E-mail: regina.modolo@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Civil Engineering Department/CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ferreira, V.M. [University of Aveiro, Civil Engineering Department/CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Machado, L.M. [RAIZ - Forest and Paper Research Institute, Portucel-Soporcel, Eixo (Portugal); Rodrigues, M.; Coelho, I. [CIMIANTO - Sociedade Tecnica Hidraulica, S.A., Alhandra (Portugal)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Bioremediation of oily sludge-contaminated soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    ORIGINAL PAPER Bioremediation of oily sludge-contaminated soil by stimulating indigenous microbes contaminants. On the other hand, biological treatment (bioremediation) appears to be among the most promising in the complete destruction of hazardous compounds into innocuous products (Bal- ba et al. 1998). For this reason

  6. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Trowbridge, Frank R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  7. Final Report - Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basin Sludge and in Grouted Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Gano, Sue; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being considered for the disposal of K Basin sludge as RH-TRU. Because the hydrogen gas concentration in the 55-gallon RH-TRU sealed drums to be transported to WIPP is limited by flammability safety, the number of containers and shipments likely will be driven by the rate of hydrogen generated by the uranium metal-water reaction (U + 2 H{sub 2}O {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}) in combination with the hydrogen generated from water and organic radiolysis. Gas generation testing was conducted with uranium metal particles of known surface area, in simulated K West (KW) Basin canister sludge and immobilized in candidate grout solidification matrices. This study evaluated potential for Portland cement and magnesium phosphate grouts to inhibit the reaction of water with uranium metal in the sludge and thereby permit higher sludge loading to the disposed waste form. The best of the grouted waste forms decreased the uranium metal-water reaction by a factor of four.

  8. High Sodium Simulant Testing To Support SB8 Sludge Preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J. D.

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Scoping studies were completed for high sodium simulant SRAT/SME cycles to determine any impact to CPC processing. Two SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having sodium supernate concentration of 1.9M at 130% and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Both of these failed to meet DWPF processing objectives related to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Another set of SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having a sodium supernate concentration of 1.6M at 130%, 125%, 110%, and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Only the run at 110% met DWPF processing objectives. Neither simulant had a stoichiometric factor window of 30% between nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation. Based on the 2M-110 results it was anticipated that the 2.5M stoichiometric window for processing would likely be smaller than from 110-130%, since it appeared that it would be necessary to increase the KMA factor by at least 10% above the minimum calculated requirement to achieve nitrite destruction due to the high oxalate content. The 2.5M-130 run exceeded the DWPF hydrogen limits in both the SRAT and SME cycle. Therefore, testing of this wash endpoint was halted. This wash endpoint with this minimum acid requirement and mercury-noble metal concentration profile appears to be something DWPF should not process due to an overly narrow window of stoichiometry. The 2M case was potentially processable in DWPF, but modifications would likely be needed in DWPF such as occasionally accepting SRAT batches with undestroyed nitrite for further acid addition and reprocessing, running near the bottom of the as yet ill-defined window of allowable stoichiometric factors, potentially extending the SRAT cycle to burn off unreacted formic acid before transferring to the SME cycle, and eliminating formic acid additions in the frit slurry.

  9. Multi-batch slip stacking in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiya, K.; Berenc, T.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Main Injector (MI) at Fermilab is planning to use multi-batch slip stacking scheme in order to increase the proton intensity at the NuMI target by about a factor of 1.5.[1] [2] By using multi-batch slip stacking, a total of 11 Booster batches are merged into 6, 5 double ones and one single. We have successfully demonstrated the multibatch slip stacking in MI and accelerated a record intensity of 4.6E13 particle per cycle to 120 GeV. The technical issues and beam loss mechanisms for multibatch slip stacking scheme are discussed.

  10. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Area Sludge Composite, Small- and Large-Scale Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to support the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. For this work, testing was performed to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite, referred to as K East area sludge composite, in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M and 7.8 M. With the exception of one high solids loading test the nitric acid was added at 4X the stoichiometric requirement (assuming 100% of the sludge was uranium metal). The dissolution tests were conducted at boiling temperatures for 24 hours. Most of the tests were conducted with {approximately}2.5 g of sludge (dry basis). The high solids loading test was conducted with {approximately}7 g of sludge. A large-scale dissolution test was conducted with 26.5 g of sludge and 620 mL of 6 M nitric acid. The objectives of this test were to (1) generate a sufficient quantity of acid-insoluble residual solids for use in leaching studies, and (2) examine the dissolution behavior of the sludge composite at a larger scale.

  11. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests conducted to ascertain the effects of changing pH showed that at pH values of 6.5 and 7.5, no significant differences existed in Tc-adsorption performance for three of the carbons, but the fourth carbon performed better at pH 7.5. When the pH was increased to 8.5, a slight decline in performance was observed for all carbons. Tests conducted to ascertain the temperature effect on Tc-99 adsorption indicated that at 21 şC, 27 şC, and 32 şC there were no significant differences in Tc-99 adsorption for three of the carbons. The fourth carbon showed a noticeable decline in Tc-99 adsorption performance with increasing temperature. The presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the source water did not significantly affect Tc-99 adsorption on either of two carbons tested. Technetium-99 adsorption differed by less than 15% with or without VOCs present in the test water, indicating that Tc-99 adsorption would not be significantly affected if VOCs were removed from the water prior to contact with carbon.

  12. Effect of Cd-Enriched Sewage Sludge on Plant Growth, Nutrients and Heavy Metals Concentrations in the Soil–Plant System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusan, Munir Mohammad; Athamneh, Bayan Mahmoud

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from waste-activated sludge, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 60:505-utilization of sewage sludge. A twenty-year study atCd-enriched sewage sludge (SS) and diammonium phosphate (

  13. Progress in Multi-Batch Slip Stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiya, K.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The multi-batch slip stacking has been used for operations since January, 2008 and effectively increased proton intensity to the NuMI target by 50% in a Main Injector (MI) cycle. The MI accepts 11 batches at injection energy from the Booster, and sends two batches to antiproton production and nine to the NuMI beam line. The total beam power in a cycle was increased to 340 kW on average. We have been doing beam studies in order to increase the beam power to 400 kW and to control the beam loss. We will also discuss 12 batch slip stacking scheme which is going to be used for future neutrino experiments.

  14. Countercurrent Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Improvements Over Batch Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zentay, Agustin Nicholas

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    of starchy biomass (e.g., corn), which competes with food. Using lignocellulose avoids competition with food; however, it is difficult to digest using traditional batch saccharification. This work investigates countercurrent saccharification as an alternative...

  15. Nitrate and sulphate dynamics in peat subjected to different hydrological conditions: Batch experiments and field comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrate and sulphate dynamics in peat subjected to different hydrological conditions: Batch concentrations were investigated in bioreactors, using peat samples from field sites influenced by different hydrologic regimes. In this experiment, peat samples were subjected to similar conditions to address

  16. Design and Optimization of Condenser and Centrifuge Units for Enhancement of a Batch Vacuum Frying System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Akhilesh

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A batch vacuum frying system, which processes fruits and vegetables, includes a frying pan, a surface-condenser, and a vacuum pump. With health and safety issues in mind, this research focused on developing a modified ...

  17. Method for automatically evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for automatically evaluating a manufacturing technique comprises the steps of: receiving from a user manufacturing process step parameters characterizing a manufacturing process; accepting from the user a selection for an analysis of a particular lean manufacturing technique; automatically compiling process step data for each process step in the manufacturing process; automatically calculating process metrics from a summation of the compiled process step data for each process step; and, presenting the automatically calculated process metrics to the user. A method for evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique can comprise the steps of: collecting manufacturing process step characterization parameters; selecting a lean manufacturing technique for analysis; communicating the selected lean manufacturing technique and the manufacturing process step characterization parameters to an automatic manufacturing technique evaluation engine having a mathematical model for generating manufacturing technique evaluation data; and, using the lean manufacturing technique evaluation data to determine whether to transition from an existing manufacturing technique to the selected lean manufacturing technique.

  18. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  19. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragsdale, R.G., Jr

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

  20. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  1. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, Rick E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Frederickson, James R. [AREVA, Avignon (France); Criddle, James [AREVA, Avignon (France); Hamilton, Dennis [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Mike W. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

  2. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sludge treatment to increase biogas production. Available atal. , no date) Use of biogas from anaerobic sludge digestionsludge are mass reduction, biogas production, and improved

  3. PROGRESS WITH K BASINS SLUDGE RETRIEVAL STABILIZATION & PACKAGING AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KNOLLMEYER, P.M.; PHILLIPS, C; TOWNSON, P.S.

    2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the U.S. and the U.K. to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford Site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, so as to remove the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building, is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout packaging processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. Optimization and simplification of the original sludge corrosion process design is described and the use of transportable and reusable equipment is indicated. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup.

  4. Reactance simulation for the defects in steam generator tube with outside ferrite sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Kima, Yong-il [Division of Metrology for Quality Life, KRISS, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Derac [Department of Physics, Hannam University, Daejeon, 336-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Duck-gun [Nuclear Material Technique Development Team, KAERI, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae-kap [Division of Physical Metrology, KRISS, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic sludge is partly produced around the tube sheet outside a steam generator due to stress and heat. The sludge with magnetite is one of the important factors affecting eddy current signals. It causes trouble for the safety of the steam generator tubes and is difficult to detect by conventional eddy current methods. A new type of probe is needed to detect the signals for the magnetic sludge. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils--a magnetizing coil and the other a detecting coil--and we simulated the signal induced by the ferromagnetic sludge in the Inconel 600 tube.

  5. A study of acid sludge obtained in the refining of petroleum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Albert Sidney

    1923-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fo. petroleum Refin- eries {S l yellow colo of petroleum after ref in&ng m:y be due to impurities in the sulphurio &icid used ~ Since it is known that nitro. ?en trioxide, nitro en pentoxide, and selenium dioxide will cayuse discolor ~tion... of the sludge with ocustio soda o soda ash, &nd the "mixing" of the neutrul- ised sludge eith fuel oil. Much i&ttentlon h s been:i eu t:& the recover" of tho sludge acid, i. nd but little cr no uttention to thc study of the orgunic c&ntent of the caid sludge...

  6. Properties and potential uses of water treatment sludge from the Neches River of southeast Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kan, Weiqun

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sludge due to its huge amount and increasing public concern. However, only a few studies were focused on potential use of WTP sludge. The characteristics and potential use of WTP sludge are still not well understood. Previous studies of WTP alum sludge... plants that coagulate, filter, and oxidize a surface water for removal of turbidity, color, bacteria, algae, organic compounds, and iron or manganese. These plants generally use alum Al~(SO4) or iron FeC13 salts for coagulation and produce alum or iron...

  7. Examination of the Potential for Formation of Energetic Compounds in Dry Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details initial results from an investigation of the potential formation and fate of energetic compounds in Savannah River Site sludge.

  8. acidic oily sludge-contaminated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Last Page Topic Index 1 ORIGINAL PAPER Bioremediation of oily sludge-contaminated soil Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: accidents, and storage tank...

  9. New developments in microwave treatment of steel mill sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwill, J.E.; Schmitt, R.J. [EPRI Center for Materials Production, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Purta, D.A. [Carnegie Mellon Research Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel mills in the US generate approximately 1 million tons of sludge annually. This is mainly a residue of cooling water, lubricating oils, and metallic fines from hot strip rolling mills and other operations. Currently, the separation of sludge from the liquid requires large settling tanks, takes several hours of time and produces a residue that must be disposed of at high cost. The EPRI Center for Materials Production, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has supported development of a microwave-based treatment system. This new process, developed by Carnegie Mellon Research Institute, and patented by EPRI is 30 times faster, requires 90% less space and eliminates land-filling by producing materials of value. Electricity usage is only 0.5 kwhr/gal. A review by the American Iron and Steel Institute Waste Recycle Technology Task Force concluded that further work on the microwave technology was justified. Subsequently, additional work was undertaken toward optimizing the process for treating metallic waste sludges containing lime and polymers. This effort, cofunded by EPRI and AISI, was successfully concluded in late 1994. EPRI/CMP is proceeding to license and commercialize this technology, and to continue research to improve efficiency. A follow-on project is now being organized by CMP to confirm long term recyclability of the oil-release agent and to conduct a large scale (25-ton sample) test of the process.

