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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Copper-base alloy for liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper-base alloy composition consisting essentially of 85 - 89% copper, 2 - 4% manganese, and 8 - 11% silicon and use of same in liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders.

Wang, John L. (San Francisco, CA); Pickus, Milton R. (Oakland, CA); Chen, Meng-Hsiu (San Francisco, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Skyscan 1172). Electrical resistivity of the sinteredresponsible for the electrical resistivity (5 µ cm) of theb) 3D view Fig. 10 Electrical resistivity of copper nanoink

Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun; Hahn, H. Thomas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

EVALUATION OF THE THERMAL AND HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCES OF A VERY THIN SINTERED COPPER FLAT HEAT PIPE FOR 3D MICROSYSTEM PACKAGES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reported research work presents numerical studies validated by experimental results of a flat micro heat pipe with sintered copper wick structure. The objectives of this research were to produce and demonstrate the efficiency of the passive cooling technology (heat pipe) integrated in a very thin electronic substrate that is a part of a multifunctional 3-D electronic package. The enhanced technology is dedicated to the thermal management of high dissipative microsystems having heat densities of more than 10W/cm2. Future applications are envisaged in the avionics sector. A 2D numerical hydraulic model has been developed to investigate the performance of a very thin flat micro heat pipe with sintered copper wick structure, using water as a refrigerant. Finite difference method has been used to develop the model. The model has been used to determine the mass transfer and fluid flow in order to evaluate the limits of heat transport capacity as functions of the dimensions of the wick and the vapour space and for various copper spheres radii. 1.

Slavka Tzanova; Lora Kamenova; Yvan Avenas; Christian Schaeffer

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 deg. C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine.

Osterlund, Helene [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Laboratory Group, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: Helene.Osterlund@alsglobal.com; Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Laboratory Group, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden); Ylinenjaervi, Karin; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Laboratory Group, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

SINTERING METHOD  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of making articles by powder metallurgy techniques are presented. An article is made by packing a metal powder into a desired shape, raising the temperature of the powder compact to a sintering temperature in the presence of a reducing gas, and alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the gas while the temperatume is being raised. The product has a greater density than can be achieved by sintering for the same length of time at a constant gas pressure. (AEC)

Googin, J.M.

1963-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Activated Sintering, Spark Plasma Sintering and High Voltage ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Novel Synthesis and Consolidation of Powder Materials : Activated Sintering, Spark Plasma Sintering and High Voltage Electric Discharge ...

7

Spark Plasma Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 21, 2010 ... Coupled Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Conventional (SPS) and Free Pressureless (FPSPS) Spark-Plasma Sintering: Eugene ...

8

METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

9

Sintering and Related Powder Processing Science & Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conference Tools for Materials Science & Technology 2013 ... including novel sintering technologies, such as Spark Plasma Sintering, nanosintering, in-situ ...

10

Synthesis and Sintering of Nanopowders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ferroelectrics with Giant Electrocaloric Effect for Dielectric Refrigeration ... Processes during Sintering: Establishing a Tool Kit for Materials Design in PZT.

11

Effects upon Sintered Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 16   Drill life holes to failure...Table 16 Drill life holes to failure Material ATOMET 29 ATOMET 29M Fe-0.3%C 17 58 F-0005 56 144 F-0008 25 87 FC-0208 2 74 Compaction to 6.7 g/cm 3 . Sinter at 1120 °C (2048 °F),

12

Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Sintered composite filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate filter medium formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers is described. Preferred composition is about 40 vol.% quartz and about 60 vol.% stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100/sup 0/C to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550/sup 0/C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

Bergman, W.

1986-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

14

Ceramics Sintering and Shaping Using the Spark Plasma Sintering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation will emphasize the consolidation of such powders using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method. The role played by the external electrical  ...

15

Zone sintering of ceramic fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cold pressed UC{sup 2} fuel compacts are sintered at temperatures greater than about 1850 C while in contract with a sintering facilitator material, e.g., tantalum, niobium, tungsten or a metal carbide such as uranium carbide, thereby allowing for a reduction in the overall porosity and leaving the desired product, i.e., a highly dense, large-grained uranium dicarbide. The process of using the sintering facilitator materials can be applied in the preparation of other carbide materials.

Matthews, R.B.; Chidester, K.M.; Moore, H.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Sintering and Pelletization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2013 ... It has important instructing function for China steel mills to import and use iron ... For reducing the dust content in flue gas during copper smelting in the .... The final results showed that, under the condition of natural basicity ...

17

Microwave sintering of multiple articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Microwave sintering of multiple aritcles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Implementation Challenges for Sintered Silicon Carbide Fiber ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sintered silicon carbide fiber bonded ceramics have been fabricated by the hot pressing and sintering of silicon carbide fibers. However, in this system ...

20

Novel Sintering Processes and News in Conventional Sintering and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The symposium is dedicated to the state of the art in experiments and theory of Field Assisted ... Changes in the Grain Boundary Character and Mean Relative Energy Resulting form ... Spark Plasma Sintering: Processing of Nuclear Materials.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Copper and Copper Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Copper tube: types, standards, applications, tempers, and lengths...12 (3.658) 12 (3.658) HVAC Coils: Snow melting Compressed air 1/8 to 1 (3.175 to 25.4) � 60 (18.288) � Natural gas 100 (30.48) Liquified petroleum (LP) gas 1-1/4 & 1-1/2 (31.75 & 38.1) � 60 (18.288) Vacuum 2 (50.8) � 40 (12.192) � 45 (13.716) Type L Blue ASTM B 88 Domestic water Straight lengths: service...

22

Method of sintering ceramic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

23

Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress all depended on the porosity content in bulk-sintered silver. The only investigated property that was independent of porosity in that range was coefficient of thermal expansion.

Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Copper Electrorefining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... Program Organizers: Shijie Wang, Rio Tinto Kennecott Utah Copper; J. E. Dutrizac, CANMET; Michael Free, University of Utah; J. Y. Hwang, ...

25

Volatility of copper  

SciTech Connect

The relevant aqueous thermodynamics of copper and its oxides are evaluated and summarized with emphasis on solubility, hydrolysis, and complexation. The solubilities of metallic copper, solid cuprous and cupric oxides in steam measured by Pocock and Stewart in 1963 are discussed and the latter data are fitted in the form of established empirical equations and compared to other existing results. No other sources of data were found for the solubility of copper and cupric oxide in steam and even these data are very limited. Discussion of corresponding available solubility data on both oxide phases in liquid water is given. The possible effects of complexing agents are considered. A brief discussion is provided of the role of surface adsorption in determining the fate of dissolved copper in the boiler. 37 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.; Joyce, D.B.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electroless copper plating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optimized electroless copper plating technique suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics.

McHenry, Michael R. (Lee' s Summit, MO)

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Dispersion strengthened copper  

SciTech Connect

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1988-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

30

LOW-TEMPERATURE ASH SINTERING AND STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the project is to develop fundamental sintering-viscosity relationships for coal-type ash at relatively low temperatures, with the end result being a simplified soot-blowing index for power systems. This involves correlating several important factors which control the ease of deposit removal, including deposit strength, deposit porosity, chemical composition, and temperature. Testing was performed on ashes derived from three coals and two biomass materials along with a standard soda-lime glass. The coals were selected because detailed analyses as well as ash samples were already available. Sintering characteristics of the ashes were to be determined by observation using an HSM and video recording system, with a stainless steel microscope stage chamber constructed to allow the use of corrosive gas atmospheres. The measurements would allow calculation of the viscosity of liquid phases as the sintering progressed, using the Frenkel and other sintering models. The sintering behavior and viscosity would be correlated with ash mineralogy and chemistry and information on bench-scale deposit strength and porosity to develop an initial relationship to predict deposit removability.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; John P. Kay

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Microwave sintering of boron carbide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

1988-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

32

Determination of the Spark Plasma Sintering Fundamental ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DRI Carburization in the Reduction and Transition Zones of a Shaft Furnace MIDREX Type · Effect of Casting Speed on Temperature Difference between ...

33

DEPENDENCE OF BAND GAP ON DEPOSITION PARAMETERS IN CdSe SINTERED FILMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

II-VI semiconductors form an important class of opto-electronic materials. CdSe is a promising material for the fabrication of photovoltaic devices. Polycrystalline CdSe films have been deposited onto ultra clean glass substrates by sintering process. The optical band gap of these films was determined by reflectance measurements in wavelength range 400-850 nm. The band gap of these films was observed to increase with increase in sintering temperature and sintering time separately. The crystal structure and lattice parameter of these films were determined from x-ray diffractograms. The films were polycrystalline in nature having cubic zinc blende structure.

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dennig, Corinne (Asnieres sur Seine, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Alcorta, Jose (Bordeaux, FR); Coco, Isabelle (Dax, FR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Electroless copper plating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optimized electroless copper plating technique is described suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics. 12 figs.

McHenry, M.R.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Microstructures of Copper and Copper Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Etchants and procedures for microetching of coppers and copper alloys...brasses, nickel silver; darkens β

37

Liquid Phase Sintering of NiTi  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) · Advances in Synthesis and Densification of Heterogeneous Materials · Application of Metal Injection ...

38

Spark Plasma Sintering of Silicon Carbide Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) · Advances in Synthesis and Densification of Heterogeneous Materials · Application of Metal Injection ...

39

Stereological Analysis of Microstructural Evolution during Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) · Advances in Synthesis and Densification of Heterogeneous Materials · Application of Metal Injection ...

40

Processed by Pulsed Electric Current Sintering (PECS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Bulk Nanoceramics and Nanocomposites: Processed by Pulsed Electric Current Sintering (PECS). Author(s), Omer Van der Biest, Kim ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Understanding Silica-Kaolinite Composite Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field Assisted Sintering of Oxide Ceramics: New Mechanisms · High-Speed Compaction of Powder Materials at High Voltage Electric Discharge Consolidation.

42

Intense Pulsed Light Sintering Technique for Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) · Advances in Synthesis and Densification of Heterogeneous Materials · Application of Metal Injection ...

43

Assisted Sintering II - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 19, 2010... Hydroxyapatite by Field-Assisted Sintering: Tien Tran1; Troy Holland1; James Shackelford1; Joanna Groza1; 1University of California, Davis

44

Energetics and Fundaments of NanoSintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 17, 2011... of Their Sintering: Dan Mordehai1; Leonid Klinger1; David Srolovitz2; Eugen Rabkin1; 1Technion; 2Institute of High Performance Computing

45

SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

1959-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

46

Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of sintering ceramic materials following: A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article.

Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Microwave Sintering of CaO Stabilized Nature Baddeleyite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave sintering could fast heating and sintering. ... Characterization of Burrows from Mining District of Pachuca - Real Del Monte, in Hidalgo State and ...

48

Sintering Studies of Ceramic-carbon Structures by Spark Plasma ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Sintering Studies of Ceramic-carbon Structures by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Author(s), Miriam Miranda, Na Ni, Ben Milsom, Michael J .

49

Spark Plasma Sintering of Ultra-Fine Grained and Nanocrystalline ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In our work we focused on sintering of the nanocrystalline WC based hard metals using the spark plasma sintering method. Two types of materials i) WC-Co ...

50

The Absence of Plasma in "Spark Plasma Sintering"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigations on the spark plasma sintering/synthesisinvestigations on the spark plasma sintering/synthesisLichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials

Hulbert, Dustin M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Effect of Coke Particle Size on Sinter Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The effect of different Coke particle size on sinter quality has been investigated. Eight different coke particle sizes were chosen and sinter ...

52

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1990-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

53

Compaction and Sintering of Mo Powders  

SciTech Connect

To support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, Mo metal powders were evaluated for compaction and sintering characteristics as they relate to Mo-100 accelerator target disk fabrication. Powders having a natural isotope distribution and enriched Mo-100 powder were examined. Various powder characteristics are shown to have an effect on both the compaction and sintering behavior. Natural Mo powders could be cold pressed directly to >90% density. All of the powders, including the Mo-100 samples, could be sintered after cold pressing to >90% density. As an example, a compacted Mo-100 disk reached 89.7% density (9.52 g/cm3) after sintering at 1000 C for 1 hr. in flowing Ar/4%H2. Higher sintering temperatures were required for other powder samples. The relationships between processing conditions and the resulting densities of consolidated Mo disks will be presented.

Nunn, Stephen D [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Bryan, Chris [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

55

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Orlando, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Sintering of sponge and hydride-dehydride titanium powders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sintering behavior of compacts produced from sponge and hydride-dehydride (HDH) Ti powders was examined. Compacts were vacuum sintered at 1200 or 1300 deg C for 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 or 960 minutes. The porosity decreased with sintering time and/or temperature in compacts produced from the HDH powders. Compacts produced from these powders could be sintered to essentially full density. However, the sintering condition did not influence the amount of porosity present in compacts produced from the sponge powders. These samples could only be sintered to a density of 97% theoretical. The sintering behavior was attributed to the chemical impurities in the powders.

Alman, David E.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Sintering and Synthesis of Titanium Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Together the augmented diffusion mode and accelerated application of thermal energy allow co-sintering of Ti-6Al-4V + HA below 1000°C to ...

58

Current-Activated and Conventional Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2011 ... Preliminary Investigations in Current-Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS): Modeling and Experiments: A. El-Desouky1; S.K. Kassegne1; K.S. ...

59

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Electrolytic Infiltration into Laser Sintered Porous Graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing V. Presentation Title, Electrolytic Infiltration into Laser Sintered Porous Graphite ... Tensile and Fatigue Testing of 304 Stainless Steel after Gaseous Hydrogen ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Field Assisted Sintering II - Fundamental Aspects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing Effects on the Thermoelectric Behavior of Dense Non-stoichiometric TiO2 and ZnO Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering: James Kelly1; Seth Fuller2; ...

62

Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

Tiegs, T.N.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

63

Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Pressureless sintering of whiskered-toughened ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Copper (Cu)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 12   Thermodynamic properties of copper...0.244 0.360 1.174 0.117 11 1.14 3.446 0.313 0.456 1.57 0.144 12 1.47 4.752 0.395 0.570 2.09 0.175 13 1.87 6.405 0.493 0.703 3.51 0.209 14 2.34 8.513 0.607 0.858 2.72 0.250 15 2.89 11.11 0.741 1.039 4.45 0.297 16 3.54 14.32 0.895 1.245 5.59 0.349 17 4.30 18.22 1.072 1.481 6.96 0.409 18 5.16 22.94...

66

Process for microwave sintering boron carbide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

67

CX-005780: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

80: Categorical Exclusion Determination 80: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005780: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sintered Copper Zinc Tin Selenium Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 05/11/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator project represents a significant component of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) business strategy of partnering with U.S. industry to accelerate the commercialization of photovoltaic system research and development (R&D) to meet aggressive cost and installed capacity goals. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-005780.pdf More Documents & Publications Bertrand Fillon, Commissariat Ă  l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies

68

Ti compositions consolidated by spark plasma sintering and high ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After electrical discharge machining these composite powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering and high voltage consolidation. Microhardness of ...

69

Sustainability Study in Selective Laser Sintering – An Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Sustainability Study in Selective Laser Sintering – An Energy ... 2010 Vittorio de Nora Award Winner: Designing Crushing and Grinding ...

70

From Predicting Activated Sintering to Developing a Useful ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013 ... From Predicting Activated Sintering to Developing a Useful Component for the “Materials Genome” Project.

71

Sintered Silver Joint Strength Dependence on Substrate Topography and Attachment Pad Geometry  

SciTech Connect

The sum of chemical and mechanical bonding limits the adhesive strength of die-attach and substrate-attach layers. This is also true for sintered silver joints whose development and employment are underway in the electronic packaging community. Chemical bonding is dictated by numerous parameters associated with the compatibility of the metallurgical bond of the two mating surfaces and the processing history that brings them together. However, the efficacy of mechanical bonding is likely affected by the topographies (e.g., roughness) of the two adjoined surfaces and also perhaps the shape of the attachment layer itself (e.g., circles, squares, and sizes thereof). In this study the mechanical bonding component is examined through the modification of the copper cladding surface on direct bonded copper (DBC) substrates, the shape of the silver pad attachment bonded to it, and the use of a joined 'DBC sandwich' that facilitates their study. It was found that simple employment of both surface topography control and printed pad geometry can affect and improve shear strength of silver sintered joints, and that there is logic to perhaps hybridize their effects. This is an important observation as more future attention is devoted to joining constituents with larger areas (> 100 mm2) in electronic packages.

Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Copper-tantalum alloy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Tucson, AZ)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Pressureless sintering of whiskered-toughened ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method. 6 figures.

Tiegs, T.N.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

76

Sintering aid for lanthanum chromite refractories  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electronically conductive interconnect layer for use in a fuel cell or other electrolytic device is formed with sintering additives to permit densification in a monolithic structure with the electrode materials. Additions including an oxide of boron and a eutectic forming composition of Group 2A metal fluorides with Group 3B metal fluorides and Group 2A metal oxides with Group 6B metal oxides lower the required firing temperature of lanthanum chromite to permit densification to in excess of 94% of theoretical density without degradation of electrode material lamina. The monolithic structure is formed by tape casting thin layers of electrode, interconnect and electrolyte materials and sintering the green lamina together under common densification conditions.

Flandermeyer, Brian K. (Bolingbrook, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Downers Grove, IL); Anderson, Harlan U. (Rolla, MO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

COPPER COATED URANIUM ARTICLE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Various techniques and methods for obtaining coppercoated uranium are given. Specifically disclosed are a group of complex uranium coatings having successive layers of nickel, copper, lead, and tin.

Gray, A.G.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Copper Casting Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8 Compositions, uses, and characteristics of copper alloy castings...operating at moderate-to-high speeds, as in electric motors and appliances. Alloy C93200 is

79

Copper 99/Cobre 99: Copper Hydromet Roundtable 99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meeting will build on the success of three preceding conferences: Copper 87 , held in Vina del Mar, Chile; Copper 91/Cobre 91, held in Ottawa, Canada; and ...

80

High adherence copper plating process  

SciTech Connect

A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

Nignardot, Henry (Tesuque, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NID Copper Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Plutonium-Copper Phase Diagram  

SciTech Connect

The constitution of the plutonium-copper binary alloy as determined by differential thermal analysis is presented. The system is characterized by two congruent melting compounds, PuCu2 (m.p. 865 degrees C.) and Pu4Cu17 (m.p. 954 degrees C.); two incongruent melting compounds, PuCu4 (m.p. 906 degrees C.) and Pu2Cu11 (m.p. 926 degrees C.); three eutectics, 96 atom per cent copper (m.p. 626 degrees), 70.5 atom per cent copper (m.p. 849 degrees C.), and 91 atom per cent copper (m.p. 881 degrees C.); and two peritectics at 75 atom per cent (m.p. 906 degrees C.) and 85.5 atom per cent (m.p. 926 degrees C.). Solid solution was found above 97 atom per cent plutonium. The apparatus, the method of investigation, and the binary alloy phase diagram is discussed.

Rhinehammer, T. B.; Etter, D. E.; Jones, L. V.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

84

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Optimization System of Iron Ores Proportion for Sintering Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The system sets blending cost as the objective parameter, and uses sinter chemical ... A Pilot-plant Scale Test of Coal-based Rotary Kiln Direct Reduction of

86

206 Preparation of Porous Mullite Composite by Microwave Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the microwave sintering, an insulation structure based on hybrid heating mode was well designed with the wall of mullite and the aided heaters of SiC ...

87

Pre-Sintered Preforms - Applications for Gas Turbine Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Pre-Sintered Preforms - Applications for Gas Turbine Components. Author(s), Jeremy M Boyle. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Jeremy M Boyle.

88

Sustainability and thermal aspects of polymer based laser sintering.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes which include Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) have experienced tremendous growth and development since their introduction over 20 years ago. It becomes… (more)

Sreenivasan, Rameshwar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Effect of Hydrogen as Sintering Atmosphere on Densification ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Effect of Hydrogen as Sintering Atmosphere on Densification and Microstructural Features of Powder Metallurgy Titanium. Author (s), Pei ...

90

Spark Plasma Sintering of Amorphous Coatings on Metallic Substrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, we will discuss the results of deposition of amorphous coatings on metallic substrates using spark plasma sintering method. The influence of ...

91

The Role of Spark Plasma Sintering in Thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Role of Spark Plasma Sintering in Thermoelectric Nanocomposites: Effect of Nanostructures on Lattice Thermal Conductivity. Author(s) ...

92

Spark Plasma Sintering of Annular Zirconium Carbide Powder ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Spark Plasma Sintering of Annular Zirconium Carbide Powder Pellets:Processing and Simulation. Author(s), Xialu Wei, Wei Li, Eugene A.

93

Temperature Uniformization in Spark-plasma Sintering by Novel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The scalability of Spark-Plasma Sintering (SPS – a technology effectively utilized for consolidation of nano-particulate materials) is strongly ...

94

(SPS) and Free Pressureless (FPSPS) Spark-Plasma Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modeling results are compared to the experimentally obtained data on the spark plasma sintering of high strength temperature resistant powder-based ...

95

Fundamentals of Spark-Plasma Sintering: Applications to Net ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Net-shaping capabilities of spark-plasma sintering are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. Modeling and experimentation are conducted for ...

96

Strengthening Sintering of Refractory Iron Ore with Biomass Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Strengthening Sintering of Refractory Iron Ore with Biomass Fuel. Author(s), Xiaohui Fan, Zhiyun Ji, Min Gan, Xuling Chen, Wenqi Li. On-Site

97

Multi-Phenomena Modeling of Electric Field Assisted Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous modeling efforts on FAST have only considered the thermal-electric aspect of the problem and have neglected sintering. A new computational ...

98

Novel Current Activated Tip-based Sintering (CATS) of Advanced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Novel Current Activated Tip-based Sintering (CATS) of Advanced ... In CATS electric current is applied to a powder bed/compact using a small ...

99

Low Temperature Sintering Bonding of Metals Using Ag ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High surface energy of the nanoparticles contributes the low temperature sintering ... and Welding Conditions of Monopile and Transition for Offshore Wind Plant.

100

Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites via Spark Plasma Sintering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites via Spark Plasma Sintering for Nuclear Energy Application. Author(s), Indrajit Charit, Jonathan A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Spark Plasma Sintering of Next Generation Nuclear Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Spark Plasma Sintering of Next Generation Nuclear Materials. Author(s), Daniel Osterberg, Jeff Perkins, Matt Luke, Brian Jaques, Michael F Hurley, Darryl Butt.

102

LIQUID PHASE SINTERING OF METALLIC CARBIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method is given for fabricating uranium carbide composites, The method comprises forming a homogeneous mixture of powdered uranium carbide, a uranium intermetallic compound which wets and forms a eutectic with said carbide and has a non-uranium component which has a relatively high vapor pressure at a temperature in the range 1200 to 1500 deg C, and an organic binder, pressing said mixture to a composite of desired green strength, and then vacuum sintering said composite at the eutectic forming temperature for a period sufficient to remove at least a portion of the non-uranium containing component of said eutectic. (AEC)

Hammond, J.; Sease, J.D.

1964-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

103

Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sintering behavior of uranium and uranium-zirconium alloys in the alpha phase were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding/dehydriding process. The size distribution and morphology of the uranium powder produced by this method were determined by digital optical microscopy. Once the characteristics of the source uranium powder were known, uranium and uranium-zirconium pellets were pressed using a dual-action punch and die. The majority of these pellets were sintered isothermally, first in the alpha phase near 650°C, then in the gamma phase near 800°C. In addition, a few pellets were sintered using more exotic temperature profiles. Pellet shrinkage was continuously measured in situ during sintering. The isothermal shrinkage rates and sintering temperatures for each pellet were fit to a simple model for the initial phase of sintering of spherical powders. The material specific constants required by this model, including the activation energy of the process, were determined for both uranium and uranium-zirconium. Following sintering, pellets were sectioned, mounted, and polished for imaging by electron microscopy. Based on these results, the porosity and microstructure of the sintered pellets were analyzed. The porosity of the uranium-zirconium pellets was consistently lower than that of the pure uranium pellets. In addition, some formation of an alloyed phase of uranium and zirconium was observed. The research presented within this thesis is a continuation of a previous project; however, this research has produced many new results not previously seen. In addition, a number of issues left unresolved by the previous project have been addressed and solved. Most notably, the low original output of the hydride/dehydride powder production system has been increased by an order of magnitude, the actual characteristics of the powder have been measured and determined, shrinkage data was successfully converted into a sintering model, an alloyed phase of uranium and zirconium was produced, and pellet cracking due to delamination has been eliminated.

Helmreich, Grant

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

Plovnick, Ross (St. Louis Park, MN); Celikkaya, Ahmet (Woodbury, MN); Blake, Rodger D. (Tuscon, AZ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

The Effect of Coke Particle Size on Thermal Profile of Sintering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baking process and sinter production was performed for different ranges of coke particle size while other parameter like, iron ore, lime and sintering mixture ...

106

NID Copper Sample Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Unusual Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Bulk Sintered GaP Doped with Copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Robust room temperature ferromagnetism is obtained in single phase Gallium Phosphide doped with Cu{sup 2+} prepared by simple solid state reaction route. The saturation magnetization at 300 K is 1.5 times 10{sup -2} emu/g and the coercivity was found to be 125 Oe. A strong ferromagnetic resonance signal confirms the long range magnetic order which persists to temperatures as high as 739 K. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicate that Cu is in a +2 state. Ab initio calculations also show that the ferromagnetic ordering is energetically favorable in Cu doped GaP. When the spin-orbit coupling is included we get an enhanced total magnetic moment of 0.31 muB with a local moment on Cu 0.082 and on P 0.204 mu{sub B}. per atom.

Owens, F. J.; Gupta, A.; Rao, K. V.; Iqbal, Z.; Osorio Guillen, J. M.; Ahuja, R.; Guo, J.-H.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys  

SciTech Connect

High strength, high conductivity copper alloys are prime candidates for high heat flux applications in fusion energy systems. This chapter reviews the physical and mechanical properties of pure copper and copper alloys with the focus on precipitation-hardened CuCrZr and dispersion-strengthened CuAl25 alloys. The effect of neutron irradiation on copper and copper alloys is reviewed in terms of radiation effects on physical properties and mechanical properties (tensile properties, fracture toughness, fatigue and creep-fatigue), irradiation creep and void swelling. The effect of irradiation on the microstructure of copper and copper alloys and dislocation channeling is also presented. Joining techniques for copper alloys in fusion plasma facing components are briefly discussed.

Li, Meimei [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zinkle, Steven J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Microwave sintering of nanophase ceramics without concomitant grain growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of sintering nanocrystalline material is disclosed wherein the nanocrystalline material is microwaved to heat the material to a temperature less than about 70% of the melting point of the nanocrystalline material expressed in degrees K. This method produces sintered nanocrystalline material having a density greater than about 95% of theoretical and an average grain size not more than about 3 times the average grain size of the nanocrystalline material before sintering. Rutile TiO[sub 2] as well as various other ceramics have been prepared. Grain growth of as little as 1.67 times has resulted with densities of about 90% of theoretical.

Eastman, J.A.; Sickafus, K.E.; Katz, J.D.

1991-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Spark Plasma Sintering of Fuel Cermets for Nuclear Reactor Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of the fabrication of tungsten based nuclear fuel cermets via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is investigated in this work. CeO2 is used to simulate fuel loadings of UO2 or Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuels within tungsten-based cermets due to the similar properties of these materials. This study shows that after a short time sintering, greater than 90 % density can be achieved, which is suitable to possess good strength as well as the ability to contain fission products. The mechanical properties and the densities of the samples are also investigated as functions of the applied pressures during the sintering.

Yang Zhong; Robert C. O'Brien; Steven D. Howe; Nathan D. Jerred; Kristopher Schwinn; Laura Sudderth; Joshua Hundley

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Effects of composition on sintering of current interconnects in SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sintering behavior of alkaline-earth-substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromites, which are candidates for the current interconnect in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was investigated. Extensive commercialization of SOFC technology may involve co-sintering as a method to reduce production costs. Co-sintering will require that the interconnect material reaches high density (closed porosity) under conditions in which the air-electrode material, a manganite, maintains substantial porosity and remains stable. Therefore, ideal chromite compositions are those that attain greater than 94% of theoretical density in high PO{sub 2} atmosphere at temperatures near or below 1400{degree}C.

Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Effects of composition on sintering of current interconnects in SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sintering behavior of alkaline-earth-substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromites, which are candidates for the current interconnect in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was investigated. Extensive commercialization of SOFC technology may involve co-sintering as a method to reduce production costs. Co-sintering will require that the interconnect material reaches high density (closed porosity) under conditions in which the air-electrode material, a manganite, maintains substantial porosity and remains stable. Therefore, ideal chromite compositions are those that attain greater than 94% of theoretical density in high PO[sub 2] atmosphere at temperatures near or below 1400[degree]C.

Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Sintering Kinetics of SPS Tungsten and Tungsten-Ceria Cermets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution · AlGaAs-Based Optical ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC ... Enhancing Mineral Beneficiation by High Intensity Power Ultrasound.

114

Accuracy Analysis and Improvement for Direct Laser Sintering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accuracy issue of a rapid prototyping-direct laser sintering system is studied in this paper. The sources of errors are analyzed for their contribution to the final accuracy of built parts. The error sources are related ...

Tang, Y.

115

Electrical Properties and Sintering Characteristics of Bi-Doped ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Properties and Sintering Characteristics of Bi-Doped Gd2Zr2O7 Powders. Author(s), Jose A. Diaz-Guillen, Esmeralda Mendoza-Mendoza, Antonio F. Fuentes.

116

Spark Plasma Sintering of SiC-SiO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Spark Plasma Sintering of SiC-SiO2 Composites with CVD SiO2 Coated SiC Powder. Author(s), Zhenhua He, Hirokazu Katsui, Rong Tu, ...

117

High adherence copper plating process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

Nignardot, H.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

118

High adherence copper plating process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

Mignardot, H.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Investigation of Micro Porosity Sintered wick in Vapor Chamber for Fan Less Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Micro Porosity Sintered wick is made from metal injection molding processes, which provides a wick density with micro scale. It can keep more than 53 % working fluid inside the wick structure, and presents good pumping ability on working fluid transmission by fine infiltrated effect. Capillary pumping ability is the important factor in heat pipe design, and those general applications on wick structure are manufactured with groove type or screen type. Gravity affects capillary of these two types more than a sintered wick structure does, and mass heat transfer through vaporized working fluid determines the thermal performance of a vapor chamber. First of all, high density of porous wick supports high transmission ability of working fluid. The wick porosity is sintered in micro scale, which limits the bubble size while working fluid vaporizing on vapor section. Maximum heat transfer capacity increases dramatically as thermal resistance of wick decreases. This study on permeability design of wick structure is 0.5 - 0.7, especially permeability (R) = 0.5 can have the best performance, and its heat conductivity is 20 times to a heat pipe with diameter (Phi) = 10mm. Test data of this vapor chamber shows thermal performance increases over 33 %.

C. S. Yu; W. C. Wei; S. W. Kang

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

120

Microwave combustion and sintering without isostatic pressure  

SciTech Connect

In recent years interest has grown rapidly in the application of microwave energy to the processing of ceramics, composites, polymers, and other materials. Advances in the understanding of microwave/materials interactions will facilitate the production of new ceramic materials with superior mechanical properties. One application of particular interest is the use of microwave energy for the mobilization of uranium for subsequent redeposition. Phase III (FY98) will focus on the microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration tests for mobilization and redeposition of radioactive species in the mixed sludge waste. Uranium hexachloride and uranium (IV) borohydride are volatile compounds for which the chemical vapor infiltration procedure might be developed for the separation of uranium. Microwave heating characterized by an inverse temperature profile within a preformed ceramic matrix will be utilized for CVI using a carrier gas. Matrix deposition is expected to commence from the inside of the sample where the highest temperature is present. The preform matrix materials, which include aluminosilicate based ceramics and silicon carbide based ceramics, are all amenable to extreme volume reduction, densification, and vitrification. Important parameters of microwave sintering such as frequency, power requirement, soaking temperature, and holding time will be investigated to optimize process conditions for the volatilization of uranyl species using a reactive carrier gas in a microwave chamber.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Beryllium-Copper Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 12   Room-temperature corrosion properties of beryllium-copper...not recommended Atmosphere Industrial Marine Rural Water Fresh Softened Brine Sewage Gas (dry) Chlorine Oxygen/ozone Carbon dioxide Sulfur dioxide Ammonia Fuel gases Acetylene Organic compounds Most organic acids Alcohols Ketones Chlorinated solvents Fuels Lubricating/hydraulic oils Pyridine...

122

Sintered Reaction Bonded Silicon Parts by Microwave Nitridation Combined with Gas-Pressure Sintering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cooperative project was a joint development program between Ceradyne and Oak Ridge National Laboratory through Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER). Cooperative work was of benefit to both parties. ORNL was able to assess the effect of the microwave nitridation process coupled with gas-pressure sintering for fabrication of parts for advanced diesel engines. Ceradyne gained access to gelcasting expertise and microwave facilities and experience for the nitridation of SRBSN materials. The broad objective of the CRADA between Ceradyne and OIWL was to (1) examine the applicability of the gelcasting technology to fabricate parts from SRBSN, and (2) to assess the effect of the microwave nitridation of silicon process coupled with gas-pressure sintering for fabrication of parts for advanced diesel engines. The following conclusions can be made from the work performed under the CRADA: (1) Gelcasting is a viable method to fabricate SRBSN parts using Ceradyne Si mixtures. However, the technique requires further development prior to being put into commercial use. (2) Microwave heating can be utilized to nitride multiple SRBSN parts. Scale-up of the process to fabricate several kilograms of material (up to 6 kg) per furnace run was demonstrated.

Kiggans, J.O.; Mikijelj, B.; Tiegs, T.N.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Void trapping of hydrogen in sintered iron  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of void trapping of hydrogen in iron was studied using the gas-phase permeation technique. Iron membranes of controlled void density, varying from 92% to 98% were prepared by press and sintering of electrolytic iron powder. The presence of internal voids showed no effect on the steady state flux of hydrogen through the membrane. The effective diffusivity, obtained by the time lag method, increased with the increase of input hydrogen partial pressure. This disagreement with the prediction of the theory in literature was explained by the existence of hydrogen in both the diatomic gaseous form and as adsorbed hydrogen. This explanation was further confirmed by examining the dependence of trapped hydrogen concentration with pressure. The linear dependence of trapped hydrogen concentration in voids with external hydrogen partial pressure for samples of 96%, 94% and 92% dense were given respectively by C/sub g/ = (1.5 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 15/ P + (3.2 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 14/ atoms of H/c.c. C/sub g/ = (2.1 +- 0.6) x 10/sup 15/ P + (1.7 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 15/ atoms of H/c.c. C/sub g/ = (4.5 +- 0.3) x 10/sup 15/ P + (6.5 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 15/ atoms of H/c.c. The discrepancy between the reported values and the values predicted by theory was explained by the poisoning of some of the voids by surface oxides.

Wong, K.C.

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

Not Available

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

* * ?a, a5 fF#LG 44 it .L &=d ,,*, " ~=iL.oeL~~ KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION 101 EAST 42.. STREET $7/$ ,2 : -$ NEW YORU 17, N. Y. AND KOPPERS COMPAN,Y, INC. KOppERS B",'o,,,,G PITTSBURGH 19. PA. Classification Officer, OR0 October ,30, l!% ?!r. S. R. Saptile, Mmagez Oak Ridge Operations Office II. S. Atomic Enerfg Comission P. 0. BOX R. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Attention; Hr. John It. Moore, Director Contract Dltisloa Subjects Addendum (A) to F~oposal for a Feed Materials Processing Plant, dated September 27, WS6 Dear !&. Moore: In the proposal for a feed materials proce.esGg plaut for the production of uranium hexafluoride that uas submitted ~olntly by, Koppers Cm, Inc. and Kennecott Copper Corporation uuder dateof September 27, W%, we described a

126

Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

127

Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering  

SciTech Connect

Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

Dr. Paul A. Lessing

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Method and device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave sintering system and method are provided for extremely uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shaped ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing through an overmoded waveguide arrangement which acts in conjunction with a mode promoter within the cavity to achieve unexpected field uniformity. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200.degree. C./min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent of non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered.

Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

A device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave sintering system is provided for uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shapes ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200/degree/C/min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent on non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered. 1 fig.

Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

1987-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

130

Clayey Ceramic Incorporated with Powder from the Sintering Plant ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing a Collaborative System for Socio-Environmental Management of Industrial Waste · Differential Removal of Copper and Iron from Acidic Polymetallic ...

131

SOFC chromite sintering and electrolyte/air-electrode interface reactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air sintering of chromites was investigated in La(Sr)CrO{sub 3}, La(Ca)CrO{sub 3}, and Y(Ca)CrO{sub 3}. Effects of alkaline earth dopant level and chromium enrichment/depletion on chromite sintered densities and microstructures are discussed. Ac impedance spectroscopy and dc polarization coupled with an unbonded interface cell were used to examine SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells) electrochemical reactions at solid-solid-gas interfaces, particularly for La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}. 5 refs.

Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Youngblood, G.E.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

SOFC chromite sintering and electrolyte/air-electrode interface reactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air sintering of chromites was investigated in La(Sr)CrO[sub 3], La(Ca)CrO[sub 3], and Y(Ca)CrO[sub 3]. Effects of alkaline earth dopant level and chromium enrichment/depletion on chromite sintered densities and microstructures are discussed. Ac impedance spectroscopy and dc polarization coupled with an unbonded interface cell were used to examine SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells) electrochemical reactions at solid-solid-gas interfaces, particularly for La[sub 1-x]Sr[sub x]MnO[sub 3]. 5 refs.

Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Youngblood, G.E.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents. 6 figures.

Hoffman, D.J.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents.

Hoffman, Daniel J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Transparent yttrium aluminium garnet obtained by spark plasma sintering of lyophilized gels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lyophilized YAG gel, synthesized by the coprecipitation technique, has been sintered to transparency by spark plasma sintering method at 1500°C. Whereas conventionally dried gels show large agglomerates, over 1 µm, powders from lyophilized ...

M. Suárez; A. Fernández; J. L. Menéndez; R. Torrecillas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 054103 (2011) Diffusive molecular dynamics and its application to nanoindentation and sintering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be sensitively controlled by the remnant debris of prior diffusional plasticity. B. Sintering To apply DMD to hot

Chen, Sow-Hsin

137

Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

1987-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, Milton (12833 S. 82nd Ct., Palos Park, IL 60464); Sinha, Shome N. (5748 Drexel, 2A, Chicago, IL 60637)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Copper 99/Cobre 99: Exhibition Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meeting will build on the success of three preceding conferences: Copper 87 , held in Vina del Mar, Chile; Copper 91/Cobre 91, held in Ottawa, Canada; and ...

142

Copper 99/Cobre 99: Accommodations Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meeting will build on the success of three preceding conferences: Copper 87 , held in Vina del Mar, Chile; Copper 91/Cobre 91, held in Ottawa, Canada; and ...

143

Fabricating Dielecric Ceramic Films on Copper Foils  

Industries Electronics Fabricating Dielectric Ceramic Films on Copper Foils (IN-09-006) Ceramic film capacitors built on a copper foil being tested on ...

144

Technical Developments and Improvements in Xstrata Copper ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-Site Speaker (Planned), Pengfu Tan. Abstract Scope, Xstrata Copper Smelter at Mount Isa in Australia has operated one copper Isasmelt furnace, two Rotary ...

145

Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte, substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell. 2 figs.

Vasilow, T.R.; Kuo, L.J.H.; Ruka, R.J.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

PREPARATION OF COMPACTS MADE FROM URANIUM AND BERYLLIUM BY SINTERING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powder metallurgical method for making high-density compacts of uranium and beryllium is reported. Powdered UBe/sub 9/ and powdered Be are blended, compacted, and then sintered by rapidly heating to a temperature of approximately 1220 to 1280 deg C in an inert atmosphere.

Angier, R.P.

1961-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

147

Analysis of sintering process by the mathematical model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model of sintering process has been developed, in which considerations have been given to the combustion of coke, drying process of solid, the composition of lime stone and the melting and solidifying process of iron ore. Variations of ... Keywords: Numerical integration, Packed-bed simulation, Partial defferential equation

Juzo Shibata

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

It's Elemental - The Element Copper  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nickel Nickel Previous Element (Nickel) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Zinc) Zinc The Element Copper [Click for Isotope Data] 29 Cu Copper 63.546 Atomic Number: 29 Atomic Weight: 63.546 Melting Point: 1357.77 K (1084.62°C or 1984.32°F) Boiling Point: 2835 K (2562°C or 4644°F) Density: 8.933 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 11 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word cuprum, which means "from the island of Cyprus." Say what? Copper is pronounced as KOP-er. History and Uses: Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been using copper for at least 11,000 years. Relatively easy to mine and refine, people discovered methods for extracting copper from its ores at least 7,000 years ago. The

149

Copper and Zinc Metallation Status of Copper Zinc Superoxide Dismutase form Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mutations in the metalloenzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause one form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and metals are suspected to play a pivotal role in ALS pathology. To learn more about metals in ALS, we determined the metallation states of human wild-type or mutant (G37R, G93A, and H46R/H48Q) SOD1 proteins from SOD1-ALS transgenic mice spinal cords. SOD1 was gently extracted from spinal cord and separated into insoluble (aggregated) and soluble (supernatant) fractions, and then metallation states were determined by HPLC inductively coupled plasma MS. Insoluble SOD1-rich fractions were not enriched in copper and zinc. However, the soluble mutant and WT SOD1s were highly metallated except for the metal-binding-region mutant H46R/H48Q, which did not bind any copper. Due to the stability conferred by high metallation of G37R and G93A, it is unlikely that these soluble SOD1s are prone to aggregation in vivo, supporting the hypothesis that immature nascent SOD1 is the substrate for aggregation. We also investigated the effect of SOD1 overexpression and disease on metal homeostasis in spinal cord cross-sections of SOD1-ALS mice using synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. In each mouse genotype, except for the H46R/H48Q mouse, we found a redistribution of copper between gray and white matters correlated to areas of high SOD1. Interestingly, a disease-specific increase of zinc was observed in the white matter for all mutant SOD1 mice. Together these data provide a picture of copper and zinc in the cell as well as highlight the importance of these metals in understanding SOD1-ALS pathology.

Lelie, H.L.; Miller, L.; Liba, A.; Bourassa, M.W.; Chattopadhyay, M.; Chan, P.K.; Gralla, E.B.; Borchelt, D.R.; et al

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

150

Sintering Effects on Morphology, Thermal Stability and Surface Area of Sol-Gel Derived Nano-Hydroxyapatite Powder  

SciTech Connect

Hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramics have been recognized as substitute materials for bone and teeth in orthopedic and dentistry field due to their chemical and biological similarity to human hard tissue. The nanosized and nanocrystalline forms of HAP have great potential to revolutionize the hard tissue-engineering field, starting from bone repair and augmentation to controlled drug delivery systems. This paper reports the synthesis of biomimetic nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) by sol-gel method using calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (CNT) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively to obtain a desired Ca/P ratio of 1.67. Deionized water was used as a diluting media for HAP sol preparation and ammonia was used to adjust the pH to 11. After aging, the HAP gel was dried at 55 deg. C and sintered to different temperatures (200 deg. C, 400 deg. C, 600 deg. C, 800 deg. C, 1000 deg. C and 1200 deg. C). The dried and sintered powders were characterized for phase composition using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The particle size and morphology was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior of the dried HAP nanopowder was studied in the temperature range of 55 deg. C to 1000 deg. C using thermal gravimetric analyser (TGA). The BET surface area of absorbance was determined by Nitrogen adsorption using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The presence of characteristic peaks of the phosphate and OH groups in FTIR spectrums confirmed the formation of pure HAP in dried as well as sintered powders. XRD results also confirmed the formation of stoichiometric nano-HAP. Sintering revealed that with increase in temperature, both the crystallinity and crystallite size of nano-HAP particles increased. The synthesized nano-HAP powder was found to be stable upto 1000 deg. C without any additional phase other than HAP, whereas peak of {beta}-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) was observed at 1200 deg. C. Photomicrograph of TEM showed that the nanopowder sintered at 600 deg. C is composed of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (26.0-45.6 nm), which is well in agreement with the crystallite size calculated using XRD data. TGA study showed the thermal stability of the synthesized nano-HAP powder. The BET surface area decreased with increase in sintering temperature.

Kapoor, Seema [University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Batra, Uma [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India); Kohli, Suchita [University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chd. (India)

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

151

Microstructural Characterization of Sintered Fe-Mn-Si Based Shape ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How to Control Strength and Grain Structure of 304L Stainless Steel during Forging · Improved ... Process Modeling and Reduction of Copper Loss in Smelting Slag ... Use of Polymeric Residues from the Footwear Industry in Layers of Asphalt ...

152

Vickers microindentation toughness of a sintered SiC in the median-crack regime  

SciTech Connect

The Vickers microindentation method for the determination of the fracture toughness of ceramics was investigated in the median crack regime for a sintered alpha SiC. The results are compared with fracture toughness measurements by conventional fracture mechanics technique and also with the reported indentation toughness for the low-load Palmqvist crack regime. Indentation toughnesses in the median crack regime vary widely depending on the choice of the specific equation which is applied. The indentation toughnesses are also load (crack length) dependent. A decreasing R-curve trend results, in contradiction to the flat R-curve that has been observed with conventional fracture mechanics techniques. It is concluded that the Vickers microindentation method is not a reliable technique for the determination of the fracture toughness of ceramics in the median crack regime.

Ghosh, Asish; Kobayashi, A.S. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Coll. of Engineering); Li, Zhuang (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Henager, C.H. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Bradt, R.C. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

Copper Palladium Hydrogen Separation Membranes  

This patent-pending technology, “Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance,” consists of copper-palladium alloy compositions for hydrogen separation membranes that use less palladium and have a ...

155

Scaling Theory and Numerical Simulations of Aerogel Sintering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple scaling theory for the sintering of fractal aerogels is presented. The densification at small scales is described by an increase of the lower cut-off length a accompanied by a decrease of the upper cut-off length ?, in order to conserve the total mass of the system. Scaling laws are derived which predict how a, ? and the specific pore surface area ? should depend on the density ?. Following the general ideas of the theory, numerical simulations of sintering are proposed starting from computer simulations of aerogel structure based on a diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation gelling process. The numerical results for a, ? and ? as a function of ? are discussed according to the initial aerogel density. The scaling theory is only fully recovered in the limit of very low density where the original values of a and ? are well separated. These numerical results are compared with experiments on partially densified aerogels.

Rémi Jullien; Nathalie Olivi-tran; Anwar Hasmy; Thierry Woignier; Daniel Bourret; Robert Sempéré

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite. 2 figs.

Plucknett, K.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

157

Unexpected role of the copper transporter ATP7A in PDGF-induced vascular smooth  

SciTech Connect

Copper, an essential nutrient, has been implicated in vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis with unknown mechanism. Bioavailability of intracellular copper is regulated not only by the copper importer CTR1 (copper transporter 1) but also by the copper exporter ATP7A (Menkes ATPase), whose function is achieved through copper-dependent translocation from trans-Golgi network (TGN). Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a key component of neointimal formation. To determine the role of copper transporter ATP7A in PDGF-induced VSMC migration. Depletion of ATP7A inhibited VSMC migration in response to PDGF or wound scratch in a CTR1/copper-dependent manner. PDGF stimulation promoted ATP7A translocation from the TGN to lipid rafts, which localized at the leading edge, where it colocalized with PDGF receptor and Rac1, in migrating VSMCs. Mechanistically, ATP7A small interfering RNA or CTR small interfering RNA prevented PDGF-induced Rac1 translocation to the leading edge, thereby inhibiting lamellipodia formation. In addition, ATP7A depletion prevented a PDGF-induced decrease in copper level and secretory copper enzyme precursor prolysyl oxidase (Pro-LOX) in lipid raft fraction, as well as PDGF-induced increase in LOX activity. In vivo, ATP7A expression was markedly increased and copper accumulation was observed by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy at neointimal VSMCs in wire injury model. These findings suggest that ATP7A plays an important role in copper-dependent PDGF-stimulated VSMC migration via recruiting Rac1 to lipid rafts at the leading edge, as well as regulating LOX activity. This may contribute to neointimal formation after vascular injury. Our findings provide insight into ATP7A as a novel therapeutic target for vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis.

Ashino, T.; Varadarajan, S.; Urao, N.; Oshikawa, J.; Chen, G. -F.; Wang, H.; Huo, Y.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; McKinney, R. D.; Maryon, E. B.; Kaplan, J. H.; Ushio-Fukai, M.; Fukai, T. (Biosciences Division); ( XSD); ( PSC-USR); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago); (Univ. of Minnesota)

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

158

Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Maikel (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Nekuda, Jennifer A. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Chromated Copper Arsenate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Peter S. Nico1, Scott E. Fendorf2, Yvette W. Lowney3, Stewart E. Holm4, and Michael V. Ruby3 Peter S. Nico1, Scott E. Fendorf2, Yvette W. Lowney3, Stewart E. Holm4, and Michael V. Ruby3 1Chemistry Department, Cal State University, Stanislaus, Turlock, CA 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 3Exponent, Boulder, CO 4Georgia-Pacific Corporation, Atlanta, Georgia wood playground In recent years, regulatory and public attention has become focused on the potential risks associated with exposure to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood - the most widely used wood treatment product in the United States. CCA has been used to treat lumber for over 60 years (1), mainly because of the extended lifetime of CCA-treated wood as compared to untreated wood (2-5) and the higher costs of non-wood alternatives. Since the late 1980s, U.S. production of CCA-treated wood has averaged

160

Pressureless Sintering of Si3N4/SiC Nanopowders Prepared by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) · Advances in Synthesis and Densification of Heterogeneous Materials · Application of Metal Injection ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fundamentals of Spark-Plasma Sintering: Net-Shaping and Size ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Net-shaping capabilities and size effects on spark-plasma sintering are analysed both theoretically and experimentally. Modeling and experimentation are ...

162

On the Role of Electric Current in Spark Plasma Sintering of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The experimental results are interpreted in the framework of the developed constitutive model of the spark-plasma sintering of conductive powders, taking into ...

163

Mechanical Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered ZrC-SiC Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) · Advances in Synthesis and Densification of Heterogeneous Materials · Application of Metal Injection ...

164

Spark Plasma Sintering of Tungsten-Rhenium Alloys for Very High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the tungsten-rhenium microstructure was optimized using alternative techniques such as high energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering, which ...

165

Infrared Radiation Properties of CuO-ZnO-Based Sintered Material ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Infrared Radiation Properties of CuO-ZnO-Based Sintered Material Prepared for Energy-Saving Coating. Author(s), Chao Lian, Wei Wei, Hao ...

166

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated. 7 figs.

Khan, M.R.

1989-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

167

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Tribo-Chemical Modeling of Copper CMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRIBO-CHEMICAL MODELING OF COPPER CMP Shantanu Tripathi 1 ,an integrated tribo-chemical model of copper CMP thatThe role of glycine in the chemical mechanical planarization

Tripathi, Shantanu; Doyle, Fiona; Dornfeld, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

METHOD OF PREPARING SINTERED ZIRCONIUM METAL FROM ITS HYDRIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to the preparation of metal shapes from zirconium hydride by powder metallurgical techniques. The zirconium hydride powder which is to be used for this purpose can be prepared by rendering massive pieces of crystal bar zirconium friable by heat treatment in purified hydrogen. This any then be ground into powder and powder can be handled in the air without danger of it igniting. It may then be compacted in the normal manner by being piaced in a die. The compact is sintered under vacuum conditions preferably at a temperature ranging from 1200 to 1300 deg C and for periods of one to three hours.

Angier, R.P.

1958-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

170

Synthesis and Optimization of the Sintering Kinetics of Actinide Nitrides  

SciTech Connect

Research conducted for this NERI project has advanced the understanding and feasibility of nitride nuclear fuel processing. In order to perform this research, necessary laboratory infrastructure was developed; including basic facilities and experimental equipment. Notable accomplishments from this project include: the synthesis of uranium, dysprosium, and cerium nitrides using a novel, low-cost mechanical method at room temperature; the synthesis of phase pure UN, DyN, and CeN using thermal methods; and the sintering of UN and (Ux, Dy1-x)N (0.7 ? X ? 1) pellets from phase pure powder that was synthesized in the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Boise State University.

Drryl P. Butt; Brian Jaques

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

Guidelines for Copper in Fossil Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For fossil plant units with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems, copper has a major influence on availability and performance at a number of cycle locations-feedwater, boiler, and high pressure turbine. Recent utility experiences with severe copper turbine fouling and other related problems illustrate the need to improve the understanding of copper around the plant and develop a set of guidelines for copper control.

2000-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

172

Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (La Canada, CA); Koliwad, Krishna M. (La Canada, CA); Daud, Taher (La Crescenta, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquefying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper. 6 figs.

Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

174

Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquifying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

175

Copper Removal from Molybdenite by Sulfidation-Leaching Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Annealing of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering · Characterisation of ... Purification of Indium by Vacuum Distillation.

176

Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO[sub 3], containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590 C to 950 C in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O[sub 2] to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m[sup 2]/g. 2 figs.

Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO.sub.3, containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590.degree. C. to 950 C. in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O.sub.2 to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m.sup.2 /g.

Richards, Von L. (Murrysville, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Design of a digital management system for the sintering material ground  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are many kinds and a large number of raw materials in the sintering material ground to be managed, while it is difficult to obtain the precise inventory values, which often leads to high cost. Furthermore, the external factors of material ground ... Keywords: Digital, management system., optimization methods, prediction methods, sintering material ground

Yan Cai; Min Wu; Jin-Ni Zhou; Xin Chen

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Effect of particle morphology on sinterability of SiC-ZrO2 in microwave  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of particle morphology on the sinterability of microwave-sintered SiC-ZrO2 was evaluated in this paper. A comparison was alsomade against the electric furnace and resulted in faster heating rate because of the difference of heat ...

Lydia Anggraini; Kei Ameyama

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Tetraphenylphosphonium copper(I) dicyanamide.  

SciTech Connect

In the title compound, {l_brace}(C{sub 24}H{sub 20}P)[Cu(C{sub 2}N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}, the copper(I) dicyanamide anion forms a distorted three-dimensional single diamondoid network. Templating tetraphenylphosphonium cations reside within the cavities of the polymeric anion.

Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Materials Science Division

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

Coffinberry, A.S.

1959-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

183

Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana Air Pollution, and the Courts, 1890-1920  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana Air Pollution,Donald MacMillan. Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana AirWashoe Copper Company and Anaconda Copper Mining Company).

Stirling, Dale A.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Determination and Optimization Best Condition for Bioleaching of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination and Optimization Best Condition for Bioleaching of Sulfide Low Grade Copper Ore by Using DOE(Design of Experimental) ...

186

Studying the sintering behavior of BeO{sub x}-SiC{sub 1-x} Composite ceramic Material  

SciTech Connect

The sintering behavior for BeO-SiC compacts composite ceramic at different sintering temperatures in air were conducted, resulting data indicated that the percentage of SiC (Wt% 5) sintered at 800 C deg. lead to higher sintering density of (1.80 gm/cm3). The x-ray diffraction pattern analysis indicated nothing change concerning the crystal structure. Microstructure development has been studied as a function SiC content. Silicon carbide found to be suppressed the sinter ability of the matrix BeO powder.

