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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Mechanical Study of Copper Bonded at Low Temperature using Spark Plasma Sintering Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is approximatively 6.47 MPa [7]. J. W. Elmer & al [8] have presented a diffusion bonding of high purity copper using a conventional furnace. A series of diffusion bonds was done to determine the relationship between bond strengthMechanical Study of Copper Bonded at Low Temperature using Spark Plasma Sintering Process Bassem

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 7 Determination of Copper in Copper Alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 7 Determination of Copper in Copper Alloys Two procedures for Cu Determination of Copper in Alloy A convenient example of an electrogravimetric method of analysis is the determination of copper in a sample of an alloy. Discussion This procedure is based on the deposition

Nazarenko, Alexander

3

The effects of applied current on one-dimensional interdiffusion between copper and nickel in spark plasma sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a powder metallurgy technique that employs the use of fast sintering kinetics to produce final consolidated components in a matter of minutes. In order to use blended powders in SPS to obtain fully alloyed parts, diffusion during sintering must be understood. An investigation into the effects of current on the diffusion of copper and nickel was performed using SPS. Bulk specimens were used to generate diffusion couples in SPS in alternating orientations with respect to the direction of the current. Control samples were produced using a horizontal insertion vacuum furnace. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 850?°C and 1000?°C for 3?h. Concentration profiles were obtained by the use of both energy-dispersive spectroscopy and a Monte Carlo simulated correction curve. Diffusion coefficients and activation energies were calculated for samples produced by SPS and annealing without current. It was shown that, at temperatures near 0.9?T{sub m}, the application of current in SPS inhibits diffusion between copper and nickel due to the re-orientation of electrons caused by the loss of ferromagnetism in nickel. Activation energy for diffusion is, however, decreased due to the temperature gradients arising from the difference in resistivity between the two species.

Rudinsky, S.; Gauvin, R.; Brochu, M., E-mail: mathieu.brochu@mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C5 (Canada)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

4

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 7 The Iodometric Determination of Copper in Brass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 7 The Iodometric Determination of Copper in Brass Discussion The method. To perform it, a sample of pure copper foil (100% Cu with uncertainty lees than 0.2%) is treated as described above, simultaneously with your sample. From titration of pure copper standard you calculate the precise

Nazarenko, Alexander

5

Kinetic method for the determination of iridium in copper and copper-nickel alloys and in industrial solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article discusses the kinetic determination of iridium in copper and copper-nickel alloys, in ores and ore processing products containing down to 10/sup -8/%, and in waste solutions down to 0.01 mg/liter. The procedure for the kinetic determination of iridium based on the oxidation of mercury(I) and cerium(IV) is described. The applications of the schemes presented allows one to widen significantly the range of products to be analyzed, to determine iridium at a concentration of 10/sup -8/% in the presence of copper and noble metals, and to shorten the time required for the analysis.

Danilova, F.I.; Fedotova, I.A.; Ustinova, N.V.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Sintering '85  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the edited proceedings of the Sixth World Round Table Conference on Sintering. The topics include solid state sintering, particle size influence on sintering, activated and liquid phase sintering, hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing, the sintering of multiphase systems, controlled grain growth in ceramics, and the sintering of non-oxide ceramics and nonmetallic nitrides. The materials discussed include tungsten, molybdenum, zirconium, yttrium, neodymium, aluminium, nickel, and iron alloy and ceramic systems. Doping and the effects of dopants are investigated. A brief closing paper discusses international cooperation in ceramics. Forty-two papers are included.

Kuczynski, G.C.; Uskokovic, D.P.; Palmour, H. III; Ristic, M.M. (eds.)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Soin, Aleksandr

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Determination of chemical properties of a supported copper oxide catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

other between tho moroury oondensation pump and the adsorption system, ~~~o + QLQ]gJdi~ x The oathetometer was used for moasur1ng tho levels of mexoury in manomsters Ni and K, It had a soals of l00 aontimstors, 4 toles- oope and a vernier vere... of the requirements for the degree o NASTY OF SCIENCE Nay'p 1955 Ma)or Suhfeott Chemioal Engineering DETERPHEATION CF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OP A SUPPORTED COPPER OXIDE CATALYST A Thesis Asok Bandyopadhyay Approved as to style and oontent by& Chairman...

Bandyopadhyay, Asok

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

9

Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Effect of fabrication parameters on thermophysical properties of sintered wicks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Porous wicks for use in a loop heat pipe were sintered from copper and Monel powder. These wicks were characterized in terms of their shrinkage, porosity, thermal conductivity, liquid permeability and maximum capillary ...

Domínguez Espinosa, Francisco Alonso

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

River Sediment Analysis by Slurry Sampling FAAS: Determination of Copper, Zinc and Lead Flvia L. Alves, Solange Cadore, Wilson F. Jardim and Marco A. Z. Arruda*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Article River Sediment Analysis by Slurry Sampling FAAS: Determination of Copper, Zinc and Lead sediment analysis was developed. Using this procedure, copper, zinc and lead were determined. The influence of the nitric acid concentration on the slurry preparation, as well as the sediment particle size

Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo

12

Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by sintering a stack of individual copper and tungsten powder blend layers having progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in successive powder blend layers in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

Slattery, Kevin T. (St. Charles, MO); Driemeyer, Daniel E. (Manchester, MO); Davis, John W. (Ballwin, MO)

2000-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

13

Sintered wire annode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

14

Microstructural characterization of silicon nitride ceramics processed by pressureless sintering, overpressure sintering, and sinter/HIP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon nitride ceramics of the same nominal sialon composition have been sintered under different conditions including atmospheric sintering, overpressure sintering, reaction bonded (nitrided pressureless sinter) and sinter/HIP cycles. The sintered ceramics, which exhibited dramatic differences in fracture toughness, have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and image analysis techniques. Fracture toughness data have been correlated to the microstructural and chemical analysis of the grain boundary phases. The microstructure was the strongest influencing factor on the observed fracture toughness difference. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

Selkregg, K.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); More, K.L.; Seshadri, S.G.; McMurtry, C.H. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Zone sintering of ceramic fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cold pressed UC.sub.2 fuel compacts are sintered at temperatures greater than about 1850.degree. C. while in contact with a sintering facilitator material, e.g., tantalum, niobium, tungsten or a metal carbide such as uranium carbide, thereby allowing for a reduction in the overall porosity and leaving the desired product, i.e., a highly dense, large-grained uranium dicarbide. The process of using the sintering facilitator materials can be applied in the preparation of other carbide materials.

Matthews, R. Bruce (Falls Church, VA); Chidester, Kenneth M. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, H. Gene (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Elaboration of architectured materials by spark plasma sintering FABREGUE Damien1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has been used to realize diffusion bonding. In that case again, bonding can be realized at low the same mechanical strength as pure copper even for diffusion time of a few minutes. Secondly, bonding has veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr Keywords: architectured materials, spark plasma sintering, bonding, porous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress all depended on the porosity content in bulk-sintered silver. The only investigated property that was independent of porosity in that range was coefficient of thermal expansion.

Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method of sintering ceramic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

19

Copper studies for alternative salt disposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to determine, as functions of total copper loading and iron REDOX in glass, any dependence of the leaching behavior of borosilicate glass on metallic copper.

Brown, K.G.

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

20

LIQUID PHASE SINTERING OF IRON WITH COPPER BASE ALLOY POWDERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vacuum impregnated with epoxy resin which filled up theexamination. pregnation by epoxy resin, previously used The

Chen, M.-H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

LIQUID PHASE SINTERING OF IRON WITH COPPER BASE ALLOY POWDERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Symposium on Powder Metallurgy - The Iron and Steel Inst.a Liquid Phase", Powder Metallurgy, 17 (33), 227 (1974). H.Other made by powder metallurgy techniques. ses to produce

Chen, M.-H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During the arc plasma generation, the ?ash lamp emits anusing an arc plasma phenomenon in the xenon ?ash lamp [7].

Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun; Hahn, H. Thomas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Microwave sintering of boron carbide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

1988-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

24

Electroless copper plating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optimized electroless copper plating technique suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics.

McHenry, Michael R. (Lee's Summit, MO)

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

28

Sintered composite medium and filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particulate filter medium is formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers. A preferred composition is about 40 vol. % quartz and about 60 vol. % stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100.degree. C. to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550.degree. C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Electroless copper plating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optimized electroless copper plating technique is described suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics. 12 figs.

McHenry, M.R.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Low temperature sintering of lanthanum strontium manganite-based...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low temperature sintering of lanthanum strontium manganite-based contact pastes for SOFCs. Low temperature sintering of lanthanum strontium manganite-based contact pastes for...

31

Microwave sintering of nanocrystalline ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-mode cavity microwave furnace, operating in the TE{sub 103} mode at 2.45 GHz, has been set up at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and is currently being used to investigate sintering of nanocrystalline ceramics. This presentation will discuss the apparatus used and the results obtained to date. The high purity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline powders were prepared by the sol-gel method. These powders were first uniaxially pressed to 14 MPa, CIP`ed to various pressures > 420 MPa and finally sectioned into wafers. The density of the green wafers was 30 to 38% TD. The wafers were heated in the microwave furnace for up to three hours at temperatures {<=} 1720{degrees}C. The temperature of the workpiece was monitored using an optical pyrometer. Final densities up to 80% TD have been obtained to date for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and up to 52% TD for TiO{sub 2}. Work is ongoing to characterize the sintered compacts, optimize the casketing for this furnace, and lay the groundwork for new studies using a 35 GHz gyrotron and quasioptical gyrotron tunable from 85 to 120 GHz.

Bruce, R.W. [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Rayne, R.; Chow, G.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fractographic investigation of flaws in sintered SiC fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Carborundum Company has developed a continuous process to produce multifilament, polycrystalline SiC fiber tow. The process uses a melt spinning approach to make the green fibers wherein the submicron SiC powder is mixed with polymers and the resulting compound is melt spun and extruded through a spinnerette. After extraction, the green fibers are sintered in a continuous sintering line. The properties of this fiber are given. This paper will describe the use of fractography in directing the fiber developmental efforts, specifically on characterization of strength-limiting defects and their origination. Fractographic analysis is also extended to determining strength of fibers at any gauge length and in identifying artifacts associated with the tensile strength testing technique.

Srinivasan, G.V.; Venkateswaran, V. [Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Copper fertilization in citrus seedlings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

field (Boaventura, 2003). Copper deficiency is frequent inThe major association of copper with organic matter is instable complexes with copper. In citrus seedlings, copper

Almeida, Tatiana Rezende Pires; Leonel, Sarita

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.

Cutler, Raymond A. (Bountiful, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Hurford, Andrew C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Orlando, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A comparative study of conventionally sintered and microwave sintered nickel zinc ferrite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the present work, nickel zinc ferrite having compositional formula Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by conventional solid state method and sintered in conventional and microwave furnaces. Pellets were sintered with very short soaking time of 10 min at 1150 °C in microwave furnace whereas 4 hrs of soaking time was selected for conventional sintering at 1200 °C. Phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis technique. Scanning electron micrographs were taken for microstructural study. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature. To study magnetic behavior, M-H hysteresis loops were recorded for both samples. It is observed that microwave sintered sample could obtain comparable properties to the conventionally sintered one in lesser soaking time at lower sintering temperature.

Rani, Rekha [Electroceramics Research Lab, GVM Girls College, Sonepat-131001, India and School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India); Juneja, J. K. [Department of Physics, Hindu College, Sonepat-131001 (India); Raina, K. K. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India); Kotnala, R. K. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi -110012 (India); Prakash, Chandra, E-mail: cprakash2014@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi - 110054 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

37

Dispersion strengthened copper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

1990-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

38

Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

Tiegs, T.N.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

39

Pressureless sintering of whiskered-toughened ceramic composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

43

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

44

Magnetization curves of sintered heavy tungsten alloys for applications in MRI-guided radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Due to the current interest in MRI-guided radiotherapy, the magnetic properties of the materials commonly used in radiotherapy are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, measurement results for the magnetization (BH) curves of a range of sintered heavy tungsten alloys used in radiation shielding and collimation are presented. Methods: Sintered heavy tungsten alloys typically contain >90?% tungsten and <10?% of a combination of iron, nickel, and copper binders. Samples of eight different grades of sintered heavy tungsten alloys with varying binder content were investigated. Using a superconducting quantum interference detector magnetometer, the induced magnetic momentm was measured for each sample as a function of applied external field H{sub 0} and the BH curve derived. Results: The iron content of the alloys was found to play a dominant role, directly influencing the magnetizationM and thus the nonlinearity of the BH curve. Generally, the saturation magnetization increased with increasing iron content of the alloy. Furthermore, no measurable magnetization was found for all alloys without iron content, despite containing up to 6% of nickel. For two samples from different manufacturers but with identical quoted nominal elemental composition (95% W, 3.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe), a relative difference in the magnetization of 11%–16% was measured. Conclusions: The measured curves show that the magnetic properties of sintered heavy tungsten alloys strongly depend on the iron content, whereas the addition of nickel in the absence of iron led to no measurable effect. Since a difference in the BH curves for two samples with identical quoted nominal composition from different manufacturers was observed, measuring of the BH curve for each individual batch of heavy tungsten alloys is advisable whenever accurate knowledge of the magnetic properties is crucial. The obtained BH curves can be used in FEM simulations to predict the magnetic impact of sintered heavy tungsten alloys.

Kolling, Stefan [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Oborn, Bradley M. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)] [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); Horvat, Joseph [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and School of Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)] [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and School of Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

46

Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer ({mu}M) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 {mu}m W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 {mu}m W powder blends; 10{mu}m W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W.

Gurwell, W.E.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Multi-physics microstructural simulation of sintering.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulating the detailed evolution of microstructure at the mesoscale is increasingly being addressed by a number of methods. Discrete element modeling and Potts kinetic Monte Carlo have achieved success in capturing different aspects of sintering well. Discrete element cannot treat the details of neck formation and other shape evolution, especially when considering particles of arbitrary shapes. Potts kMC treats the micorstructural evolution very well, but cannot incorporate complex stress states that form especially during differential sintering. A model that is capable of simulating microstructural evolution during sintering at the mesoscale and can incorporate differential stresses is being developed. This multi-physics model that can treat both interfacial energies and the inter-particle stresses will be introduced. It will be applied to simulate microstructural evolution while resolving individual particles and the stresses that develop between them due to local shrinkage. Results will be presented and the future development of this model will be discussed.

Tikare, Veena

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Process for microwave sintering boron carbide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

49

Process for microwave sintering boron carbide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (440 Sugarwood Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Morrow, Marvin S. (Rte. #3, Box 113, Kingston, TN 37763)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method are disclosed for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled. 2 figs.

Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

51

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Method for cleaning sinter plant gas emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for cleaning sinter plant gas emissions using a wet electrostatic precipitator system having separate recirculating wash liquor loops for the high voltage precipitator section and the pre-scrubber section. The system is operated with acidic washing liquor to avoid scaling and deposition of solids within the system.

Herman, S.T.; Jassund, S.A.; Mazer, M.R.

1981-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

53

EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX D. W. RICE, JR.,l F. L. HARRISON,l AND A. JEARLD, JR.2 ABSTRACT The sensitivity to copper of embryonic and larval total copper concentrations and the percent copper in labile forms were determined. From the cumulative

54

Pressureless sintering of whiskered-toughened ceramic composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method. 6 figures.

Tiegs, T.N.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

55

Microwave sintering of pure and doped nanocrystalline alumina compacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-mode cavity microwave furnace, operating in the TE{sub 103} mode at 2.45 GHz is being used to investigate sintering of pure and doped nanocrystalline alumina. The purpose of these experiments is to determine the effect of additives on the sintering process in the nanocrystalline regime. Using the sol-gel method, high purity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystalline powders were synthesized. These powders were calcined at 700 C and then CIP`ed to 414 MPa, producing 0.4 in. diameter, 0.25 in. high cylindrical compacts. The compacts were heated in the microwave furnace to temperatures between 1,100 C to approximately 1,800 C and were then brought back to room temperature using a triangular heating profile of about 30 minutes duration. A two-color IR pyrometer was used to monitor the surface temperature of the workpiece. The additives tested in this work lowered the temperature needed for densification but this effect was offset by increased grain growth. Initial grain growth from <5 nm to {approximately}50 nm was closely correlated with the {gamma} to {alpha}-alumina phase transition.

Bruce, R.W. [SFA, Inc., Largo, MD (United States); Fliflet, A.W.; Lewis, D. III; Rayne, R.J.; Bender, B.A.; Chow, G.M.; Schoen, P.E. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Kurihara, L.K. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E. [CSM Taranto (Italy); Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILP Taranto Works (Italy)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Sintering and ripening resistant noble metal nanostructures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Durable porous metal nanostructures comprising thin metal nanosheets that are metastable under some conditions that commonly produce rapid reduction in surface area due to sintering and/or Ostwald ripening. The invention further comprises the method for making such durable porous metal nanostructures. Durable, high-surface area nanostructures result from the formation of persistent durable holes or pores in metal nanosheets formed from dendritic nanosheets.

van Swol, Frank B; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Miller, James E; Challa, Sivakumar R

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

58

Raw material preparation for ultra high production rate sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An R and D program in pot grate sintering showed, that an intensive preparation of ores, additives and coke breeze improves the sintering capacity. The tests were conducted using an ore mixture composed of typical ores imported to Europe. The highest capacities were attained up to 63.8 t/m{sup 2} {times} 24 h maximum for a sinter which well fulfills the high requirements on chemical, physical and metallurgical properties.

Kortmann, H.A.; Ritz, V.J. [Studiengesellschaft fuer Eisenerzaufbereitung, Liebenburg-Othfresen (Germany); Cappel, F.; Weisel, H.; Richter, G. [LURGI AG, Frankfurt (Germany)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION M. LAMAND Claudine LAB R of insoluble and non ionized form of injected copper has been shown in a previous paper (Lamand, 1978 it appeared that copper oxide was preferable to metallic copper, being slightly less caustic. Inflammation

Boyer, Edmond

60

Vacuum properties of sintered SmCo/sub 5/ magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many desirable applications of powerful, rare-earth permanent magnets made of sintered SmCo/sub 5/ material within vacuum systems. One application is the use of large numbers of SmCo/sub 5/ magnets to provide the undulating magnetic field in a free-electron-laser wiggler structure. Tests were conducted at Los Alamos to determine the suitability of SmCo/sub 5/ magnets in a vacuum environment of approx. 10/sup -6/ torr. The vacuum performances of the wiggler system, with and without the SmCo/sub 5/ magnets (having approx. 11% of the total surface area) installed, were essentially identical. These tests indicate that SmCo/sub 5/ magnets have good vacuum properties and are suitable for use in many vacuum systems.

Warren, R.W.; DePaula, R.F.; Hansborough, L.D.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

HEALTH MATTERS Copper T IUD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEALTH MATTERS Copper T IUD What is the Copper T IUD? The Copper T IUD is one of two types of intrauterine devices available in the United States. The Copper T IUD is a small, flexible device made of soft plastic and copper. It is easily and quickly inserted into the uterus by a health care provider to prevent

Yener, Aylin

62

Subsolidus sintering of SYNROC: I. Initial demonstrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulated High Level Radioactive Waste has been incorporated in sintered SYNROC-B Ceramic matrices prepared by subsolidus sintering techniques. Phase and compositional analyses have been carried out by x-ray diffraction techniques and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive analysis of x-ray (SEM/EDAX) analyses on fracture surfaces. Modified SNYROC-B compositions have been formulated based on computer-calculated ion substitutions relative to the stoichiometries of the major phases, (Hollandite (H), Perovskite (P), Zirconolite (Z)) and their respective abilities to retain HLW ions in their lattice structures, either substitutionally or interstitially. When prepared and sintered, the Modified SYNROC-B compositions yield clean H,P,Z assemblages, free of minor phases which might be questionable with respect to compatibility with major phases and HLW ions, and/or chemical and/or radiation stability under long-term disposal conditions. Chemical stability of the Modified SYNROC-B loaded with 10 and 15 wt% simulated HLW has been studied by leaching in pure distilled water at approx. 100/sup 0/C and in simulated brines similar to those found in geologic disposal sites at their boiling temperatures (approx. 110/sup 0/C) at atmospheric pressure. High pressure, high temperature leaching in simulated brine has also been investigated at approx. 50 atm and 270/sup 0/C for the Modified SYNROC-B Ceramic waste form loaded with 15 wt% simulated PW-4b radwaste. In all instances, the observed leach rates have been near or below (mostly below) present analytical detection limits (AAS or NAA).

Solomah, A.G.; Hare, T.M.; Palmour, H. III

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

In situ formation of sintered cordierite–mullite nano–micro composites by utilizing of waste silica fume  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? We succeeded to obtain in situ formed sintered cordierite–mullite nano–macro composites from waste and pure materials at 1400 °C. ? Their sinterability was greatly dependent on both firing temperature and composition. ? XRD patterns showed that the optimum temperature required for formation of sintered cordierite–mullite nano–macro composites was achieved at 1400 °C. ? The batch containing 70 wt.% cordierite and 30 wt.% mullite exhibited the best properties. ? Microstructures of the densified composites were composed of nano–macro cordierite–mullite structures. -- Abstract: This study aims at in situ formation of sintered cordierite–mullite nano–macro composites having high technological properties using waste silica fume, calcined ball clay, calcined alumina, and magnesia as starting materials. The starting materials were mixed in different ratios to obtain different cordierite–mullite composite batches in which the cordierite contents ranged from 50 to 100 wt.%. The batches were uni-axially pressed at 100 MPa and sintered at 1350, 1400 and 1450 °C to select the optimum temperature required for cordierite–mullite nano–macro composites formation. The formed phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The sintering parameters in terms of bulk density (BD) and apparent porosity (AP) were determined. The microstructure of composites has been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cold crushing strength (CCS) of the sintered batches was evaluated. The result revealed that the cordierite–mullite nano–macro composites were in-situ formed at 1400 °C. The batch containing 70 wt.% cordierite showed good physical and mechanical properties.

Khattab, R.M.; EL-Rafei, A.M. [Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Dept., National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)] [Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Dept., National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Zawrah, M.F., E-mail: mzawrah@hotmail.com [Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Dept., National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

High adherence copper plating process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

Nignardot, Henry (Tesuque, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

66

Method for sintering fuel cell electrodes using a carrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a carbon-based paint, the carbon-based paint comprising an organic binder. The carbon-based paint may be an alcohol or a solvent-based paint or a water-based paint.

Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

1995-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

Plovnick, Ross (St. Louis Park, MN); Celikkaya, Ahmet (Woodbury, MN); Blake, Rodger D. (Tuscon, AZ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

69

Copper-containing zeolite catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

Wereszczak, Andrew A.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

71

Modeling of Gas Phase Transport and Composition Evolution during the Initial Stage Sintering of Boron Carbide with Carbon Additions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Modeling of Gas Phase Transport and Composition Evolution during the Initial Stage Sintering the pores close. This process is examined using a computational model based on co-diffusion of multiple gas is to model the gas diffusion to determine the needed hold time as a function of key parameters

Matthewson, M. John

72

Atomic Absorption Method Guide Zn in Copper Alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic Absorption Method Guide Zn in Copper Alloys Principle The sample is digested in nitric/hydrochloric acid, and zinc is determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using an air-acetylene flame · Copper Alloys · Zinc · Flame · Atomic Absorption Method Guide: 40158 #12;©2008 Thermo Fisher Scientific

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

73

Spark Plasma Sintering of Fuel Cermets for Nuclear Reactor Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of the fabrication of tungsten based nuclear fuel cermets via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is investigated in this work. CeO2 is used to simulate fuel loadings of UO2 or Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuels within tungsten-based cermets due to the similar properties of these materials. This study shows that after a short time sintering, greater than 90 % density can be achieved, which is suitable to possess good strength as well as the ability to contain fission products. The mechanical properties and the densities of the samples are also investigated as functions of the applied pressures during the sintering.

Yang Zhong; Robert C. O'Brien; Steven D. Howe; Nathan D. Jerred; Kristopher Schwinn; Laura Sudderth; Joshua Hundley

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The influence of chloride ions on the corrosion of copper in soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

work the influence of chloride ions upon corrosion behavior of copper in soil has been studied. Open circuit potential, linear polarization and overvoltage data were used to obtain a history of the instantaneous corrosion rate of copper in soil..., evidence exists that pitting corrosion of copper is intensified in the presence of chloride ions. The primary objective of this study was to determine quantitatively the influence of chloride ions upon the corrosion of copper in soil. Instantaneous...

Hirani, Raju K

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE-sponsored research on copper indium gallium diselenide [Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2], or CIGS, solar cells focuses on developing better film qualities, and thus, higher efficiencies. A list of current...