  10. Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using alum sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujana, M.G.; Thakur, R.S.; Rao, S.B. [CSIR, Bhubaneswar (India). Regional Research Lab.] [CSIR, Bhubaneswar (India). Regional Research Lab.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of treated alum sludge to remove fluoride from aqueous solution has been investigated. The studies were carried out as functions of contact time, concentration of adsorbent and adsorbate, temperature, pH, and effect of concentrations of other anions. The data indicate that treated alum sludge surface sites are heterogeneous in nature and that fits into a heterogeneous site binding model. The optimum pH for complete removal of fluoride from aqueous solution was found to be 6. The rate of adsorption was rapid during the initial 5 minutes, and equilibrium was attained within 240 minutes. The adsorption followed first-order rate kinetics. The present system followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The loading factor (i.e., the milligram of fluoride adsorbed per gram of alum sludge) increased with initial fluoride concentration, whereas a negative trend was observed with increasing temperature. The influence of addition of anions on fluoride removal depends on the relative affinity of the anions for the surface and the relative concentrations of the anions.

  11. Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) at Sellafield was built and commissioned between the late 1940's and early 1950's as a storage and cooling facility for irradiated fuel and isotopes from the two Windscale Pile reactors. The pond was linked via submerged water ducts to each reactor, where fuel and isotopes were discharged into skips for transfer along the duct to the pond. In the pond the fuel was cooled then de-canned underwater prior to export for reprocessing. The plant operated successfully until it was taken out of operation in 1962 when the First Magnox Fuel Storage Pond took over fuel storage and de-canning operations on the site. The pond was then used for storage of miscellaneous Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and fuel from the UK's Nuclear Programme for which no defined disposal route was available. By the mid 1970's the import of waste ceased and the plant, with its inventory, was placed into a passive care and maintenance regime. By the mid 1990s, driven by the age of the facility and concern over the potential challenge to dispose of the various wastes and fuels being stored, the plant operator initiated a programme of work to remediate the facility. This programme is split into a number of key phases targeted at sustained reduction in the hazard associated with the pond, these include: - Pond Preparation: Before any remediation work could start the condition of the pond had to be transformed from a passive store to a plant capable of complex retrieval operations. This work included plant and equipment upgrades, removal of redundant structures and the provision of a effluent treatment plant for removing particulate and dissolved activity from the pond water. - Canned Fuel Retrieval: Removal of canned fuel, including oxide and carbide fuels, is the highest priority within the programme. Handling and export equipment required to remove the canned fuel from the pond has been provided and treatment routes developed utilising existing site facilities to allow the fuel to be reprocessed or conditioned for long term storage. - Sludge Retrieval: In excess of 300 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated in the pond over many years and is made up of debris arising from fuel and metallic corrosion, wind blown debris and bio-organic materials. The Sludge Retrieval Project has provided the equipment necessary to retrieve the sludge, including skip washer and tipper machines for clearing sludge from the pond skips, equipment for clearing sludge from the pond floor and bays, along with an 'in pond' corral for interim storage of retrieved sludge. Two further projects are providing new plant processing routes, which will initially store and eventually passivate the sludge. - Metal Fuel Retrieval: Metal Fuel from early Windscale Pile operations and various other sources is stored within the pond; the fuel varies considerably in both form and condition. A retrieval project is planned which will provide fuel handling, conditioning, sentencing and export equipment required to remove the metal fuel from the pond for export to on site facilities for interim storage and disposal. - Solid Waste Retrieval: A final retrieval project will provide methods for handling, retrieval, packaging and export of the remaining solid Intermediate Level Waste within the pond. This includes residual metal fuel pieces, fuel cladding (Magnox, aluminium and zircaloy), isotope cartridges, reactor furniture, and miscellaneous activated and contaminated items. Each of the waste streams requires conditioning to allow it to be and disposed of via one of the site treatment plants. - Pond Dewatering and Dismantling: Delivery of the above projects will allow operations to progressively remove the radiological inventory, thereby reducing the hazard/risk posed by the plant. This will then allow subsequent dewatering of the pond and dismantling of the structure. (authors)

  12. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  13. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

  14. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  15. TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S; Michael Hay, M; Kristine Zeigler, K; Michael Stone, M

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the post-dissolution sludge settled over a three week period. The corresponding volume of supernatant that was decanted from the waste was approximately 35% of the total waste volume. The decanted supernatant contained approximately one-third of the dissolved aluminum and exhibited a mild greenish-grey hue.

  16. Tank 12 Sludge Characterization and Aluminum Dissolution Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S.; Hay, M.; Zeigler, K; Stone, M.

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the post-dissolution sludge settled over a three week period. The corresponding volume of supernatant that was decanted from the waste was approximately 35% of the total waste volume. The decanted supernatant contained approximately one-third of the dissolved aluminum and exhibited a mild greenish-grey hue.

  17. Root cause analysis for waste area grouping 1, Batch I, Series 1 Tank T-30 project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks were scheduled for remedial actions as the Batch L Series I Tank Project during fiscal year (FY) 1995. These tanks are 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. The initial tank remediation project was conducted as a maintenance action. One project objective was to gain experience in remediation efforts (under maintenance actions) to assist in conducting remedial action projects for the 33 remaining inactive LLLW tanks. Batch I, Series 1 project activities resulted in the successful remediation of tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and 3013. Tank T-30 remedial actions were halted as a result of information obtained during waste characterization activities. The conditions discovered on tank T-30 would not allow completion of tank removal and smelting as originally planned. A decision was made to conduct a root cause analysis of Tank T-30 events to identify and, where possible, correct weaknesses that, if uncorrected, could result in similar delays for completion of future inactive tank remediation projects. The objective of the analysis was to determine why a portion of expected project end results for Tank T-30 were not fully achieved. The root cause analysis evaluates project events and recommends beneficial improvements for application to future projects. This report presents the results of the Batch I, Series root cause analysis results and makes recommendations based on that analysis.

  18. Fate of Endogenous Steroid Hormones in Runoff from Cattle Feedlots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansell, David Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    estrogens at activated sludge sewage treatment plants and inestrogens by activated sludge in batch experiments. Waterexperiments with activated sludge. Sci. Total Environ. 225:

  19. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  20. Improvement of the activated sludge treatment by its combination with electro Fenton for the mineralization of sulfamethazine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Improvement of the activated sludge treatment by its combination with electro Fenton and quantified intermediates are proposed. In a second part, biological treatments with fresh activated sludge the relevance of the proposed combined process. Keywords: Activated sludge; Combined process; Degradation

  1. Localised mobilisation of metals, as measured by diffusive gradients in thin-films, in soil historically treated with sewage sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    historically treated with sewage sludge Jun Luo a,c , Hao Zhang a, , William Davison a , Ronald G. McLaren b online 11 September 2012 Keywords: Trace metals Soil Sewage sludge Mn oxide Diffusive gradients in thin was investigated in a sandy loam soil historically treated with sewage sludge. After deployment of two DGT

  2. Physical-chemical characterization of sludge and granular materials from a vertical flow constructed wetland for municipal wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Physical-chemical characterization of sludge and granular materials from a vertical flow considered for phosphorus removal as well. In this article, sludge and granular materials sampled from analyses showed that phosphorus was predominantly captured in the sludge layer accumulated at the surface

  3. Impact on sludge inventory and control strategies using the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 with the Brger-Diehl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bürger, Raimund

    Impact on sludge inventory and control strategies using the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 concentration predictions, plant sludge inventory and mixed liquor suspended solids based control actions-Diehl model allows for more realistic predictions of the underflow sludge concentration which is essential

  4. Characteristics of STP Pre-2004 Archived KE Basin Sludge Samples Before and After Re-Jarring in the RPL - April 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results of work performed in the Shielded Analytical Laboratory (SAL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) with archive K East (KE) Basin sludge samples obtained before the year 2004, with some of them composited and initially characterized five years ago (Delegard et al. 2011). The previously performed testing included the physical properties determinations for selected samples (settled and particle densities, water and solids concentrations), the pH, as well as identification of crystalline phases by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for selected samples. Another objective of the previous characterization and testing campaign was to transfer some sludge composites and individual samples into new storage containers to overcome the embrittlement effect which develops in original glass containers as a result of extended exposure to high radiation fields and which increases probability of sample loss.

  5. Biohydrogen production from oil palm frond juice and sewage sludge by a metabolically engineered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Biohydrogen production from oil palm frond juice and sewage sludge by a metabolically engineered from oil palm frond (OPF) juice and sewage sludge as substrates. Substrate improvement was accomplished Accepted 16 June 2013 Available online 13 July 2013 Keywords: Biohydrogen Escherichia coli Oil palm frond

  6. ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    stakeholders to better understand the carbon footprint of sludge treatment and disposal options, we developed by a wastewater treatment plant of x per-captia-equivalents (PCE) during one year. The carbon footprint method we developed is adapted to sludge treatment and disposal processes and based on the "Bilan Carbone® " method

  7. K East Basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates were made of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin, These were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. The estimates, made in early 1997, are reviewed and the basic assumptions used discussed.

  8. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

  9. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  10. System design description for the consolidated sludge sampling system for K Basins floor and fuel canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HECHT, S.L.

    1999-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This System Design Description describes the Consolidated Sludge Sampling System used in the gathering of sludge samples from K Basin floor and fuel canisters. This document provides additional information on the need for the system, the functions and requirements of the systems, the operations of the system, and the general work plan used in its' design and development.

  11. Short Communication Electricity generation from fermented primary sludge using single-chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Nanjing 210009, China b Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 212 Sackett Building, Penn effluent. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The costs for sludge management% of total operation costs (Xiao et al., 2011). There- fore, reducing sludge treatment costs can

  12. Effect of initial physical characteristics on sludge compost performance Anne Trmier1,2,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Conseil, 2006). In this context, biological treatments such as composting are promoted to transform of wastewater sludge, the bulking agent (BA) plays a major role in establishing the recipe structure, exposed to wastewater sludge dry mass ratio of 1/ 6, the ten (10) recipes were repeated using two BA, residues recycled

  13. December 2002 Issue #10 2002 Determining Biosolid Application Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    December 2002 Issue #10 ­ 2002 Determining Biosolid Application Rates Richard Wolkowski, Extension Chapter NR 204 regulates biosolid (sewage sludge) management in Wisconsin. It requires that University of a crop production pro-gram. Most biosolid application rates are based on the nitrogen (N) need

  14. Grout and Glass Performance in Support of Stabilization/Solidification of the MVST Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supematant. Some of the supematant from these tanks has been decanted, solidified into a grout, and stored for disposal as a solid low-level waste. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating ,for several years. Some of the sludges contain a high amount of gamma activity (e.g., `37CS concentration range of 0.01 3-11 MBq/g) and contain enough transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes to be classified as TRU wastes. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough in the available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge to be classified as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste.

  15. Oxygen-enriched multiple-hearth sewage sludge incineration demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen-enhanced multiple-hearth sludge incineration was the focus of a five-month joint study by Praxair and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Testing and demonstration were conducted in Rochester NY, at Monroe County`s Frank E. Van Lare Sewage Treatment Plant. A simple retrofit of high-momentum oxygen lances created a convection hearth in which convective heat and mass transfer with the drying sludge were greatly enhanced, while hearth temperatures were moderated by the wet sludge to prevent overheating. Based on the results of short- and long-term controlled tests discussed in this report, oxygen enhancement of multiple-hearth sludge incinerators can be economically viable, with a savings between $30 and $60 per hour at Van Lare based upon increased sludge throughput and reduced fuel consumption.