Issa, Tarik Talib [Department of physics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Jadiriya, Baghdad (Iraq)

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

187

Phase evolution in carbide dispersion strengthened nanostructured copper composite by high energy ball milling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, high-energy ball milling was applied to synthesis in situ nanostructured copper based composite reinforced with metal carbides. Cu, M (M=W or Ti) and graphite powder mixture were mechanically alloyed for various milling time in a planetary ball mill with composition of Cu-20vol%WC and Cu-20vol%TiC. Then the as-milled powder were compacted at 200 to 400 MPa and sintered in a vacuum furnace at 900 Degree-Sign C. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that formation of tungsten carbides (W{sub 2}C and WC phases) was observed after sintering of Cu-W-C mixture while TiC precipitated in as-milled powder of Cu-Ti-C composite after 5 h and become amorphous with longer milling. Mechanism of MA explained the cold welding and fracturing event during milling. Cu-W-C system shows fracturing event is more dominant at early stage of milling and W particle still existed after milling up to 60 h. While in Cu-Ti-C system, cold welding is more dominant and all Ti particles dissolved into Cu matrix.

Hussain, Zuhailawati; Nur Hawadah, M. S. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

188

Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Pressurless sintering of Al2O3-SiC nano composites and effect of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution · AlGaAs-Based Optical ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC ... Enhancing Mineral Beneficiation by High Intensity Power Ultrasound.

190

Fundamental Mechanisms of Copper CMP – Passivation Kinetics of Copper in CMP Slurry Constituents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Planarization (CMP) – Fundamental Investigations andSociety 1157-E06-02 Fundamental Mechanisms of Copper CMP –

Tripathi, Shantanu; Doyle, F M; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Mechanical Behavior of Bulk Nanocrystalline Copper Alloys ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Mechanical Behavior of Bulk Nanocrystalline Copper Alloys Produced by High Energy Ball Milling. Author(s), Hamed Bahmanpour, Khaled M.

192

Available Technologies: Surface-Modified Copper Current ...  

A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed an innovative approach to improve the adhesion of anode laminate to copper current collectors in ...

193

Bioleaching and electrobioleaching of low grade copper sulfide ore ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Low grade Copper sulfide ore of Sarcheshmeh copper mine of Iran was leached using bioleaching mode and electrobioleaching mode.

194

Increased cycling efficiency and rate capability of copper-coated...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cycling efficiency and rate capability of copper-coated silicon anodes in lithium-ion batteries Title Increased cycling efficiency and rate capability of copper-coated silicon...

195

All Copper Flip-Chip Interconnect - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A novel flip-chip technology using electroless copper deposition has been used to produce all-copper, chip-to-substrate interconnect.

196

Minor Element Distributions in Mount Isa Copper Smelter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-Site Speaker (Planned), Pengfu Tan. Abstract Scope, Xstrata Copper Smelter at Mount Isa in Australia has operated one copper Isasmelt furnace, two Rotary ...

197

Tribological and mechanical comparison of sintered and HIPped PM212 - high temperature self-lubricating composites  

SciTech Connect

Selected tribological, mechanical and thermophysical properties of two versions of PM212 (sintered and hot isostatically pressed, HIPped) are compared. PM212, a high temperature self-lubricating composite, contains 70 wt percent metal bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent CaF2/BaF2 eutectic and 15 wt percent silver. PM212 in the sintered form is about 80 percent dense and has previously been shown to have good tribological properties from room temperature to 850 C. Tribological results of a fully densified, HIPped version of PM212 are given. They are compared to sintered PM212. In addition, selected mechanical and thermophysical properties of both types of PM212 are discussed and related to the tribological similarities and differences between the two PM212 composites. In general, both composites display similar friction and wear properties. However, the fully dense PM212 HIPped composite exhibits slight lower friction and wear than sintered PM212. This may be attributed to its generally higher strength properties. The sintered version displays stable wear properties over a wide load range indicating its promise for use in a variety of applications. Based upon their properties, both the sintered and HIPped PM212 have potential as bearing and seal materials for advanced high temperature applications. 12 refs.

Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H.E.; Bogdanski, M.S. (NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States) Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

EFFECTIVENESS OF COPPER AND BRONZE FOR ZINC CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was conducted to determine the efficacy of using copper and bronze sheet and screen under high vacuum conditions to capture zinc vapor. The experiments were conducted in a parametric manner using a fixed zinc vaporization temperature (350°C) but varying the filter temperature from ambient to 550°C. Consistent with previous work, metallic zinc was deposited at low temperatures, but the deposit was non?adherent. At an intermediate temperature range (350?450°C), the deposit formed an alloy with both copper and bronze materials. At higher temperatures (> 500°C) the zinc did not deposit on the surfaces likely due to its high vapor pressure. Additional testing to optimize the zinc 'getter' chemistry and surface condition is warranted.

Korinko, P. S.

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

The New Face of Protein-bound Copper: The Type Zero Copper Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The New Face of Protein-bound Copper: The The New Face of Protein-bound Copper: The Type Zero Copper Site Nature adapts copper ions to a multitude of tasks, yet in doing so forces the metal into only a few different electronic structures [1]. Mononuclear copper sites observed in native proteins either adopt the type 1 (T1) or type 2 (T2) electronic structure. T1 sites exhibit intense charge-transfer absorption giving rise to their alternate title, blue copper sites, due to highly covalent coordination by a thiol ligand donated by a cysteine sidechain in their host proteins. This interaction has consequences for the spectroscopic features of the protein, but more importantly gives rise to dramatic enhancement of electron transfer activity. T2 sites on the other hand resemble more closely aqueous copper(II) ions, and are found in catalytic domains rather than electron transfer sites.

200

Thermal Conductivity of Wood-Derived Graphite and Copper-Graphite  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of wood-derived graphite and graphite/copper composites was studied both experimentally and using finite element analysis. The unique, naturally-derived, anisotropic porosity inherent to wood-derived carbon makes standard porosity-based approximations for thermal conductivity poor estimators. For this reason, a finite element technique which uses sample microstructure as model input was utilized to determine the conductivity of the carbon phase independent of porosity. Similar modeling techniques were also applied to carbon/copper composite microstructures and predicted conductivities were compared to those determined via experiment.

Johnson, M. T. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Childers, Amanda [Northwestern University, Evanston; Ramírez-Rico, J. [Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Spain; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Faber, K. T. [Northwestern University, Evanston

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li{sub 2}O-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The research in this thesis covers the design and implementation of a depleted uranium (DU) powder production system and the initial results of a DU-Zr-Mg alloy alpha phase sintering experiment where the Mg is a surrogate for Pu and Am. The powder production system utilized the uranium hydrogen interaction in order to break down larger pieces of uranium into fine powder. After several iterations, a successful reusable system was built. The nominal size of the powder product was on the order of 1 to 3 mm. The resulting uranium powder was pressed into pellets of various compositions (DU, DU-10Zr, DU-Mg, DU-10Zr-Mg) and heated to approximately 650?C, just below the alphabeta phase transition of uranium. The dimensions of the pellets were measured before and after heating and in situ dimension changes were measured using a linear variable differential transducer (LVDT). Post experiment measurement of the pellets proved to be an unreliable indicator of sintering do the cracking of the pellets during cool down. The cracking caused increases in the diameter and height of the samples. The cracks occurred in greater frequency along the edges of the pellets. All of the pellets, except the DU-10Zr-Mg pellet, were slightly conical in shape. This is believed to be an artifact of the powder pressing procedure. A greater density occurs on one end of the pellet during pressing and thus leads to gradient in the sinter rate of the pellet. The LVDT measurements proved to be extremely sensitive to outside vibration, making a subset of the data inappropriate for analysis. The pellets were also analyzed using electron microscopy. All pellets showed signs of sintering and an increase in density. The pellets will the greatest densification and lowest porosity were the DU-Mg and DU-10Zr-Mg. The DU-Mg pellet had a porosity of 14 +or- 2.%. The DU-10Zr-Mg porosity could not be conclusively determined due to lack of clearly visible pores in the image, however there were very few pores indicating a high degree of sintering. In the DU-10Zr-Mg alloy, large grains of DU were surrounded by Zr. This phenomena was not present in the DU-10Zr pellet where the Zr and DU stayed segregated. There was no indication of alloying between the Zr and DU in pellets.

Garnetti, David J.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Copper-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Unactivated Olefins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Activating the inactive: A copper-catalyzed allylic trifluoromethylation of unactivated terminal olefins proceeds under mild conditions to produce linear allylic trifluoromethylated products with high E/Z selectivity (see ...

Parsons, Andrew T.

205

Effect of dispersed calcium fluoride particles on the solubility of molybdenum in iron. [And of Copper in Cobalt  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the results of studying composites containing 20 at. % Mo and 12 vol. % CaF/sub 2/ are presented. A proposed model for the partial ionization of the metal atoms in the zone of contact with calcium fluoride was used to analyze the phase diagrams of the transition elements having limited solubility. The system Co-Cu was found to satisfy best all the conditions of the proposed model. A composite based on cobalt containing 20 at. % Cu and 12.5 vol.% CaF/sub 2/ was prepared. After sintering at 1273/sup 0/K and then quenching in water the solubility limit of copper in cobalt was found to be exceeded by 11 to 13 at. % by x-ray structural and x-ray microspectral analyses.

Shveikin, G.P.; Antsiferov, V.N.; Postnikov, V.S.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

Eller, Phillip G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Copper Deficiency in Blesbok (aliscus pygargus phillipsi) from the Karoo Nature Reserve.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The copper status of blesbok was evaluated by measuring the hepatic and plasma copper concentrations, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. The copper status of blesbok… (more)

Quan, Melvyn

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Sintering of beta-type alumina bodies using alpha-alumina encapsulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of sintering a shaped green, beta-type alumina body comprising: (A) inserting said body into an open chamber prepared by exposing the interior surface of a container consisting essentially of at least about 50 weight percent of alpha-alumina and a remainder of other refractory material to a sodium oxide or sodium oxide producing environment; (B) sealing the chamber; and heating the chamber with the shaped body encapsulated therein to a temperature and for a time necessary to sinter said body to the desired density. The encapsulation chamber prepared as described above is also claimed.

McEntire, Bryan J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Midvale, UT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Analysis of copper-rich precipitates in silicon: chemical state,gettering, and impact on multicrystalline silicon solar cellmaterial  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, synchrotron-based x-ray absorption microspectroscopy (mu-XAS) is applied to identifying the chemical states of copper-rich clusters within a variety of silicon materials, including as-grown cast multicrystalline silicon solar cell material with high oxygen concentration and other silicon materials with varying degrees of oxygen concentration and copper contamination pathways. In all samples, copper silicide (Cu3Si) is the only phase of copper identified. It is noted from thermodynamic considerations that unlike certain metal species, copper tends to form a silicide and not an oxidized compound because of the strong silicon-oxygen bonding energy; consequently the likelihood of encountering an oxidized copper particle in silicon is small, in agreement with experimental data. In light of these results, the effectiveness of aluminum gettering for the removal of copper from bulk silicon is quantified via x-ray fluorescence microscopy (mu-XRF),and a segregation coefficient is determined from experimental data to beat least (1-2)'103. Additionally, mu-XAS data directly demonstrates that the segregation mechanism of Cu in Al is the higher solubility of Cu in the liquid phase. In light of these results, possible limitations for the complete removal of Cu from bulk mc-Si are discussed.

Buonassisi, Tonio; Marcus, Matthew A.; Istratov, Andrei A.; Heuer, Matthias; Ciszek, Theodore F.; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Weber,Eicke R.

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

210

A two-stage intelligent optimization system for the raw slurry preparing process of alumina sintering production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The raw slurry preparing is a key process to guarantee product for alumina sintering production. To obtain the qualified raw slurry in the presence of uncertainty, a two-stage intelligent optimization system, which weakens uncertainty effects through ... Keywords: Alumina sintering production, Expert reasoning, Integrated modeling, Intelligent optimization, Raw slurry preparing, Uncertainty

Chunhua Yang; Weihua Gui; Lingshuang Kong; Yalin Wang

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori [Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Jones, Edward (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Copper and copper alloys for fusion reactor applications: summary report of a DOE-OFE workshop  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fusion Energy of the US Department of Energy convened a workshop in April 1983 to review the needs for copper and copper alloys in fusion device applications. The adequacy of the data base on these materials was examined, and recommendations were developed for experimental programs needed to fill identified data gaps. The workshop results are available in a conference proceedings.

Wiffen, F.W.; Reuther, T.C.; Gold, R.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/IG of the Raman spectra (red line in Fig. 6a) taken from the graphene grown on high purity Cu (99.999%) is above 3Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition determining the growth of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition

215

Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

Jernigan, G.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Effects of Fuel's Distribution on NOx Emissions in Iron Ore Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The law of NOx emission in the sintering process indicates that the NOx mainly emits ... Effects of Reducer and Slag Concentrations in the Iron-carbon Nuggets ... Factors Affecting the Mixing Characteristics of Molten Steel in the RH Refining Process ... Simulation Calculation on Calciotherimic Reduction of Titanium Dioxide.

217

Sintered Bentonite Ceramics for the Immobilization of Cesium- and Strontium-Bearing Radioactive Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is a Department of Energy (DOE) program, that has been investigating technologies to improve fuel cycle sustainability and proliferation resistance. One of the program's goals is to reduce the amount of radioactive waste requiring repository disposal. Cesium and strontium are two primary heat sources during the first 300 years of spent nuclear fuel's decay, specifically isotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90. Removal of these isotopes from spent nuclear fuel will reduce the activity of the bulk spent fuel, reducing the heat given off by the waste. Once the cesium and strontium are separated from the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel, the isotopes must be immobilized. This study is focused on a method to immobilize a cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive liquid waste stream. While there are various schemes to remove these isotopes from spent fuel, this study has focused on a nitric acid based liquid waste. The waste liquid was mixed with the bentonite, dried then sintered. To be effective sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200 degrees C were required, and waste concentrations must be at least 25 wt%. The product is a leach resistant ceramic solid with the waste elements embedded within alumino-silicates and a silicon rich phase. The cesium is primarily incorporated into pollucite and the strontium into a monoclinic feldspar. The simulated waste was prepared from nitrate salts of stable ions. These ions were limited to cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium. Barium and rubidium will be co-extracted during separation due to similar chemical properties to cesium and strontium. The waste liquid was added to the bentonite clay incrementally with drying steps between each addition. The dry powder was pressed and then sintered at various temperatures. The maximum loading tested is 32 wt. percent waste, which refers to 13.9 wt. percent cesium, 12.2 wt. percent barium, 4.1 wt. percent strontium, and 2.0 wt. percent rubidium. Lower loadings of waste were also tested. The final solid product was a hard dense ceramic with a density that varied from 2.12 g/cm3 for a 19% waste loading with a 1200 degrees C sintering temperature to 3.03 g/cm3 with a 29% waste loading and sintered at 1100 degrees C. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (DSC-TGA) of the loaded bentonite displayed mass loss steps which were consistent with water losses in pure bentonite. Water losses were complete after dehydroxylation at ~650 degrees C. No mass losses were evident beyond the dehydroxylation. The ceramic melts at temperatures greater than 1300 degrees C. Light flash analysis found heat capacities of the ceramic to be comparable to those of strontium and barium feldspars as well as pollucite. Thermal conductivity improved with higher sintering temperatures, attributed to lower porosity. Porosity was minimized in 1200 degrees C sinterings. Ceramics with waste loadings less than 25 wt% displayed slump, the lowest waste loading, 15 wt% bloated at a 1200 degrees C sintering. Waste loading above 25 wt% produced smooth uniform ceramics when sintered >1100 degrees C. Sintered bentonite may provide a simple alternative to vitrification and other engineered radioactive waste-forms.

Ortega, Luis H.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Localized Shear Bands in Explosively Bonded Alloy 718/ Copper ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

copper (with silver content of 0.078 wt %) was cold worked to 40% before bonding. Two plates of Alloy 718 with one plate of copper in between were explosively.

219

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution ... Phase Transformation Hardening by Using High -Power Direct Diode Laser ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC.

220

Geothermal energy for copper dump leaching  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the possibility of using geothermal energy to heat a sulfuric acid leaching solution for the purpose of faster and more efficient copper recovery from copper-containing minerals. Experimental studies reported in the literature have shown that this technique can be economically feasible for the extraction of copper from low-grade dump ores. Its main advantage appears to be the considerable reduction in long-term leaching periods; it could also be less expensive than other conventional processing operations if an economical geothermal resource were provided. However, this process has some pitfalls which might restrict the extent of geothermal energy use. Nevertheless, the process is still technologically sound, especially if groundwaters are used directly in the leaching operation.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Chemists Measure Copper Levels in Zinc Oxide Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nikoobakht. Analysis of copper incorporation into zinc oxide nanowires. ACS Nano Articles ASAP, published online Jan. 12, 2008.

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

222

Processing of Lead, Zinc, Copper and Nickel Concentrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Processing of copper, zinc, lead and nickel concentrates is becoming more challenging due increasingly complex mineralogy. Smelters are  ...

223

The Life Cycle Assessment of Copper Metallurgical Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Estimation of Waste Packaging Containers Generated by Households in Taiwan · The Life Cycle Assessment of Copper Metallurgical Processes.

224

Electrowinning and Electrorefining of Copper and Zinc Short Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and commercial practices for copper electrorefining. Course Presenters. Edouard Asselin (University of British Columbia); Georges Houlachi (Hydro-

225

6,000 years of copper smelting : Center for the Study of Copper Smelting in Ancient Societies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1959 professor of archeology Beno Rothenberg began investigating the production of copper in the Sinai desert and Aravah region of southern Israel. He discovered over 650 previously unknown ancient copper mining and ...

Steinberg, Marc J. (Marc Jonathan), 1969-

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Tantalum-copper alloy and method for making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

227

Dissolution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies of thin copper oxide films on copper in semi-aqueous fluoride solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The selective dissolution of thin copper oxide films grown on copper in semi-aqueous formulations containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ammonium fluoride (NH"4F) and water was studied. Optimization of the formulations was carried out by systematic evaluation ... Keywords: BEOL cleaning, Copper oxide removal, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SAF chemical system

N. Venkataraman; S. Raghavan

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

A Simulator for Copper Ore Leaching  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Copper is a strategic metal and the nation needs a secure supply both for industrial use and military needs. However, demand is growing worldwide and is outstripping the ability of the mining industry to keep up. Improved recovery methods are critically needed to maintain the balance of supply and demand. The goal of any process design should be to increase the amount of copper recovered, control movement of acid and other environmentally harmful chemicals, and reduce energy requirements. To achieve these ends, several improvements in current technology are required, the most important of which is a better understanding of, and the ability to quantify, how fluids move through heterogeneous materials in a complex chemical environment. The goal of this project is create a new modeling capability that couples hydrology with copper leaching chemistry . once the model has been verified and validated, we can apply the model to specific problems associated with heap leaching (flow channeling due to non-uniformities in heap structure, precipitation/dissolution reactions, and bacterial action), to understand the causes of inefficiencies, and to design better recovery systems. We also intend to work with representatives of the copper mining industry to write a coordinated plan for further model development and application that will provide economic benefits to the industry and the nation.

Travis, B.

1999-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

229

Sintering aid for lanthanum chromite refractories. [As interconnect layer between electrodes in fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electronically conductive interconnect layer for use in a fuel cell or other electrolytic device is formed with sintering additives to permit densification in a monolithic structure with the electrode materials. Additions, including an oxide of boron and a eutectic forming composition of Group 2A metal fluorides with Group 3B metal fluorides and Group 2A metal oxides with Group 6B metal oxides, lower the required firing temperature of lanthanum chromite to permit densification to in excess of 94% of theoretical density without degradation of electrode material lamina. The monolithic structure is formed by tape casting thin layers of electrode, interconnect and electrolyte materials and sintering the green lamina together under common densification conditions.

Flandermeyer, B.K.; Poeppel, R.B.; Dusek, J.T.; Anderson, H.U.

1986-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

230

Method of preparing a sintered lithium aluminate structure for containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous sintered tile is formed of lithium aluminate for retaining molten lectrolyte within a fuel cell. The tile is prepared by reacting lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution with alumina particles to form beta lithium aluminate particles. The slurry is evaporated to dryness and the solids dehydrated to form a beta lithium aluminate powder. The powder is compacted into the desired shape and sintered at a temperature in excess of 1200 K. but less than 1900 K. to form a porous integral structure that is subsequently filled with molten electrolyte. A tile of this type is intended for use in containing molten alkali metal carbonates as electolyte for use in a fuel cell having porous metal or metal oxide electrodes for burning a fuel gas such as hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide with an oxidant gas containing oxygen.

Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Method of preparing thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering. 1 fig.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Morrow, M.S.

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

Method of preparing thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering. 1 fig.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Morrow, M.S.

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

Thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Low-temperature sintering and phase changes in chromite interconnect materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sintering shrinkage curves and phase changes were compared for calcium-substituted lanthanum chromates with either slight Asite enrichment or depletion. Of the former type, La[sub 0.7]Ca[sub 0.31],CrO[sub 3] that was synthesized by the glycine-nitrate method sintered to high density in air at 1250C, exhibiting two rapid-shrinkage events. Weight loss measurements corroborated XRD data showing that, prior to densiflcation, over half the Ca resided in non-perovskite phases, including CaCrO[sub 4]. In the La[sub 0.7]Ca[sub 0.31]CrO[sub 3], densification was closely associated with re-dissolution of the Ca into the perovskite.

Chick, L.A.; Armstrong, T.R.; McCready, D.E.; Coffey, G.W.; Maupin, G.D.; Bates, J.L.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Low-temperature sintering and phase changes in chromite interconnect materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sintering shrinkage curves and phase changes were compared for calcium-substituted lanthanum chromates with either slight Asite enrichment or depletion. Of the former type, La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31},CrO{sub 3} that was synthesized by the glycine-nitrate method sintered to high density in air at 1250C, exhibiting two rapid-shrinkage events. Weight loss measurements corroborated XRD data showing that, prior to densiflcation, over half the Ca resided in non-perovskite phases, including CaCrO{sub 4}. In the La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31}CrO{sub 3}, densification was closely associated with re-dissolution of the Ca into the perovskite.

Chick, L.A.; Armstrong, T.R.; McCready, D.E.; Coffey, G.W.; Maupin, G.D.; Bates, J.L.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Analysis of composite electrolytes with sintered reinforcement structure for energy storage applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effective conductivity and mechanical properties of composite polymer electrolytes, in which the reinforcement phase is a sintered packed bed of Li-ion conductive ceramics particles, were estimated using Finite Element Analyses. The computations targeted estimation of the effect of sintering degree, i.e. size of the inter-particle connective necks, on the overall properties of the composite. Methods for microstructure generation and computational procedures were presented. The mechanical ability of the membrane to block lithium dendrites was assessed based on a stability criterion, which depends on the computed effective stiffness. It was found that the minimum size of the inter-particle connections necessary to provide mechanical stability without losing the enhancement in conductivity was 0.05 times the mean particle radius.

Kalnaus, Sergiy [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; Sakamoto, Jeff [Michigan State University; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

On the influence of porosity on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in sintered iron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sintered irons of four different porosities were strained in tension at temperatures between 295 (room temperature) and 873 K. Serrated stress-strain curves and high work hardening in the temperature range from 333 to 693 K, for all porosities, were characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The activation energy for the onset of serration was {+-}0.82 eV and was independent of porosity. On the contrary, the parameter {beta} from the relation for dislocation density increased with increasing porosity.

Palma, E.S. [UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Co-precipitation synthesis and sintering of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) powders: the eect of precipitant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vacuum sintering was performed in a furnace heated by a tungsten-mesh heater (Model M60-3X8-WW-23, Nemus co-precipitated from a mixed solution of aluminum and yttrium nitrates using ammonia water of ammonia water produced a hydroxide pre- cursor with an approximate composition of Al(OH)3 .0.3[Y2(OH)5(NO3

Lee, Jong-Heun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Compression testing of a sintered Ti6Al4V powder compact for biomedical applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the compression deformation behavior of a Ti6Al4V powder compact, prepared by the sintering of cold compacted atomized spherical particles (100-200 {mu}m) and containing 36-38% porosity, was investigated at quasi-static (1.6x10{sup -3}-1.6x10{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and high strain rates (300 and 900 s{sup -1}) using, respectively, conventional mechanical testing and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar techniques. Microscopic studies of as-received powder and sintered powder compact showed that sintering at high temperature (1200 deg. C) and subsequent slow rate of cooling in the furnace changed the microstructure of powder from the acicular alpha ({alpha}) to the Widmanstaetten ({alpha}+{beta}) microstructure. In compression testing, at both quasi-static and high strain rates, the compact failed via shear bands formed along the diagonal axis, 45 deg. to the loading direction. Increasing the strain rate was found to increase both the flow stress and compressive strength of the compact but it did not affect the critical strain for shear localization. Microscopic analyses of failed samples and deformed but not failed samples of the compact further showed that fracture occurred in a ductile (dimpled) mode consisting of void initiation and growth in {alpha} phase and/or at the {alpha}/{beta} interface and macrocracking by void coalescence in the interparticle bond region.

Guden, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gulbahce Koyu, Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Center for Materials Research, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gulbahce Koyu, Urla, Izmir (Turkey); E-mail: mustafaguden@iyte.edu.tr; Celik, E. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gulbahce Koyu, Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Akar, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gulbahce Koyu, Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Cetiner, S. [Hipokrat A.S., 407/6 Sok., No:10, Pinarbasi, Izmir (Turkey)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Controlled metal-semiconductor sintering/alloying by one-directional reverse illumination  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to create a primary hot zone with a temperature high enough to melt and alloy the metal layer with the bottom surface of the substrate. Secondary heat effects, including heat conducted through the substrate from the primary hot zone and heat created by infrared radiation reflected from the metal layer to the metal strips, as well as heat created from some primary absorption by the metal strips combine to create secondary hot zones at the interfaces of the metal strips with the top surface of the substrate. These secondary hot zones are not as hot as the primary hot zone, but they are hot enough to sinter the metal strips to the substrate.

Sopori, B.L.

1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

243

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl{sup -} concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

Jeon, B.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; van Duin, A. C. T.; Ramanathan, S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Harvard Univ.); (Penn State Univ.)

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

246

Argonne CNM Highlight: Patterned Copper Nanowires with Novel Electrical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Patterned Copper Nanowires with Novel Electrical Effects Patterned Copper Nanowires with Novel Electrical Effects Micrograph of copper nanowire A micrograph of the sample layout and the copper nanowire (l = 2.04 um, w = 90 nm, t = 50 nm) between the contact pads. Metallic nanowires have various applications such as sensors and high-density interconnects in field-effect transistors. Monitoring the influence of size and surface effects on material properties, such as electrical resistivity and failure properties, is important in designing new, reliable nanowires. Copper nanowires were patterned with e-beam lithography and fabricated with a copper film deposited by e-beam evaporation. Electrical measurements show that surface and size have effects on the electrical properties. Smaller values for the temperature coefficient of resistance and higher failure

247

Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

248

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Copper Indium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated chambers for depositing, processing, measuring, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. You can read more on the rationale for developing this cluster tool and its capabilities, and check out the National Solar Technology Roadmap for CIGS Photovoltaics. Contact Miguel Contreras for more details on these capabilities. The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide cluster tool, manufactured by DCA Instruments, will be operational in 2009. Techniques will include evaporation; radiofrequency, direct-current (DC), and pulsed DC sputtering;

249

Alloy Development for Copper Diamond Composites for Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One approach to meeting the challenges is to add diamond particles to a copper matrix to improve thermal conductivity and lower CTE simultaneously.

250

CNT Reinforced Copper Composite for High Contact Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1~10Vol% CNT is dispersed in Copper powder by high energy milling process. ... with FRP Facesheets and Nanoclay-wood Flour Modified Polyurethane Foam.

251

Effect of copper coatings on the interfacial between short carbon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Short carbon fiber reinforced aluminum alloy matrix composites were prepared by stir casting. The fibers were coated copper by electroless ...

252

Effect of Mg on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of copper ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Copper coated short carbon fiber reinforced aluminum alloy matrix composites have been prepared with 0.3-1.5 wt% Mg as alloying addition by ...

253

Design and Commissioning of the Outotec® Ausmelt TSL Copper ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Design and Commissioning of the Outotec® Ausmelt TSL Copper Smelter at DNMC. Author(s), Chuanzhuan Liu, Baizhi Chen, Jun Wan, ...

254

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen ...  