76

Roll-to-Roll Embedding of Conductive Sintered Silver Grids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? R2R embedding of conductive sintered grids: Within the organic light emitting diode(OLED) and organic photovoltaic(OPV) applications, to improve the efficiency of these devices, high… (more)

Pagudala, Ashish Kumar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Tribo-Chemical Modeling of Copper CMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRIBO-CHEMICAL MODELING OF COPPER CMP Shantanu Tripathi 1 ,Technical Area: CMP (Copper) Abstract We are developing antribo-chemical model of copper CMP that considers abrasive

Tripathi, Shantanu; Doyle, Fiona; Dornfeld, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Radiation-effects limits on copper in superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The determination of the response of copper stabilizers to neutron irradiation in fusion-reactor superconducting magnets requires information in four areas: (1) neutron flux and spectrum determination, (2) resistivity changes at zero field, (3) resistivity changes at field, and (4) the cyclic irradiation and annealing. Applications of our current understanding of the limits of copper stabilizers in fusion-reactor designs are explored in two examples. Recommendations for future additions to the data base are discussed.

Guinan, M.W.

1983-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

79

Improvements in strand feeding and its effect of sintering performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sintering may be considered a rather simple, counter current gas-solid process. A bed of granular solids is moved horizontally on a strand of pallets and suction is applied beneath the grate. Shortly after the sinter mix is fed onto the strand the incorporated solid fuel is ignited in the surface layer and the hot gases are drawn into the bed. The temperature of the top layer is raised high enough to burn the fuel particles while air is sucked down through it. Passing the upper, already sintered part of the bed the air is first preheated then sustains the combustion reaction. The hot, still oxygen-rich combustion gases leave the sintering zone and transfer its heat to the charge below. While the solids are preheated, carbonates, combined water, and moisture are driven off, rapidly cooling the gas. Thus, a flame front propagates through the traveling bed, generating at peak temperatures enough heat to agglomerate the bed of quasi-particles into a sinter cake. The strand speed is adjusted so that the burning through of the combustion zone coincides with the end of the suction area. To ensure stable operation this cross stream reactor has to be kept in a steady state.

Beer, H.; Kersting, K.; Werner, P. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Method and device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwave sintering system and method are provided for extremely uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shaped ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing through an overmoded waveguide arrangement which acts in conjunction with a mode promoter within the cavity to achieve unexpected field uniformity. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200.degree. C./min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent of non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered.

Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

82

Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

Dr. Paul A. Lessing

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

High adherence copper plating process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

Mignardot, H.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

High adherence copper plating process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

Nignardot, H.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

85

December 200 Copper Acquisition by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

December 200 Copper Acquisition by Methanotrophic Bacteria 7 Term Paper HS2007 Major. One is soluble in the cytoplasm and the other is bound to the membrane. Since the expression of copper containing pMMO depends on copper availability it is supposed that some methanotrophs have developed

Fischlin, Andreas

86

Low cost improvements in air pollution control for ARMCO's Ashland, Kentucky Works Sinter Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particulate emissions from sinter plants can contribute a significant percentage of the total emissions from integrated steelmaking facilities. A well-known sinter plant air pollution phenomenon is called blue haze emissions. These emissions are caused when hydrocarbons introduced by filter cake, coke breeze, and mill scale are not burned in the sintering process and pass through the system as a very finely divided stable dispersed fog. The Sinter Plant at Ashland Works consists of Dravo-Lurgi traveling grate sintering machine which processes a mixture of materials including iron ore, iron pellet fines, blast furnace flue dust, limestone, melt shop slag, coke breeze and sinter return fines. This system is illustrated by the authors. Upon completion of the sintering process, the hot agglomerated sinter product is discharged to the sinter crusher. The sinter is then cooled and screened for use in Ashland Works' Amanda Blast Furnace. This system is illustrated. The Ashland Works Sinter Plant complex consists of a Sintering Machine Building, Sinter Screens Building and Ore Screens Building. For the purposes of this study, the Ore Transfer Tower Building was also included. The general layout of the complex is illustrated.

Felton, S.S. (ARMCO Inc., Ashland, KY (US))

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Arabidopsis Adapts to Copper Deficient Conditions via SPL7, a Master Regulator for Copper Homeostasis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systemic down-regulation of copper protein expression inresponse to low copper availability in Arabidopsis. J. Biol.A regulator of nutritional copper signaling in Chlamydomonas

Yamasaki, Hiroaki; Shikanai, Toshiharu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Fundamental Mechanisms of Copper CMP – Passivation Kinetics of Copper in CMP Slurry Constituents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tribochemical Mechanisms of Copper Chemical MechanicalE06-02 Fundamental Mechanisms of Copper CMP – PassivationKinetics of Copper in CMP Slurry Constituents Shantanu

Tripathi, Shantanu; Doyle, F M; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

90

Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes with pyridine-containing macrocycles bearing an aminopropyl pendant arm: synthesis,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes with pyridine-containing macrocycles bearing an aminopropyl that were used for the preparation of the copper(II) complexes. The structures of three nickel(II) complexes and two copper(II) complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography. Protonation of the pendant arm (p

Nazarenko, Alexander

91

Fabrication and characterization of porous NiTi Shape Memory Alloy by elevated pressure sintering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

have not been adequately developed. Currently, three methods are commonly used for producing porous NiTi SMAs from elemental powders. These methods include conventional sintering, Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS), and sintering...

Vandygriff, Eric Layton

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

92

Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Spark Plasma Sintering of W-UO2 Cermets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About 50 vol.% 3 um depleted uranium dioxide (UO2) powder was encapsulated within a tungsten super alloy matrix produced from sub-micron tungsten powders using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. An additive of 25 atom-percent (at.%) rhenium was included within the tungsten matrix to improve the ductility and fracture toughness of the ceramic–metallic (cermet) matrix. Cermet fabrication to 97.9% of the theoretical cermet density was achieved by sintering at 1500 degrees C with 40 MPa of applied pressure for 20 min. The results presented are from the first known trials of W–UO2 and nuclear cermet production via SPS.

R. C. O'Brien; N. D. Jerred

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents. 6 figures.

Hoffman, D.J.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents.

Hoffman, Daniel J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Microstructural Evolution Model of the Sintering Behavior and Magnetic Properties of NiZn Ferrite Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microstructural Evolution Model of the Sintering Behavior and Magnetic Properties of NiZn Ferrite jlwoods@andrew.cmu.edu, c SCalvin@slc.edu, d jhuth@Spang.co, e mm7g@andrew.cmu.edu Keywords: Ferrite, nanoparticle, sintering, microstructure. Abstract. The sintering of RF plasma synthesized NiZn ferrite

McHenry, Michael E.

97

Processing and Characterization of NiTi Porous SMA by Elevated Pressure Sintering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metallurgy, sintering, quasi- static loading, impact loading, HIP, Self-propagating High temperature memory alloys (SMAs) from elemental powders. These include conventional sintering, Self-propagating High temperature Synthesis (SHS), and sintering at elevated pressure via a Hot Isostatic Press (HIP). Conventional

98

Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

Not Available

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Stress Intensity of Delamination in a Sintered-Silver Interconnection: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In automotive power electronics packages, conventional thermal interface materials such as greases, gels, and phase-change materials pose bottlenecks to heat removal and are also associated with reliability concerns. The industry trend is toward high thermal performance bonded interfaces for large-area attachments. However, because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches between materials/layers and resultant thermomechanical stresses, adhesive and cohesive fractures could occur, posing a reliability problem. These defects manifest themselves in increased thermal resistance. This research aims to investigate and improve the thermal performance and reliability of sintered-silver for power electronics packaging applications. This has been experimentally accomplished by the synthesis of large-area bonded interfaces between metalized substrates and copper base plates that have subsequently been subjected to thermal cycles. A finite element model of crack initiation and propagation in these bonded interfaces will allow for the interpretation of degradation rates by a crack-velocity (V)-stress intensity factor (K) analysis. A description of the experiment and the modeling approach are discussed.

DeVoto, D. J.; Paret, P. P.; Wereszczak, A. A.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Hydrogen decrepitation of sintered NdFeB magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of the hydrogen absorption and desorption behavior of a NdFeB sintered magnet is studied. Hydrogenation at temperatures above 200 C is used to crumble the Nd-enriched phase. The grains of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase remain undamaged. Hydrogen desorption occurs in several stages and is complete at approximately 400 C.

Stiller, C.; Roth, S.; Binner, A. [Inst. fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)] [Inst. fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte, substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell. 2 figs.

Vasilow, T.R.; Kuo, L.J.H.; Ruka, R.J.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Sources of sintering inhibition in tape-cost aluminas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-purity, lightly MgO-doped Al2O3 tapes were tape cast from slurries. Dilatometric data obtained in directions both parallel and perpendicular to the cast plane under constant-rate-of-heating conditions were utilized to evaluate all aspects of densification behavior during sintering. 38 refs.

Geho, M.; Palmour, H. III [Kanebo Ltd, Osaka (Japan)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Electric Discharge Sintering and Joining of Tungsten Carbide--Cobalt Composite with High-Speed Steel Substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous electro discharge sintering of high strength structure of tungsten carbide-cobalt composite and connection it with high-speed steel substrate is investigated and suitable operating parameters are defined. Tungsten carbide-cobalt and high-speed steel joining was produced by the method of high voltage electrical discharge together with application of mechanical pressure to powder compact. It was found that the density and hardness of composite material reach its maximum values at certain magnitudes of applied pressure and high voltage electrical discharge parameters. We show that there is an upper level for the discharge voltage beyond which the powder of composite material disintegrates like an exploding wire. Due to our results it is possible to determine optimal parameters for simultaneous electro discharge sintering of WC-Co and bonding it with high-speed steel substrate.

Grigoryev, Evgeny G. [General Physics Department, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

104

Copper stress response in marine Synechococcus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maximum yield (cells/ml) of copper-treated and no-Cu control2.6. Growth assays after copper treatments in both wild typefold changes over control no-copper treatment. …………………………75

Stuart, Rhona Kayra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

1987-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

106

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, Milton (12833 S. 82nd Ct., Palos Park, IL 60464); Sinha, Shome N. (5748 Drexel, 2A, Chicago, IL 60637)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Computation of radiative properties in one-dimensional sphere packings for sintering applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rapid sintering is an important manufacturing process. Because of the rapid rise of the powder system to the sintering temperature, thermal gradients are typically induced in the system. This gradient can be important in determining the microstructure of the final product. To obtain the temperature distribution, the radiative properties such as the phase function, as well as the absorption and scattering coefficients, are required. Typically, the conjugate gradient method is utilized to acquire these properties. The method employs a minimization technique on a single-objective function composed of several sets of other parameters. Thus although this method has been shown to be useful in many situations, it may not be suitable for certain configurations. In the current study, another method is developed to compute the radiative properties. The phase function was removed from the objective function and computed separately. In addition, a dual-objective function technique was developed. The results from benchmarking showed the present technique not only to produce more accurate results than the conjugate gradient method, but also to require significantly less computational time.

Wu, A.K.C.; Lee, S.H.K.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Computation of radiative properties in 1-D sphere packings for sintering applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rapid sintering is an important manufacturing process. Due to the short time in raising the powder system to the sintering temperature, thermal gradients are typically induced in the system. This gradient can be important in determining the microstructure of the final product. In order to obtain the temperature distribution, the radiative properties such as the phase function, as well as the absorption and scattering coefficients are required. Typically, the conjugate gradient method is utilized to acquire these properties. The method employs a minimization technique on a single-objective function, composing of several sets of other parameters. Thus, while this method has been shown to be useful in many situations, it may not be suitable for certain configurations. In the present study, another method is developed to compute the radiative properties. The phase function was removed from the objective function and computed separately. In addition, a dual-objective function technique was developed. The results from benchmarking showed the present technique to not only produce more accurate results than the conjugate gradient method, but also to require significantly less computational time.

Wu, A.K.C.; Lee, S.H.K.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Vickers microindentation toughness of a sintered SiC in the median-crack regime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Vickers microindentation method for the determination of the fracture toughness of ceramics was investigated in the median crack regime for a sintered alpha SiC. The results are compared with fracture toughness measurements by conventional fracture mechanics technique and also with the reported indentation toughness for the low-load Palmqvist crack regime. Indentation toughnesses in the median crack regime vary widely depending on the choice of the specific equation which is applied. The indentation toughnesses are also load (crack length) dependent. A decreasing R-curve trend results, in contradiction to the flat R-curve that has been observed with conventional fracture mechanics techniques. It is concluded that the Vickers microindentation method is not a reliable technique for the determination of the fracture toughness of ceramics in the median crack regime.

Ghosh, Asish; Kobayashi, A.S. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Coll. of Engineering); Li, Zhuang (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Henager, C.H. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Bradt, R.C. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

DiSpirito, Alan A. (Ames, IA); Zahn, James A. (Harbor Beach, MI); Graham, David W. (Lawrence, KS); Kim, Hyung J. (St. Paul, MN); Alterman, Michail (Lawrence, KS); Larive, Cynthia (Lawrence, KS)

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

113

World copper smelter sulfur balance-1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. The 37 US and foreign smelters represented roughly 73.2% of world and 89.3% of market economy primary copper production in 1988. The 29 non-US smelters attained 55.3% control of their input sulfur in 1988. Combined with the 90.4% control of US smelters, an aggregate 63.4% sulfur control existed. Roughly 1,951,100 mt of sulfur was emitted from the 37 market economy smelters in 1988. Identifiable SO[sub 2] control regulations covered 72.4% of the 29 foreign smelters, representing 65.5% of smelting capacity. Including US smelters, 78.4% of the major market economy smelters were regulated, representing 73.1% of smelting capacity. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

Towle, S.W. (Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Investigation of the Sintering Process Using Non-Contact Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-situ characterizations of green state part density and sintering state have long been desired in the powder metal community. Recent advances in non-contact electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) technology have enabled in-situ monitoring of acoustic amplitude and velocity as sintering proceeds. Samples were made from elemental powders of Al (99.99%), Al (99.7%), Ag, (99.99%), Cu (99.99%) and Fe (99.9%). The powders were pressed in a uniaxial die and examined with acoustic waves for changes in velocity and amplitude during sintering for the samples containing Al, Ag, and Cu. The changes in acoustic properties were correlated with sample microstructures and mechanical properties. Evolution of a series of reverberating echoes during sintering is shown to provide information on the state of sintering, and changes in sintering kinetics as well as having the potential for detection of interior flaws.

James C. Foley; David K. Rehbein; Daniel J. Barnard

2001-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

115

Effect of environment atmosphere on the sintering of Thai lignite fly ashes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sintering of ash particles, related to deposit formation in a pulverized coal-fired boiler, was investigated for two lignite fly ashes obtained from Mae Moh and Bangpudum coal seams. The tests involved measuring the compressive strength of cold sintered pellets at varying sintering temperature, both under oxidizing (air) and non-oxidizing atmospheres (CO{sub 2}). Under ambient air condition, Mae Moh fly ash which contained higher amount of glassy phase gave significantly higher sinter strength than Bangpudum fly ash. The role of glassy phase was confirmed by the lowering of sinter strength when HF-extracted fly ash was tested. Sintering under CO{sub 2} environment resulted in larger strength development than sintering in air. Under this non-oxidizing condition, the pellet color turned black, indicating that most of the iron was in the reduced state and could form additional low melting-point glassy phase, hence facilitated sintering rate. In addition, blending of the two ashes yielded intermediate maximum strength, under both air and CO{sub 2} environments. This observation substantiates the important role of glassy phase in the sintering process and indicates the possibility of lowering deposit strength by judicious mixing of different raw coal feeds.

Tangsathitkulchai, C.; Tangsathitkulchai, M. [Suranaree Univ. of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Tissue sorbitol concentration can be altered by changing the type of dietary carbohydrate or copper status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was designed to determine whether rehabilitation of tissue sorbitol concentration occurs when rats consuming a high-fructose, low-copper diet are changed to diets containing starch or copper. Weanling male rats were provided with a diet which contained 62.7% fructose and 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g (F-Cu) for 4 weeks and then changed to either a fructose diet which contained 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g or a starch diet which contained either 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g for 2 weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of rats eating copper-deficient diets was about 30% of copper adequate rats regardless of the type of dietary carbohydrate. Pancreatic fructose, glucose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. Kidney fructose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. For all dietary groups, pancreatic and kidney sorbitol concentrations returned to normal after removal of rats from the F-Cu diet. In general, changing rats from a high-fructose, low-copper diet to a fructose diet with copper or a starch diet with or without copper improved the copper deficiency symptoms which changed in concert with tissue sorbitol levels.

Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

1989-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

118

Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Integrated Tribo-Chemical Modeling of Copper CMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tribochemical Mechanisms of Copper Chemical MechanicalEli, D. Starosvetsky, "Review on copper chemical–mechanicalY. Li, "Investigation of Copper Removal Mechanisms d uring

Shantanu Tripathi; Choi, Seungchoun; Doyle, Fiona M; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Copper Toxicity in the San Francisco Bay-Delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reducing the toxicity of copper that continues to leach fromothers to characterize copper bioaccumulation from distinctreview of total dissolved copper and its chemical speciation

Buck, Kristen N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Temperature modeling for analysis and design of the sintering furnance in HTR fuel type of ball  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the factors that determine the safety of the operation of the sintering furnace fuel HTR ball is the temperature distribution in the ceramic tube furnace. The temperature distribution must be determined at design stage. The tube has a temperature of 1600 °C at one end and about 40 °C at the other end. The outside of the tube was cooled by air through natural convection. The tube is a furnace ceramic tube which its geometry are 0.08, 0.09 and 0.5 m correspondingly for the inner tube diameter, outer tube diameter and tube length. The temperature distribution of the tube is determined by the natural convection coefficient (NCF), which is difficult to be calculated manually. The determination of NCF includes the Grasshoff, Prandtl, and Nusselt numbers which is a function of the temperature difference between the surrounding air with the ceramic tube. If the temperature vary along the tube, the complexity of the calculations increases. Thus the proposed modeling was performed to determine the temperature distribution along the tube and heat transfer coefficient using a self-developed software which permit the design process easier.

Saragi, Elfrida [Computational Division, Centre for Nuclear Informatic Development, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Serpong 15310 (Indonesia)] [Computational Division, Centre for Nuclear Informatic Development, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Serpong 15310 (Indonesia); Setiadji, Moch [PTAPB - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Yogyakarta 1008 (Indonesia)] [PTAPB - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Yogyakarta 1008 (Indonesia)

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

122

Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN SHEEP LIBRARY A~ricufl~ml& Hechanicnl Colleqe ol Texas , Texas. AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President 3erk tant sl Asst. --------. - ---- - '31 Administration : Veterinary Science : A. B. Conner, M. S.. Director... of copper sulphate caused chronic copper poisoning among flocks of range sheep on several West Texas ranches during the past year. The salt licks were placed before the sheep as a means of preventing or controlling stomach worm infestation despite a...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Maikel (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Nekuda, Jennifer A. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Compositional Studies of Ancient Copper from Romanian Territories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ancient copper objects from Romanian Territories have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. A series of elements is determined: Au, Ag, As, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Zn, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn. Using mathematical dendograms some classifications and correlation have been established.

Agata Olariu; C. Besliu; M. Belc; I. V. Popescu; T. Badica; Gh. Lazarovici

1999-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

125

Synthesis and Optimization of the Sintering Kinetics of Actinide Nitrides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research conducted for this NERI project has advanced the understanding and feasibility of nitride nuclear fuel processing. In order to perform this research, necessary laboratory infrastructure was developed; including basic facilities and experimental equipment. Notable accomplishments from this project include: the synthesis of uranium, dysprosium, and cerium nitrides using a novel, low-cost mechanical method at room temperature; the synthesis of phase pure UN, DyN, and CeN using thermal methods; and the sintering of UN and (Ux, Dy1-x)N (0.7 ? X ? 1) pellets from phase pure powder that was synthesized in the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Boise State University.

Drryl P. Butt; Brian Jaques

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Osteogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation of rBMSCs on Microsphere-Based Scaffolds Sintered Using Subcritical CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, sintered using subcritical carbon dioxide for osteogenic and chondrogenic tissue regeneration. As a next step in the fabrication of three-dimensional tissue engineered scaffolds, this thesis primarily focused on subcritical carbon dioxide sintering...

Bhamidipati, Manjari

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

Schuetz, K., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Hoerber, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Franke, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de [Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Size effects on varistor properties made from zinc oxide nanoparticles by low temperature spark plasma sintering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Size effects on varistor properties made from zinc oxide nanoparticles by low temperature spark of nanostructured varistors by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) are investigated, using 8 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles to 600°C. Keywords: Organometallic, Zinc oxide, Nanoparticles, Spark plasma sintering, Varistor hal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Microstructure and DC electrical conductivity of spinel nickel ferrite sintered in air and nitrogen atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, the development of inert anode materials has gained considerable attention because such materials are capable of producing only environment-friendly O{sub 2} and saving energy during aluminum electrolysis. Nickel ferrite was prepared by a solid-state reaction as the inert anode in this study and its microstructures and direct current conductivities were analyzed in detail regarding the effects of different sintering atmospheres. A single-phase spinel structure was confirmed for all samples by X-ray powder diffraction. The grain sizes and the relative densities of the samples sintered in nitrogen increased by over 7 {mu}m and 10.8%, respectively, compared to those sintered in air. The direct current conductivities of the samples sintered in nitrogen showed a drastic increase compared to those sintered in air, believed to be due to the effects of increased Fe{sup 2+} ion concentration at octahedral sites and the increase of the relative density.

Liu, Baogang; Zhou, Kechao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Powder Metallurgy Research Institute, Central South University, No. 932 South Lushan Road, Changsha 410083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Powder Metallurgy Research Institute, Central South University, No. 932 South Lushan Road, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Zhiyou, E-mail: 13786124789@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Powder Metallurgy Research Institute, Central South University, No. 932 South Lushan Road, Changsha 410083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Powder Metallurgy Research Institute, Central South University, No. 932 South Lushan Road, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhang, Dou; Zhang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Powder Metallurgy Research Institute, Central South University, No. 932 South Lushan Road, Changsha 410083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Powder Metallurgy Research Institute, Central South University, No. 932 South Lushan Road, Changsha 410083 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Effect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite K. Zehani Plasma Sintering is a powerfal method to produce fine grain dense ferrite at low temperature. However.75.Cd, 81.20.Ev, 81.40.Rs Keywords: Spark Plasma Sintering, Spinel ferrite, Grain size, Complex real

132

Ris0-R-991(EN) Fatigue Performance of Copper and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ris0-R-991(EN) inn DK9700117 Fatigue Performance of Copper and Copper alloys before and after ARE MISSING IN THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENT #12;Fatigue Performance of Copper and Copper alloys before and after performance of pure copper of the oxygen free, high conductivity (OFHC) grade and two copper alloys (Cu

133

Exploration Into Copper Catalyzed and Copper-less Click Reactions with Re(CO)3 Complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploration Into Copper Catalyzed and Copper-less Click Reactions with Re(CO)3 Complexes Nicholas that combines a alkyne and an oxime to generate a isoxazole cycloaddtion product. Compared to the copper and then proceeding with the typical copper(I) catalyzed "click" reaction procedure, while the other approach involves

Collins, Gary S.

134

Copper-mediated LDL oxidation by homocysteine and related compounds depends largely on copper ligation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper-mediated LDL oxidation by homocysteine and related compounds depends largely on copper of copper-mediated LDL oxidation (initiation, conjugated diene formation and aldehyde formation), whereas at high concentration, it acts as an antioxidant. The affinity for copper of homocysteine and related

Williamson, Mike P.

135

Reliability of copper interconnects in integrated circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As dimensions shrink and current densities increase, the reliability of metal interconnects becomes a serious concern. In copper interconnects, the dominant diffusion path is along the interface between the copper and the ...

Choi, Zung-Sun

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

The oxidation behavior of SiC sintered with Al-B-C and improved oxidation resistance via heat treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation behavior of high strength and high toughness SiC, sintered with Al, B, and C (ABC-SiC), was examined. Kinetic data were acquired and the parabolic rate constant for oxidation was determined and compared with literature data on various SiC materials. The role of secondary phases on the oxide morphology was explored. ABC-SiC was compared to commercially available SiC, Hexoloy, and SiC sintered with 10% yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG). Two-step sintering (pre-coarsening) was employed with holds for 48 hours at 600--1,600 C, prior to the typical hot-pressing conditions of 1,900 C for 1 hour, to change the chemistry and reduce the number of bubbles in the silica scale. The effects on the oxide thickness and integrity was examined as a function of the precoarsening heat treatment temperature. Additionally, the hot-pressed ABC-SiC was subjected to heat treatments (anneals) at 1,800 C for 1 hour in nitrogen, Ar, and vacuum environments, and the effects on subsequent oxidation were evaluated. The Ar and vacuum heat treatments dramatically improved the oxidation resistance of ABC-SiC. Finally, reoxidation experiments were performed to try to alter the surface chemistry of the SiC to improve the oxidation resistance. The four-point bend strengths and two-parameter Weibull plots of the most successful heat treatments were compared with the standard ABC-SiC to ensure that significant degradation did not result from altering the processing of the material.