  16. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

  17. Design and Optimization of Condenser and Centrifuge Units for Enhancement of a Batch Vacuum Frying System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Akhilesh

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of vacuum frying can be a feasible alternative method to produce chips with lower oil content and high quality color and texture (Garayo and Moreira, 2002). 7 Figure 2-1 displays the use of different deep-fat fryers in the commercial food industry.... Countertops are generally used in homes, while high efficiency batch fryers are employed in commercial (McDonalds, KFC, etc.) food services as well as industries (Frito Lay, Pringles, etc.). Application of a batch fryer is limited to frying small loads...

  18. Design considerations for sludge fired fluidized bed incinerator-cum-boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bapat, D.W.; Vishwanathan, K. [Thermax Ltd., Pune (India). Research and Development Centre

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Limited, a major player in the field of Fluidized Bed Boilers in India, has supplied on a turnkey basis, three boilers each of 22.5 tons per hour capacity as a part of Cogeneration system for PT. South Pacific Viscose, Indonesia. The plant generates huge volumes of sludge from its effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). The sludge produced from the ETP has a moisture content of about 98%, which is subsequently reduced to about 78% using a decanter before feeding the sludge into the boiler. The waste sludge has a negative heating value ({minus}150 kcal/kg on NCV basis) and required coal as support fuel for burning. The plant`s requirement was to incinerate the entire sludge generated in the plant, which meant that nearly 50% of the fuel fed to the boiler consisted of the waste sludge. Additional requirements were to burn coal and oil as back-up fuels. This paper deals with the challenges encountered and various design features provided in the configuration of the incinerator-cum-boiler including conveying, feeding and spreading arrangement of the waste sludge for effective incineration in addition to burning coal and oil. Also included in the paper is a brief description of the automatic control logics for combustion control and bed temperature control.

  19. Multi-step process for concentrating magnetic particles in waste sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, John L. (Rolla, MO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention involves a multi-step, multi-force process for dewatering sludges which have high concentrations of magnetic particles, such as waste sludges generated during steelmaking. This series of processing steps involves (1) mixing a chemical flocculating agent with the sludge; (2) allowing the particles to aggregate under non-turbulent conditions; (3) subjecting the mixture to a magnetic field which will pull the magnetic aggregates in a selected direction, causing them to form a compacted sludge; (4) preferably, decanting the clarified liquid from the compacted sludge; and (5) using filtration to convert the compacted sludge into a cake having a very high solids content. Steps 2 and 3 should be performed simultaneously. This reduces the treatment time and increases the extent of flocculation and the effectiveness of the process. As partially formed aggregates with active flocculating groups are pulled through the mixture by the magnetic field, they will contact other particles and form larger aggregates. This process can increase the solids concentration of steelmaking sludges in an efficient and economic manner, thereby accomplishing either of two goals: (a) it can convert hazardous wastes into economic resources for recycling as furnace feed material, or (b) it can dramatically reduce the volume of waste material which must be disposed.

  20. Radiowave-based process recovers oil from sludge at Texas site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radio frequency (RF)-based sludge treatment process is proving successful in demonstration tests at a Texas site. The process separates petroleum-based sludges into salable oil, treatment-quality water, and disposable solids. The system, called MST-4000, is effective on most sludges, including: dissolved-air-flotation float, slop oil emulsion solids, heat exchanger cleaning sludge, API separator sludge, and leaded tank bottoms. Major components of the system include: four high-power RF/microwave transmitters; four high-power RF/microwave illuminators, which focus the energy on the sludge in a small, cylindrical reactor; four computer-controlled, automatic RF tuners, which improve the quality of the RF/sludge interface by monitoring and adjusting vector impedance; a wave guide, which channels and controls the RF signals from the transmitters through the tuners and to the illuminators; a specially designed instrumentation and control system; and plumbing and piping systems. The paper describes the process and current tests being performed.

  1. Multi-step process for concentrating magnetic particles in waste sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, J.L.

    1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention involves a multi-step, multi-force process for dewatering sludges which have high concentrations of magnetic particles, such as waste sludges generated during steelmaking. This series of processing steps involves (1) mixing a chemical flocculating agent with the sludge; (2) allowing the particles to aggregate under non-turbulent conditions; (3) subjecting the mixture to a magnetic field which will pull the magnetic aggregates in a selected direction, causing them to form a compacted sludge; (4) preferably, decanting the clarified liquid from the compacted sludge; and (5) using filtration to convert the compacted sludge into a cake having a very high solids content. Steps 2 and 3 should be performed simultaneously. This reduces the treatment time and increases the extent of flocculation and the effectiveness of the process. As partially formed aggregates with active flocculating groups are pulled through the mixture by the magnetic field, they will contact other particles and form larger aggregates. This process can increase the solids concentration of steelmaking sludges in an efficient and economic manner, thereby accomplishing either of two goals: (a) it can convert hazardous wastes into economic resources for recycling as furnace feed material, or (b) it can dramatically reduce the volume of waste material which must be disposed. 7 figs.

  2. Aluminum Leaching of ''Archived'' Sludge from Tanks 8F, 11H, and 12H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FONDEUR, FERNANDOF.

    2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum can promote formation or dissolution of networks in hydroxide solid solutions. When present in large amounts it will act as a network former increasing both the viscosity and the surface tension of melts. This translates into poor free flow properties that affect pour rate of glass production in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To mitigate this situation, DWPF operations limit the amount of aluminum contained in sludge. This study investigated the leaching of aluminum compounds from archived sludge samples. The conclusions found boehmite present as the predominant aluminum compound in sludge from two tanks. We did not identify an aluminum compound in sludge from the third tank. We did not detect any amorphous aluminum hydroxide in the samples. The amount of goethite measured 4.2 percentage weight while hematite measured 3.7 percentage weight in Tank 11H sludge. The recommended recipe for removing gibbsite in sludge proved inefficient for digesting boehmite, removing less than 50 per cent of the compound within 48 hours. The recipe did remove boehmite when the test ran for 10 days (i.e., 7 more days than the recommended baseline leaching period). Additions of fluoride and phosphate to Tank 12H archived sludge did not improve the aluminum leaching efficiency of the baseline recipe.

  3. DESIGN OF A SYSTEM TO RETRIEVE SLUDGE FROM THE K EAST SPENT FUEL BASIN AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twitchell, A.L.; MacLean, G.T.; Ho, Q.T.; Fort, D.L.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS), which was designed to safely remove radioactive sludge from the K East spent fuel basin at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. Basin water and sludge have the potential to leak to the environment due to the age and condition of the basins. Since the 100 K Area spent fuel basins are located next to the Columbia River, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project mission includes the safe removal, containment, and transportation of sludge from the basins to a secure storage location. The scope of the SRS includes: A system capable of retrieving sludge from the K East basin floor, pits, and fuel canisters; Separation of debris from sludge, where debris is defined as any material greater than 0.64 cm (0.25 in.) in diameter; Collection of sludge particles in a container that can be transported away from the basin; Modifications to the K East basin to allow installation of the SRS. The SRS was designed by Fluor Federal Services. Changes to the designed system were made by Fluor Hanford as a result of full-scale testing performed after design. This paper discusses this testing, as well as operation and control of the system. Construction and startup testing was initially scheduled to be complete by the end of December 2002. Startup of the system is now expected in April 2003.

  4. Engineering Work Plan for Development of Sludge Pickup Adapter for Fuel Cleanliness Inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PITNER, A.L.

    2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The plan for developing an adapter to suction up sludge into a calibrated tube for fuel cleanliness inspection activities is described. A primary assessment of fuel cleanliness to be performed after processing through the Primary Cleaning Machine is whether the volume of any remaining canister sludge in or on a fuel assembly exceeds the allowable 14 cm{sup 3} limit. It is anticipated that a general visual inspection of the sludge inventory after fuel assembly separation will usually suffice in making this assessment, but occasions may arise where there is some question as to whether or not the observed quantity of sludge exceeds this limit. Therefore a quantitative method of collecting and measuring the sludge volume is needed for these borderline situations. It is proposed to develop an adapter that fits on the end of the secondary cleaning station vacuum wand that will suction the material from the sludge collection tray into a chamber marked with the limiting volume to permit a direct go/no-go assessment of the sludge quantity.

  5. Optimal feeding strategy for the minimal time problem of a fed-batch bioreactor with mortality rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimal feeding strategy for the minimal time problem of a fed-batch bioreactor with mortality rate of finding an optimal feedback control for feeding a fed-batch bioreactor with one species and one substrate, Bioreactor. 1 Introduction This work is devoted to the study of a bioreactor which is operated in fed

  6. Utilizing Green Energy Prediction to Schedule Mixed Batch and Service Jobs in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Utilizing Green Energy Prediction to Schedule Mixed Batch and Service Jobs in Data Centers Baris on using immediately available green energy to supplement the non- renewable, or brown energy at the cost of canceling and rescheduling jobs whenever the green energy availability is too low [16]. In this paper we

  7. Precision vertical mixer processes 30,000 pound batch of solid rocket propellants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world's largest solid rocket propellant mixer has been singled out for Honors in the mixers and blenders category of the 1986 Chemical Processing Vaaler Awards competition. The mixer, which is four times larger than any heretofore used, was specially designed and built for one of the nations' foremost manufacturers of rocket propellants. Developments in the fields of metallurgy, material handling, computerization and electronics permitted the giant step of manufacturing propellants in batch sizes up to 30,000 pounds. Until this time, 7000 pounds was considered the maximum size batch within the scope of hazards analysis. The vertical design of the mixer lends itself to an effective fire protection system. Infra-red detectors are used to sense a sudden heat rise. Should an emergency situation arise once the bowl is in the mix position and under vacuum, the protection system will activate within twelve seconds, deluge the product zone with water, rapidly drop the bowl and simultaneously disconnect the electric power. The design encompasses remote operation and emphasizes safety and reliability. The mixer permits propellant manufacturers to safely produce more uniform, even burning products. Its large batch size simplifies the problems with multiple batches within a simple engine. By reducing labor costs and affording other manufacturing economies, it increases productivity while cutting costs.

  8. Microbial Fuel Cells In this experiment, a batch mixed culture microbial fuel cell with Shewanella

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Microbial Fuel Cells Abstract In this experiment, a batch mixed culture microbial fuel cell conditions under nitrogen gas. In the microbial fuel cell with Shewanella putrefaciens sp. 200 as catalysisM at pH=7. Introduction Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are systems that take advantage of certain

  9. Control strategies for reactive batch distillation Eva Swensen and Sigurd Skogestad"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control strategies for reactive batch distillation Eva Swensen and Sigurd Skogestad" Department be combined directly with a distillation column by distilling off the light component product in order a maximum value in order to avoid break-through of an intermediate component in the distillate. This maximum

  10. Transfer-Free Batch Fabrication of Large-Area Suspended Graphene Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alex

    heightened for the preparation of sus- pended graphene structures to ascertain graphene's fundamentalTransfer-Free Batch Fabrication of Large- Area Suspended Graphene Membranes Benjami´n Alema of the predicted properties arising from the two-dimensional nature of graphene1 4 can be obscured or altered

  11. Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment on the Enzymatic for pretreating cellulosic biomass, including higher hemicellulose sugar yields, enhanced cellulose digestibility understand these trade-offs, comparative data are reported on xylan and lignin removal and enzymatic

  12. Batch self-organizing maps based on city-block distances for interval variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    methods [14, 18]. K-means algorithm and fuzzy c-means are the most famous partitional approaches learning strategy which has both clustering and visualization properties. Different from K-means, SOM uses interval-valued data sets, in comparison with batch SOM algorithms based on adaptive and non

  13. Research article A modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    the characteristics of batch experiments and provides complete control over the reaction time; in addition, the setup-reactor SER experiments to investigate arsenic adsorption and transport on iron-oxide coated sand to column experiments and allows better control over system parameters such as pH, reaction time, and solid

  14. Batch-mode vs Online-mode Supervised Learning Motivations for Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehenkel, Louis

    Batch-mode vs Online-mode Supervised Learning Motivations for Artificial Neural Networks Linear ANN-mode vs Online-mode Supervised Learning Motivations for Artificial Neural Networks Linear ANN Models for Artificial Neural Networks Linear ANN Models Single neuron models Single layer models Nonlinear ANN Models

  15. On the Practical and Security Issues of Batch Content Distribution Via Network Coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lui, John C.S.