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group

255

Effect of Copper and Ammonia on Consumption of Thiosulfate in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, the undesirable reaction between thiosulfate and copper(?) gives rise to reagent consumption, which results in high cost and huge limit its ...

256

Passivation Behaviour of Copper Anodes with Various Chemical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Anode passivation is one of the existing problems faced by copper refineries with the increase of current density and impurities content of the ...

257

Method of imaging the heart using copper-64 citrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of imaging the heart to provide a distinct image using positron emission tomography comprises administering copper-64 citrate and a compatible carrier.

Crook, James E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Spin and Charge Degrees of Freedom in the Copper Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Spin and Charge Degrees of Freedom in the Copper Oxide Superconductor La 2-x Ba x CuO 4. Sarah Dunsiger, McMaster University. ...

259

Hitting Pay Dirt with Copper Mining Waste - Materials Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 24, 2010 ... They also typically add copper, which retards the growth of algae, moss, and lichen. The Michigan team believes the stamp sand could prove ...

260

-Oriented Nickel Using -Orientated Nano-twinned Copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we find that the electroplated (111)-orientated nickel films can be strongly enhanced by using the highly (111)-oriented nano-twinned copper as the ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

COPPER 99 - COBRE 99 Pointe Hilton Resort - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

La Caridad, the Newest Copper Refinery in the World: M. E. Ramos Rada1 ...... residues of petroleum oil, which occurred during the decade 1985-1995, can be ...

262

Radiation Effects on a High Strength, High Conductivity Copper Alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Radiation Effects on a High Strength, High Conductivity Copper ... of Zircaloy during Low Dose Neutron Irradiation at Nominally 375-440° C.

263

An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

infrastructure in the United States. This report updates a previously published report on copper wire theft. The combined efforts of electric utilities, lawmakers, scrap metal...

264

Copper Refining Electrolyte Purification by the Use of Molecular ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Copper Refining Electrolyte Purification by the Use of Molecular ... An Experimental Study of Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal from the ...

265

Development of Reverberatory Furnace Using in Copper Scrape ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Furnace Using in Copper Scrape Smelting by Reformed Natural Gas ... Oxidation Kinetics of Fe-Cr and Fe-V liquid Alloys under Controlled Oxygen Pressures.

266

Graphite/Copper Composites from Natural Wood Precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphite derived from natural wood precursors provides a uniquely anisotropic porous scaffold for the fabrication of graphite/copper composites. The wettability ...

267

Nanograin Copper Deposition Using an Impinging Jet Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. and F. R. de B. Electrical Resistivity of NanoCrystallineincluding strength, electrical resistivity, and hardnessResistivity The electrical resistivity of nanograin copper

Swingle, Karen Diane

268

Heteroepitaxial Si Thin Films Deposited on Flexible Copper ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Heteroepitaxial Si Thin Films Deposited on Flexible Copper Substrates for Solar Photovoltaics. Author(s), Daniela Florentina Bogorin, Lee ...

269

Copper Coordination in Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SSZ-16 Investigated by Variable-Temperature XRD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) are a major atmospheric pollutant produced through the combustion of fossil fuels in internal combustion engines. Copper-exchanged zeolites are promising as selective catalytic reduction catalysts for the direct conversion of NO into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, and recent reports have shown the enhanced performance of Cu-CHA catalysts over other zeolite frameworks in the NO decomposition of exhaust gas streams. In the present study, Rietveld refinement of variable-temperature XRD synchrotron data obtained for Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SSZ-16 is used to investigate the location of copper cations in the zeolite pores and the effect of temperature on these sites and on framework stability. The XRD patterns show that the thermal stability of SSZ-13 is increased significantly when copper is exchanged into the framework compared with the acid form of the zeolite, H-SSZ-13. Cu-SSZ-13 is also more thermally stable than Cu-SSZ-16. From the refined diffraction patterns, the atomic positions of atoms, copper locations and occupancies, and thermal displacement parameters were determined as a function of temperature for both zeolites. Copper is found in the cages coordinated to three oxygen atoms of the six-membered rings.

Fickel, D.; Lobo, R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Copper-tin anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries : an example of the matrix effect in an intermetallic system.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium batteries are typically constructed from a lithium cobalt oxide cathode and a carbon anode. We have investigated intermetallic anode materials based on tin, which can provide a high capacity at a slightly higher voltage (400 mV) than metallic lithium and thus reduce the safety concerns associated with the carbon anode. In particular, we have investigated the copper-tin system at around the composition Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and have determined the effect on cycling and capacity of electrodes with various ratios of copper to tin. Anode compositions that are slightly copper rich (Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 4}) were found to exhibit greater utilization of the tin than those with the stoichiometric bronze ratio (Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}) or those having a slight excess of tin (Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 6}). The differences in electrochemical behavior are explained in terms of an inert matrix model.

Kepler, K. D.

1998-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

271

Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Sintering of compacts of UN, (U,Pu)N, and PuN  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>A method is provided for preparing a densified compact of a metal nitride selected from the group consisting of UN, (U,Pu)N, and PuN which comprises heating a green compact of at least one selected nitride in the mononitride single-phase region, as displayed by a phase diagram of the mononitride of said compact, in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of nitrogen less than 760 torr. At a given temperature, this process produces a singlephase structure and a maximal sintered density as measured by mercury displacement. (Official Gazette)

Tennery, V.J.; Godfrey, T.G.; Bomar, E.S.

1973-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

273

Effect of high temperature hydrogenation on the fracture strength of a sintered alpha silicon carbide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of high temperature hydrogenation on the strength of a pressureless sintered alpha silicon carbide was studied as a function of time. Samples were soaked in argon or a hydrogen-argon mixture (40:60, mole %) at 1400/sup 0/C for times of up to 50 hours. The samples were then broken in four point flexure at room temperature. It was found that the hydrogen attacked the material at grain boundaries, leaving loose SiC grains on the surface. Fifty hours in a hydrogenous atmosphere at 1400/sup 0/C caused an average 26% strength decrease. Surface degradation was evaluated using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

Jero, P.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Desorption measurements of copper and copper alloys for PEP-II  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEP-II will be a meson factory circulating asymmetric beams of 9 GeV and 3.1 GeV having maximum currents of 3.0A. Copper beam chambers and absorbers will intercept resulting synchrotron radiation and it is critical that the dynamic gas load from photo stimulated desorption (PSD) and thermal outgassing is below 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} molecules per photon. An experiment was set up to measure PSD from 1m long bar samples and a chamber sample, fabricated from selected copper and copper alloys then exposed to white light with a critical energy of 500 eV, on beamline U10B at the VUV ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Based on U10B results a prototype chamber was built and will be exposed to white light with higher critical energies of up to 5 KeV, on beamline X-28A at the X-ray Ring of the NSLS. This paper presents the measurements of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} desorption yields as function of accumulated photon flux, angle of incidence, sample material, and surface condition. The results are compared with that of previous work on similar materials and with that of others for copper.

Foerster, C.L.; Halama, H.; Korn, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Calderon, M.; Barletta, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

Galkowski, J.J.

1986-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

276

Transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films prepared using oxide targets sintered by millimeter-wave heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The preparation of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films by both pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering deposition (MSD) using impurity-doped ZnO targets sintered with a newly developed energy saving millimeter-wave (28 GHz) heating technique is described. Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and V-co-doped AZO (AZO:V) targets were prepared by sintering with various impurity contents for 30 min at a temperature of approximately 1250 degree sign C in an air or Ar gas atmosphere using the millimeter-wave heating technique. The resulting resistivity and its thickness dependence obtainable in thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO targets were comparable to those obtained in thin films prepared by PLD using conventional furnace-sintered AZO targets; a low resistivity on the order of 3x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm was obtained in AZO thin films prepared with an Al content [Al/(Al+Zn) atomic ratio] of 3.2 at. % and a thickness of 100 nm. In addition, the resulting resistivity and its spatial distribution on the substrate surface obtainable in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a millimeter-wave-sintered AZO target were almost the same as those obtained in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a conventional powder AZO target. Thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO:V targets exhibited an improved resistivity stability in a high humidity environment. Thin films deposited with a thickness of approximately 100 nm using an AZO:V target codoped with an Al content of 4 at. % and a V content [V/(V+Zn) atomic ratio] of 0.2 at. % were sufficiently stable when long-term tested in air at 90% relative humidity and 60 degree sign C.

Minami, Tadatsugu; Okada, Kenji; Miyata, Toshihiro; Nomoto, Juni-chi; Hara, Youhei; Abe, Hiroshi [Optoelectronic Device System R and D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Fuji Dempa Kogyo Co. Ltd., 26 Kasuminosato, Ami, Inashiki, Ibaragi 300-0315 (Japan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Dislocation density in copper and tantalum after shock loading up to 20-80 GPa  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

4: Materials-EOS and Thermodynamic Properties 4: Materials-EOS and Thermodynamic Properties Dislocation Density in Copper And Tantalum After Shock Loading Up To 20-100 GPA A.M. Podurets, M.I. Tkachenko, O.N. Ignatova, A.I. Lebedev, V.V. Igonin, V.A. Raevsky RFNC-VNIIEF, Institute of Physics of Explosion, Sarov, Russia Introduction A microstructure of metals at shock loading is determined by the same processes, which occur at any deformation including a competition of two basic mechanisms of plastic strain - dislocation slip and twinning. The action of a specified mechanism of plastic deformation under the conditions of dynamic loading is usually defined by the help of the analysis of samples recovered after loading. We consider the dislocation structure of two metals having various crystal lattices: face-centered cubic copper and body-

278

Topography-sensitive copper deposition in supercritical solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topography-sensitive deposition, a preferential growth mode in a narrow concave feature, of copper in supercritical solutions is reported. Experiments were carried out in supercritical carbon dioxide at 13MPa with a maximum temperature of 230^oC, using ... Keywords: Capillary condensation, Copper, Nanorod, Supercritical fluid

E. Kondoh; K. Nagano; C. Yamamoto; J. Yamanaka

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

State-of-Knowledge of Copper in Fossil Plant Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled copper transport activity represents a potentially significant source of performance and reliability loss to fossil plant units with mixed metallurgy feedwater systems. Recent utility experiences with severe copper turbine fouling and other related problems illustrate the need to improve the understanding in this area.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

PROMETHEE II: A knowledge-driven method for copper exploration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the application of a well-known Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique called Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II) to explore porphyry copper deposits. Various raster-based evidential ... Keywords: Knowledge-driven method, Mineral prospectivity mapping, Now Chun deposit, PROMETHEE II, Porphyry copper, Various geo-datasets

Maysam Abedi; S. Ali Torabi; Gholam-Hossain Norouzi; Mohammad Hamzeh; Gholam-Reza Elyasi

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NANO-INDENTATION OF COPPER THIN FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NANO-INDENTATION OF COPPER THIN FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES S. Suresh1 , T.-G. Nieh2 and B.W. Choi2: Mechanical properties; Nano-indentation; Thin films; Copper; Dislocations Introduction Indentation methods films on substrates (e.g., [2,3]) using instrumented indentation. Nano-indentation studies of thin films

Suresh, Subra

282

Iron Recovery from Copper Slag through Oxidation-magnetic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recovery of iron from the copper slag is very essential not only for recycling the valuable ... Characterization of High-arsenic Sludge in Copper Metallurgy Plant ... Characterization of Waste from Ornamental Stones for Use in Mortar ... Effect of Friction Stir Welding Speed and Post Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure

283

THE EMANATION OF RADON 220 FROM SINTERED UO$sub 2$ POWDERS AND PLATES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The emanation of thoron (Rn/sup 220/) from sintered UO/sub 2/ powders and plates was measured as a function of temperature. The uranium oxide samples were indexed with radiothorium by coprecipitation and coevaporation techniques. The emanation measurements were performed in a flow system, using an alpha scintillation detector and a helium-hydrogen carrier gas mixture. Both the radiothorium concentration (5 to 100 mu C/g UO/sub 2/) and the uranium oxide density (71 to 99 percent TD) were varied. The surface areas and densities of the UO/sub 2/ plates were measured by krypton gas adsorption and liquid immersion techniques, respectively. Assuming a diffusion mechanism, diffusion coefficients for thoron in sintered UO/sub 2/ were calculated as a function of temperature. The data were represented by an equation of the form, D = D/sub O/ exp (-Q/RT). An apparent increase in both activation energy (Q) and D/sub O/ with density was observed for the 1100 to 1450 deg C temperature range. For some samples the thoron emanating power could be measured at temperatures as low as 400 deg C. Log D versus 1/T plots from 400 to 1450 deg C gave intersecttng straight lines with different activation energies. One intersection occurred near the Tammann temperature. The emanation of Rn/sup 220/ from UO/sub 2/ apparently involves several types of diffusion processes. (auth)

Clayton, J.C.; Aronson, S.

1963-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Synthesis of BaTiO[subscript 3]-20wt%CoFe[subscript 2]O[subscript 4] Nanocomposites via Spark Plasma Sintering  

SciTech Connect

Barium titanate-20wt% cobalt ferrite (BaTiO{sub 3}-20wt%CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanocomposites were sintered from nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and pressureless sintering (PS) techniques. Using SPS, dense polycrystalline composites were obtained at a sintering temperature as low as 860 C and a time of 5 min whereas PS required a higher sintering temperature (1150 C) and time (120 min) to obtain similarly dense composites. Microstructural analysis of the composites showed that both the techniques retained nanocrystalline grain sizes after sintering. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the BaTiO{sub 3}-20wt%CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites sintered by the SPS technique did not exhibit formation of any new phase(s) due to reaction between the BaTiO{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases during sintering. However, the PS technique resulted in the formation of additional phases (other than the BaTiO{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases) in the composites. While the composites synthesized by SPS were of superior phase-purity, evidence of Fe diffusion from the spinel to the perovskite phase was found from X-ray diffraction and permittivity measurements.

Ghosh, Dipankar; Han, Hyuksu; Nino, Juan C.; Subhash, Ghatu; Jones, Jacob L. (Florida)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

285

Copper Valley Elec Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Copper Valley Elec Assn, Inc Copper Valley Elec Assn, Inc Place Alaska Utility Id 4329 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location AK Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Copper River Basin large commercial Commercial Copper River Basin small commercial Commercial Copper River Basin Residential Residential Valdez Residential Residential Valdez large commercial Commercial Valdez small commercial Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.2520/kWh Commercial: $0.2150/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

286

An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability monitors changes, threats, and risks to the energy infrastructure in the United States. This report updates a previously published report on copper wire theft. The combined efforts of electric utilities, lawmakers, scrap metal dealers, and local law enforcement have succeeded in reducing the problem. Updated Assessment-Copper-Final October 2010.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation Letter Report: I11IG002 Semiannual Report to Congress: for the first half of Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Year-in-Review 2010

287

Factors affecting the failure of copper connectors brazed to copper bus bar segments on a 615-MVA hydroelectric generator at Grand Coulee Dam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

On March 21, 1986, the United States Bureau of Reclamation experienced a ground fault in the main parallel ring assembly of Unit G19 - a 615-MVA hydroelectric generator - at Grand Coulee Dam, Washington. Inspection of the unit revealed that the ground fault had been induced by fracture of one or more of the copper connectors used to join adjacent segments of one of the bus bars in the north half of the assembly. Various experimental techniques were used to detect and determine the presence of cracks, crack morphology, corrosion products, and material microstructure and/or embrittlement. The results of these inspections and recommendations are given. 7 refs., 27 figs.

Atteridge, D.G.; Klein, R.F.; Layne, R.; Anderson, W.E.; Correy, T.B.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Structural phase transitions and superconductivity in lanthanum copper oxides  

SciTech Connect

Despite the enormous effort expended over the past ten years to determine the mechanism underlying high temperature superconductivity in cuprates there is still no consensus on the physical origin of this fascinating phenomenon. This is a consequence of a number of factors, among which are the intrinsic difficulties in understanding the strong electron correlations in the copper oxides, determining the roles played by antiferromagnetic interactions and low dimensionality, analyzing the complex phonon dispersion relationships, and characterizing the phase diagrams which are functions of the physical parameters of temperature and pressure, as well as the chemical parameters of stoichiometry and hole concentration. In addition to all of these intrinsic difficulties, extrinsic materials issues such as sample quality and homogeneity present additional complications. Within the field of high temperature superconductivity there exists a subfield centered around the material originally reported to exhibit high temperature superconductivity by Bednorz and Mueller, Ba doped La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. This is structurally the simplest cuprate superconductor. The authors report on studies of phase differences observed between such base superconductors doped with Ba or Sr. What these studies have revealed is a fascinating interplay of structural, magnetic and superconducting properties which is unique in the field of high temperature superconductivity and is summarized in this paper.

Crawford, M.K.; Harlow, R.L.; McCarron, E.M. [DuPont, Wilmington, DE (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS CONTROL EQUATIONS TO SUPPORT DETOXIFICATION OF COPPER USING NATURAL HUMATE AMENDMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific research and changes in regulatory policies have led to reductions in the allowable discharges of several contaminant metals, including copper, into surface water. Low target concentrations and variable outfall conditions challenge the efficacy of traditional treatment technologies such as ion exchange. In reviewing various treatment options, scientists and engineers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) developed a treatment strategy focusing on toxicity reduction (rather than the removal of the copper) and demonstrated that the method is viable and promising for mitigating copper toxicity. The resulting outfall chemistry protects the ecosystem in the receiving stream in a manner that is equal to, or better than, technologies that remove copper to the emerging regulatory levels. Further, the proposed toxicity reduction strategy results in collateral beneficial changes in outfall water chemistry such that the outfall more closely matches the chemistry of natural streams for key parameters such as the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The detoxification process is based on the EPA BLM. Specifically, modeling indicates that copper toxicity can be mitigated by modest additions of natural organic carbon and that the amount of amendment needed can be determined based on pH and stream flow. The organic carbon amendments proposed for the treatment/detoxification process are extracts of natural materials that are produced for use in organic agriculture. These extracts are known by several common names such as potassium humate, soluble humic acid, and a variety of brand trademarks. When used to reduce ecosystem toxicity in surface water, these amendments bind copper and compete with the biological receptor sites, resulting in a reduction of impacts to key food chain organisms such as the Daphnia ('water flea'). Design and implementation of the process is straightforward. The core equipment consists of storage tank(s), pH sensor(s), outfall flow monitor(s), variable speed pump(s), and a programmable logic controller (PLC). The PLC collects information on pH and outfall flow, and modulates the pump flow rate to meter the correct amount of amendment into the outfall. A mathematical relationship, or control equation, is programmed into the PLC and serves as the basis of the operation. A summary of the development of, and key documentation for, the process control equation is provided.

Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Halverson, N.; Nichols, R.

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

290

Evaluation of sintering effects on SiC incorporated UO2 kernels under Ar and Ar-4%H2 environments  

SciTech Connect

Silicon carbide (SiC) is suggested as an oxygen getter in UO2 kernels used for TRISO particle fuels to lower oxygen potential and prevent kernel migration during irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry analyses performed on sintered kernels verified that internal gelation process can be used to incorporate SiC in urania fuel kernels. Sintering in either Ar or Ar-4%H2 at 1500 C lowered the SiC content in the UO2 kernels to some extent. Formation of UC was observed as the major chemical phase in the process, while other minor phases such as U3Si2C2, USi2, U3Si2, and UC2 were also identified. UC formation was presumed to be occurred by two reactions. The first was the SiC reaction with its protective SiO2 oxide layer on SiC grains to produce volatile SiO and free carbon that subsequently reacted with UO2 to form UC. The second process was direct UO2 reaction with SiC grains to form SiO, CO, and UC, especially in Ar-4%H2. A slightly higher density and UC content was observed in the sample sintered in Ar-4%H2, but the use of both atmospheres produced kernels with ~95% of theoretical density. It is suggested that incorporating CO in the sintering gas would prevent UC formation and preserve the initial SiC content.

Silva, Chinthaka M [ORNL] [ORNL; Lindemer, Terrence [Harbach Engineering and Solutions] [Harbach Engineering and Solutions; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL] [ORNL; Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL] [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL] [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

Demouchy, Sylvie

292

Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Geothermal energy resource investigations in the Eastern Copper River Basin, Alaska  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report consists of a review of the geological, geochemical and geophysical data available for the Eastern Copper River basin with emphasis on the mud volcanoes, and the results of geophysical and geochemical studies carried out in the summers of 1982 and 1984. The purpose was to determine if there are geothermal energy resources in the Copper River Basin. The Eastern Copper River basin is situated on the flanks of a major volcano, Mt. Drum, which was active as late as 200,000 years ago and which is thought to have retained significant amounts of residual heat at high levels. Mt. Wrangell, farther to the east, has been volcanically active up to the present time. The 1982 geophysical and geochemical surveys located three principal areas of possible geothermal interest, one near Tazlina and two near the Klawasi mud volcanoes. The intensive survey work of 1984 was concentrated on those areas. We have integrated the results of soil helium, soil mercury, gravity, aeromagnetic, electrical, self-potential, and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surveys to evaluate the geothermal potential of the areas studied. 36 figs.

Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Influence of slurry components on uniformity in copper chemical mechanical planarization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many researchers studying copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) have been focused on mechanisms of copper removal using various chemicals. On the basis of these previous works, we studied the effect of slurry components on uniformity. Chemical ... Keywords: Benzotriazole (BTA), Citric acid, Colloidal silica, Copper CMP, Copper slurry, Hydrogen peroxide, Material removal rate (MRR) profile

Hyunseop Lee; Boumyoung Park; Haedo Jeong

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Standard Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Examination of Copper Redraw Rod for Electrical Purposes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Standard Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Examination of Copper Redraw Rod for Electrical Purposes

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Copper  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nickel Nickel Previous Element (Nickel) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Zinc) Zinc Isotopes of the Element Copper [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 63 69.15% STABLE 65 30.85% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 52 No Data Available Proton Emission No Data Available 53 < 300 nanoseconds Electron Capture No Data Available Proton Emission No Data Available 54 < 75 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 55 27 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 15.0% 56 93 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00%

297

Improved fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro{sub 2} particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (123) to improve it fracture toughness (K{sub IC}). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (211) on the ZrO{sub 2} particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO{sub 2} coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K{sub IC} of 4.5 MPa(m){sup 0.5}.

Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S.Y.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Kullberg, Marc L. (Lisle, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Corrosion of Copper Alloys in Specific Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Corrosion ratings of wrought copper alloys in various corrosive media...G G G G E E Potassium sulfate E E G E E E E E E Propane (d) E E E E E E E E E Rosin E E E E E E E E E Seawater G G F E G E G E E Sewage E E F E E E E E E Silver salts P P P P P P P P P Soap solution E E E E E E E E E Sodium bicarbonate E E G E E E E E E Sodium bisulfate G G F G G G G E E Sodium...

302

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Gold-Copper Nanoparticles: Nanostructural Evolution and Bifunctional Catalytic Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding of the atomic-scale structure is essential for exploiting the unique catalytic properties of any nanoalloy catalyst. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of the nanoscale alloying of gold-copper (AuCu) nanoparticles and its impact on the surface catalytic functions. Two pathways have been explored for the formation of AuCu nanoparticles of different compositons, including wet chemical synthesis from mixed Au- and Cu-precursor molecules, and nanoscale alloying via an evolution of mixed Au- and Cu-precursor nanoparticles near the nanoscale melting temperatures. For the evolution of mixed precursor nanoparticles, synchrotron x-ray based in-situ real time XRD was used to monitor the structural changes, revealing nanoscale alloying and reshaping towards an fcc-type nanoalloy (particle or cube) via a partial melting–resolidification mechanism. The nanoalloys supported on carbon or silica were characterized by in-situ high-energy XRD/PDFs, revealing an intriguing lattice "expanding-shrinking" phenomenon depending on whether the catalyst is thermochemically processed under oxidative or reductive atmosphere. This type of controllable structural changes is found to play an important role in determining the catalytic activity of the catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation reaction. The tunable catalytic activities of the nanoalloys under thermochemically oxidative and reductive atmospheres are also discussed in terms of the bifunctional sites and the surface oxygenated metal species for carbon monoxide and oxygen activation.

Yin, Jun; Shan, Shiyao; Yang, Lefu; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Petkov, Valeri; Cai, Fan; Ng, Mei; Luo, Jin; Chen, Bing H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

305

C:\Eco-SSLs\Contaminant Specific Documents\Copper\February 2007\Eco-SSL for Copper Feb 2007.wpd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Copper Copper Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285.7-68 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 Issued July 2006 Revised February 2007 This page intentionally left blank i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.0 SUMMARY OF ECO-SSLs FOR COPPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3.0 ECO-SSL FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.0 ECO-SSL FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5.0 ECO-SSL FOR AVIAN WILDLIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.1 Avian TRV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.2 Estimation of Dose and Calculation of the Eco-SSL . . . . . .

306

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov December 2012 This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Patent Details U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,553; titled "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid

307

Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

308

Process Modeling and Reduction of Copper Loss in Smelting Slag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The copper losses in RHF slag was more than 3% in 2006 and 2007. ... How to Control Strength and Grain Structure of 304L Stainless Steel during Forging .... Use of Polymeric Residues from the Footwear Industry in Layers of Asphalt ...

309

Copper 99/Cobre 99: Calendar of Events - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

12:30 p.m.–2:00 p.m., COD Luncheon, Exhibit Pavilion. 2:00 p.m.–6:00 p.m., Technical Sessions, Apachee/Bisbee; Copper; Estrella; Flagstaff; Goldwater; Hopi; ...

310

Tuning the photophysical properties of amidophosphine complexes of copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of monomeric copper complexes that allow for the tuning of the emission properties is reported. Luminescence lifetimes up to 150 [mu]s are observed in benzene solution at ambient temperature, which are comparable ...

Mickenberg, Seth F. (Seth Fox)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Integrated Tribo-Chemical Modeling of Copper CMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wafer Co ntact Area in Chemical Mechanical Planarization”V9 1, 2006 Spring 5. L.M. Cook, “Chemical processes in glassMechanisms of Copper Chemical Mechanical Planarization (

Shantanu Tripathi; Choi, Seungchoun; Doyle, Fiona M; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Variation in sensitivity among species. Environ Pollut 154:291-297. 42. Fort DJ, Stover EL, Rogers RL, Copley HF, Morgan LA, Elicia RF. 2000. Chronic boron or copper...

313

ORNL researchers make strides toward a copper oxide solar cell...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

his team of research scientists are using copper oxide to redesign the face of solar power. The once-dismissed solar semiconductor, one of the first discovered, is the basis of...

314

Cyclooxygenase-2 is Upregulated in Copper-Deficient Rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the SOD mimetic Tempol (Cu-D/T; 1 mM in drinking water) for 4 weeks. COX-2 protein ... INTRODUCTION. Inadequate dietary intake of copper is known to.

315

An Updated Assessment of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of this report that these three sources reasonably represent copper theft, if not in terms of absolute numbers, at least in terms of trends. It is significant that although...

316

Continuous Flow Coupling and Decarboxylation Reactions Promoted by Copper Tubing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A convenient and efficient flow method for Ullmann condensations, Sonogashira couplings, and decarboxylation reactions using a commercially available copper tube flow reactor (CTFR) is described. The heated CTFR effects ...

Zhang, Yun

317

Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been used to treat lumber...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Chemical Structure of Arsenic and Chromium in Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Treated Wood Peter S. Nico 1 , Scott E. Fendorf 2 , Yvette W. Lowney 3 , Stewart E. Holm 4 , and...

318

Copper in the Rotor for Lighter, Longer Lasting Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews the advantages of substituting die-cast copper for aluminum in the motor rotor. This advance in motor technology has been long sought by the motor industry but short die life due to the high melting point of copper frustrated attempts to manufacture by pressure die casting. The nickel-base alloy hot die technology developed to solve the manufacturing problem is briefly reviewed. Development work done prior to the present program and commercial motors derived from that work have focused on the increased electrical energy efficiency achievable by using copper with its higher electrical conductivity in the rotor. Performance characteristics of example industrial motors are presented. Modification of the conductor bar shape to control in-rush current and starting torque to accommodate copper in the rotor will be discussed. Modeling by motor manufacturers has shown that by using copper in the rotor, a lighter motor than an aluminum rotor motor at the same efficiency can be built. An example of weight savings calculated for a 15 Hp (11 kW) motor is presented. Data presented here show that motors with copper rotors run cooler. Industry experience shows that cooler operation translates to reduced maintenance costs, improved reliability and longer motor life.