Sixta, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Science Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (La Canada, CA); Koliwad, Krishna M. (La Canada, CA); Daud, Taher (La Crescenta, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Method for forming porous sintered bodies with controlled pore structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is based, in part, on a method for combining a mixture of hydroxide and hydride functional siloxanes to form a polysiloxane polymer foam, that leaves no residue (zero char yield) upon thermal decomposition, with ceramic and/or metal powders and appropriate catalysts to produce porous foam structures having compositions, densities, porosities and structures not previously attainable. The siloxanes are mixed with the ceramic and/or metal powder, wherein the powder has a particle size of about 400 .mu.m or less, a catalyst is added causing the siloxanes to foam and crosslink, thereby forming a polysiloxane polymer foam having the metal or ceramic powder dispersed therein. The polymer foam is heated to thermally decompose the polymer foam and sinter the powder particles together. Because the system is completely nonaqueous, this method further provides for incorporating reactive metals such as magnesium and aluminum, which can be further processed, into the foam structure.

Whinnery, LeRoy Louis (4929 Julie St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Nichols, Monte Carl (4070 Guilford Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Mechanical properties and microstructure of pressureless sintered duophase sialon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Duophase ({alpha}{prime}/{beta}{prime}) sialon is being developed for ceramic engine applications by using the Quickset{trademark} injection molding process, followed by pressureless sintering and a thermal treatment. The sialon had an average four-point flexural strength of 670 MPa at room temperature and 490 MPa at 1370{degree}C. It survived the flexural stress rupture test at 1300{degree}C and 340 MPa for 190 hours. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization showed that crystallization of the grain boundary phase improved the high temperature flexural strength of this sialon material. The creep behavior was also found to be affected by the crystallized grain boundary phases. The formation of a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) phase and elongated grains yielded better creep resistance. The correlation between mechanical properties and microstructure is discussed. 13 refs., 7 figs.

Lee, Ran-Rong; Novich, B.E.; Franks, G.; Quellette, D. (Ceramics Process Systems Corp., Milford, MA (United States)); Ferber, M.K.; Hubbard, C.R.; More, K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquifying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

142

Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquefying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper. 6 figs.

Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

143

Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

144

Studying the sintering behavior of BeO{sub x}-SiC{sub 1-x} Composite ceramic Material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sintering behavior for BeO-SiC compacts composite ceramic at different sintering temperatures in air were conducted, resulting data indicated that the percentage of SiC (Wt% 5) sintered at 800 C deg. lead to higher sintering density of (1.80 gm/cm3). The x-ray diffraction pattern analysis indicated nothing change concerning the crystal structure. Microstructure development has been studied as a function SiC content. Silicon carbide found to be suppressed the sinter ability of the matrix BeO powder.

Issa, Tarik Talib [Department of physics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Jadiriya, Baghdad (Iraq)

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

145

Reduction of FeO contents in sinter under high bed operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-bed operation (bed height more than 700 mm) is currently being carried out at the Kure No. 1 sintering plant. Before initiating this high-bed operation, the authors conducted sinter pot tests at various bed heights to investigate the effect of bed height on sintering. The following results were obtained from these pot tests: Heightening of the sinter bed increased yield at the upper layer, but at the lower layer, the yield reached a maximum value at a certain bed height. From observation of the sinter cakes, the reduction in yield is attributed to uneven burn caused by surplus heat at the lower layers. Therefore, when high-bed operation is carried out, reduction of the burning energy (reduction of the FeO content in the sinter) is required. This high-bed operation with lower FeO content has enabled the company to reduce fuel consumption and SiO{sub 2} content, while maintaining high yield and high sinter quality.

Fujii, K.; Hazama, K.; Hoshikuma, Y.; Tarumoto, S.; Nunomura, S.; Hirota, N.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

Synthesis of high purity sinterable silicon carbide powder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High purity, submicron silicon carbide powders were produced via gas phase synthesis using a hydrogen/argon plasma. Two test facilities were constructed, a bench-scale unit and a larger pilot scale reactor. Three candidate silicon sources were evaluated:silicon tetrachloride (SiCl{sub 4}). dimethyldichlorosilane (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(SiCl{sub 2}) and methyltrichlorosilane (CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3}). Product powders were evaluated on the basis of pressureless sinterability, surface area, agglomeration, particle size distribution, phase distribution and chemistry. Three commercial powders, Starck A10, Starck B10, and Carborundum submicron alpha silicon carbide, were also evaluated for comparison to the product powders. Powders were reproducibly synthesized at a rate of one pound per hour for standard run times of five hours. Product powders exhibited chemical and physical properties equal to or exceeding the commercial powders evaluated. In limited attempts to pressureless sinter the product powders, densities of 91% of theoretical were obtained with as-produced powder. Post-processing permitted densities in excess of 97% of theoretical. X-ray diffraction of the product indicates that the product powders are primarily beta poly-types, with traces of alpha present. Increased production rates to a target level of seven pounds per hour were not possible due to current transients produced by the pilot scale power supply. Extensive unsuccessful efforts to reduce or eliminate the transients are described. Low recovered product yields resulted from a failure of a product collection filter that was not discovered until the completion of the project.

Boecker, W.D.; Mehosky, B.L.; Rogers, R.S.C.; Storm, R.S.; Venkateswaran, V. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (USA). Structural Ceramics Div.)

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

The effects of composition, temperature and sample size on the sintering of chem-prep high field varistors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sintering behavior of Sandia chem-prep high field varistor materials was studied using techniques including in situ shrinkage measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. A thorough literature review of phase behavior, sintering and microstructure in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO varistor systems is included. The effects of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content (from 0.25 to 0.56 mol%) and of sodium doping level (0 to 600 ppm) on the isothermal densification kinetics was determined between 650 and 825 C. At {ge} 750 C samples with {ge}0.41 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} have very similar densification kinetics, whereas samples with {le}0.33 mol% begin to densify only after a period of hours at low temperatures. The effect of the sodium content was greatest at {approx}700 C for standard 0.56 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and was greater in samples with 0.30 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} than for those with 0.56 mol%. Sintering experiments on samples of differing size and shape found that densification decreases and mass loss increases with increasing surface area to volume ratio. However, these two effects have different causes: the enhancement in densification as samples increase in size appears to be caused by a low oxygen internal atmosphere that develops whereas the mass loss is due to the evaporation of bismuth oxide. In situ XRD experiments showed that the bismuth is initially present as an oxycarbonate that transforms to metastable {beta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} by 400 C. At {approx}650 C, coincident with the onset of densification, the cubic binary phase, Bi{sub 38}ZnO{sub 58} forms and remains stable to >800 C, indicating that a eutectic liquid does not form during normal varistor sintering ({approx}730 C). Finally, the formation and morphology of bismuth oxide phase regions that form on the varistors surfaces during slow cooling were studied.

Garino, Terry J.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Densification and Distortion in Selective Laser Sintering of Polycarbonate M. Berzins, T. H. C. Childs, K. W. Dalgarno, G. R. Ryder and G. Stein,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sintering model, is reported: it includes a numerical thermal calculation with thermal properties allowed. The development of curl at part edges and with part thickness is followed. Mechanical and thermal reasons laser sintered part have two processing causes. The sintering process allows the sintered envelope

Utah, University of

150

Tetraphenylphosphonium copper(I) dicyanamide.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the title compound, {l_brace}(C{sub 24}H{sub 20}P)[Cu(C{sub 2}N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}, the copper(I) dicyanamide anion forms a distorted three-dimensional single diamondoid network. Templating tetraphenylphosphonium cations reside within the cavities of the polymeric anion.

Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Materials Science Division

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

Slattery, Kevin T. (St. Charles, MO); Driemeyer, Daniel E. (Manchester, MO)

1999-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

152

A surface science investigation of the formation of passivating layers on copper surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solution of I ppm phosphate that the copper corrosion rate nears the detection limit for electrochemical techniques [4], thus necessitating a surface science study which is capable of determining the corrosion rate down to a few monolayers. The focus... of this study is to investigate the corrosion passivation aspects of phosphate on copper in aqueous solutions. The film formation as well as the corrosion rates will be investigated using techniques common to surface scientists. Many studies have been done...

Hamelin, Elizabeth I.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Identification of copper-copper and copper-hydrogen complexes in silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The centers formed in silicon as a result of interaction between the substitutional copper impurity (Cu{sub s}) and interstitial copper (Cu{sub i}) or hydrogen (H) atoms, which are mobile at room temperature, are investigated in this study using the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. It is shown that a well-known photoluminescence center, which includes four copper atoms, is formed from Cu{sub s} via the subsequent addition of Cu{sub i}. Both intermediate complexes (Cu{sub s}-Cu{sub i} and Cu{sub s}-2Cu{sub i}) are identified by their deep levels in the lower half of the band gap. It is found that Cu{sub s} atoms form complexes with one, two, and three hydrogen atoms, with Cu{sub s}-H and Cu{sub s}-2H being electrically active. It is noted that the addition of either hydrogen or copper has a similar effect on the deep-level structure of Cu{sub s}.

Yarykin, N. A., E-mail: NAY@iptm.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology (Russian Federation); Weber, J. [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Phase evolution in carbide dispersion strengthened nanostructured copper composite by high energy ball milling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, high-energy ball milling was applied to synthesis in situ nanostructured copper based composite reinforced with metal carbides. Cu, M (M=W or Ti) and graphite powder mixture were mechanically alloyed for various milling time in a planetary ball mill with composition of Cu-20vol%WC and Cu-20vol%TiC. Then the as-milled powder were compacted at 200 to 400 MPa and sintered in a vacuum furnace at 900 Degree-Sign C. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that formation of tungsten carbides (W{sub 2}C and WC phases) was observed after sintering of Cu-W-C mixture while TiC precipitated in as-milled powder of Cu-Ti-C composite after 5 h and become amorphous with longer milling. Mechanism of MA explained the cold welding and fracturing event during milling. Cu-W-C system shows fracturing event is more dominant at early stage of milling and W particle still existed after milling up to 60 h. While in Cu-Ti-C system, cold welding is more dominant and all Ti particles dissolved into Cu matrix.

Hussain, Zuhailawati; Nur Hawadah, M. S. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

155

Manufacturing and characterization of welded, sintered condensers for a loop heat pipe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A manufacturing process plan was developed for a welded condenser utilizing a sintered wick. Electronic devices have progressed to the point where new designs are limited by the thermal management system used to ensure ...

Sircar, Jay D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Multi-scale current activated tip-based sintering of powder-based materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Japan Society for powder Metallurgy 9 B. Srinivasaro, K. Oh-PM sintering method. Powder Metallurgy 45(4):322-328 47 Z.A.Japan Society of Powder Metallurgy 57(10): 654-659 106 M.

El Desouky, Ahmed Mohamed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Microbialsilica interactions in Icelandic hot spring sinter: possible analogues for some Precambrian siliceous stromatolites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial±silica interactions in Icelandic hot spring sinter: possible analogues for some, UK àFossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry Postgraduate Institute, Drummond Building, University, in particular sections of microstromatolites growing at the Krisuvik hot spring, Iceland, reveals

Konhauser, Kurt

158

Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (n{sub e}) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d{sup 10}4d{sup 1} {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-3d{sup 10}4p{sup 1} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ?590 nm.

Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Precision digital dilatometry: a microcomputer-based approach to sintering studies. Final technical report. [SYNROC Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Representing significant advances in precision, atmosphere control, programming flexibility, experimental convenience and rate-controlled sintering capability, a new University-constructed instrument designed for operation to 1873K incorporates evolutionary thermal and mechanical features with novel microcomputer-based functions for measurement, control, data logging, data reduction, and graphical data representation. Principal design features, hardware selections, and performance data are reviewed; rationales for software development are discussed and typical sintering applications shown. 13 references, 9 figures.

Batchelor, A.D.; Paisley, M.J.; Hare, T.M.; Palmour, H. III

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

COPPER--2000 23.1 By Daniel L. Edelstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

discovered copper resource in the United States was estimated to be 350 Mt. U.S. copper smelter and refineryCOPPER--2000 23.1 COPPER By Daniel L. Edelstein Domestic survey data and tables were prepared. In 2000, mine production of recoverable copper in the United States continued its downward slide

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

COPPER--1998 22.1 By Daniel L. Edelstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial demand. Lower copper prices and closure of a secondary copper smelter during the year led to lowerCOPPER--1998 22.1 COPPER By Daniel L. Edelstein Domestic survey data and tables were prepared of recoverable copper in the United States reversed its decade-long upward trend, declining by about 80

162

Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Fission Yeast Copper-sensing Transcription Factor Cuf1 Regulates the Copper Transporter Gene Expression through an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Fission Yeast Copper-sensing Transcription Factor Cuf1 Regulates the Copper Transporter Gene of copper transport is essential for copper homeostasis and growth in yeast. Analysis of regulatory regions in the promoter of the ctr4 copper transporter gene in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe re- veals

Labbé, Simon

164

MicroRNA-mediated Systemic Down-regulation of Copper Protein Expression in Response to Low Copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MicroRNA-mediated Systemic Down-regulation of Copper Protein Expression in Response to Low Copper 44519, Egypt In plants, copper is an essential micronutrient required for photosynthesis. Two of the most abundant copper proteins, plastocyanin and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, are found

165

Reciprocal influences of temperature and copper on survival of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contemporary ecological concerns of accelerated global warming, increase in toxic chemicals and loss of biodiversity make relevant studies of tolerance of various organisms to abiotic variables. In this study, the reciprocal effects of temperature and copper on survival of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were determined. Temperature tolerance of fishes is limited by a cornucopia of biotic and abiotic factors, including various toxicants. Not only do chemicals affect temperature tolerance of fishes, temperature influences the sensitivity of fish to toxic chemicals; however, the relationship between temperature and lethality is complex, difficult to predict, and has not been the focus of many studies. Copper, a necessary trace element in animal metabolism and ubiquitous in aquatic environments, was selected as our test toxicant. Hodson et al. (1979) reported copper concentrations of one to 29 {mu}g/L in unpolluted surface waters in the United States. Copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}), is an algicide, bactericide and herbicide for ponds, lakes and fish hatcheries. Also, copper is recommended as a fungicide for a variety of ornamental plants and crops, and in various chemical forms enters the environment through mining, smelting, and refining activities. Copper is toxic in parts per billion concentrations ({mu}g/L) and is an EPA priority pollutant. In this research two null hypotheses were tested: (1) temperature has no effect on the lethality of copper sulfate, and (2) sublethal concentrations of copper do not affect the upper temperature tolerance of fathead minnows. It was found that acclimation temperature significantly affects the 96-hr median lethal concentration. Exposure to copper adversely affects the ability of minnows to withstand high temperatures. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Richards, V.L.; Beitinger, T.L. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Copper(I) and copper(II) complexes of an ethylene cross-bridged cyclam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper(I) and copper(II) complexes of an ethylene cross-bridged cyclam Timothy J. Hubin,a Nathaniel and crystal structures of (4,11-dibenzyl- 1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane- 4 N)copper(I) hexa)- copper(II) bis(hexaÂŻuorophosphate), [Cu(C2H3N)(C26H38- N4)](PF6)2, are described. The CuI ion

Hubin, Tim

167

Adsorption of hydrogen on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper catalysts display a high activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of various carbonyl compounds, and copper is a component of the complex catalysts for the synthesis of methanol from CO and H/sub 2/. The adsorption of H/sub 2/ on copper catalysts has been studied by means of thermal desorption. The molecular form of adsorption of H/sub 2/ has been established, the thermal desorption parameters calculated, and the heat of adsorption of H/sub 2/ on a copper surface estimated.

Pavlenko, N.V.; Tripol'skii, A.I.; Golodets, G.I.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Nanograin Copper Deposition Using an Impinging Jet Electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T. ; Ong, C. K. ; Chew, J. Copper Interconnections for HighT. ; Ong, C. K. ; Chew, J. Copper Interconnections for Highof NanoCrystalline Copper. Nanostructured Materials 1993, 2,

Swingle, Karen Diane

169

The Copper Creek Clovis Point from Hells Canyon, Northeastern Oregon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No. 1 (2008) | pp. 75-84 The Copper Creek Clovis Point fromside of the Snake River to the Copper Creek point discovery1 (2008) 5 cm Figure 4. The Copper Creek Clovis point (tick

Reid, Kenneth C.; Root, Matthew J.; Hughes, Richard E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Title. ATP7B copper-regulated traffic and association with the tight junctions: copper excretion into Short title. ATP7B and copper excretion by liver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Title. ATP7B copper-regulated traffic and association with the tight junctions: copper excretion into the bile Short title. ATP7B and copper excretion by liver Authors. Sonia Hernandez*§ , Yo Tsuchiya manuscript Gastroenterology 2008;134(4):1215-23 #12;2 Abstract The copper transporter ATP7B plays a central

Boyer, Edmond

171

EFFECTIVENESS OF COPPER AND BRONZE FOR ZINC CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments was conducted to determine the efficacy of using copper and bronze sheet and screen under high vacuum conditions to capture zinc vapor. The experiments were conducted in a parametric manner using a fixed zinc vaporization temperature (350°C) but varying the filter temperature from ambient to 550°C. Consistent with previous work, metallic zinc was deposited at low temperatures, but the deposit was non?adherent. At an intermediate temperature range (350?450°C), the deposit formed an alloy with both copper and bronze materials. At higher temperatures (> 500°C) the zinc did not deposit on the surfaces likely due to its high vapor pressure. Additional testing to optimize the zinc 'getter' chemistry and surface condition is warranted.

Korinko, P. S.

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

172

Ultrasonic evaluation of beryllium-copper diffusion bonds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed to compare the effectiveness of several advanced ultrasonic techniques when used to determine the strength of diffusion bonded beryllium-copper, which heretofore have each been applied to only a few material systems. The use of integrated backscatter calculations, frequency domain reflection coefficients, and time-of-flight variance was compared in their ability to characterize the bond strength in a series of beryllium-copper diffusion bond samples having a wide variation in bond quality. Correlation of integrated backscatter calculations and time-of-flight variance with bond strength was good. Some correlation of the slope of the frequency based reflection coefficient was shown for medium and high strength bonds, while its Y-intercept showed moderate correlation for all bond strengths.

Jamieson, E.E.

2000-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

173

Coordination of Copper to the Membrane-Bound Form of ?...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

environmental copper exposure. Citation: Dudzik CG, ED Walter, BS Abrams, MS Jurica, and GL Millhauser.2013."Coordination of Copper to the Membrane-Bound Form of...

174

Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium Halide/Copper...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium HalideCopper Photocathode. Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium HalideCopper Photocathode. Abstract: The quantum efficiency of Cu...

175

Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li{sub 2}O-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Improvement of productivity of sintering plant at Nagoya Works of NSC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that in the sintering process generally, the state of charging raw materials into the sintering machine and whether or not its stability is good significantly influence the productivity, quality and cost of this process. At the Nagoya sintering plant, therefore, the peripheral of the slit bar-type segregation charging equipment developed by Nippon Steel were improved in 1994. The main improvements were: the improvement of the raw materials charging control mode, the introduction of fluffer bar to improve permeability and the addition of equipment for removal of lumps from sinter mix. After these measures were taken, the state of segregation of the raw materials and carbon between the upper and lower portions of the sinter bed was improved, the charging stability was also improved and the charging density was decreased, making it possible to achieve productivity improvement and cost reduction as originally intended. This report described the outline and concept of the equipment improvement measures and the operation results of the actual machine.

Yoshida, Hitoshi; Iida, Hiroyuki; Kabuto, Shigehisa; Suzuki, Haruhisa

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Initiation of electroless nickel plating on copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic activity of copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum for electro-oxidation of hypophosphite and electroless nickel plating was investigated in an ammoniacal solution of pH 8.8 at 50/sup 0/C by potential measurements and linear sweep voltammetry from -0.3 to -0.92V vs. SCE. Early stages of nickel plating on copper-palladium substrates were studied by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with EDAX. It was found that palladium-activated copper and gold were catalytically active in the entire range of potentials examined; copper was active below -0.6 platinum was not active at all. Small amounts of electrolytically deposited nickel considerably increased the electro-oxidation rate of hypophosphite on copper, gold, and palladium. TEM examinations showed that activation of copper in a PdCl/sub 2//HCl solution resulted in the deposition of palladium in the form of separate patches. Electroless nickel deposition on copper substrates with separate palladium spots took place on copper and palladium independently of each other. The deposition on palladium was faster than that on copper. It was concluded that the activation of copper substrates around palladium spots occurred solely through a spontaneous potential shift, induced by electro-oxidation of hypophosphite on the palladium spots. It was suggested that small amounts of one metal synergistically enhanced the catalytic activity of the other metals.

Flis, J.; Duquette, D.J.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Reversibleirreversible plasticity transition in twinned copper nanopillars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversible­irreversible plasticity transition in twinned copper nanopillars J.A. Brown, N 31 October 2009 Abstract Through computer simulations, we show that plasticity in twinned copper nanopillar under compression, plastic deformation can be totally reversed when rR is in the range 0:5 6 rR 6

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

180

Fetal polyol metabolism in copper deficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since pregnant rats consuming fructose, copper deficient diets fail to give birth, the relationship between maternal copper deficiency, polyol metabolism and fetal mortality was investigated. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were fed from conception one of the following diets: fructose, copper deficient; fructose, copper adequate; starch, copper deficient or starch, copper adequate. The deficient diets contained 0.6 ug Cu and the adequate 6.0 ug Cu/g diet. Pregnancy was terminated at day 19 of gestation. Glucose, sorbitol and fructose were measured in maternal blood, placenta and fetal liver. Fructose consumption during pregnancy resulted in higher levels of fructose and sorbitol in maternal blood when compared to starch. In the fructose dietary groups, the placenta and fetal liver contained extremely high levels of glucose, fructose and sorbitol compared to the corresponding metabolites from the starch dietary groups. Copper deficiency further elevated fructose and sorbitol concentrations in the placenta and fetal liver respectively. Since high tissue levels of glucose, fructose and sorbitol have been shown to have deleterious effects on cellular metabolism, these data suggest that when fructose was fed during pregnancy the combination of an aberration of carbohydrate metabolism with copper deficiency could be responsible for the pathology and mortality of the developing fetus.

Fields, M.; Lewis, C.G.; Beal, T. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Mechanical characterization of copper coated carbon nanotubes reinforced aluminum matrix composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this investigation, carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum composites were prepared by the molecular-level mixing process using copper coated CNTs. The mixing of CNTs was accomplished by ultrasonic mixing and ball milling. Electroless Cu-coated CNTs were used to enhance the interfacial bonding between CNTs and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the homogenous dispersion of Cu-coated CNTs in the composite samples compared with the uncoated CNTs. The samples were pressureless sintered under vacuum followed by hot rolling to promote the uniform microstructure and dispersion of CNTs. In 1.0 wt.% uncoated and Cu-coated CNT/Al composites, compared to pure Al, the microhardness increased by 44% and 103%, respectively. As compared to the pure Al, for 1.0 wt.% uncoated CNT/Al composite, increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength was estimated about 58% and 62%, respectively. However, in case of 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were increased significantly about 121% and 107%, respectively. - Graphical Abstract: Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. Optimizing the plating bath to (1:1) by wt CNTs with Cu, thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm. Cu-coated CNTs developed the stronger interfacial bonding with the Al matrix which resulted in the efficient transfer of load. Highlights: • Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. • Thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm by optimized plating bath. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, microhardness increased by 103%. • Cu-coated CNTs transfer load efficiently with stronger interfacial bonding. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, Y.S and UTS increased by 126% and 105%.

Maqbool, Adnan, E-mail: adnanmaqbool247@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, KP (Pakistan); School of Nano and Advanced Material Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Hussain, M. Asif; Khalid, F. Ahmad; Bakhsh, Nabi [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, KP (Pakistan); Hussain, Ali; Kim, Myong Ho [School of Nano and Advanced Material Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Effects of TiCl4 Purity on the Sinterability of Armstrong-Processed Ti Powder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of high purity and low purity powders were synthesized from TiCl4 by the Armstrong process. While both powders displayed swelling when consolidated and sintered, the lower purity powder exhibited this phenomenon in significantly lower degree. The improvement is attributed to the increase in the onset of sintering temperature, which mitigates the entrapment of volatile impurities that would otherwise lead to pore formation and growth. The net effect is that the use of a lower purity TiCl4 may beneficial in two ways: (1) it is a potentially lower cost precursor to Ti powder production and (2) the trace impurities allow higher density components to be fabricated via a typical low-cost press and sinter approach.

Weil, K. Scott; Hovanski, Yuri; Lavender, Curt A.

2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

183

Effect of Sintering Temperature on Dielectric Properties of Iron Deficient Nickel-Ferrite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nickel Ferrite among all the magneto ceramic materials have been studied very much due to its large number of applications. But there is a large scope of modification of its properties. Thus people still working on it for improvisation of its properties via compositional and structural modifications. Present paper reporting the preparation and characterization of iron deficient Nickel ferrite for different sintering temperature. Ferrite samples having the general formula NiFe1.98O{sub 4} were prepared using the standard ceramic method. The phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The effect of sintering temperature on the electrical properties and resistivity was studied. The data shows that dielectric properties are highly dependent on the sintering temperature.