    On the Practical and Security Issues of Batch Content Distribution Via Network Coding Qiming Li distribution via network coding has received a lot of attention lately. However, direct application of network distribution process to slow down the information dispersal or even deplete the network resource. Therefore

  16. Modeling of batch operations in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.G.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer model is in development to provide a dynamic simulation of batch operations within the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The DWPF will chemically treat high level waste materials from the site tank farm and vitrify the resulting slurry into a borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The DWPF consists of three major processing areas: Salt Processing Cell (SPC), Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and the Melt Cell. Separate models have been developed for each of these process units using the SPEEDUP{trademark} software from Aspen Technology. Except for glass production in the Melt Cell, all of the chemical operations within DWPF are batch processes. Since the SPEEDUP software is designed for dynamic modeling of continuous processes, considerable effort was required to devise batch process algorithms. This effort was successful and the models are able to simulate batch operations and the dynamic behavior of the process. In this paper, we will describe the SPC model in some detail and present preliminary results from a few simulation studies.

  17. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization Javad Azimi AZIMI@EECS.OREGONSTATE.EDU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fern, Xiaoli Zhang

    motivating application we try to optimize the power output of nano-enhanced Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). MFCsHybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization Javad Azimi AZIMI@EECS.OREGONSTATE.EDU Oregon State University Abstract Bayesian Optimization (BO) aims at optimizing an unknown function that is costly to evaluate. We

  18. Nitrogen removal via nitrite in a sequencing batch reactor treating sanitary landfill leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammonium rich wastewater Fuzzy logic Biological nutrient removal a b s t r a c t The present paper reports and biological pro- cesses (Lema et al., 1988). Among several biological treatment sys- tems, sequencing batch confirm the effectiveness of the nitrite route for nitrogen removal optimisation in leachate treatment

  19. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  20. Mixing Envelope D Sludge with LAW Intermediate Products with and without Glass Formers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E.K.

    2001-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection is in the process of designing a waste treatment system to process the Hanford Reservation High Level Waste (HLW). Envelope D sludge slurries will be blended with the concentrated Cs/Ts eluates, and the Sr/TRU intermediates separated from Envelope A, B, and C feeds. This study produced two washed simulated sludges (representing tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 sludge), a Sr/TRU washed precipitate produced from tank 241-AN-107 simulant, and a concentrated blended eluate simulant based upon eluates from processing 241-AZ-102 supernate.

  1. F- and H-area Sewage Sludge Application Sites: Groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum have been the primary nonpermit constituents exceeding standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. Other constituents also have exceeded standards at this site, but only sporadically, and none of those were analyzed second quarter 1993.

  2. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  3. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  4. Grout performance in support of in situ grouting of the TH4 tank sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cold demonstration test proved that less water was required to pump the in situ grout formulation than had been previously tested in the laboratory. The previous in situ grout formulation was restandardized with the same relative amounts of dry blend ingredients, albeit adding a fluidized admixture, but specifying less water for the slurry mix that must by pumped through the nozzles at high pressure. Also, the target GAAT tank for demonstrating this is situ grouting technique has been shifted to Tank TH4. A chemical surrogate sludge for TH4 was developed and tested in the laboratory, meeting expectations for leach resistance and strenght at 35 wt % sludge loading. It addition, a sample of hot TH4 sludge was also tested at 35 wt % sludge loading and proved to have superior strength and leach resistance compared with the surrogate test.

  5. Decision analysis for mobilizing and retrieving sludge from double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brothers, A.J.; Williams, N.C.; Dukelow, J.S.; Hansen, R.I. [and others] [and others

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This decision analysis evaluates alternative technologies for the initial mobilization and retrieval of sludges in double-shell tanks (DSTs). The analysis is from the perspective of the need to move sludges from one DST to another for interim retrieval. It supports the more general decision of which technologies to use to retreive various types of DST waste. The initial analysis is from the perspective of a typical DST with 2 ft of sludge to mobilize. During the course of the analysis, it became clear that it was important to also consider sludge mobilization in support of the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification demonstration plant, and in particular the risks associated with failing to meeting the minimum order requirements for the vendor, as well as the cost of mobilization and retrieval from the HLW vitrification source tanks.

  6. Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    readsorbed by calcareous sand when present. Ó 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Biosolids sludge (sewage biosolids) are potentially phyto- or zoo-toxic if present in sufficient concentration

  7. Biofiltration vs. conventional activated sludge plants: what about priority and emerging1 pollutants removal?2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    performances of two complete wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for all priority19 substances listed solids elimination and possible coagulant impact on soluble compounds. For biological27 treatments; biofiltration; conventional activated sludge; physico-chemical lamellar settling;42 wastewater treatment plant

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF HAZARDOUS SLUDGE SIMULANTS FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R.

    2010-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) tank closure. After bulk waste removal, the ECC process can be used to dissolve and remove much of the remaining sludge from HLW tanks. The ECC process uses dilute oxalic acid (1 wt %) with in-line pH monitoring and control. The resulting oxalate is decomposed through hydroxylation using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). Minimizing the amount of oxalic acid used for dissolution and the subsequent oxidative destruction of oxalic acid will minimize the potential for downstream impacts. Initial efficacy tests by AREVA demonstrated that previous tank heel simulants could be dissolved using dilute oxalic acid. The oxalate could be decomposed by an AOP that utilized ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light, and the resultant metal oxides and hydroxides could be separated out of the process.

  9. Mutagenic potential of plants grown on a soil amended with mutagenic municipal sewage sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiedler, Daniel Alain

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PLANTS GROWN ON A SOIL AMENDED WITH MUTAGENIC MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE A Thesis by DANIEL ALAIN FIEDLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Agronomy MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PLANTS GROWN ON A SOIL AMENDED WITH MUTAGENIC MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE A Thesis by DANIEL ALAIN FIEDLER Approved as to sty1e and content by; Kirk W. Brown (Chairman...

  10. The effect of sewage sludge on the physical properties of lignite overburden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cocke, Catherine Lynn

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIGNITE OVERBURDEN A Thesis by CATHERINE LYNN COCKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Soil Science THE EFFECT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIGNITE OVERBURDEN A Thesis by CATHERINE LYNN COCK E Appr as o style and content by: . W. Brown (Chairman of Committee) . Hons (Member...

  11. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  12. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

  13. Structural and mechanical response to a thermo-rheologic history of spinel sludge in high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiricka, Milos (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The composition and structure of a sludge sample from a high-level waste glass melter were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. At isothermal heat treatments between 1050 C and 1350 C, spinel crystals partly dissolved to form on cooling tiny ({approx}10 um) star-like crystals or dendrites. The shear stress in sludge was measured at a constant shear rate (from 0.005 s{sup -1} to 1.0 s{sup -1}) and temperature (from 1050 C to 1350?C) during repeated deformation and after idling. The initial thixotropic character of the loose structure of the settled sludge turned on subsequent deformation (and idling) to rheopectic behavior. As the spinel concentration in the sludge decreased from 28 mass% (sludge as received) to 15 mass% at 1300 C, the sludge turned into a Newtonian suspension.

  14. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity.

  15. Initial studies of pretreatment methods for neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, J L

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is performing conceptual and experimental studies for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) aimed at determining the effectiveness of various pretreatment methods for the neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge currently being stored at the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of such pretreatment methods is to separate the transuranic (TRU) elements and the bulk components of the waste (primarily zirconium, sodium, fluoride, and hydroxide) to a level low enough that the bulk components can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW), with only a small volume, TRU-containing fraction requiring geologic disposal. This objective is driven primarily by the large cost differential projected between LLW and geologic disposal procedures. This report contains the results of the first three years (1987, 1988, and 1989) of the program. These results were earlier reported informally in letter reports; they are here compiled in appendix form in this formal report to be more readily available to other workers and the public. The results of work done in 1990 and in following years will be reported in separate formal reports.

  16. Batch polymerization of styrene and isoprene by n-butyl lithium initiator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Sayeed

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on these mechanisms Edgar (12) developed a mathema- tical model for polymerization of the above systems. In the present work polymerization reactions of styrene and isoprene via n-butyl lithium were studied at 80'C in n-hexane and cyclohexane solvents. Both... on the mechanisms proposed by Hsieh (18, 19, 20) Edgar (12) obtained an anlytical solution for calculating molecular weight di. stributions, monomer concentrations, initi. ator concentrations, and polymer species concentrations at any time, t, in a batch reactor...

  17. The mobility of water soluble organic compounds in soils from the land application of petroleum waste sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Gordon Barcus

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of gas oil. Fertilizer effects. The nutrient balance further af- fects deterioration of oil. For instance, petroleum sludges have a high C:N ratio which can serve to limit microbial respiration to well below its potential. Addi- tion of nitrogen... an API oil-water separator sludge. Three soils, Bastrop sandy loam, Nacogdoches clay loam, and Norwood loam, were chosen to be representative of potential disposal sites. A sludge containing 41/ water and 10/ solvent extractable hydrocarbons...

  18. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  19. Evaluation of batch leaching procedures for estimating metal mobility in glaciated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackovic, J.A.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Chheda, P.; Carley, R.J.; Patton, E.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Batch leaching methods have been used for several decades to estimate the potential release of contaminants from soils. Four batch leaching procedures (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, deionized water leaching procedure, and California waste extraction test) were evaluated for their ability to realistically quantify the mobility of metals from previously contaminated glaciated soils. The study was conducted using soils from four different sites (three in Connecticut and one in Maine). The results of the batch leaching procedures were compared with a set of continuous column leaching experiments performed at two different flowrates and two influent pH values. The results suggested that the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was more realistic than the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), but still a conservative leaching estimate for evaluating the potential for metal mobility in glaciated soils. This study suggests that using SPLP as a test for estimating metal cleanup levels will result in lower remediation costs relative to TCLP or waste extraction test (WET), but still maintain a high level of confidence in the protection of ground water quality.

  20. Over Batch Analysis for the LLNL DOE-STD-3013 Packaging System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, D C; Dodson, K

    2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document addresses the concern raised in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Acceptance Criteria about receiving an item that is over batched by 1.0 kg of fissile materials. This document shows that the occurrence of this is incredible. Some of the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) requirements are described in Section 2.1. The SRS requirement is discussed in Section 2.2. Section 2.3 describes the way fissile materials are handled in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility (B332). Based on the material handling discussed in Section 2.3, there are only three errors that could result in a shipping container being over batched. These are: incorrect measurement of the item, selecting the wrong item to package, and packaging two items into a single shipping container. The analysis in Section 3 shows that the first two events are incredible because of the controls that exist at LLNL. The third event is physically impossible. Therefore, it is incredible for an item to be shipped to SRS that is more than 1.0 kg of fissile materials over batched.

  1. A rational approach for evaluation and screening of treatment and disposal options for the solar pond sludges at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, K.S.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document consists of information about the treatment options for the sludge that is located in the evaporation ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant. The sludges are mixed low-level radioactive wastes whose composition and character were variable. Sludges similar to these are typically treated prior to ultimate disposal. Disposal of treated sludges includes both on-site and off-site options. The rational approach described in this paper is useful for technology evaluation and screening because it provides a format for developing objectives, listing alternatives, and weighing the alternatives against the objectives and against each other.

  2. Particle Size (Sieving) and Enthalpy (Acid Calorimetry) Analysis of Single-Pull K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bredt, Paul R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Delegard, Calvin H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schmidt, Andrew J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Silvers, Kurt L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thornton, Brenda M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gano, Sue (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses particle size and calorimetry analyses performed on single-pull sludge samples collected from the Hanford K East Basin floor and pits. This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the baseline sludge management plan, which calls for the sludge to be packaged, shipped and stored at T Plant in the Hanford 200 West Area until final processing as a future date. These analyses were needed to better understand the K Basin sludge inventory and chemical reactivity.