C. Stark; J. G. Cowie; D. T. Peters; E. F. Brush

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Behavior of Aqueous Electrolytes in Steam Cycles: The Final Report on the Solubility and Volatility of Copper (I) and Copper (II) Ox ides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled copper transport represents a potentially significant source of performance and reliability loss to fossil plants with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems. Utility experiences over the last 10 years with severe copper turbine fouling and other related problems identified the need for basic fundamental research to improve industry understanding of the volatility and solubility of copper and its oxides.

2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

320

Copper Alloy Corrosion in High Purity Feedwater: Admiralty Brass, Aluminum Brass, and 90/10 Copper/Nickel at 95 °C (203 °F)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled copper transport activity represents a potentially significant source of performance and reliability loss to fossil plants with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems. Continuing utility experiences with severe copper fouling on high pressure (HP) turbines identified the need for fundamental research to improve control of copper corrosion in low pressure (LP) feedwater heater environments.

2003-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Determination of total gas in lithium tritide-deuteride compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium tritide--deuteride samples are enclosed in a copper foil and decomposed by heating to 850/sup 0/C in a copper reaction tube in vacuum. The temperature and pressure of the evolved gas, collected in a measured volume using a Toepler pump, are measured to determine the total moles of gas released from the sample. The gas is transferred to a removable sample bulb and, if required, analyzed for gaseous constituents by mass spectrometry. Based on 14 total gas determinations for a lithium deuteride sample, the calculated relative standard deviation was 1.0% and the estimated bias was <2.5%.

Smith, M.E.; Koski, N.L.; Waterbury, G.R.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Thin Film Solar Cells Derived from Sintered Semiconductor Quantum Dots: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00226  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NREL/Evident team will develop techniques to fabricate thin film solar cells where the absorption layers comprising the solar cells are derived from sintered semiconductor quantum dots.

Ginley, D. S.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Microwave Nitridation of Sintered Reaction Bonded Silicon Parts for Natural Gas Fueled Diesel Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This cooperative project was a joint development program between Eaton Corporation and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER). Cooperative work was of benefit to both parties. ORNL was able to assess up-scale of the microwave nitridation process using a more intricate-shaped part designed for application in advanced diesel engines. Eaton Corporation mined access to microwave facilities and expertise for the nitridation of SRBSN materials. The broad objective of the CRADA established with Eaton Corporation and ORNL was to develop cost-effective silicon nitride ceramics compared to the current materials available. The following conclusions can be made from the work performed under the CRADA: (1) Demonstrated that the binder burnout step can be incorporated into the SRBSN processing in the microwave furnace. (2) Scale-up of the microwave nitridation process using Eaton Corporation parts showed that the nitridation weight gains were essentially identical to those obtained by conventional heating. (3) Combined nitridation and sintering processes using silicon nitride beads as packing powders results in degradation of the mechanical properties. (4) Gelcasting of silicon nitride materials using Eaton Si mixtures was demonstrated.

Edler, J.; Kiggans, J.O.; Suman, A.W.; Tiegs, T.N.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Degradation of properties of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x superconductors sintered in CO sub 2 -containing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Stability of the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) superconductor toward reacting with CO{sub 2} in CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixtures during sintering was investigated as a function of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} and temperature. The transport critical current density, J{sub c}, of the superconductor decreased drastically with increasing partial pressure of CO{sub 2} was increased, J{sub c} became zero (at 77 K) even though the major phase of the sample was still a superconductor as determined by magnetic susceptibility measurements. Microstructures and compositions of the samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Two types of grain boundaries were observed: {approximately}10% of the grain boundaries contained a second phase; the regions near the remaining grain boundaries were tetragonal. At high partial pressures of CO{sub 2}, the YBCO completely decomposed to BaCO{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5}, and CuO. 11 refs., 3 figs.

Balachandran, U.; Zhang, C.; Xu, D.; Gao, Y.; Merkle, K.L.; Mundy, J.N.; Veal, B.W.; Poeppel, R.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Selvaduray, G. (San Jose State Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Engineering); Mason, T.O. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Steady Deflagration of PBX-9501 Within a Copper Cylinder  

SciTech Connect

A copper cylinder cook-off experiment has been designed to cause steady deflagration in PBX-9501 explosive material. The design is documented and preliminary copper expansion results are presented for steady deflagration with a reaction speed of 1092 +/- 24 m/s. The expansion of reaction products from the detonation of an explosive is something that is well understood, and reasonably simulated using documented equations of state (EOS) for many explosives of interest. These EOS were historically measured using a 'standard' copper cylinder test design; this design comprised an annealed, oxygen-free high conductivity (OFHC) copper tube filled with explosive material and detonated from one end. Expansion of the copper wall was measured as a function of time using either a streak camera (for classic testing), or more recently using laser velocimetry techniques. Expansion data were then used to derive the EOS in various preferred forms - which are not discussed here for the sake of brevity. [Catanach, et. al., 1999] When an explosive deflagrates rather than detonating, simulation becomes more difficult. Reaction products are released on a slower time scale, and the reactions are much more affected by the geometry and local temperature within the reaction environment. It is assumed that the standard, documented EOS will no longer apply. In an effort to establish a first order approximation of deflagration product behavior, a cook-off test has been designed to cause steady deflagration in PBX-9501 explosive material, and to record the copper expansion profile as a function of time during this test. The purpose of the current paper is to document the initial test design and report some preliminary results. A proposal for modification of the design is also presented.

Pemberton, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Dennis H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Tommy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arellano, Jesus C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Thomas D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

326

Report on the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 Report on the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods. The Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 11-16, 1999. Over 100 mathematicians from all over the world attended the meeting. The conference had two major themes: algebraic multigrid and parallel multigrid. During the five day meeting 69 talks on current research topics were presented as well as 3 tutorials. Talks with similar content were organized into sessions. Session topics included: Fluids; Multigrid and Multilevel Methods; Applications; PDE Reformulation; Inverse Problems; Special Methods; Decomposition Methods; Student Paper Winners; Parallel Multigrid; Parallel Algebraic Multigrid; and FOSLS.

2001-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

327

Operations modeling and analysis of open pit copper mining using GPS tracking data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Open pit copper mining plants usually comprise two major components, the open pit mining operation and the copper ore enrichment plant. An open pit copper mine is an excavation or graze made into the surface of the ground for the purpose of extracting ...

Yifei Tan; Kanna Miwa; Undram Chinbat; Soemon Takakuwa

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Influence of Water Chemistry on Copper Alloy Corrosion in High Purity Feedwater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled copper transport activity represents a potentially significant source of performance and reliability loss to fossil plants with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems. Continuing utility experiences with severe copper fouling on high pressure turbines identified the need for fundamental research to improve control of copper corrosion in low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) feedwater heater environments.

2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

329

Influence of Water Chemistry on Copper Alloy Corrosion in High Purity Feedwater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled copper transport represents a potentially significant source of performance and reliability loss to fossil plants with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems. Recent utility experiences with severe copper turbine fouling identified the need for fundamental research to improve control of copper corrosion in low-pressure (LP) and high-pressure (HP) feedwater heater environments.

2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

331

Influence of process changes on PCDD/Fs produced in an iron ore sintering plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated the influence of different charge typologies and additives on the PCDD/Fs amount produced and on the congener profiles in an iron ore sintering plant. Many tests were carried out combining different typologies of charge (iron materials) and solid fuel ('coke breeze' or 'anthracite') with or without the use of urea. The PCDD/Fs produced ranged from 1.2 to 22.7 {mu} g I-TEQ/ton of agglomerate, whereas the PCDD/Fs released to the ambient air ranged from 0.10 to 1.92 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3} because of cleaning in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a Wetfine scrubber (WS). A more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles charge appeared to produce a lower PCDD/Fs concentration due to a better combustion but this hypothesis needs further investigations on charges having different dimension particles. Only a synergitic action of urea and anthracite was able to reduce the high PCDD/Fs content due to the bad combustion of the more inhomogeneous charge with a lower amount of fine particles. The congener profile was a typical combustion process fingerprint because the PCDFs predominated, the highly chlorinated congeners (HeptaCDD and OctaCDD) prevailed in PCDDs, whereas in PCDFs the profile was more varied; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF was the main contributor to the total concentration while 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF was the main contributor to the I-TEQ concentration. Whereas all the parameters under scrutiny influenced strongly the amount of PCDD/Fs produced, they affected only slightly the fingerprint of PCDD/Fs. In all cases studied, the reduction obtained using urea, anthracite, or the more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles was slightly greater on the higher chlorinated congeners in respect to the lower ones.

Guerriero, E.; Bianchini, M.; Gigliucci, P.F.; Guarnieri, A.; Mosca, S.; Rossetti, G.; Varde, M.; Rotatori, M. [CNR, Monterotondo (Italy)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents (i.e. copper-chromium and copper-cerium) for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650{degrees} to 850{degrees}C. In this program, structural and kinetic studies are conducted on various compositions of the two selected copper-based sorbents to determine the optimum sorbent composition. The effect of operating conditions on the performance of the sorbents alone with the stability and regenerability of the selected sorbents in successive sulfidation/regeneration operation are determined. Parametric multicycle desulfurization tests were conducted this quarter in a bench-scale (5-cm-diameter) quartz reactor at one atmosphere using the CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuO/CeO{sub 2} sorbents. The parameters studied included temperature, space velocity, and feed gas composition. Both sorbents were able to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration of the reactor feed gas to <10 ppM under all conditions tested. The apparent reactivity of the CuO/CeO{sub 2} sorbent was lower after the first cycle which may be attributed to incomplete regeneration caused by sulfate formation.

Hill, A.H.; Abbasian, J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Li, Li [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

The investigation of die-pressing and sintering behavior of ITP CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V powders  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigated the die-pressing and sintering behavior of the low-cost CP-Ti and Ti-6Al- 4V powders made by the Armstrong Process . The Armstrong powders have an irregular coral like, dendritic morphology, with a dendrite size of approximately 2-5 m. As-received as well as milled powders were uniaxially pressed at designated pressures up to 690 MPa to form disk samples with different aspect ratios. In the studied pressure range, an empirical powder compaction equation was applied to linearize the green density pressure relationship, and powder compaction parameters were obtained. The Armstrong Ti-64 powder exhibited a significantly higher sinterability than the CP-Ti powder. This was explained to be due to the higher diffusivity of V at the sintering temperature. The Ti-64 samples with a green density of 71.0% increased to 99.6% after sintering at 1300oC for 1 hour. An ex-situ technique was used to track the powder morphology change before and after sintering.

Chen, Wei [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Clark, Michael B [ORNL; Nunn, Stephen D [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Williams, James C [Ohio State University; Fuller, Brian [International Titanium Powder; Akhtar, Kamal [International Titanium Powder

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Copper oxide/N-silicon heterojunction photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic device having characteristics of a high efficiency solar cell comprising a Cu.sub.x O/n-Si heterojunction. The Cu.sub.x O layer is formed by heating a deposited copper layer in an oxygen containing ambient.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Introduction Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a transparent conducting oxide to create a series connection. ITO is indium tin oxide; CIGS is copper indium photovoltaic modules are entering the renewable energy marketplace in in- creasing volume, with more than cells. A number of such buffer layers have been used, the most common of which are undoped tin oxide (Sn

Beach, Joe

337

Effect of copper deficiency on plasma and adrenal catecholamines  

SciTech Connect

Copper (Cu) ion is an essential component of enzymes involved in catecholamine (CAT) metabolism. Copper deficiency (CuD) has been shown to affect the CAT content of brain (decreased norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA)) and heart (increased DA and decreased NE). It is thus possible that plasma and adrenal CAT could be altered by CuD. The authors, then, investigated the effect of CuD on plasma and adrenal CAT in rats fed copper-deficient (0.6 ..mu..g Cu/g) or copper-supplemented (6.0 ..mu..g Cu/g) diets with either 62% starch (S) or fructose (F) as the carbohydrate source for 7 weeks after weaning. CuD was ascertained by decreased plasma Cu and ceruloplasmin activity. CuD increased the levels of all three CAT (NE, P < 0.001, epinephrine (E), P < 0.0001 and DA, P < 0.01) in plasma, but had no effect on adrenal CAT content. Dietary F had no significant effect on plasma CAT compared to S but did increase E in adrenal tissue (P < 0.001). They have previously demonstrated that CuD is accompanied by increased plasma glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol and decreased insulin. Thus, increased plasma CAT along with decreased plasma insulin may explain, in part, the glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid metabolism observed in CuD.

Kennedy, B.W.; Bhathena, S.J.; Fields, M.; Voyles, N.R.; Timmers, K.I.; Recant, L.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

High-power copper vapour lasers and applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expanded applications of copper vapor lasers has prompted increased demand for higher power and better beam quality. This paper reports recent progress in laser power scaling, MOPA operation, beam quality improvement, and applications in precision laser machining. Issues such as gas heating, radial delay, discharge instability, and window heating will also be discussed.

Chang, J.J.; Warner, B.E.; Boley, C.D.; Dragon, E.P.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

340

Computational simulation of electromigration induced damage in copper interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current density levels are expected to increase by orders of magnitude in next generation power electronics and nanoelectronics. Electromigration which occur under high current density is the major concern for the nanoelectronics industry. Using a general ... Keywords: copper interconnects, damage mechanics, electromigration, electronics packaging reliability, thin film

Cemal Basaran; Minghui Lin; Shidong Li

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Investigation of the effects of pressure on the compaction and subsequent sintering of nanosize powders. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With current technology and available raw materials, one knows that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to produce a monolithic ceramic material with an average grain size of less than 100 nm. The grains of ceramic materials cannot be refined by cold working as is typically done in metals. Hence, the starting ceramic powder must be of a smaller or similar particle size as the desired grain size for the final product. The availability of nanosize (<100 nm) ceramic powders, however, is limited. In many cases, the powders consist of polymorphic mixtures, precursors, or amorphous phases of the desired material. Phase transformation during sintering is difficult to control, and when it does occur it usually is accompanied by significant microstructural changes and grain growth. An example of such a powder is Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To the best of the authors` knowledge, high purity nanosize {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is unavailable commercially. However, a variety of nanosize transitional forms of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, including the {gamma} and {delta} polymorphs, are commercially available in large quantities as mixtures. Results on the compaction and sintering of nanosize {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder are reported here.

Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.J.; Hockey, B.; Malghan, S.G. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Ceramics Div.

1996-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

343

Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Leisch, Jennifer (Denver, CO); Taylor, Matthew (West Simsbury, CT); Stanbery, Billy J. (Austin, TX)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

344

Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

345

NOTES AND COMMENTS REVERE COPPER AR! BRASS DETROIT, MICHIGAN  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

* .t-* * .t-* . * * - -. _ _ ,.. .I AIT. 4 NOTES AND COMMENTS REVERE COPPER AR! BRASS DETROIT, MICHIGAN A preliminary (screening) survey was conducted in several areas of the Revere Copper and Brass Facility, 5851 W. Jefferson Street, Detroit, Michigan. The survey was conducted by the ANL Radiological Survey Group on April 22, 1981. The Survey Group, consisting of W. Smith, R. Mundis, K. Flynn (all of ANI), and E. Jascewsky (DOE-CH) met on site with J. Evans (Safety Engineer), D. Tratt (Asst. Engineer), -- M~37~se'Zanak~(Aeth6ds~De!@iFXi%itXiupe~isox$ and E. Betancourt (Personnel Manager) to discuss what information was available concerning the operations that transpired at the facility during the Manhattan Engineering District Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) era. MrYWtisffaliab indicated that

346

EPRI Power Transformer Guidebook Development: The Copper Book  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities are losing many of their subject matter experts due to retirement and downsizing. This is particularly true in the case of power transformers, so there is now a critical need for a comprehensive transformer reference book geared toward utility engineers. In 2007, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published the technical update report Transformer Guidebook Design (1013799). That report described the results of the initial project to develop the Copper Book, a ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

347

CX-004456: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

456: Categorical Exclusion Determination 456: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004456: Categorical Exclusion Determination Boysen-Copper Mountain Structure 98/1 Replacement Project, Fremont County, Wyoming CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B4.6 Date: 11/10/2010 Location(s): Fremont County, Wyoming Office(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region Western proposes to replace Structure 98/1 and conduct access road maintenance on Western's existing Boysen-Copper Mountain 115 kilovolt transmission line in Fremont County, Wyoming. Structure 98/1 is located on United States (US) Bureau of Reclamation land in the southeast 1/4 of Section 16, T. 5 north, R. 6 east, of the Wind River meridian, Wyoming near the Boysen State Park Headquarters. A cleared, level area (landing) will be constructed around the base of structure 98/1 for better equipment

348

CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

86: Categorical Exclusion Determination 86: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) Manufacturing Plant CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 01/05/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Loan Guarantee Program Office The Department of Energy's proposed action is to issue a loan guarantee to Stion Corporation to retrofit Stion's solar panel manufacturing plant at 6321 San Ignacio Avenue in San Jose, California and expand into an adjacent building at 6331 San Ignacio Avenue in order to establish a 135 megawatt nameplate capacity manufacturing plant. Stion produces monolithically integrated thin film photovoltaic modules using single-junction Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) absorbers. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

349

CX-002662: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

662: Categorical Exclusion Determination 662: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002662: Categorical Exclusion Determination Installation and Operation of Majorana Underground Electro-forming Research Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/11/2010 Location(s): Lead, South Dakota Office(s): Oak Ridge Office, Science The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office (DOE-ORO) proposes to perform research on electro-forming of copper parts that will be installed in ultra-low, background level, radiation detection instruments. This action is part of the Majorana Demonstrator (MJD) Research and Development Project, which is funded by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics. Electro-forming of the copper parts would take place in an underground lab, the Sanford Underground Laboratory, in Lead, South Dakota,

350

ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry: Chapter 5: Copper  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 5 Copper For nearly 5,000 years, copper was the only metal known to man. It remains one of the most used and reused of all metals. The demand for copper is due to its good strength and fatigue resistance, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, outstanding resistance to corrosion, and ease of fabrication. Copper offers moderate levels of density, elastic modulus, and low melting temperature. It is used in electrical cables and wires, switches, plumbing, heating, roofing and building construction, chemical and pharmaceutical machinery. It is also used in alloys such as brass and bronze, alloy castings, and electroplated protective coating in undercoats of nickel, chromium, and zinc. Forms of Copper Copper deposits are found in a variety of geological environments, depending on the

351

Processing of U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb alloys by sintering process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation, there is worldwide interest in reducing fuel enrichment of research and test reactors. To achieve this objective while still guaranteeing criticality and cycle length requirements, there is need of developing high density uranium metallic fuels. Alloying elements such as Zr, Nb and Mo are added to uranium to improve fuel performance in reactors. In this context, the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) is developing the U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb (weight %) alloys by the innovative process of sintering that utilizes raw materials in the form of powders. The powders were pressed at 400 MPa and then sintered under a vacuum of about 1x10{sup -4} Torr at temperatures ranging from 1050 deg. to 1500 deg.C. The densities of the alloys were measured geometrically and by hydrostatic method and the phases identified by X ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructures of the pellets were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the alloying elements were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results obtained showed the fuel density to slightly increase with the sintering temperature. The highest density achieved was approximately 80% of theoretical density. It was observed in the pellets a superficial oxide layer formed during the sintering process. (authors)

Dos Santos, A. M. M.; Ferraz, W. B.; Lameiras, F. S.; Mazzeu, T. D. O. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN-CNEN, Av. Presidente Antionio Carlos 6.627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Accelerated Publication: Ag nanoparticle-based inkjet printed planar transmission lines for RF and microwave applications: Considerations on ink composition, nanoparticle size distribution and sintering time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sintering of Ag nanoparticle (NP)-based inkjet printed tracks is a crucial process for the next-generation digitally printed electronics. In particular, while the digital printing, as additive technology, is now well settled for what concerns either ... Keywords: Inkjet printing, Microwave planar transmission lines, Real-time measurements, Silver nanoparticles

A. Chiolerio; M. Cotto; P. Pandolfi; P. Martino; V. Camarchia; M. Pirola; G. Ghione

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Oxhide ingots, copper production, and the mediterranean trade in copper and other metals in the bronze age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The production and trade in copper and bronze was one of the major features of the complex societies in the Near East and Mediterranean during the third to first millennia B.C. While finished metal objects are common finds from the period, ancient metal ingots and hoards of scrap metal, as well as archaeological evidence of metallurgical activities, are often more important sources of information for how ancient technology and trade functioned. Shipwrecks, particularly those found off the coast of Turkey at Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya, as well as mining and smelting sites in the Mediterranean region, provide invaluable information on the production and trade of copper and tin, the main ingredients of bronze. In this thesis, I examine the evolution of the copper trade in the eastern and central Mediterranean, particularly during the Late Bronze Age, when �oxhide� ingots were widely exported. Finds of oxhide ingots have increased dramatically in recent years, and no synthesis of all of this newly available evidence is currently available. I attempt to analyze this new evidence in relation to older finds and research, with a particular focus on the cargo of the Uluburun shipwreck, the largest collection of Bronze Age metal ingots from a single site in the Mediterranean. The history of oxhide ingot production is complex, but by the Late Bronze Age Cyprus was supplying much of the copper used to neighboring regions, with revolutionary effects on societies in Cyprus and elsewhere. The archaeological evidence shows that oxhide ingots are early examples of a standardized industrial product made for export by emerging state-level societies during the second millennium B.C. and fueled the development of international trade, metallurgical technology, and complex social institutions in a variety of Mediterranean societies from Egypt and the Levant, Greece, Cyprus, to Sardinia in the central Mediterranean.

Jones, Michael Rice

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

355

Copper EW Processes: State of the Art in Optimizing Current Density ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Naturally, energy consumption and copper quality are compromised. Several devices ... A Success Path from Process R&D to Commercial Plants · Advanced ...

356

Density Functional Theory Study of Copper Oxide as Low-cost ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density Functional Theory Study of Copper Oxide as Low-cost Photovoltaic Material · Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Anodized Aluminum Alloy-based Counter- ...

357

Impact of Copper Thefts on the Department of Energy (OIG Case...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Trends We have recently seen a troubling increase in the number of cases involving the theft of copper from Departmental facilities. Although some of the reported thefts...

358

Copper-Based Multi-Component Alloys by Vacuum Distillation to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The result of experiment indicated the practicability of vacuum distillation dealing with copper base complex multi-component alloy to separating lead and silver, ...

359

CX-008370: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8370: Categorical Exclusion Determination 8370: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008370: Categorical Exclusion Determination Operation of Tube Furnace for Synthesis of Hydrogen Storage Materials CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/27/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office To recreate hydrogen storage materials from literature, a tube furnace will be used to form lithium-magnesium-nitride from pelletized powder precursors, lithium nitride (Li3N) and magnesium nitride (Mg3N2). The quartz tube will be heated to up 900 to 1000K while a carrier gas will flow through the tube and discharge to the fume hood. Rev.1 The procedure described above may be extended to the synthesis of other nitrides using the same procedure. The same furnace may also be employed in the sintering

360

Numerical simulation of copper ablation by ultrashort laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a modified self-consistent one-dimensional hydrodynamic lagrangian fluid code, laser ablation of solid copper by ultrashort laser pulses in vacuum was simulated to study fundamental mechanisms and to provide a guide for drilling periodic microholes or microgratings on the metal surface. The simulated laser ablation threshold is a approximate constancy in femtosecond regime and increases as the square root of pulse duration in picosecond regime. The ablation depth as a function of pulse duration shows four different regimes and a minimum for a pulse duration of ~ 12ps for various laser fluences. The influence of laser-induced plasma shielding on ablation depth is also studied.

Ding, PengJi; Li, YuHong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Thermal stability and strength of deformation microstructures in pure copper  

SciTech Connect

The plastic flow field produced by machining is utilized to access a range of deformation parameters in pure copper: strains of 1–7, strain rates of 1–1000 s?1 and temperatures as low as 77 K. The strength and stability of the severe plastic deformation microstructures including cellular, elongated, equiaxed and twinned types are characterized. Unique combinations of strengthening and stability are identified in the case of heavily twinned microstructures. These observations offer insights for improving the stability of both single-phase and multicomponent ultrafine-grained alloys.

Saldana, C.; King, Alex H.; Chandrasekar, S.

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

362

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formation of Metallic Copper Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print Wednesday, 26 March 2008 00:00 The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called mycorrhizae, which live underground in symbiosis with host plants through intracellular or extracellular colonization of their roots, are resistant, although it is not known why. A team from the CNRS and Université Joseph Fourier in Grenoble in collaboration with researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and in partnership with the French company Phytorestore has discovered a new form of copper-metallic nanoparticles-in the rhizosphere (soil-root interface) that may explain how mycorrhizal (symbiotic) fungi detoxify copper.

363

Corrosion of copper base alloys in a geothermal brine. SPE Paper No. 7881  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The geothermal environment and the experimental procedures and schedules for corrosion tests of copper-base alloys are described. Corrosive attack on these materials was mostly uniform. Some selective leaching of alloying elements was observed, as was crevice corrosion, but the extent of these forms of corrosion was minor. The results of these tests show a trend toward higher corrosion rates with increasing copper content, for the brass alloys. Commercially pure copper, however, showed corrosion rates 20 to 30% of that suggested by the trend in the data. One copper--nickel alloy was tested to verify earlier test data; this alloy showed a corrosion rate about six times that of a brass of similar copper content. The primary agent of the corrosive attack was hydrogen sulfide, present in the water in trace amounts. The primary conclusion from these tests is that copper--zinc alloys are the most economical materials for boiler and preheater construction. The recommendation is made that materials be selected from these brasses: naval brass, yellow brass, admiralty brass, and copper, in this order of decreasing desirability. Aluminum brass and red brass are marginally acceptable. Copper--nickel alloys are unacceptable for boiler and preheater heat exchangers.

Miller, R.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Development of single type copper alumina catalysts for hydrogen production from dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. Aiming at ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi; Atsushi Ban

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Resistive analysis of mixed carbon nanotube bundle interconnect and its comparison with copper interconnect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As resistivity of Copper (Cu) increases with technology scaling, this drives us to look for new interconnect material for future very large scale integration (VLSI). Mixed carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle has superior properties like current carrying capacity ... Keywords: copper, interconnect, mixed carbon nanotube bundle

T. Alam; R. Dhiman; R. Chandel

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

Bane, K L F; Tu, J J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Electrochemical Preparation of Molybdenum Trioxide Thin Films: Effect of Sintering on Electrochromic and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 Joseph T. Hupp Department of Chemistry, Center for Nanofabrication in these materials for use in energy storage systemsisfueled,inpart,bythedesiretomaximizeenergy stored per unit mass that the component particle size and chemical structure greatly determine the resulting energy density and power

368

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: National Energy Technology Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

May 10, 2013 May 10, 2013 CX-010285: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advancing Low Temperature Combustion and Lean Burning Engines for Light-and Heavy-Duty Vehicles CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 05/10/2013 Location(s): CX: none Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory May 10, 2013 CX-010284: Categorical Exclusion Determination Construction of an Autogas Refueling Network CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 05/10/2013 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory May 8, 2013 CX-010287: Categorical Exclusion Determination Understanding Nitrous Oxide Selective Catalytic Reduction Mechanism and Activity on Copper/Chabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 05/08/2013 Location(s): CX: none Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

369

Copper(III) Pyrophosphate Complexes in Aqueous Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Copper(III) Pyrophosphate Complexes in Aqueous Solution. A Pulse Radiolysis Copper(III) Pyrophosphate Complexes in Aqueous Solution. A Pulse Radiolysis Study at Ambient and High Pressure Diane E. Cabelli, James F. Wishart, Jerzy Holcman, Martin Meier, and Rudi van Eldik J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 5131-5136 (1997) [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: The reaction between OH radicals and [CuII(P2O7)2(H2O) 2]6- results in the formation of a Cu(III) complex. No reaction is observed with N3· or Br2·-, whereas SO4·- initiates the same steps as seen with ·OH. This suggests that the mechanism probably involves a ligand interchange or H · atom abstraction process. The Cu(III) complex undergoes a rapid first-order reaction, probably loss of a P2O74- chelate, followed by addition of OH- (pKOH ~ 10) to yield a Cu(III) complex that is predominantly hydroxylated

370

Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and physical properties of the new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 7}  

SciTech Connect

The new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} has been obtained by annealing the elements at 1073 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the title compound crystallizes in a new structure type, space group Pnma (no. 62) with lattice dimensions of a=8.2326(3) A, b=25.9466(9) A, c=7.3402(3) A, V=1567.9(1) A{sup 3}, Z=4 for La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86(4)}Te{sub 7}. The structure of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is remarkably complex. The Cu and Te atoms build up a three-dimensional covalent network. The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. Electrical property measurements on a sintered pellet of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86}Te{sub 7} indicate that it is a p-type semiconductor in accordance with the electronic structure calculations. -- Graphical abstract: Oligomeric unit comprising interconnected CuTe{sub 3} pyramids and CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} adopts a new structure type. {yields} All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. {yields} The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is a p-type semiconductor.