Rani, Renu [Electroceramics Research Lab, GVM Girls College, Sonepat-131001 (India); School of Physics and Material Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India); Singh, Sangeeta [Department of Physics, GVM Girls College, Sonepat-131001 (India); Juneja, J. K. [Department of Physics, Hindu College, Sonepat-131001 (India); Prakash, Chandra [Directorate of ER and IPR, DRDO, DRDO Bhawan, New Delhi-110105 (India); Raina, K. K. [School of Physics and Material Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

184

Corrosion resistance and friction of sintered NdFeB coated with Ti/TiN multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrosion resistance and friction of sintered NdFeB coated with Ti/TiN multilayers Yuanyuan Cheng Polarization Fretting corrosion Ti/TiN multilayers were deposited on sintered NdFeB by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The film grain size decreased with the number of multilayers in the stack. Corrosion

Volinsky, Alex A.

185

Relationship between fabrication parameters and structural characteristics of sintered lithium orthosilicate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium orthosilicate (Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/) powder was synthesized by the solid-state reaction of lithium oxide with amorphous silica, and the effects of fabrication parameters on the structural characteristics of the product were investigated. Processing considerations such as milling media, drying technique, calcination time and temperature, pressing behavior, sintering time and temperatures, and impurity concentration were addressed. The initial powder particle size was observed to be important in achieving high sintered density, with densities as high as 98% TD achieved with a particle size of approximately 1 ..mu..m. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Chu, C.Y.; Bar, K.; Singh, J.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Billone, M.C.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

COPPER--2003 21.1 By Daniel L. Edelstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of primary refined copper production. The United States was fifth in world smelter production and fellCOPPER--2003 21.1 COPPER By Daniel L. Edelstein Domestic survey data and tables were prepared copper products; one of the refineries operated for only a portion of the year. Scrap was also consumed

187

Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Interaction of copper with cavities in silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper in Si was shown to be strongly bound at cavities formed by He ion implantation and annealing. Evolution of this system during heating was observed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Results were mathematically modeled to characterize quantitatively the binding of Cu in the cavities and, for comparison, in precipitates of the equilibrium silicide, {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si. Binding of Cu to cavities occurred by chemisorption on the walls, and the binding energy was determined to be 2.2{plus_minus}0.2 eV relative to solution in Si. The heat of solution from the silicide was found to be 1.7 eV, consistent with the published phase diagram. These findings suggest the use of cavities for metal-impurity gettering in Si devices. Hydrogen in solution in equilibrium with external H{sub 2} gas displaced Cu atoms from cavity walls, a mechanistically illuminating effect that is also of practical concern for gettering applications.

Myers, S.M.; Follstaedt, D.M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1056 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1056 (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Copper Nanopowder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper nanopowder preparation and its X-Ray diffraction studies are reported in this paper. Electrolytic cathode deposition method is simple and cheapest process for its preparation. Copper nanopowder has been prepared from aqueous copper sulphate solution. Wide range of experimental conditions has been adopted in this process and its X-Ray diffraction characterizations have been studied. The results confirming copper nanopowder with size below 30 nm. Uniformed size Copper nanopowder preparation, in normal room temperature is importance of this study.

T. Theivasanthi; M. Alagar

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Surface blistering and flaking of sintered uranium dioxide samples under high dose gas implantation and annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface blistering and flaking of sintered uranium dioxide samples under high dose gas implantation-sur-Yvette, France. a guillaume.martin@cea.fr Keywords: uranium dioxide, helium, hydrogen, implantation, blistering, flaking Abstract. High helium contents will be generated within minor actinide doped uranium dioxide

Boyer, Edmond

191

Fabrication of adherent porous diamond films on sintered WC-13 wt.%Co  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and lower threshold voltages for field emission [10]. Conductive polycrystalline diamond films are alsoFabrication of adherent porous diamond films on sintered WC-13 wt.%Co substrates by bias enhanced 2011, accepted 3 May 2011 Published online 10 August 2011 Keywords diamond films, HFCVD, porous, WC

Bristol, University of

192

Sintered molybdenum for a metallized ceramic substrate packaging for the wide-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of thermal expansion (CTE) matching that of SiC are needed. A metallized ceramic substrate based on aluminium the metal layer) and thermal conductivity (of the metal and ceramic layers). The most substrate usedSintered molybdenum for a metallized ceramic substrate packaging for the wide- bandgap devices

Boyer, Edmond

193

A quantitative-metallographic study of the sintering behaviour of dolomite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain growth of the MgO phase during sintering of natural dolomite from Selcuklu-Konya in Turkey was studied in the temperature range 1600-1700 deg. C. For comparison purposes, iron oxide (98.66% mill scale) was added up to 1.5%. The compositions of the phases formed during sintering were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Quantitative-metallographic analyses were performed on images taken by SEM. For the automatic image analysis of dolomite microstructures, material (atomic number) contrast with backscattered electrons (BSEs) was utilized because it yields higher phase contrast compared to secondary electrons (SEs). Iron oxide additions to dolomite result in dense dolomite structures at given sintering temperatures, where phases with low melting temperatures are developed. During liquid phase sintering, periclase is enriched with iron, which destabilizes the MgO phase. The relevant kinetic exponents for MgO in the natural doloma and 0.5% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} added doloma were 6 and 2, and the activation energies were 108 and 243 kJ/mol, respectively.

Yeprem, H.A. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Tueredi, E. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Kocaeli University, Veziroglu Campus, Izmit-Kocaeli 41040 (Turkey); Karagoez, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Kocaeli University, Veziroglu Campus, Izmit-Kocaeli 41040 (Turkey)]. E-mail: karagoez@kou.edu.tr

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes E;2 Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on two layered bismuth based oxide ceramics. Oxygen permeability for these systems was compared to permeability of the cubic fluorite type structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Mechanical properties of WC10Co cemented carbides sintered from nanocrystalline spray conversion processed powders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical properties of WC±10Co cemented carbides sintered from nanocrystalline spray conversion as the spray conversion process [2]. The WC particle sizes in powders fabricated by the spray conversion: microstructural parameters such as WC grain size, Co mean free path and WC/WC contiguity; chemical factors

Hong, Soon Hyung

196

A Model of Gas-Phase Transport During the Initial Stages of Sintering of Silicon Carbide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Model of Gas-Phase Transport During the Initial Stages of Sintering of Silicon Carbide Anil Kaza investigate this process using a computational model based on codiffusion of multiple gas species, which This paper describes a computational model that tracks diffu- sion of multiple gas species and so predicts

Matthewson, M. John

197

Cu-Bi as a Model System For Liquid Phase Sintered Thermal Interface Management Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relates electrical resistivity to thermal conductivity for materials where electrons are principleCu-Bi as a Model System For Liquid Phase Sintered Thermal Interface Management Materials P to produce composite materials. A high melting phase (HMP) and low melting phase (LMP) are mixed

Collins, Gary S.

198

Electrolytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has proven to be exceptionally effective in protecting wood from rot and infestation, its toxic nature has led to the problem of disposal of CCA-treated lumber and remediation of waters ...

Stern, Heather A. G. (Heather Ann Ganung)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The role of copper transporter 1 (CTR1) in the cellular accumulation of platinum drugs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract #3260. 2009- AACR. Copper transporter 2 regulatesof bortezomib on the human copper transporter 1. Clin CancerChemotherapeutics ………………………………… 4 Copper Transporter

Larson, Christopher Alan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

A molecular dynamics study of void initiation and growth in monocrystalline and nanocrystalline copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Nanocrystal Copper . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Base Crystallinebetween two crystals of copper undergoes uniaxial expansion.potentials used for copper. . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table of

Traiviratana, Sirirat

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Glomus Intraradices) Fungus with Tomato Plants grown under Copper Toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the toxic effect of copper. Therefore additionalpotassium, calcium, iron and copper from soil particles, anddifferent concentration of copper. Total protein content

Malekzadeh, Parviz; Khara, Jalil; Farshian, Shadi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

An experimental and computational investigation of shock effects in monocrystalline copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Monocrystalline Copper: Experiments and Simulation”, Buin Monocrystalline Copper”, Bu Yang Cao, David H. Lassila,Substructure in Single Crystal Copper”, Bu Yang Cao, David

Cao, Buyang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE ON THE ACOUSTIC EMISSION GENERATED DURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF COPPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF COPPER J, Baram Materials Engineeringfrom plastically deformed copper specimens were analyzedrelated to the behavior of copper while undergoing plastic

Baram, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Aluminum and copper in drinking water enhance inflammatory oroxidative events specifically in the brain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2000. Characterization of copper interactions with AlzheimerJ. , Flodman, T. , 1999. Copper in drinking water, Nebraska,the oxidative stress of copper-mediated melanin formation.

Bondy, Stephen Bondy C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

A model of material removal and post process surface topography for copper CMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DA. Fundamental Mechanisms of Copper CMP - PassivationKinetics of Copper in CMP Slurry Constituents. Mater. Res.the Passivated Additives in Copper CMP. J. Electrochem. Sci.

Choi, Seungchoun; Doyle, Fiona M.; Dornfeld, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Arsenic and chromium partitioning in a podzolic soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N. Leaching of chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives:EXAFS study of chromated copper arsenate timber preservative5) U.S. -EPA. Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA). http://

Hopp, Luisa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Analysis of copper-rich precipitates in silicon: chemical state,gettering, and impact on multicrystalline silicon solar cellmaterial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, synchrotron-based x-ray absorption microspectroscopy (mu-XAS) is applied to identifying the chemical states of copper-rich clusters within a variety of silicon materials, including as-grown cast multicrystalline silicon solar cell material with high oxygen concentration and other silicon materials with varying degrees of oxygen concentration and copper contamination pathways. In all samples, copper silicide (Cu3Si) is the only phase of copper identified. It is noted from thermodynamic considerations that unlike certain metal species, copper tends to form a silicide and not an oxidized compound because of the strong silicon-oxygen bonding energy; consequently the likelihood of encountering an oxidized copper particle in silicon is small, in agreement with experimental data. In light of these results, the effectiveness of aluminum gettering for the removal of copper from bulk silicon is quantified via x-ray fluorescence microscopy (mu-XRF),and a segregation coefficient is determined from experimental data to beat least (1-2)'103. Additionally, mu-XAS data directly demonstrates that the segregation mechanism of Cu in Al is the higher solubility of Cu in the liquid phase. In light of these results, possible limitations for the complete removal of Cu from bulk mc-Si are discussed.

Buonassisi, Tonio; Marcus, Matthew A.; Istratov, Andrei A.; Heuer, Matthias; Ciszek, Theodore F.; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Weber,Eicke R.

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

208

Microstructure and thermal stability of copper -carbon nanotube composites consolidated by High Pressure Torsion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microstructure and thermal stability of copper - carbon nanotube composites consolidated by High as the hardness of the pure and composite materials were determined. Due to the pinning effect of CNTs­matrix nanocomposites [3,4]. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising disperse phase in these composites because their high

Gubicza, JenĂ”

209

Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system Module in samples collected after 12/1/01 have been determined by XRF analysis using a Cu-anode tube as the source/1/05 will be reported with an added indicator of the Cu- anode XRF system used in analysis, the first (1) or the second

Fischer, Emily V.

210

World copper smelter sulfur balance, 1988. (Information circular, 1993). Information circular/1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

Towle, S.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Combined elemental and microstructural analysis of genuine and fake copper-alloy coins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Innovative noninvasive material analysis techniques are applied to determine archaeometallurgical characteristics of copper-alloy coins from Florence's National Museum of Archaeology. Three supposedly authentic Roman coins and three hypothetically fraudolent imitations are thoroughly investigated using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy and time of flight neutron diffraction along with 3D videomicroscopy and electron microscopy. Material analyses are aimed at collecting data allowing for objective discrimination between genuine Roman productions and late fakes. The results show the mentioned techniques provide quantitative compositional and textural data, which are strictly related to the manufacturing processes and aging of copper alloys. (laser applications)

Bartoli, L; Agresti, J; Mascalchi, M; Mencaglia, A; Cacciari, I; Siano, Salvatore [Istituto di Fisica Applicata 'N. Carrara', IFAC-CNR, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Jones, Edward (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

An experimental investigation of copper-Zircaloy interactions under possible tuff repository conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its evaluation of copper and copper alloys for use as a container material for spent fuel, the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project sponsored this experimental study to determine if the presence of copper would influence the corrosion rate of Zircaloy spent fuel cladding under possible tuff repository conditions. The experiment consisted of exposing copper/Zircaloy clad spent fuel packages to two different environments for up to 9 months. Detailed evaluation of the cladding via metallography, electron probe microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis, and Auger electron spectroscopy/ion milling to chemically profile the surface film failed to provide an evidence of copper-enhanced corrosion of the Zircaloy cladding. The difference in thickness of the oxide films between the 2-month and 5-month experiments, and the 2-month and 9-month experiments as indicated by the time to ion mill through the films, was on the order of 50 {angstrom}, and 100 {angstrom}, respectively, indicating a very low rate of film growth during the experiments. 20 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

Smith, H D

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

Jernigan, G.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The sintering behavior of uranium and uranium-zirconium alloys in the alpha phase were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding...

Helmreich, Grant

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

217

Thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations and method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering. 1 fig.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Morrow, M.S.

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

218

Preparation and sintering of silica-doped zirconia by colloidal processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silica-doped (SiO{sub 2} = 0--1.0 mass%) zirconia (3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}) compacts are prepared from hetero-coagulated and well-dispersed suspensions by colloidal processing. The suspensions are consolidated by a pressure filtration technique. The green density of the compacts consolidated from the well-dispersed suspensions is higher than that from the hetero-coagulated suspensions. The lower density of the latter compacts is improved by a subsequent cold isostatic pressing (CIP) at 400 MPa. The sinterability of the compacts at 1,200 C is greatly affected by the amount of doped silica. The densification and grain growth are hindered by silica doping above 0.3 wt% at 1,200 C. All the compacts are densificated to a relative density of above 99% by sintering at 1,300 C for 2 h.

Uchikoshi, T.; Sakka, Y.; Ozawa, K.; Hiraga, K. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Synthesis and characterization of aluminium–alumina micro- and nano-composites by spark plasma sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure by varying the particle size of reinforcement in the matrix employing spark plasma sintering has been demonstrated here in Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. An emphasis has been laid on varying the reinforcement particle size and evaluating the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size < 50 nm) reinforced in aluminium matrix were fabricated by powder metallurgy route using spark plasma sintering technique technique at a temperature of 773 K and pressure of 50 MPa. Another set of specimens having composition 1, 5, 20 vol.% of alumina (average size ? 10 ?m) had been fabricated to compare the physical as well as mechanical attributes of the microcomposite as well as the nanocomposites. These micro- and nano-composites have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy followed by density, microhardness and nanoindentation measurements. The alumina nanoparticles revealed an interface showing appreciable physical intimacy with the aluminium matrix compared to that of the alumina microparticles. The interfacial integrity in case of nanocomposites is better than in the microcomposite which has been studied using microscopic techniques. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification as well as matrix-reinforcement proximity which has been corroborated with the experimental results. - Highlights: • The Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro- and nano-composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering. • Better matrix-reinforcement integrity in nanocomposites than microcomposites. • Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values. • High density and hardness values of nanocomposites than microcomposites. • High dislocation density in spark plasma sintered Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. - Abstract: In the present study, an emphasis has been laid on evaluation of the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites by varying the reinforcement particle size. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size < 50 nm) and microcomposites of 1, 5, 20 volume % of alumina (average size ? 10 ?m) reinforced in aluminium matrix were fabricated by spark plasma sintering technique at a temperature of 773 K and pressure of 50 MPa. These micro- and nano-composites have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy followed by density, microhardness and nanoindentation hardness measurements. The alumina nanoparticles revealed appreciable physical intimacy with the aluminium matrix than that of alumina microparticles. The highest nanohardness recorded 0.85 GPa and 99% densification for 7 and 1 vol.% Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nancomposites respectively. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification and matrix-reinforcement proximity which have been corroborated with the experimental results.

Dash, K., E-mail: khushbudash@gmail.com; Chaira, D.; Ray, B.C.

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Method of preparing thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering. 1 fig.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Morrow, M.S.

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Method of preparing thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations and method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Method of preparing a sintered lithium aluminate structure for containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porous sintered tile is formed of lithium aluminate for retaining molten lectrolyte within a fuel cell. The tile is prepared by reacting lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution with alumina particles to form beta lithium aluminate particles. The slurry is evaporated to dryness and the solids dehydrated to form a beta lithium aluminate powder. The powder is compacted into the desired shape and sintered at a temperature in excess of 1200 K. but less than 1900 K. to form a porous integral structure that is subsequently filled with molten electrolyte. A tile of this type is intended for use in containing molten alkali metal carbonates as electolyte for use in a fuel cell having porous metal or metal oxide electrodes for burning a fuel gas such as hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide with an oxidant gas containing oxygen.

Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800°C in vacuum and about 750°C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2–CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (5–15 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000° C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

225

Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 °C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

Koyanagi, Takaaki [ORNL; Shimoda, Kazuya [Kyoto University, Japan; Kondo, Sosuke [Kyoto University, Japan; Hinoki, Tatsuya [Kyoto University, Japan; Ozawa, Kazumi [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES COPPER COUNTRY HISTORICAL COLLECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES AND COPPER COUNTRY HISTORICAL COLLECTION GENEALOGICAL & Copper Country Historical Collection J. Robert Van Pelt Library Michigan Technological University local high schools and Michigan Technological University, centennial books, and local history titles

228

Geothermal energy for copper dump leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates the possibility of using geothermal energy to heat a sulfuric acid leaching solution for the purpose of faster and more efficient copper recovery from copper-containing minerals. Experimental studies reported in the literature have shown that this technique can be economically feasible for the extraction of copper from low-grade dump ores. Its main advantage appears to be the considerable reduction in long-term leaching periods; it could also be less expensive than other conventional processing operations if an economical geothermal resource were provided. However, this process has some pitfalls which might restrict the extent of geothermal energy use. Nevertheless, the process is still technologically sound, especially if groundwaters are used directly in the leaching operation.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Compaction and sintering behaviors of a Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive x-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic measurements were done on Nd/sub 15/ Fe/sub 77/ B/sub 8/ magnet alloy green compacts after cold isostatic pressing following a pulsed 2-T field (CIP) and die-pressing under a static 1.2-T perpendicular field (DP1) or parallel field (DP2), and on those after sintering. An alignment factor F, through the calculation of the integrated diffraction intensity ratio of the XRD patterns, was adopted as the effectiveness of magnetic alignment. At the green compact state, DP1 has the best alignment while CIP the worst. However, after sintering the alignment factor was such that CIP>DPI>DP2, the same order as the magnetic properties. Three mechanisms were proposed for the evolution of the alignment factor at different stages of sintering, i.e., that both the appearance of a liquid phase at low temperatures and preferred grain growth at high temperatures enhance F, while recrystallization at intermediate temperatures deteriorates F. CIP results in less-defect green compact, hence less recrystallization, leading to better resultant alignment

Chin, T.; Hung, M.; Tsai, D.; Wu, K.; Chang, W.

1988-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Characterizations of severely deformed and annealed copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . 63 24. 90 min isochronal recrystallization curve for copper 101 given 2A/R+2A ECAE passes at room temperature. . . . . 64 25. 90 min isochronal recrystallization curve for copper 101 given 2C/R*2C ECAE passes at room temperature . . . 65 FIGURE... plane). The initial texture is 2C*2C/R. . . . . 93 48. Pole fiytres for Cu 101 given two ECAE passes via route C (Flow plane). The initial texture is 4A/R. 94 49. Pole figures for Cu 101 given four ECAE passes via route A after recrystaliization...

Haouaoui, Mohammed

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

6,000 years of copper smelting : Center for the Study of Copper Smelting in Ancient Societies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1959 professor of archeology Beno Rothenberg began investigating the production of copper in the Sinai desert and Aravah region of southern Israel. He discovered over 650 previously unknown ancient copper mining and ...

Steinberg, Marc J. (Marc Jonathan), 1969-

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Laser Copper Plasma X-ray Source Debris Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser Copper Plasma X-ray Source Debris Characterization A Thesis Presented by David Hurley 3, 2007 Vice President for Research and Dean of Graduate studies #12;Abstract Laser copper plasma for x-ray lithography. Copper debris in the form of vapor, ions, dust, and high-speed particles

Huston, Dryver R.

233

COPPER SENSITIVITY OF PACIFIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS PALLASI,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPPER SENSITIVITY OF PACIFIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS PALLASI, DURING ITS EARLY LIFE HISTORY D. W pallasi, were exposed to copper, using a flow-through bioassay system. Herring embryos were exposed until yolk sac absorption. Embryos were also exposed to 36-h duration pulses of copper in order

234

THE LEAD AND COPPER RULE Anne Sandvig, HDR-EES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE LEAD AND COPPER RULE Anne Sandvig, HDR-EES 2008 Historical Background The 1986 Safe Drinking districts and was not mandated. In 1991, the USEPA finalized the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) in response components and by August 1998 manufacturers were required to comply. The Lead and Copper Rule #12;The USEPA

Maynard, J. Barry

235

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison of molybdenum able to trigger the copper sulfur molybdenum interference in sheep was measured with either only) and 4 increasing molybdenum doses. The sulfur-molybdenum-copper interference was quantified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP M. LAMAND Claudine LAB in the injection site. Copper per os dosing is efficient for treating deficient animals (Lamand et al., 1969 consuming. Therefore we tried to per- fect a copper and zinc deficiency treatment allowing the injection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Nanoparticle plasma ejected directly from solid copper by localized microwaves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plasma column ejected directly from solid copper by localized microwaves is studied. The effect stems from an induced hotspot that melts and emits ionized copper vapors as a confined fire column. Nanoparticles of {approx}20-120 nm size were revealed in the ejected column by in situ small-angle x-ray scattering. Optical spectroscopy confirmed the dominance of copper particles in the plasma column originating directly from the copper substrate. Nano- and macroparticles of copper were verified also by ex situ scanning electron microscopy. The direct conversion of solid metals to nanoparticles is demonstrated and various applications are proposed.

Jerby, E.; Golts, A.; Shamir, Y.; Wonde, S.; Ashkenazi, D.; Eliaz, N. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Mitchell, J. B. A.; LeGarrec, J. L. [IPR., U.M.R. No. 6251 du C.N.R.S., Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Narayanan, T.; Sztucki, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Barkay, Z. [Wolfson Applied Materials Research Center, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

238

A Mathematical model of copper corrosion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new partial differential model for monitoring and detecting copper corrosion products (mainly brochantite and cuprite) is proposed to provide predictive tools suitable for describing the evolution of damage induced on bronze specimens by sulfur dioxide (SO_2) pollution. This model is characterized by the movement of a double free boundary. Numerical simulations show a nice agreement with experimental result.

Fabrizio Clarelli; Barbara De Filippo; Roberto Natalini

2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

239

A Mathematical model of copper corrosion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new partial differential model for monitoring and detecting copper corrosion products (mainly brochantite and cuprite) is proposed to provide predictive tools suitable for describing the evolution of damage induced on bronze specimens by sulfur dioxide (SO_2) pollution. This model is characterized by the movement of a double free boundary. Numerical simulations show a nice agreement with experimental result.

Clarelli, Fabrizio; Natalini, Roberto

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of copper into silicon, which is primarily through grain boundaries. This dissertation reports the processing of high quality stoichiometric thin films of TiN, TaN and HfN, and studies their Cu diffusion barrier properties. Epitaxial metastable cubic TaN (B1...

Araujo, Roy A.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Nanoscale Growth Twins in Sputtered Copper Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.............................................................. 7 I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) .................................... 8 I.2. Fabrication of copper thin films .................................................... 12... to the exposure of the film growth surface to the solution, impurities may be introduced. I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) CVD is a chemical process used to produce high-purity, high-performance thin films and often used in the semiconductor industry...

Anderoglu, Osman

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

242

Fluidized bed electrowinning of copper. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the study were to: design and construct a 10,000- amp fluidized bed electrowinning cell for the recovery of copper from acidic sulfate solutions; demonstrate the technical feasibility of continuous particle recirculation from the electrowinning cell with the ultimate goal of continuous particle removal; and measure cell efficiency as a function of operating conditions.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Cluster size effects on sintering, CO adsorption, and implantation in Ir/SiO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of planar model catalysts have been prepared via deposition of Ir{sub n}{sup +} on thermally grown amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) and ion scattering spectroscopy was used to probe surface structure as a function of cluster size, impact energy, and surface temperature. Deposition of Ir{sub 2} or Ir{sub 10} at low energies and room temperature results in stable clusters forming one- or two-dimensional single layer islands on the oxide surface. Heating the samples to 750 K leads to agglomeration, forming multilayer structures on the surface. Ir{sub 1} deposited under similar conditions sinters into large clusters at room temperature. Deposition at 110 K at least partially stabilizes the Ir atoms with respect to diffusion and sintering. At higher deposition energies, partial implantation into the surface is observed, but this appears to be insufficient to stabilize the clusters against sintering at elevated temperature. At low temperatures, substrate-mediated adsorption of CO is found to be highly efficient, leading to near saturation coverages of CO bound atop the Ir{sub n} clusters. The CO can be removed by careful He{sup +} sputtering. The deposition/binding behavior of Ir{sub n} on SiO{sub 2} is quite different from Ir{sub n}/TiO{sub 2}(110), for which the clusters bind in three-dimensional morphology, starting at Ir{sub 5}. That system also shows substrate-mediated adsorption of CO, but the CO preferentially binds at the periphery of the clusters rather than on top.