  3. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ADSORPTION OF CESIUM (Cs+) FROM HANFORD WASTE SOLUTIONS-PART I: BATCH EQUILIBRIUM STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HASSAN, NEGUIBM

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Batch equilibrium measurements were conducted with a granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin to determine the distribution coefficients (Kds) for cesium. In the tests, Hanford Site actual waste sample containing radioactive cesium and a pretreated waste sample that was spiked with non-radioactive cesium were used. Initial concentrations of non-radioactive cesium in the waste sample were varied to generate an equilibrium isotherm for cesium. Two additional tests were conducted using a liquid to solid phase ratio of 10 and a contact time of 120 hours. The measured distribution coefficient (Kd) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) was 948 mL/g; the Kd for non-radioactive cesium (133Cs) was 1039 mL/g. The Kd for non-radioactive cesium decreased from 1039 to 691 mL/g as the initial cesium concentration increased. Very little change of the Kd was observed at initial cesium concentrations above 64 mg/mL. The maximum sorption capacity for cesium on granular RF resin was 1.17 mmole/g dry resin. T his value was calculated from the fit of the equilibrium isotherm data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Previously, a total capacity of 2.84 mmole/g was calculated by Bibler and Wallace for air-dried RF resin.

  4. Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

  5. Qualification testing and full-scale demonstration of titanium-treated zeolite for sludge wash processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalton, W.J.

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Titanium-treated zeolite is a new ion-exchange material that is a variation of UOP (formerly Union Carbide) IONSIV IE-96 zeolite (IE-96) that has been treated with an aqueous titanium solution in a proprietary process. IE-96 zeolite, without the titanium treatment, has been used since 1988 in the West Valley Demonstration Project`s (WVDP) Supernatant Treatment System (STS) ion-exchange columns to remove Cs-137 from the liquid supernatant solution. The titanium-treated zeolite (TIE-96) was developed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Following successful lab-scale testing of the PNL-prepared TIE-96, UOP was selected as a commercial supplier of the TIE-96 zeolite. Extensive laboratory tests conducted by both the WVDP and PNL indicate that the TIE-96 will successfully remove comparable quantities of Cs-137 from Tank 8D-2 high-level radioactive liquid as was done previously with IE-96. In addition to removing Cs-137, TIE-96 also removes trace quantities of Pu, as well as Sr-90, from the liquid being processed over a wide range of operating conditions: temperature, pH, and dilution. The exact mechanism responsible for the Pu removal is not fully understood. However, the Pu that is removed by the TIE-96 remains on the ion-exchange column under anticipated sludge wash processing conditions. From May 1988 to November 1990, the WVDP processed 560,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive supernatant waste stored in Tank 8D-2. Supernatant is an aqueous salt solution comprised primarily of soluble sodium salts. The second stage of the high-level waste treatment process began November 1991 with the initiation of sludge washing. Sludge washing involves the mixing of Tank 8D-2 contents, both sludge and liquid, to dissolve the sulfate salts present in the sludge. Two sludge washes were required to remove sulfates from the sludge.

  6. Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site in Thessaloniki, sending thick black

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site to break. This led to sludge flowing into some nearby houses. Authorities are due to begin the cleanup

  7. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil Tire chips Solvents Impregnated sawdust and solvents Solvents Sludgeoil ? 13 percent solvents ? 34 percent plastics (sludge

  8. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges and Irradiated Metallic Uranium Fuel Particles Series III Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Elmore, Monte R.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The path forward for managing of Hanford K Basin sludge calls for it to be packaged, shipped, and stored at T Plant until final processing at a future date. An important consideration for the design and cost of retrieval, transportation, and storage systems is the potential for heat and gas generation through oxidation reactions between uranium metal and water. This report, the third in a series (Series III), describes work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess corrosion and gas generation from irradiated metallic uranium particles (fuel particles) with and without K Basin sludge addition. The testing described in this report consisted of 12 tests. In 10 of the tests, 4.3 to 26.4 g of fuel particles of selected size distribution were placed into 60- or 800-ml reaction vessels with 0 to 100 g settled sludge. In another test, a single 3.72-g fuel fragment (i.e., 7150-mm particle) was placed in a 60 ml reaction vessel with no added sludge. The twelfth test contained only sludge. The fuel particles were prepared by crushing archived coupons (samples) from an irradiated metallic uranium fuel element. After loading the sludge materials (whether fuel particles, mixtures of fuel particles and sludge, or sludge-only) into reaction vessels, the solids were covered with an excess of K Basin water, the vessels closed and connected to a gas measurement manifold, and the vessels back-flushed with inert neon cover gas. The vessels were then heated to a constant temperature. The gas pressures and temperatures were monitored continuously from the times the vessels were purged. Gas samples were collected at various times during the tests, and the samples analyzed by mass spectrometry. Data on the reaction rates of uranium metal fuel particles with water as a function of temperature and particle size were generated. The data were compared with published studies on metallic uranium corrosion kinetics. The effects of an intimate overlying sludge layer (''blanket'') on the uranium metal corrosion rates were also evaluated.

  9. Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Several configurations have been reviewed for the NO{sub x} removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NO{sub x} flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF WET-OXIDATION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR FILTER BACKWASH SLUDGE AND ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, T.; Motoyama, M.; Shibuya, M.; Wada, H.; Yamazaki, K.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Decomposition of organic compounds contained in filter backwash sludge and spent ion exchange resins is considered effective in reducing the waste volume. A system using the wet-oxidation process has been studied for the treatment of the sludge and resins stored at Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, 357MWe BWR, owned by The Japan Atomic Power Company. Compared with various processes for treating sludge and resin, the wet-oxidation system is rather simple and the process conditions are mild. Waste samples collected from storage tanks were processed by wet-oxidation and appropriate decomposition of the organic compounds was verified. After the decomposition the residue can be solidified with cement or bitumen for final disposal. When compared with direct solidification without decomposition, the number of waste packages can be reduced by a factor of a few dozens for the sludge and three for the resin. Additional measures for conditioning secondary waste products have also been studied, and their applicability to the Tsuruga Power Station was verified. Some of the conditions studied were specific to the Tsuruga Power Station, but it is expected that the system will provide an effective solution for sludge and resin treatment at other NPPs.

  11. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  12. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  13. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming, E-mail: Zhangping101@yeah.net; Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. The high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.

  14. Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werle, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.werle@polsl.pl [Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology at Gliwice, 44-100 Gliwice, Konarskiego 22 (Poland)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification provides an attractive method for sewage sludges treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification generates a fuel gas (syngas) which can be used as a reburning fuel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reburning potential of sewage sludge gasification gases was defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of co-combustion of syngases in coal fired boiler has been done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation shows that analysed syngases can provide higher than 80% reduction of NO{sub x}. - Abstract: Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200 K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process.

  15. Eect of sludge-processing mode, soil texture and soil pH on metal mobility in undisturbed soil columns under accelerated loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Eect of sludge-processing mode, soil texture and soil pH on metal mobility in undisturbed soil 8 September 1999 Abstract The eect of sludge processing (digested dewatered, pelletized, alkaline (Lamellic Hapludalf), at initial pH levels of 5 and 7. Sludges were applied during four accelerated cropping

  16. Evaluation of Poly--hydroxybutyrate in activated sludge during feast/famine cycle Fadi Zelhof, Mohammad Tajparast, Dominic Frigon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Evaluation of Poly--hydroxybutyrate in activated sludge during feast/famine cycle Fadi Zelhof in an activated sludge reactor. Complete the initial set-up of the reactor by reaching steady state conditions fuels Lower heat of combustion Other bulk chemicals Cosmetics Removes facial oils Material industry

  17. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  18. Plasma enhanced atomic layer batch processing of aluminum doped titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehnert, Wolfgang; Ruhl, Guenther; Gschwandtner, Alexander [Infineon Technologies AG, Wernerwerkstrasse 2, Regensburg, 93049 (Germany); R3T GmbH, Hochstrasse 1, Taufkirchen, 82024 (Germany)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Among many promising high-k dielectrics, TiO{sub 2} is an interesting candidate because of its relatively high k value of over 40 and its easy integration into existing semiconductor manufacturing schemes. The most critical issues of TiO{sub 2} are its low electrical stability and its high leakage current density. However, doping TiO{sub 2} with Al has shown to yield significant improvement of layer quality on Ru electrodes [S. K. Kim et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008)]. In this work we investigated if atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible in a batch system. Electrical characterizations were done using common electrode materials like TiN, TaN, or W. Additionally, the effect of plasma enhanced processing in this reactor was studied. For this investigation a production batch ALD furnace has been retrofitted with a plasma source which can be used for post deposition anneals with oxygen radicals as well as for directly plasma enhanced ALD. After evaluation of several Ti precursors a deposition process for AlTiO{sub x} with excellent film thickness and composition uniformity was developed. The effects of post deposition anneals, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayers between electrode and TiO{sub 2}, Al doping concentration, plasma enhanced deposition and electrode material type on leakage current density are shown. An optimized AlTiO{sub x} deposition process on TaN electrodes yields to leakage current density of 5 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at 2 V and k values of about 35. Thus, it could be demonstrated that a plasma enhanced batch ALD process for Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible with acceptable leakage current density on a standard electrode material.

  19. Selective batch crushing in the coal-preparation shop at OAO NTMK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.A. Berkutov; Yu.V. Stepanov; P.V. Shtark; L.A. Makhortova; N.K. Popova; D.A. Koshkarov; N.V. Tsarev [OAO Nizhnetagil'skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NTMK)(Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 2004, after reconstruction at OAO Nizhnetagil'skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NTMK), blast furnace 6 went into operation for the production of vanadium from hot metal. At the startup of furnace 6, besides optimising its composition; it was decided to restore selective crushing of the coal batch using pneumatic and mechanical separation in the third unit of the coal preparation shop. Additional increase in the mechanical strength of coke by 1.5-2.0% was predicted with a 0.5-1.0% decrease in wear.

  20. A Batch Wafer Scale LIGA Assembly and Packaging Technique vai Diffusion Bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, T.R.; Schmale, D.T.

    1999-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique using diffusion bonding (or solid-state welding) has been used to achieve batch fabrication of two- level nickel LIGA structures. Interlayer alignment accuracy of less than 1 micron is achieved using press-fit gauge pins. A mini-scale torsion tester was built to measure the diffusion bond strength of LIGA formed specimens that has shown successful bonding at temperatures of 450"C at 7 ksi pressure with bond strength greater than 100 Mpa. Extensions to this basic process to allow for additional layers and thereby more complex assemblies as well as commensurate packaging are discussed.

  1. Batch methods for enriching trace impurities in hydrogen gas for their further analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Kumar, Romesh; Papdias, Dionissios D.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided herein are batch methods and devices for enriching trace quantities of impurities in gaseous mixtures, such as hydrogen fuel. The methods and devices rely on concentrating impurities using hydrogen transport membranes wherein the time period for concentrating the sample is calculated on the basis of optimized membrane characteristics, comprising its thickness and permeance, with optimization of temperature, and wherein the enrichment of trace impurities is proportional to the pressure ratio P.sub.hi/P.sub.lo and the volume ratio V.sub.1/V.sub.2, with following detection of the impurities using commonly-available detection methods.

  2. Evaluation of methods of mixing lime in bituminous paving mixtures in batch and drum plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Button, Joseph Wade

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Joseph Wade Button, B. S. , Texas ASM University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Mr. Bob M. Gallaway and Dr. Dallas N. Little A field test was conducted to evaluate the use of hydrated lime as an antistrip additive in hot mix asphalt concrete.... Lime was added in the pugmill of the batch plant, on the cold feed belt, and through the fines feeder of the drum mix plant. The asphalt and aggregates used were characterized in the laboratory. Asphalt concrete mixture tests included laboratory...