Zelinska, Mariya; Assoud, Abdeljalil [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: kleinke@uwaterloo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

1995-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

372

EFFECT OF THERMAL PROCESSES ON COPPER-TIN ALLOYS FOR ZINC GETTERING  

SciTech Connect

A contamination mitigation plan was initiated to address the discovery of radioactive zinc‐65 in a glovebox. A near term solution was developed, installation of heated filters in the glovebox piping. This solution is effective at retaining the zinc in the currently contaminated area, but the gamma emitting contaminant is still present in a system designed for tritium beta. A project was initiated to develop a solution to contain the {sup 65}Zn in the furnace module. Copper and bronze (a Cu/Sn alloy) were found to be candidate materials to combine with zinc‐65 vapor, using thermodynamic calculations. A series of binary Cu/Sn alloys were developed (after determining that commercial alloys were unacceptable), that were found to be effective traps of zinc vapor. The task described in this report was undertaken to determine if the bronze substrates would retain their zinc gettering capability after being exposed to simulated extraction conditions with oxidizing and reducing gases. Pure copper and three bronze alloys were prepared, exposed to varying oxidation conditions from 250 to 450{degree}C, then exposed to varying reduction conditions in He-H{sub 2} from 250-450{degree}C, and finally exposed to zinc vapor at 350{degree}C for four hours. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass change, and visual observation. It was observed that the as fabricated samples and the reduced samples all retained their zinc gettering capacity while samples in the "as-oxidized" condition exhibited losses in zinc gettering capacity. Over the range of conditions tested, i.e., composition, oxidation temperature, and reduction temperature, no particular sample composition appeared better. Samples reduced at 350{degree}C exhibited the greatest zinc capacity, although there were some testing anomalies associated with these samples. This work clearly demonstrated that the zinc gettering was not adversely affected by exposure to simulated process conditions and a full scale lithium and zinc trap should be fabricated for testing in the Tritium Extraction Facility.

Korinko, P.; Golyski, M.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Effect of sintering in ball-milled K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} thermoelectric nano-composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} has many attractive features for thermoelectric applications. Recently, K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposite materials, consisting of nano-crystalline, micro-crystalline and amorphous phases, have been fabricated based on powder technology techniques. The Seebeck coefficient has been enhanced while the thermal conductivity has been decreased presenting, thus, interesting behavior. The behavior of the materials under heat treatment conditions is now of interest, as the application of sintering process is necessary for the development of thermoelectric modules. In this work, the crystallization of the K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nano-composites is studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results show that crystallization follows a multiple-step process with different activation energies. The thermoelectric properties are also discussed in the range that crystallization occurs. - Graphical Abstract: {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposites follow a multiple-step crystallization process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based composites consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering results multiple-step crystallization with variable activation energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties follow a step-like behavior during sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties are attributed to the strain relaxation, nucleation and grain growth.

Hatzikraniotis, E. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ioannou, M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)] [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Chrissafis, K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chung, D.Y. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Paraskevopoulos, K.M. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kyratsi, Th., E-mail: kyratsi@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

CX-009628: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

River Operations Office A series of Copper-Tin alloys will be prepared using powder metallurgy techniques. The alloys will range in composition from 0 to 70% tin (Sb) in copper...

375

Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of sintered UO2 and UO2-Gd2O3. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash method on sintered uranium dioxide (O/U=2.003, density=10.48X10 kg/m, from 300 to 2773 K), and urania and gadolinia mixed fuel (2,4 and 6 Wt% Gd2O3 content, from 600 to 1850 K). An equation was suggested for near-stoichiometric uranium dioxide over the temperature range 500-3100 K: K=(1-aP)(1/(A+BT)+DTxexp(-E/kT)x(1+H(E/kT+2)(sup 2))), where K in W/(m)(K), P is the fraction of porosity, a=2.74-5.8X10(sup 4-)T, A=3.68X10(sup 2-)(m)(K)/W, B=2.25X10(sup 4-)m/W, D=5.31X10(sup 3-)W/mXK2, H=0.264, E=1.15 ev, k is the Boltzmann constant. The thermal conductivity of UO2-Gd2O3 samples as a function of temperature and Gd2O3 content, X, could be expressed by phonon conduction; K=1/(A+BT) in the temperature range from 600 to 1700 K, where A=2.50 X+0.044(m)(K)/W.

Ying, S.; Ji, Z.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called mycorrhizae, which live underground in symbiosis with host plants through intracellular or extracellular colonization of their roots, are resistant, although it is not known why. A team from the CNRS and Université Joseph Fourier in Grenoble in collaboration with researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and in partnership with the French company Phytorestore has discovered a new form of copper-metallic nanoparticles-in the rhizosphere (soil-root interface) that may explain how mycorrhizal (symbiotic) fungi detoxify copper.

377

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called mycorrhizae, which live underground in symbiosis with host plants through intracellular or extracellular colonization of their roots, are resistant, although it is not known why. A team from the CNRS and Université Joseph Fourier in Grenoble in collaboration with researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and in partnership with the French company Phytorestore has discovered a new form of copper-metallic nanoparticles-in the rhizosphere (soil-root interface) that may explain how mycorrhizal (symbiotic) fungi detoxify copper.

378

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called mycorrhizae, which live underground in symbiosis with host plants through intracellular or extracellular colonization of their roots, are resistant, although it is not known why. A team from the CNRS and Université Joseph Fourier in Grenoble in collaboration with researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and in partnership with the French company Phytorestore has discovered a new form of copper-metallic nanoparticles-in the rhizosphere (soil-root interface) that may explain how mycorrhizal (symbiotic) fungi detoxify copper.

379

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called mycorrhizae, which live underground in symbiosis with host plants through intracellular or extracellular colonization of their roots, are resistant, although it is not known why. A team from the CNRS and Université Joseph Fourier in Grenoble in collaboration with researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and in partnership with the French company Phytorestore has discovered a new form of copper-metallic nanoparticles-in the rhizosphere (soil-root interface) that may explain how mycorrhizal (symbiotic) fungi detoxify copper.

380

Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Impact of Copper Thefts on the Department of Energy (OIG Case No.: I11IG002)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

August 17, 2011 August 17, 2011 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Impact of Copper Thefts on the Department of Energy (OIG Case No.: I11IG002) A series of news articles during the last several months have reported increased thefts of copper nationally, including several that have interrupted electrical distribution and telephone service in communities across the country. These thefts have also adversely impacted new construction projects, irrigation systems and other infrastructure projects. In fact, the Federal Bureau of Investigation reported in an unclassified intelligence assessment that copper thefts threaten the critical infrastructure of the United States.

382

Modelling off Hugoniot Loading Using Ramp Compression in Single Crystal Copper  

SciTech Connect

The application of a ramp load to a sample is a method by which the thermodynamic variables of the high pressure state can be controlled. The faster the loading rate, the higher the entropy and higher the temperature. This paper describes moleculer dynamics (MD) simulations with 25 million atoms which investigate ramp loading of single crystal copper. The simulations followed the propagation of a 300ps ramp load to 3Mbar along the [100] direction copper. The simulations were long enough to allow the wave front to steepen into a shock, at which point the simulated copper sample shock melted.

Hawreliak, J; Remington, B A; Lorenzana, H; Bringa, E; Wark, J

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

383

Corrosion of Aluminum-fin, Copper-tube Heat Exchange Coils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past several years the HVAC industry has experienced a large increase in instances of leaks in the central portion of aluminum-finned, coppertube heat exchange coils. These leaks are characterized as being very small in size and very high in numbers within a single coil. There are many chemical species that can cause these coil leaks, including chlorides from pool chemicals and clothes washing, sulfur from tap water, lubricants and nearby industries, and ammonia compounds from cleaners or nearby industries. However this recent increase in reported coil leaks is being attributed to a newly discovered class of corroding agents. These are low molecular weight organic acids such as acetic acid and formic acid. This paper gives some background information on leak causes and then presents the diagnostic procedures typically used to determine these causes. Results of some of these analyses are also presented. As many of these procedures are new and often company-specific, there are no accepted industry standard procedures to test process chemicals or application contaminants for copper tube corrosion potential. Industry supported research has begun to develop a bench test for this.

Field, J. E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degree}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME K{sub Ia} curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstead, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Coulomb-oscillator origin of superconductivity in p-doped copper oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emergence, development and cessation of superconductivity in three representative compounds of copper oxide families---cation doped Ca_2-xNa_xCuO2Cl2 and La_2-xAe_xCuO4 (Ae = Ba, Sr), as well as oxygen enriched YBa2Cu3O_6+x ---are explained with the Coulomb-oscillator model of superconductivity. By the model, non-resistive current is carried by axial Coulomb oscillations of s electrons through neighbor nuclei---here excited 3s electrons from O^2- ions through next-nearest neighbor oxygen nuclei---if their accompanying lateral oscillation is sufficiently confined to prevent lateral overswing. Cation doping gives rise to a superlattice in the layers that sandwich each CuO2 plane. In Ca_2-xNa_xCuO2Cl2, having one CuO2 plane per unit cell, superconductivity emerges when laterally confined Coulomb oscillators start connecting along 6 x 6 superlattice domains (in units of planar lattice constants) and it peaks at 4 x 4 domains when, at doping x = 1/8, the superlattice is completed. With further doping a new, off-set superlattice grows. Its frustrating effect gradually reduces superconductivity to cessation. The same mechanism holds for La_2-xAe_xCuO4 which has two, staggered CuO2 planes per unit cell. The staggering causes superconducting frustration or boost between adjacent layer sandwiches. This results in a double hump of the transition temperature Tc(x), instead of a dome, with a deep furrow or dip at x = 1/8 for Ae = Ba or Sr, respectively. Oxygen enrichment of YBa2Cu3O_6+x indirectly leads to effective doping in the CuO2 planes themselves (Cu^2+ --> Cu^3+). The ionization of copper ions at the corners of planar unit cells determines whether lateral oscillations between next-nearest neighbor O^2- ions overswing (Tc = 0) or are confined to wide or narrow electron tracks. Their percolating connectivity gives rise to respective plateaus of Tc = 57 K and Tc = 90 K, and intermediate ramps.

Manfred Bucher

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

386

Gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline type-I Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) clathrates prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods  

SciTech Connect

The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) compounds with the type-I clathrate structure is presented. Samples were prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. Powder x-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show that the solubility limit of gallium in the type-I clathrate phase is close to x=15, which is slightly higher than that for a single crystal. The carrier concentration at room temperature decreases from 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} as the Ga content x increases. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity vary systematically with the carrier concentration when the Ga content x varies. The effective mass (2.0m{sub 0}), the carrier mobility (10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}), and the lattice thermal conductivity (1.1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are determined for the Ga content x=14.51. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is about 0.55 at 900 K for the Ga content x=14.51. The calculation of ZT using the experimentally determined material parameters predicts ZT=0.8 (900 K) at the optimum carrier concentration of about 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. - Graphical abstract: The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties is presented on polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} with the type-I clathrate structure prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches 0.55 at 900 K due to the increase in the Ga content (close to x=15), and a calculation predicts further improvement of ZT at the optimized carrier concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallographic properties of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} clathrates are characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arc melting and spark plasma sintering process enables increase of Ga content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We elucidate the Ga composition dependence of thermoelectric properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is improved due to the increased Ga content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation predicts a potential ZT=0.8 at 900 K at optimized carrier concentration.

Anno, Hiroaki, E-mail: anno@rs.tus.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan) [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan); JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroki; Nakabayashi, Takahiro; Hokazono, Masahiro [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan); Shirataki, Ritsuko [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan) [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan); JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Results Of Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation (CCPO) Of Tank 48H Simulants  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. A processing temperature of 50 ?C as part of an overall set of conditions appears to provide a viable TPB destruction time on the order of 4 days. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. The data in this report suggests 100-250 mg/L as a minimum. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. An addition rate of 0.4 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is suggested for the process. SRNL recommends that for pH adjustment, an acid addition rate 42 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is used. This is the same addition rate used in the testing. Even though the TPB and phenylborates can be destroyed in a relative short time period, the residual organics will take longer to degrade to <10 mg/L. Low level leaching on titanium occurred, however, the typical concentrations of released titanium are very low (~40 mg/L or less). A small amount of leaching under these conditions is not surprising and is consistent with a previous study. Acidification with phosphoric and formic acids, in lieu of nitric acid, provides benefits in reducing the amount of benzene emitted over the lifetime of a reaction. Analyses of the post-reaction residual material indicate that slurry initially adjusted down to a pH 7 produced a greater degree of energetic material than material initially adjusted to a pH of 9. No more than 140 {micro}g/m{sup 3} of mercury was indicated in reactor head spaces at any time. An estimation of less than 1% of the initial mercury was vaporized in each experiment. A limited number of replicate tests were performed to determine experimental reproducibility. These tests indicate a reasonable degree of reproducibility. The conclusion of the simulant testing has provided a set of reaction conditions that can destroy the TPB and phenylborates quickly. While longer times will be required to degrade the residual organics, the reactions appear to perform in a consistent manner. A real waste test or tests are recommended and further investigation into the use of phosphoric or formic acid is warranted.

Peters, T. B.; Pareizs, J. M.; Newell, J. D.; Fondeur, F. F.; Nash, C. A.; White, T. L.; Fink, S. D.

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

388

A New Slant on a Cellular Balancing Act - The Copper-sensing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis copper-sensing transcriptional regulator". Nature Chem. Bio., 2007, 3, 60-68 References Rae, T.D., Schmidt, P.J., Pufahl, R.A., Culotta,...

389

The synthesis of highly aligned cupric oxide nanowires by heating copper foil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the effects of grain size and orientation of copper substrates for the growth of cupric oxide nanowires by thermal oxidation method. Long, less-roughness, high-density, and aligned cupric oxide nanowires have been synthesized by ...

Jianbo Liang; Naoki Kishi; Tetsuo Soga; Takashi Jimbo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Production of copper and brass nanoparticles upon laser ablation in liquids  

SciTech Connect

The production of nanoparticles upon ablation of copper and brass by pulsed radiation from Nd:YAG and copper lasers in water, ethanol, and acetone is studied. The nanoparticles were investigated by the methods of X-ray diffractometry, optical spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The produced copper and brass nanoparticles were shown to exhibit a plasmon resonance lying in the visible spectral range near 580 and 510 nm. The brass nanoparticles produced by ablation in ethanol have a shell approximately 10-nm thick for an average dimension of 20-30 nm. A chemical modification of ethanol was observed, which manifested itself in the appearance of intense UV absorption bands. Upon laser irradiation of brass nanoparticles in a liquid their absorption spectrum gradually transformed into the spectrum of copper nanoparticles. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

Kazakevich, Pavel V; Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A [Scientific Center for Wave Studies, A.M.Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, Valerii V [Laser Materials and Technology Research Center, A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Neural networks based multiplex forecasting system of the end-point of copper blow period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The neural network and the experiential evaluation method are introduced into the industrial converting process forecast, and a multiplex forecast system is proposed at the end-point of copper blow period in a matte converting process. The fuzzy clustering ...

Lihua Xue; Hongzhong Huang; Yaohua Hu; Zhangming Shi

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Molecular Imaging Approaches to Understanding the Roles of Copper in Biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alberts, B. et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell (Taylor &Rosenzweig, A. C. Structural biology of copper trafficking.Opinion in Chemical Biology 2000, 4, 140-147. Waggoner, D.

Domaille, Dylan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed an innovative approach to improve the adhesion of anode laminate to copper current collectors in lithium ion batteries. This nanotechnology directly addresses delamination of graphite ...

394

Mechanistic Studies on the Copper-Catalyzed N-Arylation of Amides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The copper-catalyzed N-arylation of amides, i.e., the Goldberg reaction, is an efficient method for the construction of products relevant to both industry and academic settings. Herein, we present mechanistic details ...

Strieter, Eric R.

395

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Spectral analysis of x-ray emission created by intense laser irradiation of copper materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have measured the x-ray emission, primarily from K{sub {alpha}},K{sub {beta}}, and He{sub {alpha}} lines, of elemental copper foil and 'foam' targets irradiated with a mid-10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} laser pulse. The copper foam at 0.1 times solid density is observed to produce 50% greater He{sub {alpha}} line emission than copper foil, and the measured signal is well-fit by a sum of three synthetic spectra generated by the atomic physics code FLYCHK. Additionally, spectra from both targets reveal characteristic inner shell K{sub {alpha}} transitions from hot electron interaction with the bulk copper. However, only the larger-volume foam target produced significant K{sub {beta}} radiation, confirming a lower bulk temperature in the higher volume sample.

Huntington, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P. [Atmospheric, Oceanic, Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 (United States); Malamud, G. [Atmospheric, Oceanic, Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 (United States); Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center - Negev, 84190 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Analysis of CNT bundle and its comparison with copper interconnect for CMOS and CNFET drivers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In nanoscale regime as the CMOS process technology continues to scale, the standard copper (Cu) interconnect will become a major hurdle for onchip communication due to high resistivity and electromigration. This paper presents the comprehensive evaluation ...

Abdul Kadir Kureshi; Mohd. Hasan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils | Stanford...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils Tuesday, July 16, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Kelly Cone, PhD Engineering, Dept. of Applied Science,...

399

Size Dependence of a Temperature-Induced Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Copper(I) Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Determination of the phase diagrams for the nanocrystalline forms of materials is crucial for our understanding of nanostructures and the design of functional materials using nanoscale building blocks. The ability to study such transformations in nanomaterials with controlled shape offers further insight into transition mechanisms and the influence of particular facets. Here we present an investigation of the size-dependent, temperature-induced solid-solid phase transition in copper sulfide nanorods from low- to high-chalcocite. We find the transition temperature to be substantially reduced, with the high chalcocite phase appearing in the smallest nanocrystals at temperatures so low that they are typical of photovoltaic operation. Size dependence in phase trans- formations suggests the possibility of accessing morphologies that are not found in bulk solids at ambient conditions. These other- wise-inaccessible crystal phases could enable higher-performing materials in a range of applications, including sensing, switching, lighting, and photovoltaics.

Rivest, Jessy B; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jain, Prashant K; Toney, Michael F; Alivisatos, A Paul

2011-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

400

Geothermal energy for the increased recovery of copper by flotation enhancement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The possible use of geothermal energy (a) to speed the recovery of copper from ore flotation and/or leaching of flotation tailings and (b) to utilize geothermal brines to replace valuable fresh water in copper flotation operations was evaluated. Geothermal energy could be used to enhance copper and molybdenum recovery in mineral flotation by increasing the kinetics of the flotation process. In another approach, geothermal energy could be used to heat the leaching solution which might permit greater copper recovery using the same residence time in a tailings leach facility. Since there is no restriction on the temperature of the leaching fluid, revenues generated from the additional copper recovered would be greater for tailings leach operations than for other types of leach operations (for example, dump leaching operation) for which temperature restrictions exist. The estimated increase in total revenues resulting from two percent increase copper recovery in a 50,000 tons ore/day plant was estimated to be over $2,000,000 annually. It would require an estimated geothermal investment of about $2,130,000 for a geothermal well and pumping system. Thus, the capital investment would be paid out in about one year. Furthermore, considerable savings of fresh waters and process equipment are possible if the geothermal waters can be used directly in the mine-mill operations, which is believed to be practical.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

CX-009801: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Copper Mountain to Boysen 34.5 Kilovolt Transmission Line Structure Replacement CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 01/11/2013 Location(s): Wyoming Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

402

CX-008648: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

48: Categorical Exclusion Determination 48: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008648: Categorical Exclusion Determination Printed Circuit Board Through-Hole Plating, Masking, and Legending Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/22/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office A MiniContac RS electrochemical plater is used to plate through-holes with copper between surface layers on electronic printed circuit boards . Additionally, a ProMask (solder mask) process and ProLegend (legend printing or silkscreening) are used to process the printed circuit boards. All equipment and chemical supplies are procured from LPKF Laser & Electronics. CX-008648.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-006931: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007668: Categorical Exclusion Determination

403

CO oxidation on substituted copper chromite spinel oxide catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxidation of carbon monoxide was studied on Mg- and Al-substituted CuCr[sub 2]O[sub 4] spinel catalyst at atmospheric pressure and temperatures between 373 and 723 K. The activity of CuCr[sub 2]O[sub 4] decreased even for small replacements of either Cu by Mg or Cr by Al and none of the substituted oxides was as active as CuCr[sub 2]O[sub 4]. In Cu[sub 1[minus]x]Mg[sub x]Cr[sub 2]O[sub 4] catalysts, the activity systematically decreased with increasing x, except for 0.4 < x < 0.6. The decrease in activity is due to a decrease in the active Cu[sup 2+] ions of the catalyst. The increase in activity on increasing x from 0.4 to 0.6 is attributed to the crystallographic phase change, i.e., tetragonal to cubic, in the catalyst. This was also found in the CuCr[sub 2[minus]x]Al[sub x]O[sub 4] catalysts. The decrease in the catalytic activity on substitution of Cr by Al, even when the total copper content is not altered, is due to the reduction of some of the active Cu[sup 2+] ions to Cu[sup 1+] ions. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Murthy, K.S.R.C. (Indian Telephone Industries, Ltd., Banglore (India)); Ghose, J. (Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Electronic phase diagram of high temperature copper oxide superconductors.  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand the origin of high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides, we must understand the normal state from which it emerges. Here, we examine the evolution of the normal state electronic excitations with temperature and carrier concentration in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} using angle-resolved photoemission. In contrast to conventional superconductors, where there is a single temperature scale T{sub c} separating the normal from the superconducting state, the high-temperature superconductors exhibit two additional temperature scales. One is the pseudogap scale T*, below which electronic excitations exhibit an energy gap. The second is the coherence scale T{sub coh}, below which sharp spectral features appear due to increased lifetime of the excitations. We find that T* and T{sub coh} are strongly doping dependent and cross each other near optimal doping. Thus the highest superconducting T{sub c} emerges from an unusual normal state that is characterized by coherent excitations with an energy gap.

Chatterjee, U.; Ai, D.; Zhao, J.; Rosenkranz, S.; Kaminski, A.; Raffy, H.; Li, Z. Z.; Kadowaki, K.; Randeria, M.; Norman, M. R.; Campuzano, J. C. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago); (Iowa State Univ.); (Univ. Paris-Sud); (Univ. of Tsukuba); (Ohio State Univ.)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Arsenic exposure in children living near a former copper smelter  

SciTech Connect

About 10,000 people live in communities surrounding the former copper smelter at Anaconda, Montana. Most of these people live in the town of Anaconda, which is generally upwind of the smelter. The smelter ceased operations in 1980, after almost a century of ore processing. Soil and dust on the smelter site and in the vicinity remain contaminated with arsenic, although at this time air and drinking water arsenic levels are not elevated. Results of soil and dust sampling for arsenic in the communities around the smelter are reported. In the town of Anaconda, surface soil arsenic levels from residential sites have averaged around 100 ppm or greater. Young children are generally believed to be the population with the most nonoccupational exposure to soil. Several models of exposure to environmental arsenic in the Anaconda area have predicted that children living in all communities surrounding the smelter would be having significant and measurable exposure to arsenic. Two exposures surveys, conducted while the smelter was operative, demonstrated that excess exposure to arsenic was occurring in young children. Until the present surveys, no exposure data had been collected since the smelter was closed.

Binder, S.; Forney, D.; Kaye, W.; Paschal, D.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates  

SciTech Connect

Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni (RE=Rare Earth), and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approach, which includes chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Effects of cryogenic equal channel angular deformation on copper 101  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Grain size in polycrystalline metallic materials significantly influences physical and mechanical properties. At room temperature, large grain size is generally associated with low strength, hardness and ductility. Fine grained microstructures show an increase in strength due to a larger grain boundary surface area per unit volume. One way to obtain fine grained microstructures is through cold working and recrystallization of the material. In this study, oxygen-free high-conductivity copper 101 was cold worked by being subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) at room temperature (23 °C) and at -196 °C under liquid nitrogen. Cold working was imparted by equal channel angular deformation (ECAD). Before extrusions were performed, a special ECAD tool was designed and built, which was capable of operating under the high loads resulting from forcing a billet through the die at -196 °C. Hardness, tensile strength, electrical resistivity and annealing experiments were performed following deformation along with optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe changes in properties and grain morphology.

Horan, Christopher Sean

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

DT fusion neutron radiation strengthening of copper and niobium  

SciTech Connect

The initial results of a comparative study of the radiation strengthening and damage structures produced in Cu and Nb by D-T fusion and fission reactor neutrons are described. The radiation strengthening produced by a given fluence of fusion neutrons above about 10$sup 17$ n/cm$sup 2$ is equal to that produced by a fluence of fission reactor neutrons (E greater than 0.1 MeV) ten times as great. This difference is about twice as large as would be expected if the strengthening scaled with damage energy or dpa. Initial transmission electron microscopy observations of the damage structures in fusion and fission reactor neutron irradiated copper indicate that the same type of primary structural defects, vacancy and interstitial point defect clusters and small dislocation loops with a/3 (111) and a/2 (110) Burgers vectors, are produced in both cases. The difference in the radiation strengthening produced by fusion and fission reactor neutrons in Cu appears to result from a substantially greater rate of accumulation of damage, in the form of point defect clusters, during irradiation with fusion neutrons than during irradiation with fission reactor neutrons plus a significant difference in the size and spatial distributions of the damage clusters. (auth)

Mitchell, J.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Echer, C.J.; Parkin, D.M.

1975-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

409

DT fusion neutron radiation strengthening of copper and niobium  

SciTech Connect

The initial results of a comparative study of the radiation strengthening and damage structures produced in Cu and Nb by D-T fusion and fission reactor neutrons are described. The radiation strengthening produced by a given fluence of fusion neutrons above about 10$sup 17$n/cm$sup 2$ is equal to that produced by a fluence of fission reactor neutrons (E greater than 0.1 MeV) ten times as great. This difference is about twice as large as would be expected if the strengthening scaled with damage energy or dpa. Initial transmission electron microscopy observations of the damage structures in fusion and fission reactor neutron irradiated copper indicate that the same type of primary structural defects, vacancy and interstitial point defect clusters and small dislocation loops with a/3 (111) and a/2 (110) Burgers vectors, are produced in both cases. The difference in the radiation strengthening produced by fusion and fission reactor neutrons in Cu appears to result from a substantially greater rate of accumulation of damage, in the form of point defect clusters, during irradiation with fusion neutrons than during irradiation with fission reactor neutrons plus a significant difference in the size and spatial distributions of the damage clusters. (auth)

Mitchell, J.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Echer, C.J.; Parkin, D.M.

1975-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

410

Thermodynamic investigations and modeling of copper and iron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimentally determined thermochemical and thermodynamic data are key input data for the thermodynamic optimization. For the experimental investigations, ...