Kaden, W. E.; Kunkel, W. A.; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E. RM 2020, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

244

Subsolidus sintering of SYNROC: II. Materials selections, process improvements, waste form evaluations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal areas of research were related to materials selections and characterization, process optimizations, crystalline phase development, sinterability, resultant microstructures and evaluations of leaching behavior. With and without simulated radwaste doping, the Modified SYNROC-B formulation was found to be sinterable to technical density (D > 0.95 in the CTS mode) at temperatures in the range 1195/sup 0/C to 1285/sup 0/C, depending upon TiO/sub 2/ and CaCO/sub 3/ materials selections, and upon powder processing methods employed prior to firing. Of the 16 TiO/sub 2/ raw materials evaluated in air-fired, undoped batches, 15 yielded technically dense compacts (D > 0.95). Three fine pigmentary grades of TiO/sub 2/ were selected for further study in doped and undoped versions fired in Ar, 4% H/sub 2/. When intensively milled with other well chosen matrix constituents and 10% spray-calcined simulated waste, each of them yielded sintered densities of greater than or equal to 4.2 g/cm/sup 3/ (D greater than or equal to 0.96) at 1260/sup 0/C, 2h in Ar, 4% H/sub 2/ atmosphere. Leachability studies have been carried out in triple distilled H/sub 2/O according to MCC-1 and MCC-2 procedures at 25/sup 0/ and 150/sup 0/C, respectively, and under ..gamma..-irradiation for dose rates of 2-5 x 10/sup 5/ rad/h at approx. 25/sup 0/C. The results obtained showed that freshly exposed interions of sintered Modified SYNROC-B ceramics were highly stable in the leaching environment, and were very retentive of simulated waste ions, including the most leachable species, Cs. Depending on leaching conditions, the highest Cs leach rates (after 3 days) were on the order of 10/sup -1/ g.m/sup -2/.day/sup -1/, but diminished sharply for longer times (up to 92 days) to the range 10/sup -2/ - 10/sup -4/ g.m/sup -2/.day/sup -1/.

Palmour, H. III.; Hare, T.M.; Russ, J.C.; Boss, C.B.; Solomah, A.G.; Batchelor, A.D.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the vapor deposition process when using soft metallic coatings so that the maximum allowable enhancement for a specific coating thickness can be obtained. Also, the temperature dependence for the microhardness of copper was ex- perimentally determined...- sate for the difFerence in layer and substrate thermal conductivities. When applied, the model agreed well with the data obtained in this investigation at low coating thick- ness but overpredicted the data, as the thickness increased. In addition...

Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Successful application of the Top-Layer-Sintering Process for recycling of ferrous residuals contaminated with organic substances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The value of by-products and residues from steel production processes stem from their metal content and their inherent heat of combustion. However, the organic contents of sludge, scale and of other ferrous residuals make it difficult to recycle them via the conventional sinter process due to low burning rates. Insufficient burning rates will increase the dust load, could harm the ESTP and is responsible for the formation of the blue haze. The Top-Layer-Sintering Process using a second ignition hood which ignites the second layer on top of the main sinterbed has opened an economical and ecologically clean way for returning waste materials to valuable blast furnace burden by sintering. In pot grate test series and semi industrial tests the process was optimized. An industrial recycling plant for treatment of organic containing residuals is now in operation.

Kinzel, J.; Pammer, O. [Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Linz (Austria); Trimmel, W. [Voest-Alpine Stahl Linz GmbH (Austria); Zellner, H. [Voest-Alpine Stahl Donawitz GmbH, Leoben-Donawitz (Austria)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl{sup -} concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

Jeon, B.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; van Duin, A. C. T.; Ramanathan, S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Harvard Univ.); (Penn State Univ.)

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Advance Digital Imaging Process for Tungsten Alloys Liquid-Phase Sintered in Microgravity W. B Goodwin, University of Tennessee, SURF 2009 Fellow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advance Digital Imaging Process for Tungsten Alloys Liquid-Phase Sintered in Microgravity W. B is to develop a digital image processing algorithm to rapidly detect and measure dihedral angles in binary. This geometric parameter greatly affects the liquid-phase sintering (LPS) process which is commonly used

Li, Mo

251

Synthesis of BaTiO[subscript 3]-20wt%CoFe[subscript 2]O[subscript 4] Nanocomposites via Spark Plasma Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Barium titanate-20wt% cobalt ferrite (BaTiO{sub 3}-20wt%CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanocomposites were sintered from nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and pressureless sintering (PS) techniques. Using SPS, dense polycrystalline composites were obtained at a sintering temperature as low as 860 C and a time of 5 min whereas PS required a higher sintering temperature (1150 C) and time (120 min) to obtain similarly dense composites. Microstructural analysis of the composites showed that both the techniques retained nanocrystalline grain sizes after sintering. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the BaTiO{sub 3}-20wt%CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites sintered by the SPS technique did not exhibit formation of any new phase(s) due to reaction between the BaTiO{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases during sintering. However, the PS technique resulted in the formation of additional phases (other than the BaTiO{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases) in the composites. While the composites synthesized by SPS were of superior phase-purity, evidence of Fe diffusion from the spinel to the perovskite phase was found from X-ray diffraction and permittivity measurements.

Ghosh, Dipankar; Han, Hyuksu; Nino, Juan C.; Subhash, Ghatu; Jones, Jacob L. (Florida)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

252

Characterizations of WC-10Co nanocomposite powders and subsequently sinterhip sintered cemented carbide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafine WC-Co cemented carbides, combining high hardness and high toughness, are expected to find broad applications. In this study, WC-10Co-0.4VC-0.4Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} (wt.%) nanocomposite powders, whose average grain size was about 30 nm, were fabricated by spray pyrolysis-continuous reduction and carbonization technology. The as-prepared nanocomposite powders were characterized and analyzed by chemical methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BET analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, 'sinterhip' was used in the sintering process, by which ultrafine WC-10Co cemented carbides with an average grain size of 240 nm were prepared. The material exhibited high Rockwell A hardness of HRA 92.8, Vickers hardness HV{sub 1} 1918, and transverse rapture strength (TRS) of 3780 MPa. The homogeneously dispersed grain growth inhibitors such as VC, Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} in nanocomposite powder and the special nonmetal-metal nanocomposite structure of WC-10Co nanocomposite powder played very important roles in obtaining ultrafine WC-10Co cemented carbide with the desired properties and microstructure. There was an abundance of triple junctions in the ultrafine WC-10Co cemented carbide; these triple junctions endowed the sintered specimen with high mechanical properties.

Shi, X.L. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)]. E-mail: sxl071932@126.com; Shao, G.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Duan, X.L. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiong, Z. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yang, H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry (Palos Hts., IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

255

Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

256

Copper Toxicity in the San Francisco Bay-Delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. R. Flegal, and K. W. Bruland. 2007. A review of totalBuck, K. N. , and K. W. Bruland. 2005. Copper speciation in

Buck, Kristen N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Method of imaging the heart using copper-64 citrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of imaging the heart to provide a distinct image using positron emission tomography comprises administering copper-64 citrate and a compatible carrier.

Crook, James E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Rare-Earth and Copper Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.3 Corrosion of Copper Films in Aqueous2.3.1 Cu 2p XAS of Copper Films in Various2.3.2 Cu 2p RIXS of Copper Film in Groundwater

Kvashnina, Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Copper Transporter 2 (CTR2) as a regulator of cisplatin accumulation and sensitivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1997). "hCTR1: A human gene for copper uptake identified byKlomp, et al. (1997). "The copper chaperone for superoxidecharacterization of a copper transport protein in S.

Blair, Brian G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Products of High-Energy Deuteron and Helium Ion Bombardments of Copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND HELIUM ION BOHBARDMENTS OF COPPER D. R. Miller, R. C.observations made when natural copper (stable mass numbersof the Bombardment of Natural Copper with 190 Mev Deuterons

Miller, D.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Development of a Scanning Probe Microscope and Studies of Graphene Grown on Copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Graphene Grown on Copper (100) Single Crystals,” JournalGraphene on Polycrystalline Copper,” Nano Letters 11, 251 (5 GRAPHENE GROWTH ON COPPER (100) SINGLE CRYSTALS 5.1

Rasool, Haider Imad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

STRUCTURAL CONTROL AND ANISOTROPY OF MINERALIZATION THE CHUQUICAMATA PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STRUCTURAL CONTROL AND ANISOTROPY OF MINERALIZATION WITHIN THE CHUQUICAMATA PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT CONTROL AND ANISOTROPY OF MINERALIZATION WITHIN THE CHUQUICAMATA PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT, NORTHERN CHILE the Chuquicamata Porphyry Copper Deposit, northern Chile DEPARTMENT OR SCHOOL: Department of Earth Sciences DEGREE

Beaumont, Christopher

263

TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE THRESHOLD ENERGY FOR FRENKEL PAIR PRODUCTION IN COPPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRENKEL PAIR PRODUCTION IN COPPER R. Drosd, T. Kosel, and J.FRENKEL PAIR PRODUCTION IN COPPER R. Drosd, T. Kosel and J.110) foils of high purity copper in the HVEM. At 575°K loops

Drosd, jR.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana Air Pollution, and the Courts, 1890-1920  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Pollution from Copper Smelters of the Far West, 1885-the struggle to abate copper smelter air pollution consistedCopper Mining Company). Chapter 8, "The Roosevelt Men Versus the Smelters,"

Stirling, Dale A.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Technology and social process : oscillations in Iron Age copper production and power in Southern Jordan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1976. Slag from an ancient copper smelter at Timna, Israel.The discovery of a copper mine and smelter from the end ofN. , 2008. The Copper Revolution: Smelters from Canaan and

Ben-Yosef, Erez

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

10GBASE10GBASE--T:T: 10Gbit/s Ethernet over copper10Gbit/s Ethernet over copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 10GBASE10GBASE--T:T: 10Gbit/s Ethernet over copper10Gbit/s Ethernet over copper NEWCOM realization Start-up procedure Status and outlook #12;3 Ethernet over UTP copper is ubiquitousEthernet over UTP copper is ubiquitous 4-pair UTP cable + RJ-45 connector: fast, secure, cheap 4 Ethernet over UTP

Chen, Sheng

267

Reaction of Elemental Sulfur with a Copper(I) Complex Forming a trans--1,2 End-On Disulfide Complex: New Directions in Copper-Sulfur Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reaction of Elemental Sulfur with a Copper(I) Complex Forming a trans-”-1,2 End-On Disulfide Complex: New Directions in Copper-Sulfur Chemistry Matthew E. Helton, Peng Chen, Partha P. Paul, Zolta, investigations into copper-sulfur interactions have been of marked interest in the research fields of copper

Chen, Peng

268

Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was Πinch (6. 25 mm) thick copper disk. The diameter of thevery high power de nsity. Copper was selected for this studythe high stability of HIPIMS copper discharges ( copper can

Horwat, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Effectiveness of nickel plating in inhibiting atmospheric corrosion of copper alloy contacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of tests was run to determine the effect of Ni plating thickness on connector contact resistance. Copper coupons were plated with an electrolytic nickel strike followed by electroless nickel to produce Ni layers of 10, 20, 55 and 100 {micro}in. The coupons were then exposed to a simulated industrial environment. Pore corrosion was observed after the exposure, which correlated with Ni thickness. In a second series of tests, beryllium-copper four-tine contacts with 50 {micro}in of gold plate over electrolytic nickel strike/electroless-nickel plates of varying thickness were exposed the same corrosive environment. Contact resistance of mated pairs was monitored over a two-month period. The degradation in contact resistance correlated with the Ni thickness used in the connectors.

Ernest, T.; Sorensen, R.; Guilinger, T.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Effect of the composition of polypyrrole substrate on the electrodeposition of copper and nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrodeposition of copper and nickel on a variety of substrates including conductive polymer films with two different compositions has been studied. The enhancement of the copper and nickel electrodeposition rate was observed for composite polypyrrole films with cation-exchange properties in comparison to undoped polypyrrole films with anion-exchange properties. Significant enhancement of the nickel electrodeposition rate on both types of conductive polymer vs. the bare gold electrode was also found. An explanation of these effects is presented. An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) with 10 MHz AT-cut piezoelectrodes was used in this study. Use of the EQCM technique allowed for simultaneous monitoring of voltamperometric and resonance frequency vs. potential or time characteristics. The thickness of electropolymerized polypyrrole films as well as the amounts of electrodeposited metals were controlled by monitoring the EQCM resonant frequency. The nucleation density has been determined from scanning electron microscope experiments.

Hepel, M.; Chen, Y.M.; Stephenson, R. [State Univ. of New York, Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Temperature dependence of magnetic behaviour in very fine grained, spark plasma sintered NiCuZn Ferrites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CuZn Ferrites Behzad Ahmadi,1, a) Karim Zehani,1 Martino LoBue,1 Vincent Loyau,1 and Frederic Mazaleyrat1 SATIE spark plasma sintering technique, a family of very fine grained, fully dense NiCuZn ferrites have been produced which show constant permeability up to several 10 MHz. These Ferrites can be used for filtering

Boyer, Edmond

272

Electromagnetic properties of microwave sintered ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites for application in low temperature co-fired ceramic devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, microwave sintering (MS) technology has been applied in the preparation of ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites. Several kinds of (Ni{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.6}Cu{sub 0.1})Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NiCuZn) ferrite with different contents of BaTiO{sub 3}(BT) have been fabricated by MS technology. We found that the sintering time and temperature were significantly reduced from 22 h and 1100 deg. C for the conventional sintering (CS) process to 2 h and 840 deg. C for MS process, respectively. Experiments show that MS treated NiCuZn-BT composites possess both excellent ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties. For the composites of NiCuZn added with 15% BaTiO{sub 3}, the real part of permittivity is larger than 50 below 20 MHz and the real part of dielectric constant is larger than 18 below 1 GHz. Our results indicate that the microwave sintering method is a potential important technique in LTCC technology.

Yang Qinghui; Zhang Huaiwu; Wen Qiye; Liu Yingli [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chendu 610054, Sichuan (China)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Evaluation of sintering effects on SiC incorporated UO2 kernels under Ar and Ar-4%H2 environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon carbide (SiC) is suggested as an oxygen getter in UO2 kernels used for TRISO particle fuels to lower oxygen potential and prevent kernel migration during irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry analyses performed on sintered kernels verified that internal gelation process can be used to incorporate SiC in urania fuel kernels. Sintering in either Ar or Ar-4%H2 at 1500 C lowered the SiC content in the UO2 kernels to some extent. Formation of UC was observed as the major chemical phase in the process, while other minor phases such as U3Si2C2, USi2, U3Si2, and UC2 were also identified. UC formation was presumed to be occurred by two reactions. The first was the SiC reaction with its protective SiO2 oxide layer on SiC grains to produce volatile SiO and free carbon that subsequently reacted with UO2 to form UC. The second process was direct UO2 reaction with SiC grains to form SiO, CO, and UC, especially in Ar-4%H2. A slightly higher density and UC content was observed in the sample sintered in Ar-4%H2, but the use of both atmospheres produced kernels with ~95% of theoretical density. It is suggested that incorporating CO in the sintering gas would prevent UC formation and preserve the initial SiC content.

Silva, Chinthaka M [ORNL] [ORNL; Lindemer, Terrence [Harbach Engineering and Solutions] [Harbach Engineering and Solutions; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL] [ORNL; Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL] [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL] [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

One component metal sintering additive for {beta}-SiC based on thermodynamic calculation and experimental observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: . Standard Gibbs formation free energies vs. temperature for various metal carbides. The heavy line represents the standard Gibbs free energy for {beta}-SiC. The hatched area denotes the typical liquid phase hot pressing temperature of {beta}-SiC (1973-2123 K). Highlights: {yields} Various metal elements were examined as a sintering additive for {beta}-SiC. {yields} Al and Mg enhanced the density significantly without decomposing {beta}-SiC, as predicted by thermodynamic simulation. {yields} Cr, Fe, Ta, Ti, V and W additives formed metal carbide and/or silicide compounds by decomposing {beta}-SiC. {yields} This approach would be useful for selecting effective sintering additive for high temperature ceramics. -- Abstract: Various types of metals were examined as sintering additives for {beta}-SiC by considering the standard Gibbs formation free energy and vapor pressure under hot pressing conditions (1973-2123 K), particularly for applications in nuclear reactors. Metallic elements having the low long-term activation under neutron irradiation condition, such as Cr, Fe, Ta, Ti, V and W, as well as widely used elements, Al, Mg and B, were considered. The conclusions drawn from thermodynamic considerations were compared with the experimental observations. Al and Mg were found to be effective sintering additives, whereas the others were not due to the formation of metal carbides or silicides from the decomposition of SiC under hot pressing conditions.

Noviyanto, Alfian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dang-Hyok, E-mail: dhyoon@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

Demouchy, Sylvie

276

Thermomechanical Performance of Si-Ti-C-O and Sintered SiC Fiber-Bonded Ceramics at High Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stress-temperature-lifetime response of Si-Ti-C-O fiber-bonded ceramic (Tyrannohex ) and sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramic (SA-Tyrannohex ) materials were investigated in air from 500 to 1150 C and 500 to 1400 C, respectively. The apparent threshold stress of Si-Ti-C-O fiber-bonded ceramic was about 175 MPa in the 500-1150 C temperature range. When the applied stress of the sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramic was below an apparent threshold stress (e.g., ~225MPa) for tests conducted 1150 C, no failures were observed for lifetimes up to 1000h. In the case of sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramic, at the temperature of 1300 C, the apparent threshold stress decreased to 175 MPa. The decrease in strength seemed to be caused by grain growth which was confirmed from the SEM fractography. Both fiber-bonded ceramics exhibited much higher durability than a commercial SiC/SiC composite at temperatures above 500 C. In addition, results suggested that the sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramic (SA-Tyrannohex) is more stable than a Hi-Nicalon/MI SiC composite with BN/SiC fiber coating at temperatures above 1300 C.

Matsunaga, Tadashi [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Singh, Mrityunjay [NASA-Glenn Research Center, Cleveland; Kajii, Shinji [Ube Industries, Ltd.; Matsunaga, Kenji [Ube Industries, Ltd.; Ishikawa, Toshihiro [Ube Industries, Ltd.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

E-Print Network 3.0 - andean porphyry copper Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Utah have recorded overKEY WORDS: alkaline magma; Bingham; porphyry copper... Bingham Canyon porphyry copper deposit range in may also have effectively removed magmatic...

278

Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

280

Effects of coal slag corrosion on the mechanical properties of sintered {alpha}-silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tubes of sintered SiC were exposed for 500 h in a laboratory furnace to three different coal slags at three temperatures. No corrosive attack or strength reduction was observed after exposure at 1090{degrees}C. At 1260{degrees}C the least viscous slag caused formation of corrosion pits and loss of strength. At 1430{degrees}C formation of iron silicides at the interface between the slag and the base material caused severe loss of strength for slags with the highest and the lowest viscosity, while the specimens exposed to the slag with medium viscosity and medium iron content survived quite well. The results show that mechanical strength can be retained for certain coal slag - temperature combinations.

Hannel, S.E. [Ecole Centrale, Lyon (France); Breder, K.; Joslin, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Tungsten-yttria carbide coating for conveying copper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for providing a carbided-tungsten-yttria coating on the interior surface of a copper vapor laser. The surface serves as a wick for the condensation of liquid copper to return the condensate to the interior of the laser for revolatilization.

Rothman, Albert J. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

NANO-INDENTATION OF COPPER THIN FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NANO-INDENTATION OF COPPER THIN FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES S. Suresh1 , T.-G. Nieh2 and B.W. Choi2: Mechanical properties; Nano-indentation; Thin films; Copper; Dislocations Introduction Indentation methods films on substrates (e.g., [2,3]) using instrumented indentation. Nano-indentation studies of thin films

Suresh, Subra

283

Etching of Copper Coated Mylar Tubes With CF-4 Gas  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Using 5 mm diameter copper coated mylar straw tubes at a potential of 2.30 KV relative to a concentric 20 (mu)m diameter gold-plated tungsten anode, it has been observed that with very low flow rates of CF4-based gases the conductive copper cathode material may be removed entirely from the mylar surface.

Ecklund, Karl M.; Hartman, Keith W.; Hebert, Michael J.; Wojcicki, Stanley G.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

The lime-soda sinter process for resource recovery from fly ash: A new look  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lime-soda sinter process is one of the earliest and most thoroughly researched and evaluated of the several methods available for resource recovery from fly ash. The principle product, metallurgical grade alumina, is obtained with yields as high as 90% depending upon how much alumina needs to be left in the residue to form acceptable byproduct cement clinker. The process has the advantages of requiring a relatively low sintering temperature (1100-1200{degree}C), using conventional equipment of carbon steel construction, utilizing a variety of calcium and mineralizer raw materials, and producing only a single byproduct consisting of dicalcium silicate that has been shown to be an attractive raw material for the manufacture of portland cement. An economic feasibility study for a combined facility to produce alumina and cement from the fly ash generated by a 1000 MWe coal-fired power station shows a 10.5% return on average investment. This is increased to 14.2% when a disposal charge of $10/ton of fly ash consumed is credited to the process. Research has shown that the soda ash can be replaced by coal cleaning refuse or that the soda ash and one-fourth of the limestone can be replaced by FGD sludge with a savings in raw material cost in both cases. The return on average investment becomes 14.5% when the refuse is used and 15.2% when the sludge is used. The return could be increased further if an inexpensive fluxing agent were substituted for the alumina deliberately left in the residue. 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Burnet, G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Transport properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbon decorated with copper clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using non-equilibrium green function with density functional theory, the present study investigates the transport properties of decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon with a copper cluster. We have represented the decoration of zigzag graphene nanoribbon with single copper atom and cluster containing two and three copper atoms. In all the cases, copper atoms tend to occupy the edge state. In addition, we have shown that copper can alter the current-voltage characteristic of zigzag graphene nanoribbon and create new fluctuations and negative differential resistance. These alternations are made due to discontinuity in the combination of orbitals along the graphene nanoribbon. Decoration alters these discontinuities and creates more visible fluctuations. However, in low bias voltages, the changes are similar in all the cases. The study demonstrates that in the decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon, the edge states are the main states for transporting electron from one electrode to another.

Berahman, M.; Sheikhi, M. H., E-mail: msheikhi@shirazu.ac.ir [School of Electrical and Computer Eng, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Institute, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

Copper-triazole interaction and coolant inhibitor depletion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To a large extent, the depletion of tolyltriazole (TTZ) observed in several field tests may be attributed to the formation of a protective copper-triazole layer. Laboratory aging studies, shown to correlate with field experience, reveal that copper-TTZ layer formation depletes coolant TTZ levels in a fashion analogous to changes observed in the field. XPS and TPD-MS characterization of the complex formed indicates a strong chemical bond between copper and the adsorbed TTZ which can be desorbed thermally only at elevated temperatures. Electrochemical polarization experiments indicate that the layer provides good copper protection even when TTZ is absent from the coolant phase. Examination of copper cooling system components obtained after extensive field use reveals the presence of a similar protective layer.

Bartley, L.S.; Fritz, P.O.; Pellet, R.J.; Taylor, S.A.; Van de Ven, P. [Texaco Fuels and Lubricants Technology Dept., Beacon, NY (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS CONTROL EQUATIONS TO SUPPORT DETOXIFICATION OF COPPER USING NATURAL HUMATE AMENDMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent scientific research and changes in regulatory policies have led to reductions in the allowable discharges of several contaminant metals, including copper, into surface water. Low target concentrations and variable outfall conditions challenge the efficacy of traditional treatment technologies such as ion exchange. In reviewing various treatment options, scientists and engineers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) developed a treatment strategy focusing on toxicity reduction (rather than the removal of the copper) and demonstrated that the method is viable and promising for mitigating copper toxicity. The resulting outfall chemistry protects the ecosystem in the receiving stream in a manner that is equal to, or better than, technologies that remove copper to the emerging regulatory levels. Further, the proposed toxicity reduction strategy results in collateral beneficial changes in outfall water chemistry such that the outfall more closely matches the chemistry of natural streams for key parameters such as the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The detoxification process is based on the EPA BLM. Specifically, modeling indicates that copper toxicity can be mitigated by modest additions of natural organic carbon and that the amount of amendment needed can be determined based on pH and stream flow. The organic carbon amendments proposed for the treatment/detoxification process are extracts of natural materials that are produced for use in organic agriculture. These extracts are known by several common names such as potassium humate, soluble humic acid, and a variety of brand trademarks. When used to reduce ecosystem toxicity in surface water, these amendments bind copper and compete with the biological receptor sites, resulting in a reduction of impacts to key food chain organisms such as the Daphnia ('water flea'). Design and implementation of the process is straightforward. The core equipment consists of storage tank(s), pH sensor(s), outfall flow monitor(s), variable speed pump(s), and a programmable logic controller (PLC). The PLC collects information on pH and outfall flow, and modulates the pump flow rate to meter the correct amount of amendment into the outfall. A mathematical relationship, or control equation, is programmed into the PLC and serves as the basis of the operation. A summary of the development of, and key documentation for, the process control equation is provided.

Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Halverson, N.; Nichols, R.

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

288

Survey of physical property data for several alloys. [Nitronic 33; copper C10400; copper C17510  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes an examination of physical property data available in the literature for six alloys of potential interest to the Toroidal Fusion Core Experiment in the Fusion Energy Program. The properties of thermal expansion, density, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity were compiled for six alloys: Nitronic 33, a low-nickel, high manganese stainless steel; nickel-base Inconnel Alloys 625, 718, and X-750; and copper alloys C10400 and C17510. The temperatures of interest were 4-500 K for the Nitronic 33 and the Inconels, and 250-400 K for the copper alloys. Where data were lacking, estimates were made based on theory or comparisons with similar materials.

Pawel, R.E.; Williams, R.K.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Novel alkaline earth copper germanates with ferro and antiferromagnetic S=1/2 chains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two new alkaline earth copper(II) germanates were hydrothermally synthesized: CaCuGeO4 center dot H2O (1) and BaCu2Ge3O9 center dot H2O (2), and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound (1) crystallizes in space group P2(1)/c with a=5.1320(2) angstrom, b=16.1637(5) angstrom, c=5.4818(2) angstrom, beta=102.609(2)degrees, V=443.76(3) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This copper germanate contains layers of composition [CuGeO4](infinity)(2-) comprising CuO4 square planes and GeO4 tetrahedra with calcium and water molecules in the inter-layer space. Compound (2) crystallizes in the Cmcm space group with a=5.5593(3) angstrom, b=10.8606(9) angstrom, c=13.5409(8) angstrom, V=817.56(9) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This structure contains GeO6 and CuO6 octahedra as well as GeO4 tetrahedra, forming a three-dimensional network of interconnecting six-membered ring channels. The magnetic susceptibility for both samples can be interpreted as S=1/2 chains, in agreement with the copper topology observed in the crystal structure. The susceptibility of (1) exhibits a Bonner-Fisher type behavior, resulting from antiferromagnetic intra-chain interactions without three-dimensional ordering down to 5 K-the lowest measured temperature. This observation, together with the absence of super-exchange paths between the copper chains, make this system particularly promising for the study of low dimensional magnetism. The magnetic properties of (2) show a very weak ferromagnetic near-neighbor interaction along the chain. In this compound a peak the chi T plot seems to indicate the onset of interchain antiferromagentic correlations. However, no ordering temperature is detected in the susceptibility data.

Brandao, Paula [University of Aveiro, Portugal; Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Copper has proven to be a metal of great benefit to people throughout history.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper has proven to be a metal of great benefit to people throughout history. Copper has been molded into many instru- ments such as pots, weapons and jewelry. In recent history, copper and its alloys have been fashioned into plumbing pipes and fixtures. Although these applications of copper

291

T. Park, et al. 1 MIT-MTL Multi-level Pattern Effects in Copper CMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T. Park, et al. 1 MIT-MTL Multi-level Pattern Effects in Copper CMP Multi-level Pattern Effects in Copper CMP T. Park, T. Tugbawa, D. Boning Massachusetts Institute of Technology http Effects in Copper CMP Copper CMP Process and Problems: Single Level I Non-Uniformity on a Single Layer

Boning, Duane S.

292

Copper Stress Causes an in Vivo Requirement for the Escherichia coli Disulfide Isomerase DsbC*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper Stress Causes an in Vivo Requirement for the Escherichia coli Disulfide Isomerase Dsb an increased sensitiv- ity to the redox-active metal copper. We find that copper catalyzes periplasmic disulfide bond formation under aerobic conditions and that copper catalyzes the formation of disulfide

Bardwell, James

293

PROOF COPY 019605JAP Effect of pulsing parameters on laser ablative cleaning of copper oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of copper oxides Jie Zhang,a Youneng Wang, Peng Cheng, and Y. Lawrence Yao Department of Mechanical; accepted 23 January 2006 The characteristics of copper oxide removal are comparably investigated under. Experiments are carried out on copper samples having different oxide layer thicknesses. The copper oxide layer

Yao, Y. Lawrence

294

Efficient and Regioselective Halogenations of 2-Amino-1,3-thiazoles with Copper Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient and Regioselective Halogenations of 2-Amino-1,3-thiazoles with Copper Salts Fabrice G. Halogenations proceed easily in the presence of copper(I) or copper(II) chlorides, bromides, or iodides directly in solution or with supported copper halides. 1,3-Thiazole rings appear in many compounds that exhibit

Shen, Jun

295

Local, Regional, and Global Implications of Elemental Mercury in Metal (Copper, Silver, Gold, and Zinc) Ores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metric tons of "stamp sand" tailings, whereas copper smelters refined five million metric tons of copperLocal, Regional, and Global Implications of Elemental Mercury in Metal (Copper, Silver, Gold, Michigan 48138 ABSTRACT. Anthropogenic inventories for copper (229 ± 89 ug/cm2, N = 30), and mercury (470

296

Thin Film Solar Cells Derived from Sintered Semiconductor Quantum Dots: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00226  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NREL/Evident team will develop techniques to fabricate thin film solar cells where the absorption layers comprising the solar cells are derived from sintered semiconductor quantum dots.

Ginley, D. S.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S.Y.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Kullberg, Marc L. (Lisle, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

300

Effects of copper deposition on boiler waterside surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relative importance of metal oxide corrosion products in waterside deposits, as opposed to traditional scale-forming constituents, is discussed, and the sources of copper and copper oxide boiler deposits are reviewed. Also reviewed are explanations of some of the problems associated with the presence of deposits and especially, copper-containing deposits. These include those due to a reduction in heat transfer and tube metal overheating, as well as various corrosion mechanisms. Case histories, which illustrate certain deleterious mechanisms due to the presence of such deposition, are also presented.

Wangerin, M.C.; Rondum, K.D. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Improvement of granulation of raw material by using the high-agitating mixer at Kokura No. 3 sintering plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, there have been experiments aimed at increasing the pulverized coal injection rate of a blast furnace. When increasing the pulverized coal injection rate, the gas permeability resistance in a blast furnace increases. One of the methods to decrease the gas permeability resistance in a blast furnace is to use an iron ore burden with high iron content and low slag volume. However, the problem of resource drain has already occurred in the hematite deposit in West Australia, which is the principal supplier of a good quality lumpy iron ore. As a result, pellet feed iron ore must be selected as its substitute. In this paper, the authors investigated a granulation technique for producing an iron ore sinter with high iron content and low slag volume. In addition, they developed the granulation technique of agitating materials and water at high speed. It was used in Kokura No. 3 Sinter Plant.

Hadano, Yasuhiko; Murai, Tatsunori; Kawaguchi, Yosizumi; Komatsu, Shusaku; Sasakawa, Akira; Kawaguchi, Takazo; Matsumura, Masaru

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Surface structure and electrochemical characteristics of Ti-V-Cr bcc-type solid solution alloys sintered with Ni  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ti-V-Cr bcc-type solid solution alloys can absorb a large amount of hydrogen and be applied to active materials of the negative electrode in Ni-MH batteries. However, because of the insolubility of Ni into these alloys, the electrochemical characteristics like discharge capacity and cycle life were poor. In order to increase the discharge capacity of hydrogen absorbing alloy electrodes, Ti-V-Cr bcc-type alloy powders were sintered with Ni in order to form Ni contained surface layer on the alloy surface. As sintering temperature rose up, the surface composition changed from TiNi to Ti{sub 2}Ni. TiNi surface layer showed better electrochemical characteristics. For the Ni adding method, Ni electroless plating was preferred because of good adhesion. As a result of optimized conditions, a discharge capacity of 570 mAh/g and an improvement of cycle life were achieved.

Tsuji, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Osamu; Matsuda, Hiromu; Toyoguchi, Yoshinori

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Phase, Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Microwave Sintered La and Ca Modified BaTiO{sub 3} Ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lanthanum and calcium modified barium titanate, Ba{sub (1-x)}La{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x/4)}O{sub 3}/BLT and Ba({sub 1-x})Ca{sub x}TiO{sub 3}/BCT, where x = 0.02, ferroelectric ceramic samples were synthesized in single perovskite phase by microwave processing technique. Sintering temperature was optimized at 1100 deg. C for 1h. Presence of pore free micron size uniform grains suggested the advantage of using microwave sintering process. Transition temperature (T{sub c}) decreases with the substitution of La content in BT system. Temperature coefficient of capacitance is negligible from RT temperature to 75 deg. C for BLT ceramic samples. Polarization vs. electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop study confirms the ferroelectric nature of the modified BT ceramic samples.

Sonia, S.; Patel, R. K. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela - 769008 (India); Kumar, P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela - 769008 (India); Prakash, Chandra [Directorate of IE and IPR, DRDO, DRDO Bhawan, New Delhi-110105 (India); Agrawal, D. K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

306

Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Tuning the photophysical properties of amidophosphine complexes of copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A series of monomeric copper complexes that allow for the tuning of the emission properties is reported. Luminescence lifetimes up to 150 [mu]s are observed in benzene solution at ambient temperature, which are comparable ...

Mickenberg, Seth F. (Seth Fox)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature thermoelectric power generation Home Author: D. T. Morelli, E. D. Case, B. D. Hall, S. Wang Year: 2008 Abstract: URL:...

309

Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

310

Magnesium and Copper (II) Chloride: A Curious Redox Reaction .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The focus of this research is to follow the oxidation-reduction reaction of solid magnesium metal and an aqueous solution of copper (II) chloride (CuCl2), both… (more)

Mannard, Moira

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Improved mass transport efficiency in copper solvent extraction   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis considers methods which can be employed to increase the mass of copper transferred into and out of the organic phase during the load and strip stages of commercial solvent extraction processes. Conventional ...

Gordon, Ross John

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

312

Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Reductive Coupling of Alkenylazaarenes with Ketones   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalytic enantioselective methods for the preparation of chiral azaarene-containing compounds are of high value. By combining the utility of copper hydride catalysis with the ability of C?N-containing azaarenes to activate adjacent alkenes toward...

Saxena, Aakarsh; Choi, Bonnie; Hon, Lam Wai

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

313

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2012 increased by 4% to about 1.15 million tons,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; and copper smelters and refiners, 5%. Copper in all old and new, refined or remelted scrap contributed about48 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2012 increased by 4% to about 1.15 million tons

314

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2011 increased slightly to about 1.1 million tons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; and copper smelters and refiners, 5%. Copper in all old and new, refined or remelted scrap contributed about48 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2011 increased slightly to about 1.1 million tons

315

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production of copper in 2010 declined by about 5% to 1.12 million  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plants, 14%; ingot makers, 11%; and copper smelters and refiners, 5%. Copper in all old and new, refined48 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production of copper in 2010 declined by about 5% to 1.12 million tons

316

Behavior of melts during softening and melting down of iron ore sinter under load  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to achieve effective operation in the blast furnace, the distribution control and quality improvement of burden materials are very important. In spite of the difficulties in obtaining suitable samples and making direct observation, significant progress including the placement of probes into the stack, tuyere drilling and laboratory simulation studies has been made. Investigation of the behavior of melts during softening and melting down was carried out in the temperature range of 800 C to 1,515 C. In this report, emphasis is given to investigating the mineral formation and properties of melts during softening and melting down of the iron ore sinter. Sized coke layers were placed above and below the sample to maintain uniform upward flow of gas and insure a smooth downward flow of melts. When the temperature of the sample reached the set point during the test the power was shut off and the sample was cooled in the furnace air. The weight, the height, porosity and contraction of each sample were measured. Chemical composition, observation of microstructures, SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are presented.

Cho, Y.H. [Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Microwave Nitridation of Sintered Reaction Bonded Silicon Parts for Natural Gas Fueled Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cooperative project was a joint development program between Eaton Corporation and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER). Cooperative work was of benefit to both parties. ORNL was able to assess up-scale of the microwave nitridation process using a more intricate-shaped part designed for application in advanced diesel engines. Eaton Corporation mined access to microwave facilities and expertise for the nitridation of SRBSN materials. The broad objective of the CRADA established with Eaton Corporation and ORNL was to develop cost-effective silicon nitride ceramics compared to the current materials available. The following conclusions can be made from the work performed under the CRADA: (1) Demonstrated that the binder burnout step can be incorporated into the SRBSN processing in the microwave furnace. (2) Scale-up of the microwave nitridation process using Eaton Corporation parts showed that the nitridation weight gains were essentially identical to those obtained by conventional heating. (3) Combined nitridation and sintering processes using silicon nitride beads as packing powders results in degradation of the mechanical properties. (4) Gelcasting of silicon nitride materials using Eaton Si mixtures was demonstrated.

Edler, J.; Kiggans, J.O.; Suman, A.W.; Tiegs, T.N.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Measurement of the Young's modulus and internal friction of single crystal and polycrystalline copper, and copper-graphite composites as a function of temperature and orientation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEASUREMENT OF THE YOUNG'S MODULUS AND INTERNAL FRICTION OF SINGLE CRYSTAL AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by S teven Norman Wicks trom Submitted... AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by Steven Norman Wickstrom Approved as to style and content by: A(J ~a Alan Wolfenden (Chairman of Committee) Don E. Bray (Member) Donald G...

Wickstrom, Steven Norman

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Removal of deposited copper from nuclear steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of the copper-removal process implemented during the cleaning of the NPD nuclear steam generator in Ontario revealed that major shortcomings in the process were depletion of the strong ammonia solution and relatively poor copper removal. Tests have shown that the concentration of the ammonia solution can be preserved close to its initial value, and high concentrations of complexed copper obtained, by sparging the ammonia solution with oxygen recirculating through a gas recirculation loop. Using recirculating oxygen for sparging at ambient air temperature, approximately 11 g/l of copper were dissolved by 100 g/l ammonia solution while the gaseous ammonia content of the recirculating gas remained well below the lower flammability limit. The corrosion rates of mild steel and commonly used nuclear steam generator tube materials in oxygenated ammonia solution were less than 30 mil/yr and no intergranular attack of samples was observed during tests. A second technique studied for the removal of copper is to ammoniate the spent iron-removal solvent to approximately pH 9.5 and sparge with recirculating oxygen. Complexed ferric iron in the spent iron-removal solvent was found to be the major oxidizing agent for metallic copper. The ferric iron can be derived from oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron to the ferric state or from dissolved oxides of iron directly. To extract copper from the secondary sides of nuclear steam generators, strong ammonia solution sparged with recirculating oxygen is recommended as the first stage, while ammoniated spent iron-removal solvent sparged with recirculating oxygen may be used to remove the copper freshly exposed during the removal of iron.

McSweeney, P.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Morphological differences in bromeliad leaf surfaces: influence on copper uptake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES IN BROMELIAD LEAF SURFACES: INFLUENCE ON COPPER UPTAKE A Thesis by BARBARA DEE FISHER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subject: Horticulture MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES IN BROMELIAD LEAF SURFACES: INFLUENCE ON COPPER UPTAKE A Thesis by BARBARA DEE FISHER Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee Member Head of Department M...

Fisher, Barbara Dee

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Electron beam skull melting and refining of secondary copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron Beam Melting is the most efficient technology for metals and alloys refining. For secondary metals processing the Electron Beam Skull Melting (EBSM) with the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of melt in the crucible was shown to be the most appropriate. The copper produced by EBSM with EMS possesses higher density and electric conductivity in comparison with other refining methods. The details for high power electrical machines were cast of the copper waste refined by EBSM technology.

Bychkov, Y.; Ladokhin, S. [Donetskvtortsvetmet, Donetsk (Ukraine)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the University of Southampton has challenged conventional thinking about. There is great demand for copper throughout the world, particularly to supply fast-growing economies in countries

Anderson, Jim

323

Oxhide ingots, copper production, and the mediterranean trade in copper and other metals in the bronze age  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

invaluable for the discussions of the physical characteristics of Bronze Age copper ingots and the vi technology involved in ancient smelting, refining, and casting of metal ingots. I am indebted to the many students and colleagues of Dr...

Jones, Michael Rice

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

324

Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

1981-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

325

Analysis of copper-rich precipitates in silicon: Chemical state, gettering, and impact on multicrystalline silicon solar cell material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermodynamic considerations that unlike certain metal species, copper tends to form a silicide pathways. In all samples, copper silicide Cu3Si is the only phase of copper identified. It is noted from

326

Multi-Component Copper Catalyzed Methods to Access Highly-Substituted Amine-Bearing Carbon Centers from Simple Starting Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

123 Chapter 3: Copper/Titanium Catalysis Forms Fully-187 vi Chapter 4: Copper-Catalyzed Tandem Markovnikov237 III. Copper(II) Triflate in Dual-Catalytic Role is

Pierce, Conor John

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Copper CMP Modeling: Millisecond Scale Adsorption Kinetics of BTA in Glycine-Containing Solutions at pH 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Society H1153 Copper CMP Modeling: Millisecond Scaleon the surface of a micro-copper electrode in pH 4 aqueousa Cu?I?BTA monolayer on the copper surface. Based on these

Choi, Seungchoun; Tripathi, Shantanu; Dornfeld, David; Doyle, F M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

The copper centers of tyramine ?-monooxygenase and its catalytic-site methionine variants: an X-ray absorption study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

010-0677-3 ORIGINAL PAPER The copper centers of tyramine b-is a member of a family of copper monooxygenases containingtwo noncoupled copper centers, and includes peptidylgly-

Hess, Corinna R.; Klinman, Judith P.; Blackburn, Ninian J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

De novo design and spectroscopic characterization of Cu(II)-binding peptides based upon the blue copper protein plastocyanin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

those spectroscopic properties. Most blue copper proteins are similar to either plastocyanin or azurin, the best characterized of the blue copper proteins. All blue copper proteins contain a coordination site where Cu(II) is bound in a trigonal plane...

Daugherty, Roxanne Gail

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Determine Minimum Silver Flake Addition to GCM for Iodine Loaded AgZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The minimum amount of silver flake required to prevent loss of I{sub 2} during sintering in air for a SNL Glass Composite Material (GCM) Waste Form containing AgI-MOR (ORNL, 8.7 wt%) was determined to be 1.1 wt% Ag. The final GCM composition prior to sintering was 20 wt% AgI-MOR, 1.1 wt% Ag, and 80 wt% Bi-Si oxide glass. The amount of silver flake needed to suppress iodine loss was determined using thermo gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic off-gas analysis. These studies found that the ratio of silver to AgI-MOR required is lower in the presence of the glass than without it. Therefore an additional benefit of the GCM is that it serves to inhibit some iodine loss during processing. Alternatively, heating the AgI-MOR in inert atmosphere instead of air allowed for densified GCM formation without I{sub 2} loss, and no necessity for the addition of Ag. The cause of this behavior is found to be related to the oxidation of the metallic Ag to Ag{sup +} when heated to above ~300{degrees}C in air. Heating rate, iodine loading levels and atmosphere are the important variables that determine AgI migration and results suggest that AgI may be completely incorporated into the mordenite structure by the 550{degrees}C sintering temperature.

Terry J. Garino; Tina M. Nenoff; Mark A. Rodriguez

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fracture testing and performance of beryllium copper alloy C17510  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When a literature search and discussion with manufacturers revealed that there was virtually no existing data related to the fracture properties and behavior of copper beryllium alloy C17510, a series of test programs was undertaken to ascertain this information for several variations in material processing and chemistry. These variations in C17510 were primarily optimized for combinations of strength and conductivity. While originally intended for use as cyclically loaded high-field, high-strength conductors in fusion energy research, material testing of C17510 has indicated that it is an attractive and economical alternative for a host of other structural, mechanical and electrical applications. ASTM tests performed on three variations of C17510 alloys included both J-integral and plane strain fracture toughness testing and fatigue crack growth rate tests, as well as verifying tensile, hardness, Charpy, and other well defined mechanical properties. Fracture testing was performed at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, which bound the thermal environment anticipated for the fusion components being designed. Fatigue crack propagation stress ratios ranged from nominal zero to minus one at each temperature. In order to confirm the test results, duplicate and independent test programs were awarded to separate facilities with appropriate test experience, whenever possible. The primary goal of the test program, to determine and bound the fracture toughness and Paris constants for C17510,was accomplished. In addition, a wealth of information was accumulated pertaining to crack growth characteristics, effects of directionality and potential testing pitfalls. The paper discusses the test program and its findings in detail.

Murray, H.A.; Zatz, I.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

The investigation of die-pressing and sintering behavior of ITP CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V powders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigated the die-pressing and sintering behavior of the low-cost CP-Ti and Ti-6Al- 4V powders made by the Armstrong Process . The Armstrong powders have an irregular coral like, dendritic morphology, with a dendrite size of approximately 2-5 m. As-received as well as milled powders were uniaxially pressed at designated pressures up to 690 MPa to form disk samples with different aspect ratios. In the studied pressure range, an empirical powder compaction equation was applied to linearize the green density pressure relationship, and powder compaction parameters were obtained. The Armstrong Ti-64 powder exhibited a significantly higher sinterability than the CP-Ti powder. This was explained to be due to the higher diffusivity of V at the sintering temperature. The Ti-64 samples with a green density of 71.0% increased to 99.6% after sintering at 1300oC for 1 hour. An ex-situ technique was used to track the powder morphology change before and after sintering.

Chen, Wei [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Clark, Michael B [ORNL; Nunn, Stephen D [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Williams, James C [Ohio State University; Fuller, Brian [International Titanium Powder; Akhtar, Kamal [International Titanium Powder

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Investigation of relativistic intensity laser generated hot electron dynamics via copper K{sub ?} imaging and proton acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous experimental measurements of copper K{sub ?} imaging and the maximum target normal sheath acceleration proton energies from the rear target surface are compared for various target thicknesses. For the T-cubed laser (?4 J, 400 fs) at an intensity of ?2 Ś 10{sup 19} W cm{sup ?2}, the hot electron divergence is determined to be ?{sub HWHM}?22{sup °} using a K{sub ?} imaging diagnostic. The maximum proton energies are measured to follow the expected reduction with increasing target thickness. Numerical modeling produces copper K{sub ?} trends for both signal level and electron beam divergence that are in good agreement with the experiment. A geometric model describing the electron beam divergence reproduces the maximum proton energy trends observed from the experiment and the fast electron density and the peak electric field observed in the numerical modeling.

Willingale, L.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A; Krushelnick, K. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Morace, A. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States) [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Università di Milano-Biocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Bartal, T.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)] [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)] [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Thermoelectric transport properties of polycrystalline titanium diselenide co-intercalated with nickel and titanium using spark plasma sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polycrystalline samples of nickel intercalated (0-5%) TiSe{sub 2} were attempted via solid-state reaction in evacuated quartz tubes followed by densification using a spark plasma sintering process. X-ray diffraction data indicated that mixed NiSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2} phases were present after initial synthesis by solid-state reaction, but a pure TiSe{sub 2} phase was present after the spark plasma sintering. While EPMA data reveals the stoichiometry to be near 1:1.8 (Ti:Se) for all samples, comparisons of the measured bulk densities to the theoretical densities suggest that the off stoichiometry is a result of the co-intercalation of both Ni and Ti rather than Se vacancies. Due to the presence of excess Ti (0.085-0.130 per formula) in the van der Waals gap of all the samples, the sensitive electron-hole balance is offset by the additional Ti-3d electrons, leading to an increase in the thermopower (n-type) over pristine, stoichiometric TiSe{sub 2}. The effects of the co-intercalation of both Ni and Ti in TiSe{sub 2} on the structural, thermal, and electrical properties are discussed herein. - Graphical abstract: Co-intercalation of nickel and excess titanium into the van der Waals gap of TiSe{sub 2} via solid state synthesis followed by spark plasma sintering results in a systematic shift in the ratio of hole and electron carrier concentration, which is close to unity for pristine TiSe{sub 2}. This directly affects the electrical transport properties, and as the structural disorder induced by intercalation suppresses the lattice thermal conductivity, co-intercalation is an effective route to enhance the thermoelectric properties of transition metal diselenides. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase bulk Ni and Ti co-intercalated TiSe{sub 2} samples prepared by spark plasma sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density and X-ray diffraction suggest that the Ni and excess Ti are ordered in the Van der Waals gap. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-intercalation of Ni and Ti can be used to control electron-hole ratio and structural disorder.