  3. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

  4. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, iron, lead, and manganese are the only permit-required analytes that exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum are the nonpermit constituents exceeding standards. Other constituents have exceeded standards at this site previously, but only sporadically.

  5. Management Of Hanford KW Basin Knockout Pot Sludge As Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R. E. [CH2M HIll Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. M. [AREVA, Avignon (France)

    2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) and AREVA Federal Services, LLC (AFS) have been working collaboratively to develop and deploy technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 10S-K West Reactor Fuel Storage Basin on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, WA, USA. Two disposal paths exist for the different types of sludge found in the K West (KW) Basin. One path is to be managed as Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) with eventual disposal at an SNF at a yet to be licensed repository. The second path will be disposed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. This paper describes the systems developed and executed by the Knockout Pot (KOP) Disposition Subproject for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as SNF, (i.e., KOP material).

  6. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ZHANG,PENGCHU; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; LIU,J.; QIAN,M.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies.

  7. Low-Temperature, Vacuum-Aided Thermal Desorption Studies on a Simulated Organic Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. K. Farnsworth; D. R. Peterman; Gary L. Anderson; T. G. Garn

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an initial set of small scale lab tests conducted on surrogate waste materials to investigate mass release behavior of volatile organics (VOC’s) from a solidified liquid organic sludge matrix under vacuumaided, low-temperature thermal desorption conditions. Low temperature thermal desorption is being considered as a potential processing technology alternative to incineration, to remove gas generation limitations affecting the transportation of transuranic (TRU) contaminated organic sludge wastes to a designated off-site repository (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The lab-scale tests provide initial exploratory level information on temperature profiles and rates of volatile organic desorption for a range of initial VOC/oil liquid mixture concentrations in a calcium silicate matrix, under low temperature heating and vacuum boundary conditions that are representative of potentially desirable “in-drum desorption” conditions. The results of these tests indicate that reduced operating pressures have a potential for significantly enhancing the rate of thermal desorption experienced from a liquid organic/oil solidified “sludge” waste. Furthermore, the results indicate that in-drum thermal desorption can be performed on organic sludge wastes, at reduced pressures, while maintaining an operating temperature sufficiently low to prevent destruction of the waste drum packaging materials (confinement) surrounding the waste. The results also indicate that VOC release behavior/rates in the vacuum thermal desorption process cannot be represented by a simple liquid-liquid mass-diffusion model, since overall mass release rates observed are generally two orders of magnitude greater than predicted by simple liquid-liquid mass diffusion. This is partially attributed to the effects of the transient temperature profiles within the sludge during heat up; however, the primary cause is thought to be micro boiling of the volatile organics within the simulated sludge. Micro boiling of VOC’s would be expected to occur in localized volumes within the organic sludge where temperatures exceed the volatile organic saturation temperature sufficiently to form vapor bubbles. Further model based evaluations reflecting the transient temperatures, local boiling, and subsequent vapor in liquid/sludge transport conditions are needed, with supporting controlled testing of the vacuum-aided thermal desorption process at small and full-scale conditions in order to fully develop this process.

  8. Influence of rainfall on the retention of sludge trace metals by the leaves of forage crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Stephen Grady

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INFLUENCE OF RAINFALL ON THE RETENTION OF SLUDGE TRACE METALS BY THE LEAVES OF FORAGE CROPS A Thesis STEPHEN GRADY JONES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Soil Science INFLUENCE OF RAINFALL ON THE RETENTION OF SLUDGE TRACE MFTALS BY THE LEAVES OF FORAGE CROPS A Thesis by STEPHEN GRADY JONES Approved a to style and content by: 1 (Chairman of Committee...

  9. Mechanism of Phase Formation in the Batch Mixtures for Slag-Bearing Glass Ceramics - 12207

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey V.; Stefanovsky, Olga I.; Malinina, Galina A. [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Slag surrogate was produced from chemicals by heating to 900 deg. C and keeping at this temperature for 1 hr. The product obtained was intermixed with either sodium di-silicate (75 wt.% waste loading) or borax (85 wt.% slag loading). The mixtures were heat-treated within a temperature range of 25 to 1300 deg. C. The products were examined by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The products prepared at temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C contained both phase typical of the source slag and intermediate phases as well as phases typical of the materials melted at 1350 deg. C such as nepheline, britholite, magnetite and matrix vitreous phase. Vitrification process in batch mixtures consisting of slag surrogate and either sodium di-silicate or sodium tetraborate runs through formation of intermediate phases mainly silico-phosphates capable to incorporate Sm as trivalent actinides surrogate. Reactions in the batch mixtures are in the whole completed by ?1000 deg. C but higher temperatures are required to homogenize the products. If in the borate-based system the mechanism is close to simple dissolution of slag constituents in the low viscous borate melt, then in the silicate-based system the mechanism was found to be much complicated and includes re-crystallization during melting with segregation of newly-formed nepheline type phase. (authors)

  10. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; O'Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectra from the “at-line” spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the “odd” shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it “odd” shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  11. DARS BATCH PROCESSING O F F I C E O F T H E R E G I S T R A R

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    DARS BATCH PROCESSING O F F I C E O F T H E R E G I S T R A R UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. About DARS Batch a. History b. Capabilities 2. Quick Reference Guide 3. The DARS of Batches a. Monitoring the status of a request b. Viewing and printing 6. FAQs 7. DARS Analysis Tables 8

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ARP PRODUCT SIMULANT AND SB4 TANK 40 SLUDGE SLURRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D; John Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Kim Crapse, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive startup of two new SRS processing facilities, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side-Solvent-Extraction Unit (MCU) will add two new waste streams to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The ARP will remove actinides from the 5.6 M salt solution resulting in a sludge-like product that is roughly half monosodium titanate (MST) insoluble solids and half sludge insoluble solids. The ARP product will be added to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) at boiling and dewatered prior to pulling a SRAT receipt sample. The cesium rich MCU stream will be added to the SRAT at boiling after both formic and nitric acid have been added and the SRAT contents concentrated to the appropriate endpoint. A concern was raised by an external hydrogen review panel that the actinide loaded MST could act as a catalyst for hydrogen generation (Mar 15, 2007 report, Recommendation 9). Hydrogen generation, and it's potential to form a flammable mixture in the off-gas, under SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processing conditions has been a concern since the discovery that noble metals catalyze the decomposition of formic acid. Radiolysis of water also generates hydrogen, but the radiolysis rate is orders of magnitude lower than the noble metal catalyzed generation. As a result of the concern raised by the external hydrogen review panel, hydrogen generation was a prime consideration in this experiment. Testing was designed to determine whether the presence of the irradiated ARP simulant containing MST caused uncontrolled or unexpected hydrogen production during experiments simulating the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) due to activation of titanium. A Shielded Cells experiment, SC-5, was completed using SB4 sludge from Tank 405 combined with an ARP product produced from simulants by SRNL researchers. The blend of sludge and MST was designed to be prototypic of planned DWPF SRAT and SME cycles. As glass quality was not an objective in this experiment, no vitrification of the SME product was completed. The results from this experiment were compared to the results from experiment SC-1, a similar experiment with SB4 sludge without added ARP product. This report documents: (1) The preparation and subsequent composition of the ARP product. (2) The preparation and subsequent compositional characterization of the SRAT Receipt sample. Additional details will be presented concerning the noble metal concentration of the ARP product and the SRAT receipt sample. Also, calculations related to the amount of formic and nitric acid added during SRAT processing will be presented as excess formic acid will lead to additional hydrogen generation. (3) Highlights from processing during the SRAT cycle and SME cycle (CPC processing). Hydrogen generation will be discussed since this was the prime objective for this experiment. (4) A comparison of CPC processing between SC-1 (without ARP simulant) and SC-5. This work was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP)6, and analyses were guided by an Analytical Sample Support Matrix (ASSM)7. This Research and Development (R&D) was completed to support operation of DWPF.

  13. Design and operation of a coal-washery sludge fired 75 t/h steam fluidized bed combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, X.; Chi, Y.; Yan, J. [and others

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based upon the coal-washery sludge fluidized bed agglomerating combustion technology developed by Zhejiang University and the design and operation experience accumulated from the 35 t/h stream fluidized bed boilers, a coal-washery sludge fired 75 t/h steam circulating fluidized bed boiler (12 MWe) for cogeneration application was designed. The design features of the boiler can be summarized as follows: (1) Combination of solid particle impact separator (in furnace circulation) and moderate temperature ({approximately}500 C) uniflow cyclone; (2) Low solid circulation rate; (3) Loop-seal for solid particle recirculation; (4) Air duct oil burner for boiler start-up; and (5) Coal-Washery sludge firing or co-firing of coal-washery sludge and coal. The boiler is installed at Dongtan Coal Mine Cogeneration Plant in Shandong Province of China. The daily disposal capacity of coal-washery sludge is over 300 tons. The first trial operation of the boiler was on Dec. 18, 1997. The cogeneration plant has been in commercial operation since May 1998. This boiler is the largest capacity boiler to dispose of coal-washery sludge in China. The successful operation of this boiler has sped up the commercialization process of the coal-washery sludge fluidized bed combustion technology.

  14. COMPARISON OF FINAL TREATMENT & PROCESS METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION & INTERIM STORAGE OF K BASIN KNOCKOUT POT SLUDGE ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ERPENBECK, E.G.

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluor Hanford (FH) directed British Nuclear Fuels, Inc. (BNFL) to prepare a Knock Out Pot (KOP) study ''using cold vacuum drying (CVD) to dry the KOP sludge with a final disposition to Canister Storage Building (CSB) or evaluate a process to corrode the sludge in water and grout it to meet the end state criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).'' BNFL initially identified four process options: (1) Incorporate sludges into grout with no pre-conditioning; (2) Corrode the Uranium metal in the sludges then incorporate the resulting sludge into grout; (3) Separate sludge into two streams by washing/size separation with: Larger particle/Uranium metal rich stream being vacuum dried at CVD; and Smaller particle/lower Uranium metal stream being incorporated into grout; and (4) Cold vacuum dry all sludge at CVD. A coarse down selection meeting discounted option 1 as the number of drums required was prohibitive in terms of cost and schedule; and option 4 due to the technical inability of CVD to dry this waste.

  15. Fractal analysis of soil water hysteresis as influenced by sewage sludge application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    Fractal analysis of soil water hysteresis as influenced by sewage sludge application G. Ojeda a,, E) and a loamy sand soil (Typic Haplustalf) from central Catalonia (NE Spain) was investigated using fractal analysis. First, we proposed a composite fractal model that covers both the low and high suction regimes

  16. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany); Eder, Christian [CET, Christian Eder Technology, Eduard-Didion Strasse, D-66539 Neunkirchen (Germany); Grziwa, Peter [BISANZ Anlagenbau GmbH, Scheidter Strasse 2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Horst, Juri [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: horst@izes.de; Kimmerle, Klaus [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  17. CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Conduct of Operations program at the Office of River Protection, K Basin Sludge Waste System.

  18. CRAD, Management- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Management at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System.

  19. Investigation of EPS Characteristics and their Effects on Waste Activated Sludge Digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Investigation of EPS Characteristics and their Effects on Waste Activated Sludge Digestion Thomas be accomplished through use of aerobic or anaerobic self digestion, but choice of digestion type in practice on digestibility, especially in regards to the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Samples

  20. Impact of EPS on Digestion of Waste Activate Sludge Thomas Gostanian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Impact of EPS on Digestion of Waste Activate Sludge Thomas Gostanian Faculty Mentor: Professor Chul Park, Civil & Environmental Engineering Digestion by bacteria is a widely used method for organic is by either aerobic or anaerobic self-digestion, in which the bacteria consume their own mass. Currently

  1. Selective Leaching of Chromium from Hanford Tank Sludge 241-U-108

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated the oxidants permanganate, MnO4-, and peroxynitrite, ONOO-, as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed 241-U-108 tank sludge under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time. The mass changes and final sludge compositions were evaluated using glass-property models to ascertain the relative impacts of the various oxidative alkaline leach conditions on the amount of borosilicate glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 Hanford tank sludge. Only permanganate leaching removes sufficient chromium to make the chromium concentration in the oxidatively alkaline leached solids non-limiting. In the absence of added oxidants, continued washing or caustic leaching have no beneficial effects. Peroxynitrite addition reduces the amount of glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 tank sludge by approximately a factor of two. Depending on the leach conditions and the exact chromium concentration limits, contact with alkaline permanganate solutions reduces the amount of immobilized high-level waste glass by a factor of 10 to 30.