411

Advances on Sintering II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2013... Metal-like Grain Boundary Complexions in Cu/Ti Doped Alumina: Abigail Lawrence1; Animesh Kundu1; Martin Harmer1; 1Lehigh University

412

Sintering of Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 3, 2010 ... SiC joints fracturing within SiC substrates were produced by using optimized joining variables. We have recently demonstrated that, ...

413

Sintering Science and Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011 ... This research was sponsored by the U.S. DOE, Office of EERE Industrial Technologies Program, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with ...

414

Process and reliability assessment of plasma-based copper etch process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The plasma-based etching processes of copper (Cu) and titanium tungsten (TiW) thin films, and the electromigration of the copper lines patterned by above etching processes were studied. Instead of vaporizing the plasma/copper reaction product, a dilute hydrogen chloride solution was used to dissolve the nonvolatile reaction product. The plasma/copper reaction process was affected by many factors including the microstructure of the copper film and the plasma conditions. Under the same chlorine plasma exposure condition, the copper conversation rate and the copper chloride (CuClx) formation rate increased monotonically with the Cu grain size. The characteristics of the Cu etching process were explained by diffusion mechanisms of Cl and Cu in the plasmacopper reaction process as well as microstructures of Cu and CuClx. The Cu chlorination process was also affected by the additive gas in the Cl2 plasma. The additive gas, such as Ar, N2, and CF4, dramatically changed the plasma phase chemistry, i.e., the Cl concentration, and the ion bombardment energy, which resulted in changes of the Cu chlorination rate and the sidewall roughness. TiW thin films, used as the diffusion barrier layer for the Cu film, were reactive ion etched with CF4/O2, CF4/Cl2, and CF4/HCl plasma. Process parameter such as feed gas composition, RF power, and plasma pressure showed tremendous effects on the etch rate and the etch selectivity. The TiW etch rate was a function of the sum of Cl and F concentrations and the ion bombardment energy. Cu/diffusion barrier metal stack was successfully patterned by above plasma etch processes. The electromigration (EM) performance of the Cu lines was evaluated by the accelerated isothermal test. The activation energy of 0.5~0.6 eV and the current density exponent of 2.7 were obtained. Failure analysis showed that both copper-silicon nitride cap layer interface and the copper grain boundary were active diffusion paths. The EM induced stress caused the cap layer crack and affected the reliability of Cu lines. The processes studied in this dissertation can be applied in advanced microelectronic fabrication including large area flexible microelectronics.

Liu, Guojun

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: South Carolina | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

January 24, 2012 January 24, 2012 CX-007626: Categorical Exclusion Determination Lapeyre Stair Installation CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office January 24, 2012 CX-007625: Categorical Exclusion Determination Flush Fire Water Distribution Lines to Remove Sediment CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office January 24, 2012 CX-007624: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office January 23, 2012 CX-007973: Categorical Exclusion Determination Concrete Culverts Storage in K-Area

416

CX-007644: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

44: Categorical Exclusion Determination 44: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007644: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Catalyzed peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/17/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). Personnel must remove or destroy the organics before the tank space can be utilized or closed. Savannah River Remediation and Savannah River National Laboratory are tasked with studying the decomposition of TPB slurries via the use of catalysts and hydrogen peroxide. CX-007644.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-007624: Categorical Exclusion Determination

417

CX-007624: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Categorical Exclusion Determination 4: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007624: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). Personnel must remove or destroy the organics before the tank space can be utilized or closed. Savannah River Remediation and Savannah River National Laboratory are tasked with studying the decomposition of TPB slurries via the use of catalysts and hydrogen peroxide. CX-007624.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-007644: Categorical Exclusion Determination

418

CX-004354: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

54: Categorical Exclusion Determination 54: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004354: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alaska-Tribe-Village of Kotlik CX(s) Applied: A9, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 11/02/2010 Location(s): Kotlik, Alaska Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. The Native Village of Kotlik proposes to 1) hire an employee to conduct energy efficiency and conservation audits and 2) purchase Environmental Protection Agency-approved wood stoves and fuel efficient burning stoves, copper fuel tubing and oil filters, compact fluorescent lights, porcelain lamp holders, and surge protectors for retrofitting homes in the Kotlik community. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-004354.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-004781: Categorical Exclusion Determination

419

CX-006931: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Categorical Exclusion Determination 1: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006931: Categorical Exclusion Determination Printed Circuit Board Through-Hole Plating, Masking, and Legending Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 10/12/2011 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, National Energy Technology Laboratory A MiniContac RS electrochemical plater is used to plate through-holes with copper between surface layers on electronic printed circuit boards. Additionally, a ProMask (solder mask) process and ProLegend (legend printing or silkscreening) are used to process the printed circuit boards. All equipment and chemical supplies are procured from LPKF Laser & Electronics. CX-006931.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-008648: Categorical Exclusion Determination

420

A Copper Crystal Lens for Ultra-High-Sensitivity Medical Imaging  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Copper Crystal Lens for Ultra-High-Sensitivity Medical Imaging A Copper Crystal Lens for Ultra-High-Sensitivity Medical Imaging A copper crystal lens developed at the Advanced Photon Source represents a new and promising approach in nuclear medicine for imaging very small tumors in the human body with higher sensitivity and higher spatial resolution than the cameras now in use. Conceptual view of the 6-lens array system. This system would provide sufficient data to generate a 3-dimensional image of a tumor. Conceptual view of the 6-lens array system. This system would provide sufficient data to generate a 3-dimensional image of a tumor. The lens is designed to focus gamma-ray energies of 100 to 200 keV, which makes it ideal for focusing the 140.6-keV gamma rays from Technetium-99m typically used in radioactive tracers. This new approach to medical imaging

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421

New Physics in a Copper-Iridium Compound | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Key Target for Diabetes Drugs A Key Target for Diabetes Drugs Molten Metal Solidifies into a New Kind of Glass Organic Polymers Show Sunny Potential A New Family of Quasicrystals Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed New Physics in a Copper-Iridium Compound August 6, 2013 Bookmark and Share (a) Cu-Ir chain of Sr3CuIrO6. Oxygen atoms surround both copper (Cu2+) and iridium (Ir4+) cations (ions positively charged due to the loss of electrons to the oxygen atoms, which become negatively-charged anions). The copper cation forms a planar arrangement with the surrounding oxygen anions, while the iridium cation resides at the center of an octahedral

422

Molecular dynamics simulation of high strain-rate void nucleation and growth in copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isotropic tension is simulated in nanoscale polycrystalline copper with 10 nm grain size using large-scale molecular dynamics. The nanocrystalline copper is fabricated on the computer by growing randomly oriented grains from seed sites in simulations cell. Constant volume strain rates of 10-8 to 10-10 are considered for systems ranging from 10-5 to 10-6 atoms using EAM interatomic potential for copper. The spacing between voids for room temperature single crystal simulations is found to scale approximately as l{approximately}0. 005 Cs/gamma, where Cs is the sound speed and gamma is the strain rate. Below strain rates of about 10-9, only one void is observed to nucleate and grow in the 10 nm polycrystalline simulation cell. The growth of small voids is simulated by cutting a void out of the simulation cell and repeating the isotropic expansion.

Belak, J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Characterization of vanadium/silica and copper/silica aerogel catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vanadium/silica and copper/silica aerogels have been prepared using the sol-gel method followed by CO{sub 2} exchange and supercritical extraction. Structural properties of samples supercritically dried, oxidized and used in reactions studies conducted with a feed representing the average composition of automobile exhaust from a lean burn engine were investigated using laser Raman spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reduction. No evidence of crystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was found for the vanadium/silica aerogel, freshly extracted, oxidized or following exposure to reaction conditions using these techniques. However, results obtained for the copper/silica sample indicate that changes in the structure of the copper species had occurred as the sample was oxidized and exposed to reaction conditions.

Owens, L.; Tillotson, T.M.; Hair, L.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

High Strain-Rate Mechanical Behaviour of a Copper Matrix Composite for Nuclear Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aim of this work is the investigation of mechanical behaviour of an alumina dispersion strengthened copper, known by the trade name GLIDCOP®, subjected to dynamic loads: it is a composite material with a copper matrix strengthened with aluminium oxide ceramic particles. Since the particle content is quite small the material keeps the OFE copper physical properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, but with a higher yield strength, like a mild-carbon steel. Besides, with the addition of aluminium oxide, the good mechanical properties are retained also at high temperatures and the resistance to thermal softening is increased: the second phase blocks the dislocation movement preventing the grain growth. Thanks to these properties GLIDCOP® finds several applications in particle accelerator technologies, where problems of thermal management, combined with structural requirements, play a key role. Currently, it is used for the construction of structural and functional parts of the particle beam collim...

Peroni, L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Hydrogen Reduction of Ferric Ions for Use in Copper Electrowinning  

SciTech Connect

The conventional copper electrowinning process uses the water hydrolysis reaction as the anodic source of electrons. However this reaction generates acid mist and requires large quantities of energy. In order to improve energy efficiency and avoid acid mist, an alternative anodic reaction of ferrous ion oxidation has been proposed. This reaction does not involve evolution of acid mist and can be carried out at a lower cell voltage than the conventional process. However, because ferrous ions are converted to ferric ions at the anode in this process, there is a need for reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions to continue this process. The most promising method for this reduction is the use of hydrogen gas since the resulting byproduct acid can be used elsewhere in the process and, unlike other reductants, hydrogen does not introduce other species that need subsequent removal. Because the hydrogen reduction technology has undergone only preliminary lab scale testing, additional research is needed to evaluate its commercial potential. Two issues for this research are the potentially low mass transfer rate of hydrogen into the electrolyte stream because of its low solubility in water, and whether other gaseous reductants less expensive than hydrogen, such as natural gas or syngas, might work. In this study various reductants were investigated to carry out the reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions using a simulated electrolyte solution recycled through a trickle bed reactor packed with catalyst. The gases tested as reductants were hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and a 50/50 mixture of H2 and CO. Nitrogen was also tested as an inert control. These gases were tested because they are constituents in either natural gas or syngas. The catalysts tested were palladium and platinum. Two gas flow rates and five electrolyte flow rates were tested. Pure hydrogen was an effective reductant of ferric ion. The rates were similar with both palladium and platinum. The ferric iron reduction increased with both the flow rate of gas as well as the liquid flow rate (up to ~0.1 g/L/min). Pure carbon monoxide also reduced the ferric ion, but at a rate about one tenth that of pure hydrogen at similar conditions. The syngas mixture of equimolar hydrogen and carbon monoxide reacted at a rate intermediate between each gas as a pure stream (up to ~ 0.06 g/L/min). This gas mixture shows that some form of unpurified reformer gas could be used to reduce the ferric ion in the electrolyte solution. Nitrogen was inert causing very little to no reduction of ferric ion.

Karl S. Noah; Debby F. Bruhn; John E. Wey; Robert S. Cherry

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Determination of thymine glycol residues in irradiated or oxidized DNA by formation of methylglyceric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Treatment of DNA solutions with X-irradiation various oxidants including hydrogen peroxide plus ferrous ion, hydrogen peroxide plus copper ion and ascorbate, permanganate, or sonication in the presence of dissolved oxygen all produced varying amounts of thymine glycol residues. After denaturing the DNA with heat, the glycol residues were reduced and labeled at the 6 position with tritium- labeled sodium borohydride. Subsequent reaction with anhydrous methanolic HCl gave a quantitative yield of the methyl ester of methylglyceric acid, which was determined by thin layer chromatography. The method, developed using thymidine as a model, was used to ascertain the requirements for glycol formation in DNA. It was shown that hydroxyl radical generating systems, permanganate, X-irradiation, or sonication in presence of oxygen were required, but hydrogen peroxide in the absence of iron or copper and ascorbate was inactive. Application to determination of DNA damage in vivo is being explored.

Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of extruded copper and of welded copper beam chambers for the PEP II asymmetric B-factory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEP II is being built as a higher luminosity electron-positron collider, with asymmetric beams of 9 GeV and 3.1 GeV, having maximum currents of 3.0 A. Based on the previous work on the NSLS VUV beamline U10B, a copper was selected for construction of UHV beam chambers and absorbers to minimize the pressure rise from synchrotron radiation during operation. An extruded beam chamber and a welded beam chamber were fabricated from the selected copper for PSD measurements on NSLS X-ray beamline X28A. The chambers were exposed to white light with a critical energy of 5 KeV, both direct and through a 0.010 inch thick Beryllium filter. Each chamber was exposed to a dose of approximately 10{sup 23} photons per meter at an incidence angle of 25 mrad, after argon glow conditioning and a 150 C vacuum bake. Desorption yields for H{sub 2} CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} are reported as a function of accumulated photon flux, critical energy, and chamber preparation. The results are compared with the previous work on beamline U10B and with those of other published work for copper.

Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). NSLS; Perkins, C. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Calderon, M.; Barletta, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

CX-004150: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50: Categorical Exclusion Determination 50: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004150: Categorical Exclusion Determination High Capacity Manufacturing of Non-Contact, Printable Metallic Inks for Silicon Solar Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 09/14/2010 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Electrical contacts are a critical part of photovoltaic technology and in particular represent a difficult and costly area for silicon solar cell production. In particular, it would be desirable to non-contact printing processes which would be much more cost effective, environmentally benign and materials efficient compared with existing manufacturing methods. Although such printing methods have proved successful for silver and for nickel/copper top contacts, silver is too expensive and the use of a nickel

429

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B3.6 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

January 17, 2012 January 17, 2012 CX-007644: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Catalyzed peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/17/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office January 17, 2012 CX-007543: Categorical Exclusion Determination Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/17/2012 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): Golden Field Office January 13, 2012 CX-007975: Categorical Exclusion Determination Washington River Protection Solutions and Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International- Proposed Actions For Calendar Year 2012 Scheduled To Take Place CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/13/2012 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): River Protection-Richland Operations Office

430

CX-001737: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1737: Categorical Exclusion Determination 1737: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001737: Categorical Exclusion Determination Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and Enhanced Geothermal System Wells CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B3.11 Date: 03/31/2010 Location(s): Massachusetts Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office Department of Energy and recipient cost share funds will be used by Draka Cableteq USA (Draka) to develop a complete, multi-purpose cable solution for long-term deployment in geothermal wells/reservoirs that can be used with the widest variety of sensors. This cable will incorporate specialty optical fibers, with specific glass chemistry and high temperature and pressure protective coatings for data communication and distributed

431

CX-008831: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31: Categorical Exclusion Determination 31: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008831: Categorical Exclusion Determination Algaecide Use at Wastewater Treatment Facility - Amendment 01 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 08/07/2012 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): Pantex Site Office This amended action would allow the use of an additional algaecide, AgriTec® 2, to control algae at the Wastewater Treatment Facility and in the Sub-surface Drip Irrigation System. The AgriTec® is a copper sulfate based algaecide that would remain in solution and provide a more even dispersal for better control of the algae than the previously approved Cutrine® Plus. The AgriTec® 2 would be applied separately to the facultative lagoon, each holding lagoon, and the drip irrigation system to control the algae. The application rates would be in accordance with the

432

CX-002207: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

07: Categorical Exclusion Determination 07: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002207: Categorical Exclusion Determination Thin Films for Whisker Growth CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 04/16/2010 Location(s): Aiken, South Carolina Office(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office Thin films of industrial available low melting point metals and metal alloys (e.g. SAC 305, SAC 105, SnBi58 (Tin-Bismuth), SnPb (Tin-Lead)) will be deposited onto foils or plates of metals (e.g. Aluminum, Copper, Alloy 42). Each sample will be 0.5x2.0 inches with a 10 micron thick coating of the low melting point metal. The samples will be run through multiple characterization tests including Sable systems oxygen analyzer, laser curvature, and x-ray diffraction to test for the amount of oxygen absorbed

433

CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41: Categorical Exclusion Determination 41: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS) Linear Source Thermal Deposition CX(s) Applied: B2.2, B5.1 Date: 05/19/2010 Location(s): St. Paul, Minnesota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The State of Minnesota plans to provide $800,000 in Recovery Act funds to Veeco Instrument, Inc. at 4900 Constellation Drive, St. Paul, Minnesota 55127 for the purchase of equipment and related activities in the manufacturing of thin film solar panels. Veeco Instruments, Inc. is a provider of process and metrology equipment used to manufacture data storage, semiconductor, wireless, lighting and solar equipment. Veeco's St.

434

Sintering and reactivity of CaCO{sub 3}-based sorbents for in situ CO{sub 2} capture in fluidized beds under realistic calcination conditions  

SciTech Connect

Sintering during calcination/carbonation may introduce substantial economic penalties for a CO{sub 2} looping cycle using limestone/dolomite-derived sorbents. Cyclic carbonation and calcination reactions were investigated for CO{sub 2} capture under fluidized bed combustion (FBC) conditions. The cyclic carbonation characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}-derived sorbents were compared at various calcination temperatures (700-925{sup o} C) and different gas stream compositions: pure -2 and a realistic calciner environment where high concentrations of CO{sub 2}>80-90% are expected. The conditions during carbonation were 700 {sup o}C and 15% CO{sub 2} in N{sub 2} and 0.18% or 0.50% SO{sub 2} in selected tests. Up to 20 calcination/carbonation cycles were conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) apparatus. Three Canadian limestones were tested: Kelly Rock, Havelock, and Cadomin, using a prescreened particle size range of 400-650 {mu} m. Calcined Kelly Rock and Cadomin samples were hydrated by steam and examined. Sorbent reactivity was reduced whenever SO{sub 2} was introduced to either the calcining or carbonation streams. The multicyclic capture capacity of CaO for CO{sub 2} was substantially reduced at high concentrations of CO{sub 2} during the sorbent regeneration process and carbonation conversion of the Kelly Rock sample obtained after 20 cycles was only 10.5%. Hydrated sorbents performed better for CO{sub 2} capture but showed deterioration following calcination in high CO{sub 2} gas streams indicating that high CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} levels in the gas stream lead to lower CaO conversion because of enhanced sintering and irreversible formation of CaSO{sub 4}.

Lu, D.Y.; Hughes, R.W.; Anthony, E.J.; Manovic, V. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

New thiophene monolayer-protected copper nanoparticles: synthesis and chemical-physical characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time copper 3-(6-mercaptohexyl) thiophene-protected nanoparticles (Cu T6SH) have been synthesized by a one-phase system, utilizing an NaBH4/LiCl mixture in diglyme as the reducing reagent and avoiding water medium dissolving ...

Elisabetta Foresti; Guido Fracasso; Massimiliano Lanzi; Isidoro Giorgio Lesci; Luisa Paganin; Tommaso Zuccheri; Norberto Roveri

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Novel dielectric capping layer approach for advanced copper interconnects using chemical grafting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its low bulk resistivity copper has become the material of choice for ULSI interconnects. However its high diffusivity in dielectrics and weak chemical bonding to low-k materials require a capping layer as diffusion barrier and to improve adhesion. ... Keywords: Adhesion, Capping, Chemical grafting, Electromigration

I. Bispo; B. Couturier; P. H. Haumesser; P. Mangiagalli; H. Monchoix; G. Passemard; C. Peyne; S. Roy; N. Thieriet; P. Rabinzohn; C. Bureau

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Copper-silver-titanium filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 atomic percent copper, 15 to 50 atomic percent silver and 10 to 45 atomic percent titanium. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Cratering behavior in single- and poly-crystalline copper irradiated by an intense pulsed ion beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When treated with intense pulsed ion beams (IPIB), many materials exhibit increased wear resistance, fatigue life, and hardness. However, this treatment often results in cratering and roughening of the surface. In this work, high purity single crystal and polycrystalline copper samples were irradiated with pulses from an IPIB to gain insight into the causes of this cratering behavior. Samples were treated with 1,2,5, and 10 shots at 2 J/cm{sup 2} and 5 J/cm{sup 2} average energy fluence per shot. Shots were about 400 ns in duration and consisted of a mixture of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions at 300 keV. It was found that the single crystal copper cratered far less than the polycrystalline copper at the lower energy fluence. At the higher energy fluence, cratering was replaced by other forms of surface damage, and the single crystal copper sustained less damage at all but the largest number of shots. Molten debris from the Lucite anode (the ion source) was removed and redeposited on the samples with each shot.

Wood, B.P.; Bitteker, L.J.; Waganaar, W.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Plasma Physics Group; Perry, A.J. [A.I.M.S. Marketing, San Diego, CA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Water is used for many purposes, includ-ing growing crops, producing copper,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WATER USES Water is used for many purposes, includ- ing growing crops, producing copper, generating electricity, watering lawns, keeping clean, drinking and recreation. Bal- ancing the water budget comes down of the water budget. Reducing demand involves re- ducing how much water each person uses, lim- iting the number

440

Specific features of photoluminescence properties of copper-doped cadmium selenide quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

The effect of doping with copper on the photoluminescence properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots 4 nm in dimension is studied. The quenching of the excitonic photoluminescence band related to the quantum dots and the appearance of an impurity photoluminescence band in the near-infrared region are observed after doping of the quantum dots with copper. It is established that, on doping of the quantum dots, the photoluminescence kinetics undergoes substantial changes. The photoluminescence kinetics of the undoped quantum dots is adequately described by a sum of exponential relaxation relations, whereas the photoluminescence kinetics experimentally observed in the region of the impurity band of the copper-doped samples follows stretched exponential decay, with the average lifetimes 0.3-0.6 {mu}s at the photon energies in the range of 1.47-1.82 eV. The experimentally observed changes in the photoluminescence properties are attributed to transformation of radiative centers in the quantum dots when doped with copper atoms.

Tselikov, G. I., E-mail: gleb@vega.phys.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Dorofeev, S. G.; Tananaev, P. N. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Boundary element stress analysis for copper-based dies in pressure die casting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has recently been demonstrated that, for pressure die casting, high rates of heat extraction are possible with the use copper-alloyed dies suitably protected with a thermally sprayed steel layer. The structural integrity of dies of this type is paramount ... Keywords: Boundary elements, Casting, Elastostatics, Sprayed dies

M. T. Alonso Rasgado; K. Davey; L. D. Clark; S. Hinduja

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

RESULTS OF COPPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION (CCPO) OF TANK 48H SIMULANTS  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. The following observations were made with respect to the major processing variables investigated. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. Testing with simulated slurries continues. Current testing is examining lower copper concentrations, refined peroxide addition rates, and alternate acidification methods. A revision of this report will provide updated findings with emphasis on defining recommended conditions for similar tests with actual waste samples.

Peters, T.; Pareizs, J.; Newell, J.; Fondeur, F.; Nash, C.; White, T.; Fink, S.

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

443

Copper modified austenitic stainless steel alloys with improved high temperature creep resistance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved austenitic stainless steel that incorporates copper into a base Fe-Ni-Cr alloy having minor alloying substituents of Mo, Mn, Si, T, Nb, V, C, N, P, B which exhibits significant improvement in high temperature creep resistance over previous steels. 3 figs.

Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.

1987-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

444

Copper corrosion and its relationship to solar collectors:a compendium.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Copper has many fine qualities that make it a useful material. It is highly conductive of both heat and electricity, is ductile and workable, and reasonably resistant to corrosion. Because of these advantages, the solar water heating industry has been using it since the mid-1970s as the material of choice for collectors, the fundamental component of a solar water heating system. In most cases copper has performed flawlessly, but in some situations it has been known to fail. Pitting corrosion is the usual failure mode, but erosion can also occur. In 2000 Sandia National Laboratories and the Copper Development Association were asked to analyze the appearance of pin-hole leaks in solar collector units installed in a housing development in Arizona, and in 2002 Sandia analyzed a pitting corrosion event that destroyed a collector system at Camp Pendleton. This report includes copies of the reports and accounts of these corrosion failures, and provides a bibliography with references to many papers and articles that might be of benefit to the solar community. It consolidates in a single source information that has been accumulated at Sandia relative to copper corrosion, especially as it relates to solar water heaters.

Menicucci, David F.; Mahoney, Alan Roderick

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Hybrid modeling to predict the economic feasibility of mining undiscovered porphyry copper deposits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Few studies attempt to model the economic feasibility of mining undiscovered mineral resources given the sparseness of data; and the coupled, nonlinear, spatial, and temporal relationships among variables. In this study, a type of unsupervised artificial ... Keywords: Cluster analysis, Economic filter, Mineral resource assessment, Multivariate linear regression, Porphyry copper, Self-organizing map, Stochastic modeling, Uncertainty

Michael J. Friedel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

The lumenal loop M672-P707 of the Menkes protein (ATP7A) transfers copper to peptidylglycine monooxygenase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump.

Otoikhian, Adenike [Oregon Health & Sciences University; Barry, Amanda N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayfield, Mary [Oregon Health & Science University; Nilges, Mark [Illinois EPR Center; Huang, Yiping [Johns Hopkins University; Lutsenko, Svetlana [Johns Hopkins University; Blackburn, Ninian [Oregon Health & Science University

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes progress made during the first year of research funding from DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-03NT41792 at the Colorado School of Mines. The period of performance was September 1, 2003 through August of 2004. Composite membranes, consisting of a thin Pd alloy film supported on a porous substrate have been investigated as a means of reducing the membrane cost and improving H{sub 2} flux. An electroless plating technique was utilized to deposit subsequent layers of palladium and copper over zirconia and alumina-based microfilters. The composite membranes thus made were annealed and tested at temperatures ranging from 250 to 500 C, under very high feed pressures (up to 450 psig) using pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S, with the purpose of determining the effects these variables had on the H{sub 2} permeation rate, selectivity and percent recovery. The inhibition caused by CO/CO{sub 2} gases on a 7 {micro}m thick Pd-Cu composite membrane was less than 17% over a wide range of compositions at 350 C. H{sub 2}S caused a strong inhibition of the H{sub 2} flux of the same Pd-Cu composite membrane, which is accentuated at levels of 100 ppm or higher. The membrane was exposed to 50 ppm three times without permanent damage. At higher H{sub 2}S levels, above 100 ppm the membrane suffered some physical degradation and its performances was severely affected. The use of sweep gases improved the hydrogen flux and recovery of a Pd-Cu composite membrane. Recently, we have been able to dramatically reduce the thickness of these Pd alloy membranes to approximately one micron. This is significant because at this thickness, it is the cost of the porous support that controls the materials cost of a composite Pd alloy membrane, not the palladium inventory. Very recent results show that the productivity of our membranes is very high, essentially meeting the DOE pure hydrogen flux target value set by the DOE Hydrogen Program. These results were obtained when a 1.3-micron-thick Pd{sub 95}Cu{sub 5} (composition given in mass %) alloy film was coated on a Pall Corporation Membralox{reg_sign} T1-70 tubular ceramic substrate. The flux of this membrane would be even higher if the alloy composition was 40 wt. % Cu.

J. Douglas Way

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

448

Development of process to transfer large areas of LPCVD graphene from copper foil to a porous support substrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I present a procedure by which to transfer greater than 25 mm˛ areas of high-quality graphene synthesized via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition from copper foil to porous support substrates. Large-area, ...

O'Hern, Sean C. (Sean Carson)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Cells Forming Blood Vessels Send Their Copper to the Edge | Advanced Photon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Molecular Cause for One Form of Deafness A Molecular Cause for One Form of Deafness Water Theory is Watertight Nanowire Micronetworks from Carbon-Black Nanoparticles A Key Step in Repairing DNA Double-Strand Breaks An X-ray Rainbow Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Cells Forming Blood Vessels Send Their Copper to the Edge FEBRUARY 20, 2007 Bookmark and Share Areas at the tips of HMVEC filopodia extensions were scanned by XFM at high resolution. The optical image is shown to the right and metal maps are shown to the left. False color images of P, Cu, and Zn are shown in the red, green and blue images respectively, and their overlay is shown to the lower right, demonstrating a transfer of cellular copper across the cell

450

Copper Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Copper Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant Facility Copper Mountain Expansion I and II Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer First Solar/Sempra Location Boulder City, Nevada Coordinates 35.9785911°, -114.8324851° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.9785911,"lon":-114.8324851,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

451

Processing of O.F.E. copper beam chambers for PEP-II high energy ring  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using laboratory scale and full size PEP-II vacuum chambers, chemical cleaning, glow discharge and thermal process effects were evaluated using surface analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These processes were optimized to reduce surface carbon and thereby minimize photodesorption gas loads. The relation of surface carbon to ion dose was investigated and compared for pure argon, 5% oxygen in argon, and pure hydrogen plasmas. Argon incorporation was noted only when the copper was oxidized in the mixed gas. Surfaces, stable in ambient atmosphere, were obtained having surface carbon values less than 10%. These optimized recipes will be used in processing copper vacuum chambers for the PEP-II B-Factory.