Holgate, T.C. [Department of Energy Storage and Conversion, Technical University of Denmark, Riso Campus, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Zhu, S.; Zhou, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Bangarigadu-Sanasy, S.; Kleinke, H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); He, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Tritt, T.M., E-mail: ttritt@clemson.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Adhesion improvement of electroless copper depositions on titanium nitride by low temperature annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

copper depositions onto titanium nitride, a diffusion barrier material. In particular, an effort is made to characterize the adhesion of the electronics copper deposit on titanium nitride and the improvement of the adhesion produced by low temperature...

Eiserer, Rex Anthony

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Effects of copper catalytic reactions on the development of supersonic hydrogen flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper species are present in hydrogen flames in arc heated supersonic ramjet testing facilities. Homogeneous and heterogeneous copper catalytic reactions may affect the flame development by enhancing the recombination of hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation is used to investigate the effects of the catalytic reactions on the reaction and ignition times of the flames. The simulation uses a modified general chemical kinetics computer program to simulate the development of copper-contaminated hydrogen flames under scramjet testing conditions. Reaction times of hydrogen flames are found to be reduced due to the copper catalytic effects, but ignition times are much less sensitive to such effects. The reduction of reaction time depends on copper concentration, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and Mach number (or initial temperature and pressure). As copper concentration increases or the particle size decreases, reaction time decreases. As Mach number increases (or pressure and temperature decrease), the copper catalytic effects are greater.

Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the distribution of copper at the soil-root interface by micro x-ray fluorescence (m-XRF), and identified the new copper species as metallic nanoparticles by micro extended...

338

An investigation of bulk nanocrystalline copper fabricated via severe plastic deformation and nanoparticle consolidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mechanical anisotropy in UFG wrought copper but we showed that grain morphology has a strong impact and competes with texture and grain refinement in controlling the resulting yield strength. Tension-compression asymmetry was observed in UFG wrought copper...

Haouaoui, Mohammed

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

339

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

Sparks, Donald L.

340

anti-influenza copper oxide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

through the copper oxide film towards in a high vacuum condition on a polycrystalline Cu thin film that was air-exposed and had a layer of copper substrate was cleaned by the RCA...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Aluminum and copper in drinking water enhance inflammatory oroxidative events specifically in the brain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T. , 1999. Copper in drinking water, Nebraska, 1994. Int. J.to aluminum in drinking water increases inflammatoryH.E. , Kappel, S. , 1984. Drinking-water-induced copper

Bondy, Stephen Bondy C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Sexual differences in the expression of copper deficiency in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present investigation was undertaken to establish whether the severity of copper deficiency in rats fed diets containing fructose is affected by the presence and type of endogenous sex hormones. Intact and castrated male rats and intact and ovariectomized females were fed from weaning a copper-deficient diet (0.6 ppm) containing 62% fructose for 8 weeks. Regardless of castration, male rats were anemic, exhibited heart hypertrophy, and died of the deficiency. However, castration ameliorated the anemia and delayed the mortality. In contrast, none of the females died of the deficiency. It is suggested that in addition to the sex of the animal, levels of testosterone in the male may also play a role in the severity of copper deficiency.

Fields, M.; Lewis, C.G.; Beal, T.; Scholfield, D.; Patterson, K.; Smith, J.C.; Reiser, S.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

Iwase, M. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Energy Science and Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

De Novo Design and Spectroscopic Characterization of a Dinucleating Copper-Binding Pentadecapeptide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in which each copper ion is coordinated to the imidazole group of three histidine residues.2 Tyrosinase

Cammers, Arthur

345

Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The effects of copper and iron deficiencies in the chick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was assimilated by the chick. Cunningham (1931) and Josephs (1932) found that rats fed a milk diet plus iron showed no significant difference from rats fed milk plus sources of copper and iron. Elvehjem and Sherman (1932) reported that when rats de- ficient.../or iron as follows: Group Group Group Group Group Group 1 ? no added copper or iron 2 - cupric sulfate added (5 ppm) 3 - cupric oxide added (5 ppm) 4 ? ferrous sulfate added (40 ppm) 5 - cupric sulfate (5 ppm) plus ferrous sulfate added (40 ppm...

McGhee, Flin Cameron

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Contrasting copper evolution in Omega Centauri and the Milky Way  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite the many studies on stellar nucleosynthesis published so far, the scenario for the production of Cu in stars remains elusive. In particular, it is still debated whether copper originates mostly in massive stars or type Ia supernovae. To answer this question, we compute self-consistent chemical evolution models taking into account the results of updated stellar nucleosynthesis. By contrasting copper evolution in Omega Cen and the Milky Way, we end up with a picture where massive stars are the major responsible for the production of Cu in Omega Cen as well as the Galactic disc.

Donatella Romano; Francesca Matteucci

2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

348

Studies of Copper Nanoparticles Effects on Micro-organisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss about the antibacterial activities of copper nanoparticles on both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in this investigation. First time, we increase its antibacterial activities by using electrical power while on electrolysis synthesis and it is confirmed from its more antibacterial activities (For Escherichia coli bacteria). We investigate the changes of surface area to volume ratio of copper nanoparticles prepared in two different methods and its effects on antibacterial activities. We note that slight change of surface area to volume ratio results in the enhancement of its antibacterial activities.

T. Theivasanthi; M. Alagar

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

349

EFFECT OF BACK-CONTACT COPPER CONCENTRATION ON CdTe CELL OPERATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF BACK-CONTACT COPPER CONCENTRATION ON CdTe CELL OPERATION A.O. Pudov, M. Gloeckler, S of Mechanical Engineering Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523 ABSTRACT CdTe solar cells were Copper is commonly used to form low-barrier contacts to p-type CdTe absorbers. Copper, however, is a fast

Sites, James R.

350

Highly enantioselective copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of diethylzinc to cyclic enones with spirocyclic phosphoramidite ligands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly enantioselective copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of diethylzinc to cyclic enones spirocyclic diol (R)-5. These monodentate ligands have been applied in copper-catalyzed conjugate addition ligands com- bined with copper salts have shown excellent enantio- selectivities in the conjugate addition

Zhang, Xumu

351

Porphyry Copper and Other Intrusion-Related Mineralization in Mexico MARK D. BARTON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Porphyry Copper and Other Intrusion-Related Mineralization in Mexico MARK D. BARTON JOHN-MARK G Inc., Tucson, Arizona ABSTRACT Intrusion-related copper-bearing ore deposits in Mexico span a wide. These deposits include world-class copper porphyry and skarn deposits as well as a continuum of similar skarn

Barton, Mark D.

352

Copper: An Essential Micronutrient for Beef Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper: An Essential Micronutrient for Beef Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB Beef Cattle Extension Veterinarian University of Florid College of Veterinary Medicine Throughout the world copper deficiency limits of phosphorous, copper deficiency is the most sever mineral limitation to grazing livestock throughout extensive

Watson, Craig A.

353

International Journal of Impact Engineering 32 (2005) 473507 Laser shock compression of copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International Journal of Impact Engineering 32 (2005) 473­507 Laser shock compression of copper and copper­aluminum alloys Matthew S. Schneidera , Bimal Kada , Daniel H. Kalantarb , Bruce A. Remingtonb; received in revised form 20 May 2005; accepted 22 May 2005 Available online 25 August 2005 Abstract Copper

Meyers, Marc A.

354

A mixed-valence copper coordination polymer generated by hydrothermal metal/ligand redox reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A mixed-valence copper coordination polymer generated by hydrothermal metal/ligand redox reactions A novel coordination polymer of mixed-valence copper(I,II) with 4,4A-bipyridine and in situ oxidized and crystallographically char- acterized to be a laminated structure via weak copper(II)­ oxygen interactions. Extended

Li, Jing

355

Copper waveguide cavities with reduced surface loss for coupling to superconducting qubits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper waveguide cavities with reduced surface loss for coupling to superconducting qubits Daniela, other recent work has involved qubits coupled to copper cavities with coherence times approaching 0.1 ms. The copper provides a good path for thermalizing the cavity walls and qubit chip, although the substantial

Plourde, Britton L. T.

356

The crystal structure and growth direction of nanowire arraysCu fabricated on a copper surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The crystal structure and growth direction of nanowire arraysCu 2 S fabricated on a copper surface We examine the crystal structure and growth direction of nanowire arrays grown from copper surfaces10 On this line, we have recently discovered that by exposing a surfactant-treated copper surface

Wang, Zhong L.

357

A Novel Copper A Containing Menaquinol NO Reductase from Bacillus azotoformans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Novel Copper A Containing Menaquinol NO Reductase from Bacillus azotoformans Suharti, Marc J. F of one non-heme iron, two copper atoms and of two b-type hemes per enzyme complex. Heme c was absent features of this enzyme that distinguish it from other NO reductases. First, the enzyme contains copper

Schroeder, Imke

358

U-Broad Project To Develop Advanced Access Technologies Over Copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U-Broad Project To Develop Advanced Access Technologies Over Copper Project Aims to Quadruple Total Bandwidth Available to the End User Using Legacy Copper Metalink Ltd., a global provider and developer in January 2004. The project's focus is on ultra high bit rate-over-copper technologies for broadband multi

Leshem, Amir

359

A novel copper-regulated promoter system for expression of heterologous proteins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel copper-regulated promoter system for expression of heterologous proteins the promoter of the ctr41 copper transporter gene from S. pombe, we created a series of vectors, named pctr41 -X, which regulate the expression of heterologous genes as a function of copper availability

Labbé, Simon

360

COPPER-UPTAKE KINETICS OF COASTAL AND OCEANIC DIATOMS1 , Amber L. Annett3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPPER-UPTAKE KINETICS OF COASTAL AND OCEANIC DIATOMS1 Jian Guo2 , Amber L. Annett3 , Rebecca L We investigated copper (Cu) acquisition mecha- nisms and uptake kinetics of the marine diatoms organic Cu complexes. Key index words: copper; Cu; diatom; Fe; iron; kinetics; Thalassiosira; transport

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Traveling Fronts of Copper Deposition Stephanie Thouvenel-Romans, Konstantin Agladze, and Oliver Steinbock*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traveling Fronts of Copper Deposition Stephanie Thouvenel-Romans, Konstantin Agladze, and Oliver for propagating fronts that mediate the electroless deposition of copper on passivated steel. Under ap- propriate is essentially independent from the copper(II) concentration in the electrolyte, which indicates

Steinbock, Oliver

362

Journal of Hazardous Materials B89 (2002) 213232 Characteristics of chromated copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Hazardous Materials B89 (2002) 213­232 Characteristics of chromated copper arsenate. When chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is present as part of the wood fuel mix, concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and copper become elevated in the ash. The objectives of this study were

Florida, University of

363

Use of Copper in Marine Aquaculture and Aquarium Roy P. E. Yanong2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FA165 Use of Copper in Marine Aquaculture and Aquarium Systems1 Roy P. E. Yanong2 1. This document T. Place , Dean Introduction Copper has been used effectively for many years to control algae and fish parasites in freshwater and marine systems. Because copper does not discolor the water

Watson, Craig A.

364

Copper crystals on the (1120) sapphire plane: orientation relationships, triple line ridges and interface shape equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper crystals on the (1120) sapphire plane: orientation relationships, triple line ridges The orientation relationships (ORs) of copper crystals on a Ă°1120Ă? sapphire substrate equilibrated at 1253 K are presented. They barely depend on the proce- dures used in sample preparation, i.e. dewetting of a copper

Rohrer, Gregory S.

365

Copper CMP Planarization Length -MRS 2001 -April 19th , 2001 Paul Lefevre Page 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper CMP Planarization Length - MRS 2001 - April 19th , 2001 ­ Paul Lefevre ­ Page 1 DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF PLANARIZATION LENGTH FOR COPPER CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING (CMP) PROCESSES USING A LARGE; Michael Gostein, Philips Analytical, Natick, MA; John Nguyen, SpeedFam-IPEC, Phoenix, AZ. #12;Copper CMP

Boning, Duane S.

366

Mitochondrial matrix copper complex used in metallation of cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Mitochondrial matrix copper complex used in metallation of cytochrome oxidase and superoxide title: Mitochondrial copper transport * Address correspondence to: Dennis Winge, University of Utah.winge@hsc.utah.edu A mitochondrial matrix copper ligand (CuL) complex, conserved in mammalian cells, is shown for the first time

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Copper dissolution in bromide medium in the absence and presence of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper dissolution in bromide medium in the absence and presence of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) A of copper in bromide medium, in the absence and presence of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), has been studied, using electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques. The copper dissolution in the absence

Brolo, Alexandre G.

368

Structure and motion of junctions between coherent and incoherent twin boundaries in copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and motion of junctions between coherent and incoherent twin boundaries in copper J online 4 July 2009 Abstract The atomic mechanisms of twin boundary migration in copper under externally. Ă? 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Copper

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

369

Copper clusters built on bulky amidinate ligands: spin delocalization via superexchange rather than direct metalmetal bonding{  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper clusters built on bulky amidinate ligands: spin delocalization via superexchange rather than metal­metal interaction is a prerequisite for spin delocalization in copper dimers that lack single tetra- and dicopper amidinate complexes. A copper(I) dimer having two- coordinate metal centers

Baik, Mu-Hyun

370

Control of surface gravity waves by variable fluid injection in a model of a copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of surface gravity waves by variable fluid injection in a model of a copper converter splashing appears in copper converters when air is injected into the molten matte in order to carry out to the opposite extreme to where the nozzle injection is placed. Key words: Copper converter, gravity waves

Osses, Axel

371

Heteroleptic diimine copper (I) complexes with large extinction coefficients: synthesis, quantum chemistry calculations and physico-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Heteroleptic diimine copper (I) complexes with large extinction coefficients: synthesis, quantum. . Abstract Using the HETPHEN approach, five new heteroleptic copper(I) complexes composed of a push-pull 4 complexes experimentally demonstrate that large light harvesting properties with bis-diimine copper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF PATTERN DEPENDENCIES IN COPPER CMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF PATTERN DEPENDENCIES IN COPPER CMP Tae Park, Tamba: (617) 253-0728, Fax: (617) 258-7393, E-mail: taepark@mtl.mit.edu ABSTRACT Copper CMP suffers from well" related to as-deposited copper pattern density, a "transi- tion length" on the order of 100 ”m over which

Boning, Duane S.

373

The FAST Copper Project: Fundamental Research in Fiber/DSL Broadband Access  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The FAST Copper Project: Fundamental Research in Fiber/DSL Broadband Access Yung Yi, Dahai Xu Abstract This is an overview of the ongoing FAST Copper project, which aims at at substantial improvements in rate, reach, reliability, and quality in copper-last-mile broadband access through fiber/DSL deployment

Yi, Yung

374

Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel Arpana S. Murthy online 1 March 2012 The influence of cobalt addition on precipitation of copper in a high-strength stainless steel was investigated using three-dimen- sional atom probe tomography. A decrease in copper

Medvedeva, Julia E.

375

Human SCO1 and SCO2 have independent, cooperative functions in copper delivery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human SCO1 and SCO2 have independent, cooperative functions in copper delivery to cytochrome c understood, roles in copper delivery to cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Mutations in these genes pro- duce tissue copper delivery pathway in SCO1 and SCO2 patient backgrounds. Immunoblot analysis of patient cell lines

Shoubridge, Eric

376

Copper(I) Cyanide Networks: Synthesis, Luminescence Behavior and Thermal Analysis. Part 1. Diimine Ligands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials derived from copper(I) halides.3 However, the resistance of copper(I) halides toward oxidationCopper(I) Cyanide Networks: Synthesis, Luminescence Behavior and Thermal Analysis. Part 1. Diimine are noted for the novel 4- and 5-coordinate Cu2- (CN)2 dimers. Thermal analyses show that most

Pike, Robert D.

377

Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

378

Process and reliability assessment of plasma-based copper etch process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The plasma-based etching processes of copper (Cu) and titanium tungsten (TiW) thin films, and the electromigration of the copper lines patterned by above etching processes were studied. Instead of vaporizing the plasma/copper reaction product, a...

Liu, Guojun

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Production of SiC-Al?b2?sO?b3 ?scomposites by pressureless sintering and hot isostatic pressing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

further reacted with alumina to form A1~04C. SiC was found to be compatible with both oxycarbides and AlzOa, as well as mullite. Pressureless sintering of SiC-AlzO~ mixtures below 1800'C in argon resulted in relative densities less than 80%. Densities... to be a viable process for mixtures rich in alumina. with low alumina content the total porosity and pore size distribution were identical to pressureless sintering. HIPing, however, produced uniform samples and retarded decomposition of Si...

Boros, Stephen

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Thermal chemistry of the Cu-KI5 atomic layer deposition precursor on a copper surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal chemistry of a Cu(I) ketoiminate complex, Cu-KI5, resulting from the modification of the known Air Products CupraSelect{sup ź} copper CVD precursor Cu(hfac)(tmvs) designed to tether the two ligands via an isopropoxide linker, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum on a Cu(110) single-crystal surface by using a combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption at low temperatures was determined to take place via the displacement of the vinyl ligand by the surface. Molecular desorption was seen at 210?K, and the evolution of Cu(II)-KI5{sub 2} was established to take place at 280?K, presumably from a disproportionation reaction that also leads to the deposition of Cu(0). Other sets of desorption products were seen at 150, 250, and 430?K, all containing copper atoms and small organic moieties with molecular masses below 100 amu. The latter TPD peak in particular indicates significant fragmentation of the ligands, likely at the C–N bond that holds the vinylsilane-isopropoxide moiety tethered to the ketoimine fragment, and possibly also at the union between the vinylsilane and the alkoxide linker. The 430?K temperature measured for this chemistry may set an upper limit for clean Cu film deposition, but since reactivity on the surface was also found to be inhibited at higher surface coverages, it may be delayed to higher temperatures under atomic layer deposition conditions.

Ma, Qiang; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2013 increased by 4% to about 1.22 million tons,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manufacturers, foundries, and chemical plants, 11%; ingot makers,10%; and copper smelters and refiners, 548 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2013 increased by 4% to about 1.22 million tons

383

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

384

COPPER--2001 22.1 By Daniel L. Edelstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a shift from 2000 when the United States was a net exporter of copper in concentrate. Primary refinery of Phelps Dodge Corp.'s Morenci, AZ, mine to an all-leach operation. Total refinery production remained largest refiner and third largest smelter, the U.S. share of world smelter and refinery production fell

385

Copper oxide/N-silicon heterojunction photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic device having characteristics of a high efficiency solar cell comprising a Cu.sub.x O/n-Si heterojunction. The Cu.sub.x O layer is formed by heating a deposited copper layer in an oxygen containing ambient.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Copper Mountain 2011 Algebraic Multigrid Solvers in Python  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

$ cd Examples/WorkshopCopper11 $ ipython Compile PyAMG (if using boot disc) Test PyAMG during interactive iPython session, enter: import pyamg pyamg.test() #12;What is PyAMG Algebraic multigrid (AMG.e., does everything work? Matplotlib Visualizations iPython Python interpreter, interactive sessions #12

Olson, Luke

387

Effects of cryogenic equal channel angular deformation on copper 101  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

show an increase in strength due to a larger grain boundary surface area per unit volume. One way to obtain fine grained microstructures is through cold working and recrystallization of the material. In this study, oxygen-free high-conductivity copper...

Horan, Christopher Sean

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

COPPER--1999 22.1 By Daniel E. Edelstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, respectively. The United States had about 13% each of reserves and reserve base. U.S. copper smelter of mine cutbacks and low prices. By yearend, three of seven primary smelters had closed. Secondary output, lost its position as the leading smelter producer, falling to third place behind Chile (13%) and Japan

389

Cryogenic properties of dispersion strengthened copper for high magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cold deformed copper matrix composite conductors, developed for use in the 100 tesla multi-shot pulsed magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), have been characterized. The conductors are alumina strengthened copper which is fabricated by cold drawing that introduces high dislocation densities and high internal stresses. Both alumina particles and high density of dislocations provide us with high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. The conductors also have high electrical conductivities because alumina has limited solubility in Cu and dislocations have little scattering effect on conduction electrons. Such a combination of high strength and high conductivity makes it an excellent candidate over other resistive magnet materials. Thus, characterization is carried out by tensile testing and fully reversible fatigue testing. In tensile tests, the material exceeds the design criteria parameters. In the fatigue tests, both the load and displacement were measured and used to control the amplitude of the tests to simulate the various loading conditions in the pulsed magnet which is operated at 77 K in a non-destructive mode. In order to properly simulate the pulsed magnet operation, strain-controlled tests were more suitable than load controlled tests. For the dispersion strengthened coppers, the strengthening mechanism of the aluminum oxide provided better tensile and fatigue properties over convention copper.

Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Walsh, R. P. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Swenson, C. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

390

Discovery of Chromium, Manganese, Nickel, and Copper Isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Twenty-seven chromium, twenty-five manganese, thirty-one nickel and twenty-six copper isotopes have so far been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

K. Garofali; R. Robinson; M. Thoennessen

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

391

Nanoporus Silicate Frameworks Nanoporous Copper Silicates with One-Dimen-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoporus Silicate Frameworks Nanoporous Copper Silicates with One-Dimen- sional 12-Ring Channel, and their potential use as components in advanced nanocomposites.[1­4] Nanoporous transition-metal silicates for the synthesis of transition-metal-silicate open-framework and microporous compounds that uses a common building

Wang, Xiqu

392

Structurally Diverse Copper(II) Complexes of Polyaza Ligands Containing 1,2,3-Triazoles: Site Selectivity and Magnetic Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structurally Diverse Copper(II) Complexes of Polyaza Ligands Containing 1,2,3-Triazoles: Site, Florida 32306-4390, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Copper(II) acetate mediated coupling, was observed in the copper(II) complexes of L1 -L6 . The preference of copper(II) to two common bidentate 1

Weston, Ken

393

Two Chlamydomonas CTR Copper Transporters with a Novel Cys-Met Motif Are Localized to the Plasma Membrane and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two Chlamydomonas CTR Copper Transporters with a Novel Cys-Met Motif Are Localized to the Plasma Membrane and Function in Copper Assimilation W M. Dudley Page, Janette Kropat, Patrice P. Hamel,1, California 90095-1569 Inducible high-affinity copper uptake is key to copper homeostasis in Chlamydomonas

Meier, Iris

394

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 18, NO. 2, MAY 2005 297 Dishing-Radius Model of Copper CMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Copper CMP Dishing Effects Runzi Chang, Member, IEEE, and Costas J. Spanos, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Copper, a metric that assumes cylin- drically shaped post-CMP copper surface and directly captures the extent the interlayer dielectric (ILD) and metal surface. It has been the enabling technology for the copper damascene

California at Berkeley, University of

395

Alternatives to Copper Paint as Herbivore Deterrents Dena M. Leerberg1, Kristin M. Aquilino2, and Gary N. Cherr3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alternatives to Copper Paint as Herbivore Deterrents Dena M. Leerberg1, Kristin M. Aquilino2 of deterrents, with copper coil being the most effective at preventing herbivore movement (ANOVA, p .05). ·DGT analysis revealed copper paint to leach the highest amount of copper. Elevated zinc was detected

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

396

Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

Hartman, Alan D. (Albany, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Electroless plating of graphite with copper and nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decommissioning in the European Union of gas-cooled nuclear reactors using graphite as the moderator will generate a large amount of irradiated graphite as waste. Graphite is a radioactive waste of relatively low activity and consequently the options considered for the management of the waste may include: (i) incineration, (ii) ocean bed disposal, (iii) deep geological disposal, and (iv) shallow land burial. In case the last is the selected mode, an appropriate conditioning procedure is necessary before final disposal, by covering the graphite with a material avoiding or reducing the emission of radionuclides to its surrounding. This work analyses the possibility of conditioning graphite pieces (with a large proportion of pores of different sizes up to 100 {micro}m) with a metal coating of copper or nickel produced by electroless plating, with the aim of completely isolating the graphite from its surrounding. Electroless plating with copper results in a very large proportion of pores filled or covered, but a fraction of the pores remain in the graphite, which decreases with increasing thickness of metal deposit. Furthermore, the copper plating is permeable to liquids and consequently the graphite does not become completely isolated from the surrounding. The percentage of porosity filled or covered by nickel deposits is similar to copper, but they are not permeable to liquids, at least when the thickness is relatively high, and consequently the access of the liquids to the graphite is rather limited. However, when electroless plating with copper is followed by nickel deposition the graphite becomes isolated from the exterior.