  2. Adaptive k-tracking control of activated sludge processes PETIA GEORGIEVA{ and ACHIM ILCHMANN{*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    of coarse solid material, primary treatment for separation of decantable material and biological treatment (activated sludge pro- cess and recirculation). The treatment of solid material includes anaerobic digestion in the presence of oxygen. The tank is equipped with a surface aeration turbine which supplies oxygen

  3. A GEOCHEMICAL MODULE FOR "AMDTreat" TO COMPUTE CAUSTIC QUANTITY, EFFLUENT QUALITY, AND SLUDGE VOLUME1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program The AMDTreat computer program ( . Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  5. CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Environment, Safety and Health program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System.

  6. Microbial oxygen uptake in sludge as influenced by compost physical parameters1 Ardavan Mohajer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Microbial oxygen uptake in sludge as influenced by compost physical parameters1 Ardavan Mohajer1 The wide range of optimal values reported for the physical parameters of compost2 mixtures suggest: compost, biodegradability, respirometry, moisture content, bulking agent to waste22 ratio, particle size

  7. CONTROL OF AN IDEAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT VIA AN ODE-PDE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diehl, Stefan

    CONTROL OF AN IDEAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT VIA AN ODE-PDE MODEL STEFAN treatment plants, consists basically of a biological reactor followed by a sedi- mentation tank, which has. 1. Introduction The need for efficient wastewater treatment plants in terms of low effluent con

  8. Choices of canisters and elements for the first fuel and canister sludge shipment from K East Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1996-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The K East Basin contains open-top canisters with up to fourteen N Reactor fuel assemblies distributed between the two barrels of each canister. Each fuel assembly generally consists of inner and outer concentric elements fabricated from uranium metal with zirconium alloy cladding. The canisters also contain varying amounts of accumulated sludge. Retrieval of sample fuel elements and associated sludge for examination is scheduled to occur in the near future. The purpose of this document is to specify particular canisters and elements of interest as candidate sources of fuel and sludge to be shipped to laboratories.

  9. A Proposed Algorithm to improve security & Efficiency of SSL-TLS servers using Batch RSA decryption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pateriya, R K; Shrivastava, S C; Patel, Jaideep

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, Internet becomes the essential part of our lives. Over 90 percent of the ecommerce is developed on the Internet. A security algorithm became very necessary for producer client transactions assurance and the financial applications safety. The rsa algorithm applicability derives from algorithm properties like confidentiality, safe authentication, data safety and integrity on the internet. Thus, this kind of networks can have a more easy utilization by practical accessing from short, medium, even long distance and from different public places. Rsa encryption in the client side is relatively cheap, whereas, the corresponding decryption in the server side is expensive because its private exponent is much larger. Thus ssl tls servers become swamped to perform public key decryption operations when the simultaneous requests increase quickly .The batch rsa method is useful for such highly loaded web server .In our proposed algorithm by reducing the response time and clients tolerable waiting time an improvement...

  10. Numerical model for the vacuum pyrolysis of scrap tires in batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Tanguy, P.A.; Roy, C. [Univ. Laval, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique] [Univ. Laval, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative model for scrap tire pyrolysis in a batch scale reactor developed comprises the following basic phenomena: conduction inside tire particles; conduction, convection, and radiation between the feedstock particles or between the fluids and the particles; tire pyrolysis reaction; exothermicity and endothermicity caused by tire decomposition and volatilization; and the variation of the composition and the thermal properties of tire particles. This model was used to predict the transient temperature and density distributions in the bed of particles, the volatile product evolution rate, the mass change, the energy consumption during the pyrolysis process, and the pressure history in a tire pyrolysis reactor with a load of 1 kg. The model predictions agree well with independent experimental data.

  11. Test Plan: Sludge Treatment Project Corrosion Process Chemistry Follow-on Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This test plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with Fluor Hanford (FH). The test plan describes the scope and conditions to be used to perform laboratory-scale testing of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) hydrothermal treatment of K Basin sludge. The STP, managed for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) by FH, was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from the sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by using high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. The proposed testing builds on the approach and laboratory test findings for both K Basin sludge and simulated sludge garnered during prior testing from September 2006 to March 2007. The outlined testing in this plan is designed to yield further understanding of the nature of the chemical reactions, the effects of compositional and process variations and the effectiveness of various strategies to mitigate the observed high shear strength phenomenon observed during the prior testing. These tests are designed to provide process validation and refinement vs. process development and design input. The expected outcome is to establish a level of understanding of the chemistry such that successful operating strategies and parameters can be implemented within the confines of the existing STP corrosion vessel design. In July 2007, the DOE provided direction to FH regarding significant changes to the scope of the overall STP. As a result of the changes, FH directed PNNL to stop work on most of the planned activities covered in this test plan. Therefore, it is unlikely the testing described here will be performed. However, to preserve the test strategy and details developed to date, the test plan has been published.

  12. Technology study of Gunite tank sludge mobilization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVore, J.R.; Herrick, T.J.; Lott, K.E.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite Tank Sludge Mobilization Technology Study was initiated to support the Gunite Tank Treatability Study effort. The technology study surveyed the methods and technologies available for tank cleaning and sludge mobilization in a radioactive environment. Technologies were identified and considered for applicability to the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) problems. These were then either accepted for further study or rejected as not applicable. Technologies deemed applicable to the GAAT sludge removal project were grouped for evaluation according to (1) deployment method, (2) types of remotely operated end effector equipment applicable to removal of sludge, (3) methods for removing wastes from the tanks, and (4) methods for concrete removal. There were three major groups of deployment technologies: ``past practice`` technologies, mechanical arm-based technologies, and vehicle-based technologies. The different technologies were then combined into logical sequences of deployment platform, problem, end effector, conveyance, post-removal treatment required (if any), and disposition of the waste. Many waste removal options are available, but the best technology in one set of circumstances at one site might not be the best type to use at a different site. No single technology is capable of treating the entire spectrum of wastes that will be encountered in GAAT. None of the systems used in other industries appears to be suitable, primarily because of the nature of the sludges in the GAAT Operable Unit (OU), their radiation levels, and tank geometries. Other commercial technologies were investigated but rejected because the authors did not believe them to be applicable.

  13. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  14. SJSU Information Support Services Run Batch Contracts for Temporary Faculty info-support@sjsu.edu, 408-924-1530 Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    page displays. 5. Term: Use the lookup button to search the appropriate term. 6. Due Date: (optional data that exists in the system for the temporary faculty will appear on the Contract Appointment letter/Terms. 2. Click Batch Contracts for T. Faculty. The Batch Process for TF Contract search page displays. 3

  15. DARS BATCH QUICK REFERENCE 1. Log on to http://dars.services.wisc.edu using your NetID and password

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    DARS BATCH QUICK REFERENCE 1. Log on to http://dars.services.wisc.edu using your NetID and password. #12;5. You can monitor the status of your request on the DARS Batch Recent Requests Summary page. a. Contact the DARS administrator if the request is pending their approval. b. Click View Requested Reports

  16. Electrochemical study of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells under fed-batch and continuous flow conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrochemical study of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells under fed-batch and continuous flow November 2013 Available online 18 December 2013 Keywords: Multi-electrode Microbial fuel cells Hydraulic connected microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was compared with the reactors operated using individual electrical

  17. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 10, NO. 1, MARCH 2001 25 Batch Transfer of LIGA Microstructures by Selective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    polymer bumps [6], and diffusion bonding [7]. These processes aim to provide reliable electro of polymer bumps, and high temperature processing requirement for the diffusion bonding. Other processes have Microstructures by Selective Electroplating and Bonding Li-Wei Pan and Liwei Lin Abstract--A flip-chip, batch

  18. Batch Logo --A Strategy for Introducin g PL/1 and Structured Programming to Gifted High School Student s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drew, Mark S.

    Batch Logo -- A Strategy for Introducin g PL/1 and Structured Programming to Gifted High School of the use of ideas borrowed fro m LOGO . We felt that the concepts from a program such as LOGO, even t success graphically . 2. The Teaching Strategy : LOGO in PL 1 The main objective was to gauge th e

  19. activated sludge bacteria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and showed a better fitting of experimental data. The maximum sorption...

  20. Utilizing New Binder Materials for Green Building has Zero Waste by Recycling Slag and Sewage Sludge Ash 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeedan, S. R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    binding material to save energy and to produce new innovative zero materials waste . The current research aims to investigate new binder materials as alternative of Portland cement. Alkali activated slag (AAS) blended with sewage sludge ash (SSA...

  1. EA-1042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennesee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to raise the sludge land application loading limits from the current, self-imposed conservative 48 metric tons/ha lifetime loading to the...

  2. Evaluation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extraction from Ion Exchange Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Klinger, G.S.; Bredt, P.R.

    1999-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. These small amounts are significant from a regulatory standpoint. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). Chemical pretreatment is required to address criticality issues and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Eleven technologies have been evaluated (Papp 1997) as potential pretreatment methods. Based on the evaluations and engineering studies and limited testing, Fluor Daniel Hanford recommended solvent washing of the K Basin sludge, followed by nitric acid dissolution and, potentially, peroxide addition (FDH 1997). The solvent washing (extraction) and peroxide addition would be used to facilitate PCB removal and destruction. Following solvent extraction, the PCBs could be distilled and concentrated for disposal as a low-level waste. The purpose of the work reported here was to continue investigating solvent extraction, first by better identifying the ion exchange materials in the actual sludge samples and then evaluating various solvents for removing the PCBs or possibly dissolving the resins. This report documents some of the process knowledge on ion exchange materials used and spilled in the K Basins and describes the materials identified from wet sieving KE Basin floor and canister sludge and the results of other analyses. Several photographs are included to compare materials and illustrate material behavior. A summary of previous tests on solvent extraction of PCB surrogates from simulant K Basin sludge is also given.

  3. Greenhouse and laboratory studies on the effects of an anaerobic digester sludge on growth and nutrient uptake of sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, John Cooper

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GREENHOUSE AND LABORATORI STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SLUDGE ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SORGHUM A Thesis By John Cooper Vincent Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Agronomy GREENHOUSE AND LABORATORy STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SLUDGE ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SORGHUM A Thesis by John Cooper Vincent Approved...

  4. Relative yields of U-235 fission products measured in a high level radioactive sludge at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.; Coleman, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Kinard, W.F. [Charleston Coll., SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents measurements of the concentrations of 42 of the long-lived U-235 fission products in a high-level radioactive waste sludge stored at Savannah River Site. The 42 fision products make up 98% of the waste sludge. We used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for the analysis. The relative yields for most of the fission products are in complete agreement with the known relative yields for the beta decay chains of the two asymmetric branches of the slow neutron fission of U-235. Disagreements can be reconciled based on the chemistry of the fission products in the caustic waste sludges, the neutron fluences in SRS reactors, or interferences in the ICP-MS analyses. This paper presents measurements of the concentrations of 42 (98%) of the long-lived U-235 fission products in a high-level radioactive waste sludge stored at the Savannah River Site. We analyzed the sludge with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The relative yields for most of the fission products agree completely with the known relative vields for the beta decay chains of the two asymmetric: branches of the slow neutron fission of U-235. The chemistry of the fission products in the caustic waste sludges, the neutron fluences in SRS reactors, or interferences in the ICP-MS analyses explain the differences in the measured and calculated results.