Hoyt, E.; Hoyt, M.; Kirby, R.; Perkins, C.; Wright, D.; Farvid, A.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Method of preparing copper-dendritic composite alloys for mechanical reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Copper-dendritic composite alloys are prepared for mechanical reduction to increase tensile strength by dispersing molten droplets of the composite alloy into an inert gas; solidifying the droplets in the form of minute spheres or platelets; and compacting a mass of the spheres or platelets into an integrated body. The spheres preferably have diameters of from 50 to 2000 .mu.m, and the platelets thicknesses of 100 to 2000 .mu.m. The resulting spheres or platelets will contain ultra-fine dendrites which produce higher strengths on mechanical reduction of the bodies formed therefrom, or comparable strengths at lower reduction values. The method is applicable to alloys of copper with vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, iron and cobalt.

Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

TWINNING AND DYNAMIC STRENGTH OF COPPER DURING HIGH?RATE STRAIN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented of a study of the conditions under which microstructural changes involving the formation of complex bi?periodic twin structures occurs in copper during shock wave and high strain rate (??>10 7 ? s ?1 ) shock?less loading. We have observed that the formation of these bi?periodic twin structures results in an initial loss of shear strength that is significant over a time period of about 0.2 to 0.4 ?s.

O. N. Aprelkov; O. N. Ignatova; V. V. Igonin; A. I. Lebedev; S. S. Nadezhin; A. M. Podurets; V. A. Raevsky; V. P. Solovyev; G. A. Salishchev; M. A. Zocher; A. M. Kaul; J. M. McNaney; B. A. Remington

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

EPRI Transformer Guidebook Development: The Copper Book, Chapter 8 Transformer Maintenance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Report is Chapter 8 of Kit 1021892: EPRI Transformer Guidebook Development: The Copper Book. Utilities are losing many of their subject matter experts due to retirement and downsizing. This is particularly true in the case of power transformers, so there is now a critical need for a comprehensive transformer reference book geared toward utility engineers. In 2007, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published the technical update report Transformer Guidebook Design (1013799). That report de...

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

455

Electrical conductivities of aluminum, copper, and tungsten observed by an underwater explosion  

SciTech Connect

Conductivities of dense aluminum, copper, and tungsten are evaluated using exploding wire discharges in water. Evolutions of the radius and the electrical resistance of exploding wire are measured together with direct pyrometric estimation of the temperature. The conductivities are evaluated based on the measurements and their density dependence is compared with theoretical predictions at a fixed temperature. The results indicate that regardless of materials, the conductivity has a minimum around 3% of solid density at temperature of 5000 K.

Sasaki, Toru [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nakajima, Mitsuo; Kawamura, Tohru; Horioka, Kazuhiko [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds. Phase 2: Results of duplex-type experiments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Sixth Irradiation Series is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest toughness data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degrees}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). This is the second report giving the results of the tests on irradiated duplex-type crack-arrest specimens. A previous report gave results of tests on irradiated weld-embrittled-type specimens. Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens irradiated in the same capsules as the crack-arrest specimens were also tested, and a 41-J transition temperature shift was determined from these specimens. {open_quotes}Mean{close_quote} curves of the same form as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) K{sub la} curve were fit to the data with only the {open_quotes}reference temperature{close_quotes} as a parameter. The shift between the mean curves agrees well with the 41-J transition temperature shift obtained from the CVN specimen tests. Moreover, the four data points resulting from tests on the duplex crack-arrest specimens of the present study did not make a significant change to mean curve fits to either the previously obtained data or all the data combined.

Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Outgassing rate of the copper-plated beam tube for ISABELLE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ultrahigh vacuum system of the intersecting storage accelerator, ISABELLE, will consist of two interlaced rings of stainless steel beam tubes with a circumference 2-1/2 miles each. To obtain a good heat conduction during bakeout and to reduce the resistive wall instability during beam operation, a lmm thick copper coating will be electroplated to the outer surface of this 1.5 mm thick beam tube. To minimize the beam loss due to beam-gas collision, the pressure inside the beam tube is required to be 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr (N/sub 2/ equivalent) or less. To achieve this ultrahigh vacuum, the outgassing rate of the 304 LN stainless steel tubes has been reduced to approx. 1 x 10/sup -13/ Torr. l/cm/sup 2/. sec by vacuum firing at 950/sup 0/C for one hour. However, during acid-bath electroplating of copper, significant amount of hydrogen will be reintroduced and trapped in stainless steel which will substantially increase the outgassing rate (to approx. 2 x 10/sup -12/ Torr . l/cm/sup 2/ sec). The outgassing characteristics of these copper-plated beam tubes are studied and discussed within the scope of diffusion and energy of activation. Methods to reduce the outgassing rate to an acceptable level (approx. 1 x 10/sup -13/ Torr . l/cm/sup 2/ . sec) are also given.

Hseuh, H.C.; Gaudet, E.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

EXAMINATION OF THE OXIDATION PROTECTION OF ZINC COATINGS FORMED ON COPPER ALLOYS AND STEEL SUBSTRATES  

SciTech Connect

The exposure of metallic components at aggressive high temperature environments, usually limit their usage at similar application because they suffer from severe oxidation attack. Copper alloys are used in a wide range of high-quality indoor and outdoor applications, statue parts, art hardware, high strength and high thermal conductivity applications. On the other hand, steel is commonly used as mechanical part of industrial set outs or in the construction sector due to its high mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is the examination of the oxidation resistance of pack cementation zinc coatings deposited on copper, leaded brass and steel substrates at elevated temperature conditions. Furthermore, an effort made to make a long-term evaluation of the coated samples durability. The oxidation results showed that bare substrates appear to have undergone severe damage comparing with the coated ones. Furthermore, the mass gain of the uncoated samples was higher than this of the zinc covered ones. Particularly zinc coated brass was found to be more resistant to oxidation conditions in which it was exposed as it has the lower mass gain as compared to the bare substrates and zinc coated copper. Zinc coated steel was also proved to be more resistive than the uncoated steel.

Papazoglou, M.; Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergioudis, G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Skolianos, S. [Physical Metallurgy Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

459

An unusual 3D interdigitated architecture assembled from Keggin polyoxometalates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes  

SciTech Connect

A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, [Cu{sub 2}(bipy){sub 3}({mu}{sub 1}-H{sub 2}O){sub 2}({mu}{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH)(H{sub 2}BW{sub 12}O{sub 40})]{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O (1) (bipy=4,4 Prime -bipy), has been synthesized in hydrothermal condition and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, TG analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses poly-pendant layered motifs composed of 12-tungstoborates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes, in which the mono-coordinated bipy molecules are orderly appended to both sides of the layer, respectively. Adjacent layers mutually engage in a zipper-like pattern to result in a novel 3D interdigitated architecture. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility of 1 showed that there existed weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. Toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, 1 has good electrocatalytic activity and remarkable stability. - A new compound has been obtained, which represents the first interdigitated architecture assembled by POMs and dinuclear copper(II) complexes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of interdigitated architecture assembled by POMs and dinuclear copper(II) complexes is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A zipper-like pattern is observed in the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IR, TG, XRPD, magnetism and electrochemical property of the title compound were studied.

Pang, Haijun; Yang, Ming; Kang, Lu [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology of College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology of College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Ma, Huiyuan, E-mail: mahy017@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology of College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology of College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu, Bo, E-mail: liubo200400@vip.sina.com [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology of College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology of College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Li, Shaobin; Liu, Heng [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology of College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology of College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu X wt% (X = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and inductive coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). FE-SEM showed the self-aligned Cu-doped ZnO nano-clusters with particles in the range of 40-45 nm. The doping of 0.5% of copper changes the electrical conductivity by an order of magnitude whereas the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) reduces with increase in copper wt% in ZnO. The material has shown an excellent sensitivity for the H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases with limited temperature selectivity through the optimized operating temperature of 130, 190 and 220 deg. C for H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases, respectively at 625 ppm gas concentration. The %SF was observed to be 1460 for H{sub 2} at 1% Cu doping whereas the 0.5% Cu doping offered %SF of 950 and 520 for CO and LPG, respectively. The response and recovery time was found to be 6 to 8 s and 16 s, respectively.

Sonawane, Yogesh S. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Kanade, K.G. [Department of Chemistry, Mahatma Phule College, Pimpari, Pune 411017 (India); Kale, B.B. [Nanocrystalline Materials Laboratory, Center for Materials for Electronics Technology (CMET), Pune 411008 (India)], E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.co.in; Aiyer, R.C. [Center for Sensor Studies, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)], E-mail: rca@physics.unipune.ernet.in

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The copper artifact assemblage from an Ottoman period shipwreck in the Red Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis is a study of a group of copper alloy artifacts excavated from an 18th-century shipwreck in the Red Sea. The shipwreck is located near Sadana Island off the Egyptian coast and is hence referred to as the Sadana Island shipwreck. The Sadana Island shipwreck provides important insight into the little known nature of maritime activity in the Red Sea region prior to the French invasion of Egypt. In addition to the historical background of Red Sea seafaring, the accounts of contemporary European travelers are examined. These accounts are unique descriptions of seafaring, trade, and travel during this time. The excavation of the shipwreck by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA-Egypt) is discussed followed by a catalogue of the recovered copper alloy objects. The copper alloy artifact assemblage consists mainly of utilitarian galleyware and presents a glimpse into the shipboard lives of the crew. The types represented are common, everyday wares but have never before been documented. Although these types have been used for centuries and are still seen today, their utilitarian nature and basic designs have not attracted any scholarly attention prior to this thesis.

Willis, Kathryn Ewalt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Strongly coupled copper plasma generated by underwater electrical wire explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of theoretical approaches to the analysis of the parameters of a discharge channel consisting of strongly coupled plasma generated in the process of underwater electrical wire explosion are presented. The analysis is based on experimental results obtained from discharges employing Cu wire. The obtained experimental data included electrical measurements and optical observations from which information about the dynamics of the water flow was extrapolated. Numerical calculation based on a 1D magnetohydrodynamic model was used to simulate the process of underwater wire explosion. A wide range conductivity model was applied in this calculation and good agreement with a set of experimental data was obtained. A method of determining the average temperature of the discharge channel based on this model and experimental results is proposed, and the limits of this method's applicability are discussed.

Grinenko, A.; Gurovich, V.Tz.; Saypin, A.; Efimov, S.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Oreshkin, V.I. [Physics Department, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAN, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

A high-resolution field-emission-gun, scanning electron microscope investigation of anisotropic hydrogen decrepitation in Nd-Fe-B-based sintered magnets  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation commercial magnets based on (Nd,Dy){sub 14}(Fe,Co){sub 79}B{sub 7} were prepared by a conventional powder-metallurgy route with a degree of alignment equal to {approx}90% and then exposed to hydrogen at a pressure of 1 bar. The magnets, in the form of cylinders, were observed to decrepitate exclusively from the ends. High-resolution electron microscopy was able to identify the presence of crack formation within the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains, with the cracks running parallel to the c axis of these grains. Based on the concentration profile for hydrogen in a rare-earth transition-metal material, it is clear that the presence of hydrogen-induced cracks running perpendicular to the ends of the magnet provides for a much more rapidly progressing hydrogen front in this direction than from the sides of the magnet. This results in the magnet exhibiting a macroscopic tendency to decrepitate from the poles of the magnet toward the center. This combination of microstructural modification via particle alignment as part of the sintering process and direct observation via high-resolution electron microscopy has led to a satisfying explanation for the anisotropic hydrogen-decrepitation effect.

Soderznik, Marko; McGuiness, Paul; Zuzek-Rozman, Kristina; Kobe, Spomenka [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Skulj, Irena [Magneti Ljubljana, d.d., Stegne 37, 1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Yan Gaolin [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

3D-interconnect: Visualization of extrusion and voids induced in copper-filled through-silicon vias (TSVs) at various temperatures using X-ray microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visualization of voids and copper extrusion in copper-filled through-silicon vias (TSVs) under different annealing conditions is greatly enhanced using X-ray microscopy. In addition, the dimensions of the TSVs after Cu deposition can also be measured ... Keywords: 3D X-ray tomography, 3D-interconnect, Copper extrusion, Round TSVs, TSV, Void induced, Void inspection, X-ray microscopy

LayWai Kong; Andrew C. Rudack; Peter Krueger; Ehrenfried Zschech; Sitaram Arkalgud; A. C. Diebold

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

CX-010287: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reduction Mechanism and Activity on CopperChabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 05082013 Location(s): CX: none Offices(s): National...

466

CX-009904: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

using high surface area nitrogen doped titania nanotube arrays, sensitized with nano-dimensional islands of co-catalysts copper and Ni, Pd or Pt. CX-009904.pdf More...

467

Systematic Approach to Compare the Inflammatory Response of Liver Cell Culture Systems Exposed to Silver, Copper, and Nickel Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although nano-sized metal colloids are used in industrial and medicinal applications, little is known about the potential liver toxicity of these materials after occupational or intentional exposures. To begin to resolve some outstanding hepatotoxicity concerns, the inflammatory response of hepatocytes after exposure to metal colloids was assessed. Four ~30-nm-sized metal colloids, including silver (nano-Ag), copper (nano-Cu) and nickel (nano-Ni) were examined in an effort to understand the induced cytokine expression in a murine liver cell line (AML12). Here we also utilized another system, co-cultures of hepatocytes, Kupffer’s cells, and lymphocytes isolated from C57BL6 mice. Cells were exposed to the materials over dose-response (0.1mg/L to 1000mg/L) and time-dependent (4 h, 48 h, and 1-week) studies. Cytotoxicity was measured via metabolism of resazurin and validated via MTT assay and cell counts. Inflammatory response was determined by cytokine profiles (TNF-a and IL-6), as well as by mRNA and protein expression of heat shock protein (Hsp70). Results from cells exposed to nano-Ag to doses of up to 100mg/L exhibited no significant changes in cytotoxicity, IL-6, or TNF-a production, or Hsp70 expression. Both nano-Cu and nano-Ni exposed cells exhibited decreased metabolism, increased Hsp70 induction, and increased inflammatory responses (IL-6 and TNF-a). Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy were used to characterize particle size and surface charge. All three metal colloidal systems demonstrated different particle size distributions, agglomerated sizes, and surface zeta potentials. Furthermore, each metal colloid system elicited different inflammatory biomarker responses and stress protein expression.

Banerjee, Nivedita

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 High-Temperature Downhole Tools Project Description Draka has engaged top academic, national laboratory and industry research scientists to develop the myriad of technical advances required - from glass chemistry to encapsulation metallurgy. Draka will develop the required advances in buffer tubing, cladding, wire insulation materials and cable packaging as well as coordinate activities of other participants. Draka Communications will develop the required advances in glass chemistry, fiber coatings and fiber drawing technologies. AltaRock Energy, Inc., a renewable energy company focused on research & development, will provide well field services and EGS wells for long-term testing and validation of the cable at Geysers, California. Tetramer has been engaged for the required advances in candidate materials for fiber coating and encapsulation technologies. Sandia will provide laboratory testing and validation of Draka's fiber solutions at elevated temperatures, pressures and hydrogen levels. Permatools (a Sandia EGS spin-off) will provide EGS tools to validate the finished cable design and will also coordinate in-well testing. Permatools (a Sandia EGS spin-off) will provide EGS tools to validate the finished cable design and will also coordinate in-well testing.

469

UNIQUE APPROACH TO COMPLYING WITH VERY LOW NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM PERMIT LIMITS FOR COPPER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NPDES permit issued to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2003 contained copper limits as low as six micrograms per liter. It also contained compliance schedules that provided SRS with anywhere from three to five years to select and implement projects that would enable compliance at several outfalls. Some outfall problems were much more difficult to correct than others. SRS personnel implemented several innovative projects in order to meet compliance schedule deadlines as inexpensively as possible. One innovation, constructing a humic acid feed system to increase effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, has proven to be very successful.

Payne, B.; Halverson, N.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Nichols, R.; Noonkester, J.

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

Effects of Loading Kinetics on the Shock Response of Polycrystalline Copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of loading kinetics on the damage evolution in high purity copper samples are summarized as follows: The combination of the energy supplied by the shock impulse (peak stress) and the time spent in it dissipation seem to be responsible for the characteristics of the damage fields. For an increasing coupled parameter of energy*time, more damage was predicted, as well as experimentally observed; As more energy (higher peak stress) was dissipated for longer periods of time (lower decompression rate), the damage fields evolved from early stages of damage, in the form of void nucleation and initial void growth, to the later stages of void coalescence.

Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis-Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

471

Waste reduction options for manufacturers of copper indium diselenide photovoltaic cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper identifies general waste reduction concepts and specific waste reduction options to be used in the production of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic cells. A general discussion of manufacturing processes used for the production of photovoltaic cells is followed by a description of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for waste reduction (i.e., waste minimization through pollution prevention). A more specific discussion of manufacturing CIS cells is accompanied by detailed suggestions regarding waste minimization options for both inputs and outputs for ten stages of this process. Waste reduction from inputs focuses on source reduction and process changes, and reduction from outputs focuses on material reuse and recycling.

DePhillips, M.P.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

X-ray and EUV Emission Studies of Copper Vacuum Spark Plasma  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum spark system with a copper anode and electrode of gap 1.5 mm is investigated for the purpose of developing it as a possible radiation source for Next Generation Lithography (NGL). At discharge voltage in the range of 10 to 15 kV and an ambient pressure of about 10{sup -3} mbar, both X-ray (measured by PIN diode) and extreme ultraviolet, EUV (measured by SXUV5A with integrated filter) can be measured simultaneously when good pinching discharge as indicated by sharp dip in the waveform of the rate of current is achieved. For discharge with mild pinching, only EUV emission is observed.

Chan, L. S.; Ghomeishi, M.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 KualaLumpur (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

473

Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques  

SciTech Connect

A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

Lu, Chun (Monroeville, PA)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

474

Draft General Conformity Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

I I Draft General Conformity Determination U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service MMS Cape Wind Energy Project January 2009 Final EIS Appendix I Draft General Conformity Determination Draft General Conformity Determination Cape Wind Energy Project Prepared by Minerals Management Service Herndon, VA November 2008 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROPOSED ACTION............................................................... 1 2.0 GENERAL CONFORMITY REGULATORY BACKGROUND .......................................... 2 2.1 GENERAL CONFORMITY REQUIREMENTS.................................................................... 2 2.2 GENERAL CONFORMITY APPLICABILITY.....................................................................

475

DETERMINATIONS OF THE KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF DEBORONIZATION AT 1135 C  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mechanisms and kinetics of the loss of boron during heating at 1135 deg C under various dynamic environments were determined from powder compacts of 5 wt% elemental boron dispersed in matrices of Fe, Cr, Ni, Si, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO, and SiO/sub 2/, compacts of austenitic stainless steel alloy powder containing 0.25 wt% boron, and wrought specimens of 0.13 wt% boron-- stainless steel alloy. The compacts containing 5 wt% boron were heat treated in vacuum, highpurity argon, wet helium, and hydrogen. With the exception of those heat treated in hydrogen, significant boron losses occurred only when a supply of oxygen, either from the sample itself or as a deliberate addition to the heat- treating environment, was available. Correspondingly, the loss mechanism is postulated to be the oxidation of boron to boron sesquioxide and its volatilization from the sample. The loss rate is controlled by the volatilization rate of the oxide which is directly influenced by structure of the compact and sintering environment. Independent of the chemical nature of the matrix, boron losses were incurred during heat treatment in hydrogen. Variations of the water content of the hydrogen from 7 to 460 ppm did not significantly influence the total boron loss observed. The synthesis of boron and hydrogen into a gaseous boron-hydrogen species is postulated as a predominating loss mechanism in a hydrogen environment. Compacts of austenitic stainless steel powder containing 0.25 wt% boron were heat treated at 1135 deg C from 1/4 to 16 hours in hydrogen atmospheres of 3 different water vapor levels, 1, 100, and 450 parts per million. The losses observed in each environment for the first few hours of heat treatment followed the relationship: DELTA B = 0.26t + C, where DELTA B is total boron loss in milligrams, t is total heat-treating time in hours, and C is a constant. However, the rate of boron loss of samples heated in the driest hydrogen decreased abruptly after two hours at temperature. Under the other environmental conditions, a similar decrease was observed after seven hours. The degree of sample sintering was found to be the predominating factor determining the boron loss rate. The rate of decrease of total sample surface area by sintering was observed to have a proportional effect in decreasing the rate of boron loss. However, the rate-controlling step in the deboronization of master alloy compacts was the rate of diffusion of gaseous reactant in and reaction products out of the sample. This in turn was controlled by the effective diameter, length, and number of channels permeating the compact and exposed to the sintering environment. Deboronization of wrought specimens was observed in both hydrogen (less than 15 parts per million H/sub 2/O) and helium (15,000 parts per million H/sub 2/O). (auth)

Cherubini, J.H.

1961-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Environmental Management...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Environmental Management Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Environmental Management Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Environmental Management. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE...

477

The double effect of grain size on the work hardening behavior of polycrystalline copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the approach by Ashby, one can consider that strain compatibility between adjacent grains of a polycrystal generates geometrical dislocations. These dislocations participated in the strengthening mechanism in conjunction with statistically stored dislocations which are related to the single-crystal behavior. The dislocations of either species are indistinguishable and, as a whole, they may contribute to cell formation. The dislocation structure formed in a polycrystal is then a function of the major or minor intergranular accommodation complexity. At intermediate strain values the accommodation is distributed over the cells leading to a linear relationship between the tensile stress and the inverse of the cell size, whatever the grain size of the tested samples. The aim of the present work is to check that the presence of statistical and geometrical dislocations in the grains, as well as the fact that at the very early stage of plastic deformation the mean free path of dislocations is of the order of the grain size, leads to a double effect of the grain size on the work hardening behavior of polycrystalline copper. Moreover, careful analysis of the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline copper, including the microstructural aspects of plastic deformation, is performed, allowing the understanding of the relationship between the work hardening ratio and the grain size.

Gracio, J.J. (Univ. de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica)

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

Temperature determination using pyrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Interim Action Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interim Action Determination Interim Action Determination Processing of Plutonium Materials from the DOE Standard 3013 Surveillance Program in H-Canyon at the Savannah River Site The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SPD SEIS, DOE/EIS-0283-S2). DOE is evaluating alternatives for disposition of non-pit plutonium that is surplus to the national

480

Solids mass flow determination  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Analysis of copper ion filaments and retention of dual-layered devices for resistance random access memory applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For improvement of switching uniformity, we propose a dual-layer structure with different resistance values in each layer. During the forming process, a current path is created in a high-resistance region which localizes filament formation in ultra-thin ... Keywords: Copper filament, Dual-layer, Resistance random access memory (ReRAM)

Jaesik Yoon; Joonmyoung Lee; Hyejung Choi; Ju-Bong Park; Dong-jun Seong; Wootae Lee; Chunhum Cho; Seonghyun Kim; Hyunsang Hwang

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Thermal chemistry of copper(I)-N,N '-di-sec-butylacetamidinate on Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface chemistry of copper(I)-N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinate on Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces has been characterized under ultrahigh vacuum by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A series of thermal stepwise conversions were identified, starting with the partial dissociative adsorption of the copper acetamidinate dimers into a mixture of monomers and dimers on the surface. An early dissociation of a C-N bond leads to the production of N-sec-butylacetamidine, which is detected in TPD experiments in three temperature regimes, the last one centered around 480 K. Butene, and a small amount of butane, is also detected above approximately 500 K, and hydrogen production, an indication of dehydrogenation of surface fragments, is observed at 460, 550 and 670 K. In total, only about 10% of the initial copper(I)-N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinate adsorbed monolayer decomposes, and only about {approx}3% of carbon is left behind on the surface after heating to high temperatures. The implications of this surface chemistry to the design of chemical film growth processes using copper acetamidinates as precursors are discussed.

Ma Qiang; Zaera, Francisco; Gordon, Roy G. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Kinetics of the wetting of tin on air-passivated copper in the absence of a fluxing agent  

SciTech Connect

A specially designed ultrahigh vacuum in situ surface analysis and wetting system has been constructed to study the spreading of liquid metal solders on carefully prepared and well-characterized solid substrates. Initial studies have been completed for the spreading of pure tin solder on copper substrates in the absence of any fluxing agent. Surface chemical analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the air-exposed surface to consisted of about 3 nm of Cu{sub 2}O, while the as-received surface consisted of about 8 nm of Cu{sub 2}O. The sputter-cleaned surface contained less than one monolayer (0.3 nm) of Cu{sub 2}O. Sample surfaces were prepared and spreading experiments performed without intermediate exposure of the surfaces to contaminating atmospheres. Solder spreading was performed under 50 torr of highly purified helium gas to allow for adequate thermal coupling between the solder and the substrate. Spreading experiments utilizing a linear temperature ramp show that pure tin solder spreads readily on oxidized copper surfaces at elevated temperatures. The initiation temperature for rapid tin spreading on the as-received copper surface was 325{degrees}C, similar to the temperature where isothermal spreading changes activation energy or rate. Decreasing the thickness of the oxide on the surface lowered the observed temperature for the initiation of spreading and increased the rate of spreading. On the sputter-cleaned copper surface, rapid solder spreading was observed immediately upon melting of the solder.

Peebles, D.E.; Peebles, H.C.; Ohlhausen, J.A.; Yost, F.G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Rare-Earth and CopperSystems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rare earths and copper systems were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). The use of monochromased synchotron radiation and improved energy resolution for RIXS made possible to obtain valuable information on the electronic structure in 4f, 5f and 3d systems. Experimental results for rare-earths (Ho, Gd, Cm, U, Np, Pu) were analyzed by atomic multiplet theory based on the Hartree-Fock calculations. The inelastic scattering structures in RIXS spectra at 5d edge of actinides found to be sensitive to actinide oxidation states in different systems. Comparison of experimental and calculated Cm 5d RIXS spectra gave direct information about valency of the 248-curium isotope in oxide. Scientific understanding of processes that control chemical changes of radioactive species from spent fuel is improved by studying interactions of actinide ions (U, Np, Pu) with corroded iron surfaces. RIXS measurements at the actinide 5d edge found to be sensitive to actinide oxidation states in different systems. Comparison of experimental and calculated Cm 5d RIXS spectra gave direct information about valency of the 248 curium isotope in oxide. Scientific understanding of processes that control chemical changes of radioactive species from spent fuel is improved by studying interactions of actinide ions (U, Np, Pu) with corroded iron surfaces. RIXS measurements at the actinide 5d edge indicate the reduction of U(VI), NP(V) and Pu(VI) to U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) by presence of iron ions. This thesis is also addressed to the study of changes in the electronic structure of copper films during interaction with synthetic groundwater solutions. The surface modifications induced by chemical reactions of oxidized 100 Angstrom Cu films with CL{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} ions in aqueous solutions with various concentrations were studied in-situ using XAS. It was shown that the pH value, the concentration of Cl{sup -} ion and presence of HC{sub 3}{sup -} ion in the solutions strongly affect the speed of the corrosion reaction. The Cu 2p RIXS was used to distinguish between the species present on the copper surface while in contact with groundwater solution.

Kvashnina, Kristina

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

485

THERMODYNAMICS AND MECHANISMS OF SINTERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Hoge and Joseph A. Pask, "Thermodynamics of So:!.id StateJoseph A. Pask, "Thermodynamics and Geometric Considerations8419 r- ,y / ( /)~; - - I THERMODYNAMICS AND MECHANISMS OF

Pask, J.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z