  5. Relative yields of U-235 fission products measured in a high level radioactive sludge at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.; Coleman, C.J. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Kinard, W.F. (Charleston Coll., SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents measurements of the concentrations of 42 of the long-lived U-235 fission products in a high-level radioactive waste sludge stored at Savannah River Site. The 42 fision products make up 98% of the waste sludge. We used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for the analysis. The relative yields for most of the fission products are in complete agreement with the known relative yields for the beta decay chains of the two asymmetric branches of the slow neutron fission of U-235. Disagreements can be reconciled based on the chemistry of the fission products in the caustic waste sludges, the neutron fluences in SRS reactors, or interferences in the ICP-MS analyses. This paper presents measurements of the concentrations of 42 (98%) of the long-lived U-235 fission products in a high-level radioactive waste sludge stored at the Savannah River Site. We analyzed the sludge with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The relative yields for most of the fission products agree completely with the known relative vields for the beta decay chains of the two asymmetric: branches of the slow neutron fission of U-235. The chemistry of the fission products in the caustic waste sludges, the neutron fluences in SRS reactors, or interferences in the ICP-MS analyses explain the differences in the measured and calculated results.

  6. Accelerated Analyte Uptake on Single Beads in Microliter-scale Batch Separations using Acoustic Streaming: Plutonium Uptake by Anion Exchange for Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, Walter F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Peper, Shane M.; Petersen, Steven L.; Grate, Jay W.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of acoustic streaming as a non-contact mixing platform to accelerate mass transport-limited diffusion processes in small volume heterogeneous reactions has been investigated. Single bead anion exchange of plutonium at nanomolar and sub-picomolar concentrations in 20 microliter liquid volumes was used to demonstrate the effect of acoustic mixing. Pu uptake rates on individual ~760 micrometer diameter AG 1x4 anion exchange resin beads were determined using acoustic mixing and compared with Pu uptake rates achieved by static diffusion alone. An 82 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device was placed in contact with the underside of a 384-well microplate containing flat-bottomed semiconical wells. Acoustic energy was coupled into the solution in the well, inducing acoustic streaming. Pu uptake rates were determined by the plutonium remaining in solution after specific elapsed time intervals, using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) for nanomolar concentrations and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) analysis for the sub-picomolar concentration experiments. It was found that this small batch uptake reaction could be accelerated by a factor of about five-fold or more, depending on the acoustic power applied.

  7. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Iron and lead, permit-required constituents, and aluminum presently exceed SRS flagging standards in samples from the two sites. Elevated concentrations of metals at these sites, not reported during 1992, may be the reflection of a recent change in analytical methodology.

  8. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. During first quarter 1993, no permit-required constituents exceeded standards at the two sites except iron, which was elevated in one KSS well and two PSS wells. Aluminum, not required by the permit, was the only other constituent that exceeded standards. Elevated levels of aluminum and iron at these two sites may be concurrent with a change in analytical methodology. As in previous quarters, chlordane concentrations did not exceed the detection limit in any of the wells.

  9. Comparison of Sludge Digestion Methods for High Organic Hanford Tank 241-C-204

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, Michael J.; Deutsch, William J.

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an investigation into methods for digesting sludge in tank 241-C-204 at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The objective of this study was to compare the recovery of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium using three digestion methods: EPA Method 3052, EPA Method 3050B, and alkaline fusion. Results show that EPA Method 3052, microwave assisted acid digestion, is the most efficient digestion method with higher recoveries for both uranium and plutonium. This may also be the case for neptunium; however, the analytical results are uncertain for this element. The microwave digestion method also has the added benefits of being quicker and producing less waste, which lowers the overall cost per sample. Further testing with samples from other tanks will confirm that microwave assisted digestion is a viable method of digesting Hanford tank sludges (including those with a high organic content) for chemical analysis.

  10. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in theno date. “Integrated Solid Waste Management. ” Presentationincineration of Municipal Solid Waste in Cement Industry. :

  11. STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, R

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the 'Status of Chemical Cleaning of Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site--F Tank Farm Closure Project--Abstract 9114'. To support Tank 5 and Tank 6 cooling coil closure, cooling coil isolation and full scale cooling coil grout testing was completed to develop a strategy for grouting the horizontal and vertical cooling coils. This paper describes in detail the performance of the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and SMP operational strategies within Tank 5. In addition, it will discuss the current status of Tank 5 & 6 cooling coil isolation activities and the results from the cooling coil grout fill tests.

  12. Technical Issues and Characterization for Fuel and Sludge in Hanford K Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical Issues for the interim dry storage of N Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are discussed. Characterization data from fuel, to support resolution of these issues, are reviewed and new results for the oxidation of fuel in a moist atmosphere and the drying of whole fuel elements are presented. Characterization of associated K basin sludge is also discussed in light of a newly adopted disposal pathway.

  13. Power/Performance Trade-offs of Small Batched LU Based Solvers on GPUs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Oreste; Fatica, Massimiliano; Gawande, Nitin A.; Tumeo, Antonino

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we propose and analyze a set of batched linear solvers for small matrices on Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), evaluating the various alternatives depending on the size of the systems to solve. We discuss three different solutions that operate with different level of parallelization and GPU features. The first, exploiting the CUBLAS library, manages matrices of size up to 32x32 and employs Warp level (one matrix, one Warp) parallelism and shared memory. The second works at Thread-block level parallelism (one matrix, one Thread-block), still exploiting shared memory but managing matrices up to 76x76. The third is Thread level parallel (one matrix, one thread) and can reach sizes up to 128x128, but it does not exploit shared memory and only relies on the high memory bandwidth of the GPU. The first and second solution only support partial pivoting, the third one easily supports partial and full pivoting, making it attractive to problems that require greater numerical stability. We analyze the trade-offs in terms of performance and power consumption as function of the size of the linear systems that are simultaneously solved. We execute the three implementations on a Tesla M2090 (Fermi) and on a Tesla K20 (Kepler).

  14. Long-lived oscillations in the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid reaction in batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noszticzius, Z.; Ouyang, Qi; McCormick, W.D.; Swinney, H.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The title reaction is the subject of current interest because the first experimental Turing patterns were observed recently in this system. Here, the authors report the first observation of oscillations that are long lived (over 1 h) in this system in a batch reactor; even after cessation the oscillations can be restarted several times by adding ClO{sub 2} to the exhausted system. These low-frequency low-amplitude (LL) oscillations were detected with both platinum and iodide-selective electrodes in the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid (original CIMA) reaction and in the closely related chlorine dioxide-iodide-malonic acid (minimal CIMA) system. The LL oscillations follow after the already known high frequency oscillations, sometimes separated by a second induction period. LL oscillations can appear without any induction period if appropriate concentrations of chlorine dioxide, iodomalonic acid, and chloride (CIMA-Cl system) are established in a dilute sulfuric acid medium. In this case neither iodine, iodide, nor malonic acid is needed. Some suggestions are made regarding the mechanism of these newly discovered oscillations. 33 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A novel proportional--integral-derivative control configuration with application to the control of batch distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Monroy-Loperena, R.; Cervantes, I.; Morales, A.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to propose a novel proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control configuration based on an observer structure. Batch distillation is used as the base case study where the regulated output is the distillate composition. The proposed PID control law is derived in the framework of robust nonlinear control with modeling error compensation techniques. A reduced-order observer is proposed to estimate both the derivative of the regulated output and the underlying modeling error. These observations are subsequently used in a control loop to feedback variations of distillate composition (derivative feedback) and to counteract the effects of modeling errors. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the resulting control law is equivalent to a classical PID controller with an antireset windup scheme. Moreover, the tuning of the controller is performed very easily in terms of a prescribed closed-loop time constant and an estimation time constant. Numerical results are provided for binary and multicomponent separations. Sampled/delayed measurements and several sources of uncertainties are considered in order to provide a realistic test scenario for the proposed control design procedure.

  16. Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick Wingerson

    2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

  17. Batch Microreactor Studies of Lignin Depolymerization by Bases. 1. Alcohol Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLER, JAMES E.; EVANS, LINDSEY; LITTLEWOLF, ALICIA; TRUDELL, DANIEL E.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass feedstocks contain roughly 10-30% lignin, a substance that can not be converted to fermentable sugars. Hence, most schemes for producing biofuels (ethanol) assume that the lignin coproduct will be utilized as boiler fuel to provide heat and power to the process. However, the chemical structure of lignin suggests that it will make an excellent high value fuel additive, if it can be broken down into smaller molecular units. From fiscal year 1997 through fiscal year 2001, Sandia National Laboratories was a participant in a cooperative effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of Utah to develop and scale a base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) process for lignin conversion. SNL's primary role in the effort was to utilize rapidly heated batch microreactors to perform kinetic studies, examine the reaction chemistry, and to develop alternate catalyst systems for the BCD process. This report summarizes the work performed at Sandia during FY97 and FY98 with alcohol based systems. More recent work with aqueous based systems will be summarized in a second report.

  18. Experimental investigation of sedimentation of LOCA - generated fibrous debris and sludge in BWR suppression pools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souto, F.J.; Rao, D.V.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several tests were conducted in a 1:2.4 scale model of a Mark I suppression pool to investigate the behavior of fibrous insulation and sludge debris under LOCA conditions. NUKON{trademark} shreds, manually cut and tore up in a leaf shredder, and iron oxide particles were used to simulate fibrous and sludge debris, respectively. The suppression pool model included four downcomers fitted with pistons to simulate the steam-water oscillations during chugging expected during a LOCA. The study was conducted to provide debris settling velocity data for the models used in the BLOCKAGE computer code, developed to estimate the ECCS pump head loss due to clogging of the strainers with LOCA generated debris. The tests showed that the debris, both fibrous and particulate, remains fully mixed during chugging; they also showed that, during chugging, the fibrous debris underwent fragmentation into smaller sizes, including individual fibers. Measured concentrations showed that fibrous debris settled slower than the sludge, and that the settling behavior of each material is independent of the presence of the other material. Finally, these tests showed that the assumption of considering uniform debris concentration during strainer calculations is reasonable. The tests did not consider the effects of the operation of the ECCS on the transport of debris in the suppression pool.

  19. Evaluation Of Sludge Heel Dissolution Efficiency With Oxalic Acid Cleaning At Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudduth, Christie; Vitali, Jason; Keefer, Mark

    2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical cleaning process baseline strategy at the Savannah River Site was revised to improve efficiency during future execution of the process based on lessons learned during previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning activities and to account for operational constraints imposed by safety basis requirements. These improvements were also intended to transcend the difficulties that arise from waste removal in higher rheological yield stress sludge tanks. Tank 12 implemented this improved strategy and the bulk oxalic acid cleaning efforts concluded in July 2013. The Tank 12 radiological removal results were similar to previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning campaigns despite the fact that Tank 12 contained higher rheological yield stress sludge that would make removal more difficult than the sludge treated in previous cleaning campaigns. No appreciable oxalate precipitation occurred during the cleaning process in Tank 12 compared to previous campaigns, which aided in the net volume reduction of 75-80%. Overall, the controls established for Tank 12 provide a template for an improved cleaning process.

  20. Ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor fortified by hydrolysis of pulp mill primary clarifier sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, J.W.; Duff, S.J.B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Some low-yield sulfite pulping operations ferment spent sulfite liquor (SSL) to remove biochemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved sugars while at the same time generating ethanol as a salable product. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of primary clarifier sludge in a medium of SSL was proposed as a means of reducing the amount of sludge to be disposed of while at the same time increasing ethanol productivity. In this article, the option of fortifying existing SSL fermenting processes with the sugars produced via in situ enzymatic hydrolysis of sulfite primary clarifier sludge (PCS) has been explored. In 100% SSL PCS hydrolysis rates as high as 3.4 g/(L{center_dot}h) were observed at an initial enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units (FPU)/g PCS. To reduce the deleterious effects of glucose inhibition, single-stage SSF was carried out using cellulose enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The production rate of ethanol in SSL was increased by as much as 25% through the SSF process. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.