Caturla, F.; Molina, F.; Molina-Sabio, M.; Rodriguez-Reinoso, F. [Univ. de Alicante (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica; Esteban, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper/Niobium/Copper Interlayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 Interfacial fracture toughness and cyclic temperatures, and assessed in terms of interfacial chemistry and microstructure. The mean interfacial fracture

Ritchie, Robert

400

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque Cl, supplkment au no 4, Tome 38, Auril 1977, page Cl-303 MULTILAYER SINTERING OF MnZn FERRITES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SINTERING OF MnZn FERRITES IN CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE M. I. ALAM, N. R. NAlR and T. V. RAMAMURTI Central dans la litterature que I'empilement depots de ferrites les uns sur les autres durant le traitement production des couches multiples d'echantillons de ferrite de Mn-Zn. On a utilise jusqu'a 10 couches d

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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401

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C l , supplkment au no 4, Totne 38, Auril 1977, page Cl-31 1 FAST REACTION SINTERING PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FERRITES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REACTION SINTERING PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FERRITES M. J. RUTHNER Ruthner Industrieanlagen AG A-1 121 Vienna, Austria RCsume. -On a etudie la formation de poudres de ferrites au moyen d'un frittage carbo- nates mCtalliques comme materiaux de depart. Certaines proprietes des ferrites de Mn-Zn ainsi que

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

"Rapid Pattern Based Powder Sintering Technique and Related Shrinkage Control," Jack Zhou and Z. He, Journal of Materials and Design, Vol. 19, pp. 241-248, 1998.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and its Shrinkage Control Key words: Rapid pattern; Powder sintering; Green compact; Shrinkage control/tooling and manufacturing have experienced tremendous growing and drawn great attention in national and international manufacturing industry. Although rapid prototyping has brought in a new revolution in manufacturing processes

Zhou, Jack

403

Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The research in this thesis covers the design and implementation of a depleted uranium (DU) powder production system and the initial results of a DU-Zr-Mg alloy alpha phase sintering experiment where the Mg is a surrogate for Pu and Am. The powder...

Garnetti, David J.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

404

Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. (Dept. og Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1989-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

405

BIOMONITORING OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION NEAR COPPER SMELTER IN BOR (SERBIA) USING ACACIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The correlations between sampling sites situated in the close vicinity of copper smelter (Bor, Serbia) based on heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Zn) content in plant parts and soil of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were determined. Very strong correlations (R 2>0.9) were observed between the sites Town park and Hospital in the urban-industiral zone due to high air pollution in this sampling area. The performed cluster analysis confirmed these results by grouping the sites with high metal content in plant and soil material of Robinia pseudoacacia into the same clusters. Also, strong correlations were noted between less polluted sampling sites (Bor lake and Brestovac spa) with the control site (Sumrakovac).

Ana A. Ilic; Snezana M. Serbula; Jelena V. Kalinovic; Tanja S. Kalinovic

406

Initial increase, ''peaking effect'', in the internal friction of copper following pulsed neutron and electron irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain experimental conditions the internal friction in metals can first increase and following prolonged irradiation decrease. Many models have been proposed to account for this ''peaking effect''; however, in many of the cases, no effort is made to distinguish between the influence of interstitials and/or vacancies. To determine the nature of the point defect responsible for the peaking effect in high purity copper, we have performed a series of pulsed irradiations using neutrons and electrons. In all of the experiments an initial very rapid rise in the internal friction and Young's modulus was observed. These data show that a fast diffusing defect is responsible for the peaking effect: i.e. the interstitial.

Simpson, H.M.; Parkin, D.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Hemsky, J.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Characterization using thermomechanical and differential thermal analysis of the sinterization of Portland clinker doped with CaF{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the sintering process of Portland cement was studied by combining thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), together with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal analysis results employing both techniques indicted that phase transformations appeared at lower temperatures when CaF{sub 2} was incorporated in the raw materials. Besides, it was observed at high temperature that in some phase transformations TMA conducts to better resolution compared with the DTA measurements. Furthermore, mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction patterns corroborate the TMA and DTA results, corroborating that the final amount of alite (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}) is higher when a certain amount of CaF{sub 2} was present during the clinkerization process.

Dominguez, O., E-mail: nanoquimica@yahoo.com [Fac. de Quimica-UASLP, Av. Dr. Salvador Nava 6, CP 78210, San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Torres-Castillo, A. [Fac. de Quimica-UASLP, Av. Dr. Salvador Nava 6, CP 78210, San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Flores-Velez, L.M. [Instituto de Metalurgia-UASLP, Sierra Leona 550, CP 78210, San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Torres, R. [Mexichem Fluor S.A., Eje 106 s/n CP 78395, San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

Bathula, Sivaiah [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay, E-mail: adhar@nplindia.org [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

409

Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target was measured at the Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data allows for evaluation of neutron production process implemented in theoretical simulation codes. It also helps exploring the reasons for some disagreement between calculation results and shielding benchmark data taken at high energy accelerator facilities, since it is evaluated separately from neutron transport. The experiment was carried out using a 120 GeV proton beam of 3E5 protons/spill. Since the spill duration was 4 seconds, proton-induced events were counted pulse by pulse. The intensity was maintained using diffusers and collimators installed in the beam line to MTBF. The protons hit a copper block target the size of which is 5cm x 5cm x 60 cm long. The neutrons produced in the target were measured using NE213 liquid scintillator detectors, placed about 5.5 m away from the target at 30^{\\circ} and 5 m 90^{\\circ} with respect to the proton beam axis. The neutron energy was determined by time-of-flight technique using timing difference between the NE213 and a plastic scintillator located just before the target. Neutron detection efficiency of NE213 was determined on basis of experimental data from the high energy neutron beam line at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron spectrum was compared with the results of multi-particle transport codes to validate the implemented theoretical models. The apparatus would be applied to future measurements to obtain a systematic data set for secondary particle production on various target materials.

Nobuhiro Shigyo; Toshiya Sanami; Tsuyoshi Kajimoto; Yosuke Iwamoto; Masayuki Hagiwara; Kiwamu Saito; Kenji Ishibashi; Hiroshi Nakashima; Yukio Sakamoto; Hee-Seock Lee; Erik Ramberg; Aria A. Meyhoefer; Rick Coleman; Doug Jensen; Anthony F. Leveling; David J. Boehnlein; Nikolai V. Mokhov

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

410

Determining whether metals nucleate homogeneously on graphite: A case study with copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We observe that Cu clusters grow on surface terraces of graphite as a result of physical vapor deposition in ultrahigh vacuum. We show that the observation is incompatible with a variety of models incorporating homogeneous nucleation and calculations of atomic-scale energetics. An alternative explanation, ion-mediated heterogeneous nucleation, is proposed and validated, both with theory and experiment. This serves as a case study in identifying when and whether the simple, common observation of metal clusters on carbon-rich surfaces can be interpreted in terms of homogeneous nucleation. We describe a general approach for making system-specific and laboratory-specific predictions.

Appy, David [Ames Laboratory; Lei, Huaping [Ames Laboratory; Han, Yong [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory; Tringides, Michael C [Ames Laboratory; Shao, Dahai [Ames Laboratory; Kwolek, Emma J [Iowa State University; Evans, J W [Ames Laboratory; Thiel, P A [Ames Laboratory

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Association of Copper to Riboflavin Binding Protein; Characterization by EPR and XAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The association of copper to Riboflavin Binding Protein (RBP) from egg white has been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The type II site contains a mix of copper I and II in an oxygen rich environment. The association of copper to Riboflavin Binding Protein (RBP) from egg white has been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies in order to provide insight into how this essential protein may transport and store copper in avian embryos. Riboflavin Binding Protein, RBP, purified from avian egg white, has been shown to bind copper in a 1:1 molar ratio when dialyzed against copper(II) [1]. While the egg is a unique environment and quite rich in copper, the mechanisms by which this copper is delivered during development and stored for eventual use remain unclear [2]. Since RBP is already identified in the active transport of the cofactor riboflavin to the egg, evidence of its copper binding ability may suggest an additional role for RBP in the transport and storage of copper.

Smith,S.; Bencze, K.; Wasiukanis, K.; Stemmler, T.; Benore-Parsons, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Leisch, Jennifer (Denver, CO); Taylor, Matthew (West Simsbury, CT); Stanbery, Billy J. (Austin, TX)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

413

Determining boiler-water makeup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In boiler operations, it is desirable to determine blowdown--and, thus, the feedwater`s concentration cycles--because it enables operators to calculate the theoretical concentrations of iron, copper or dispersant in the system. These calculations are important for maintaining boiler cleanliness. In practice, however, it isn`t always feasible to determine blowdown. For example, if the steam, feedwater and blowdown flows are not measured in a system, or if the measurements are not accurate, the blowdown and feedwater concentration cycles cannot be accurately determined. Also, if demineralized makeup water with very-low silica concentrations is mixed with essentially silica-free condensate, the ratio of silica in the boiler water to the silica in the feedwater may not yield accurate values for the concentration cycle. This method for calculating concentration cycles is accurate to within 5%, when the accuracy of the parameters measured are within the following limits: steam flow (2%); phosphate, residual (5%); micro calcium (50%); micro iron (25%); and phosphate, feed (10%).

Beecher, J.; Herman, K. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States). Drew Industrial Div.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Emf measurements on nanocrystalline copper-doped ceria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed oxide samples of nanostructured Cu{sub x}Ce{sub 1{minus}x}O{sub 2{minus}y} of various composition were generated by (i) chemical precipitation and ball milling and (ii) inert gas condensation. X-ray diffraction measurements suggested that copper oxide was dissolved in nanostructured cerium oxide up to concentrations of x = 0.15. Solid electrolyte cells of the type A, Cu{sub 2}O/CuBr/Cu{sub x}Ce{sub 1{minus}x}O{sub 2{minus}y} (A = Cu or CuO) showed reversible cell voltages. The ratio of the formal chemical activities of CuO and Cu{sub 2}O dissolved in nanostructured cerium oxide were calculated from the cell voltages. The results are discussed in terms of an apparent macroscopic solubility, due to interfacial segregation of copper oxide on nanostructured cerium oxide.

Knauth, P.; Villain, S. [Faculte des Sciences de Marseille-St. Jerome, Marseille (France). Lab. de Metallurgie EDIFIS] [Faculte des Sciences de Marseille-St. Jerome, Marseille (France). Lab. de Metallurgie EDIFIS; Schwitzgebel, G.; Tschoepe, A. [Univ. des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)] [Univ. des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

416

Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

417

Corrosion and ion release behavior of ultra-fine grained bulk pure copper fabricated by ECAP in Hanks solution as potential biomaterial for contraception  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrosion and ion release behavior of ultra-fine grained bulk pure copper fabricated by ECAP-fine grained copper ECAP Corrosion behavior Ion release Ultra-fine grained (UFG) bulk pure copper has been revealed that the corrosion current of UFG copper ishigherthan that of the coarse grained copper

Zheng, Yufeng

418

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production, which had remained unchanged in 1995, resumed the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recovered from scrap, copper smelters and refiners recovered 26%; ingot makers, 10%; brass mills, 5752 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines in six other States. While copper was recovered

419

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 1995 continued its upward trend, begun in 1984, rising  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in new scrap was consumed at brass mills. Of the total copper recovered from scrap, copper smelters50 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless noted) Domestic Production, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Montana, and Michigan, accounted for 97% of domestic production; copper

420

Arsenic distribution in soils surrounding the Utah copper smelter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the extent of arsenic contamination from a Utah copper smelter as reflected by arsenic residue accumulated in the surface soil. The highest arsenic concentrations occurred within 3 km of the smelter. Arsenic soil contamination was evident up to 10 km from the smelter, with the major transport direction being ESE. Data from the subsurface soil samples indicated that arsenic has also leached through the soil.

Ball, A.L. (Univ. of Utah Coll. of Engineering, Salt Lake City); Rom, W.N.; Glenne, B.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Tetrakis(acetonitrile)copper(I) hydrogen oxalateoxalic acidacetonitrile  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tetrakis(acetonitrile)copper(I) hydrogen oxalate­oxalic acid­acetonitrile (1/0.5/0.5) A. Timothy)Á0.5C2H2O4Á- 0.5CH3CN, the CuI ion is coordinated by the N atoms of four acetonitrile ligands. The acetonitrile solvent molecule is disordered across an inversion center and was refined with half occupancy

MĂŒller, Peter

422

Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Epidemiologic study of renal function in copper smelter workers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A medical cross-sectional examination of a copper smelter work force was undertaken after environmental contamination with lead, cadmium and arsenic had been documented. A total of 920 subjects was examined, including active smelter employees, retired workers and copper mine employees who had never worked in the smelter. Slight to moderate absorption of lead and cadmium was definitely present in the active copper smelter employees, who had significantly higher levels of Pb-B, ZPP and Cd-B than retired employees and miners. Cd-U levels were higher in retired workers, who were also older and had, as a group, longer duration of exposure in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the level considered critical for nephrotoxicity, in any of the subjects. Median Cd-B level for active workers was 2.75 ..mu..g/L. Lead absorption was characterized by a relatively small proportion (16.7%) of active employees with Pb-B levels 40 ..mu..g/dL or higher. That kidney function could be impaired by long-term exposure in the smelter was only indirectly suggested. Effects on renal function at the low levels of cadmium and lead absorption that were observed in this smelter population are minimal. 21 references, 8 figures, 21 tables.

Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Structural Dependence of Grain Boundary Resistance in Copper Nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current choice of the interconnect metal in integrated circuits is copper due to its higher electrical conductivity and improved electromigration reliability in comparison with aluminum. However, with reducing feature sizes, the resistance of copper interconnects (lines) increases dramatically. Greater resistance will result in higher energy use, more heat generation, more failure due to electromigration, and slower switching speeds. To keep pace with the projected planar transistor density, the first challenge is to identify the dominant factors that contribute to the high interconnect resistance. Here we directly measure individual grain boundary (GB) resistances in copper nanowires with a one-to-one correspondence to the GB structure. The specific resistivities of particular GBs are measured using four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to establish a direct link between GB structure and the resistance. High-angle random GBs contribute to a specific resistivity of about 25 10-12 cm2 for each boundary, while coincidence boundaries are significantly less-resistive than random boundaries. Thus, replacing random boundaries with coincidence ones would be a route to suppress the GB impact to the resistivity of polycrystalline conductors. Acknowledgement: The research was supported by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, U. S. Department of Energy.

Kim, Tae Hwan [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Bala [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Li, An-Ping [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1 to 50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 +- 3 and 2204 +- 1 cm/sup -1/, which are ascribed to CO adsorbed on copper(II) oxide and on isolated copper(II) ions in the silica surface, respectively. Reduction and reoxidation removed the band at 2204 cm/sup -1/ with all samples and raised the intensity of the 2136-cm/sup -1/ band with the precipitated catalysts but not with the impregnation catalyst. Evidence is brought forward that the isolated copper ions are mobilized during reduction and generate new copper (oxide) surface. The change in background transmission of the samples could be used to obtain further information about the interaction of O/sub 2/ and CO with copper oxide.

De Jong, K.P.; Geus, J.W.; Joziasse, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

427

Responses to Copper in Fungi 571 Job: 943-9 Operator: Nettype  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Responses to Copper in Fungi 571 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Template: Massar0(943-9)7X10 temp 35 Regulatory Responses to Copper Ions in Fungi Simon Labbé, Jude gain and lose electrons, copper (Cu) ions serve as catalytic centers of numerous proteins involved

Labbé, Simon

428

Isentropic expansion of copper plasma in Mbar pressure range at “Luch” laser facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present experimental results on thermodynamic properties of dense copper plasma in Mbar pressure range. The laser facility “Luch” with laser intensity 10{sup 14}?W/cm{sup 2} is used to compress copper up to ?8?Mbar by a strong shock wave; subsequent expansion of copper plasma into Al, Ti, Sn allows us to obtain release isentropes of copper by the impedance–matching method. A theoretical analysis and quantum simulations show that in our experiments strongly coupled quantum plasma is generated.

Bel'kov, S. A.; Derkach, V. N.; Garanin, S. G.; Mitrofanov, E. I.; Voronich, I. N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Moscow, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

429

Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

430

1. Introduction Copper, along with iron active sites dominate the field of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(dopamine b-hydroxylase, pepti- dylglycine a-hydroxylating monooxygenase, tyrosinase, and particulate proteins include hemocya- nin, tyrosinase, and catechol oxidase.[5, 7] The binuclear copper centers

Chen, Peng

431

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum copper iron Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Copper wire ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes Source: Colton, Jonathan S. - School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Collection: Engineering 88 TSNo...

432

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid copper sulfate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with chalcopyrite. 5239Cu isotopes in the supergene environment 12;with the copper isotope variation of acid-sulfate... bonding in the Cu mineral during acid- sulfate leaching...

433

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute copper toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with additional metals analyses. Because copper concentrations were within the range toxic to bivalves and sample... -six hour acute toxicity tests were conducted using...

434

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumbrera copper-gold deposit Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University Collection: Materials Science 12 geology and Ranger 1 open-pit uranium mine in Australia Summary: contains iron, copper,...

435

Routine production of copper-64 using 11.7MeV protons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reliable production of copper-64 ({sup 64}Cu) was achieved by irradiating enriched nickel-64 ({sup 64}Ni, >94.8%) in an IBA 18/9 cyclotron. Nickel-64 (19.1 {+-} 3.0 mg) was electroplated onto an Au disc (125{mu}m Multiplication-Sign 15mm). Targets were irradiated with 11.7 MeV protons for 2 hours at 40{mu}A. Copper isotopes ({sup 60,61,62,64}Cu) were separated from target nickel and cobalt isotopes ({sup 55,57,61}Co) using a single ion exchange column, eluted with varying concentration of low HCl alcohol solutions. The {sup 64}Ni target material was recovered and reused. The {sup 64}Cu production rate was 1.46{+-}0.3MBq/{mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni(n = 10) (with a maximum of 2.6GBq of {sup 64}Cu isolated after 2hr irradiation at 40uA. Radionuclidic purity of the {sup 64}Cu was 98.7 {+-} 1.6 % at end of separation. Cu content was < 6mg/L (n = 21). The specific activity of {sup 64}Cu was determined by ICP-MS and by titration with Diamsar to be 28.9{+-}13.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.70{+-}0.35Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n = 10) and 13.1{+-}12.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.35{+-}0.32Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n 9), respectively; which are in agreement, however, further work is required.

Jeffery, C. M.; Smith, S. V.; Asad, A. H.; Chan, S.; Price, R. I. [Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Centre for Forensic Science, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia) and ARC Centre of Excellence in A (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) and Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) and Imaging and Applied (Australia); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia) and School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

436

Catecholase Activity Associated with Copper-S100B SueAnn Z. Senior, Laura L. Mans, Heather D. VanGuilder, Kimberly A. Kelly, Michael P. Hendrich, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distinct from the type III dinuclear copper proteins, catechol oxidase and tyrosinase. S100B is a small

Hendrich, Mike

437

B{sub 4}C-SiC reaction-sintered coatings on graphite plasma facing components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron carbide plus silicon carbide (B{sub 4}C-SiC) reaction-sintered coatings for use on graphite plasma-facing components were developed. Such coatings are of interest in TEXTOR tokamak limiter-plasma interactions as a means of reducing carbon erosion, of providing a preferred release of boron for oxygen gettering, and of investigating silicon`s effect on radiative edge phenomena. Specimens evaluated had (a) either Ringsdorfwerke EK 98 graphite or Le Carbon Lorraine felt-type AEROLOR A05 CFC substrates; (b) multiphase coatings, comprised of B{sub 4}C, Sic, and graphite; (c) nominal coating compositions of 69 wt.-% B{sub 4}C + 31 wt.-% SiC; and (d) nominal coating thicknesses between 250 and 775 {mu}m. Coated coupons were evaluated by high heat flux experiments in the JUDITH (electron beam) test facility at KFA. Simulated disruptions, with energy densities up to 10 MJm{sup {minus}2}, and normal operation simulations, with power densities up to 12 MWm{sup {minus}2}, were conducted. The coatings remained adherent; at the highest levels tested, minor changes occurred, including localized remelting, modification of the crystallographic phases, occasional microcracking, and erosion.

Valentine, P.G.; Trester, P.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Winter, J. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany)] [and others

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

439

Convergence of a MFEFV method for two phase flow with applications to heap leaching of copper ores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convergence of a MFE­FV method for two phase flow with applications to heap leaching of copper ores in porous media, with applications to heap leaching of copper ores. These approximations are based on mixed

SepĂșlveda, Mauricio

440

GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 62, NO. 5 (SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 1997); P. 14191431, 15 FIGS. Inversion of geophysical data over a copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of geophysical data over a copper gold porphyry deposit: A case history for Mt. Milligan Douglas W. Oldenburg polarization (IP), and airborne electromagnetic (EM) data from the Mt. Milligan copper-gold porphyry de- posit

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Use of a combined lining in copper production converters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors look at materials and methods for increasing the liner life and thermal efficiency of converters used at three copper melting combines in the Soviet Union. The refractories tested are various commercial combinations of magnesite, periclase and chromite, and the properties for which they are tested include their compression strength, heat resistance, thermal expansion, and wear resistance to slag. The authors find the refractory combination least degradable by heat and wear and calculate the savings, both in cost and energy, achieved by the combines in question by the utilization of this liner material.

Birkle, G.V.B.; Slovikovski, V.V.; Danilova, T.A.; P'yankova, V.A.; Verzilov, N.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Gold-Copper Nanoparticles: Nanostructural Evolution and Bifunctional  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGet AssistanceCatalytic Sites . | EMSL Copper

443

Copper Palladium Hydrogen Separation Membranes - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases on &gamma;-Al2O3. | EMSL Coordinatively unsaturatedCopper

444

Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and physical properties of the new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 7}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} has been obtained by annealing the elements at 1073 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the title compound crystallizes in a new structure type, space group Pnma (no. 62) with lattice dimensions of a=8.2326(3) A, b=25.9466(9) A, c=7.3402(3) A, V=1567.9(1) A{sup 3}, Z=4 for La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86(4)}Te{sub 7}. The structure of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is remarkably complex. The Cu and Te atoms build up a three-dimensional covalent network. The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. Electrical property measurements on a sintered pellet of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86}Te{sub 7} indicate that it is a p-type semiconductor in accordance with the electronic structure calculations. -- Graphical abstract: Oligomeric unit comprising interconnected CuTe{sub 3} pyramids and CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} adopts a new structure type. {yields} All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. {yields} The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is a p-type semiconductor.

Zelinska, Mariya; Assoud, Abdeljalil [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: kleinke@uwaterloo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Carbon 40 (2002) 781786 Copper and strontium adsorption by a novel carbon material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon 40 (2002) 781­786 Copper and strontium adsorption by a novel carbon material manufactured a significantly higher capacity for copper and strontium sorption than that of 21 21 a commercial material used and strontium. CAC can be produced from different types of raw materi- als, including wood, coal, fruit stones

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

446

Hybrid solar cells based on porous Si and copper phthalocyanine derivatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid solar cells based on porous Si and copper phthalocyanine derivatives I. A. Levitskya 25 October 2004) We demonstrate a solar cell based on n-type nanoporous Si (PSi) filled with copper of the PSi structure and pore filling on the solar cell performance is discussed. © 2004 American Institute

Euler, William B.

447

Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

1980-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

448

Ugi post-condensation copper-triggered oxidative cascade towards pyrazoles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1310 Ugi post-condensation copper-triggered oxidative cascade towards pyrazoles Aurélie Dos Santos-component Ugi coupling, the resulting hydrazone was engaged in a copper triggered [3 + 2] cycloaddition/aerobic oxidation cascade. 1310 Introduction In the last twenty years, the Ugi reaction coupled with its various

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

Pulsed electrodeposition of copper/nickel multilayers on a rotating disk electrode. 2: Potentiostatic deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin Cu/Ni multilayers were deposited on a rotating disk electrode (RDE) by square-wave potentiostatic pulses. A theoretical model was developed to predict the copper content in the Ni layer on the RDE. The copper content in the Ni layer was measured under a variety of experimental conditions. Theory agrees well with experimental results.

Yang, C.C.; Cheh, H.Y. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum K. G precipitation; sorption; isotherms; X-ray diffraction; hydrous iron oxide; hydrous aluminum oxide; copper. INTRODUCTION Hydrous oxides of iron (HFO) and aluminum (HAO) are important mineral components of natural

Chorover, Jon

451

Copper-induced oxidative stress in three-spined stickleback : relationship with hepatic metal levels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contamination of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals. Among them, copper is a widespread pollutant found, 1999). Although this metal is a required element, high concentrations appear to be toxic to freshwater1 Copper-induced oxidative stress in three-spined stickleback : relationship with hepatic metal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

ULTRASONIC ARRAY TECHNIQUE FOR THE INSPECTION OF COPPER LINED CANISTERS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ULTRASONIC ARRAY TECHNIQUE FOR THE INSPECTION OF COPPER LINED CANISTERS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE FUEL and Waste Management Co.) for encapsulation of nuclear waste. Due to the radiation emitted by the nuclear, and characterization. The applicability of linear array technique for inspection of copper lined canisters for nuclear

453

Sorbitol accumulation in male and female rats consuming starch or fructose diets with or without copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the sex of the rats, tissue sorbitol accumulation and copper deficiency in rats consuming dietary fructose. Rats were provided with a diet containing either 62.7% fructose or starch, and either 6.0 or 0.6 {mu}g copper/g for three weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of all rats consuming the copper-deficient diets was about 40% of copper sufficient rats. Hepatic, renal and thymic sorbitol concentrations were significantly elevated in males consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups regardless of the sex of the rat. Hepatic, renal the thymic fructose concentrations were significantly higher in rats eating fructose as compared to female rats. Hepatic glucose concentration was higher in males and females consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups. Renal glucose concentration was elevated in males as compared to females. These results demonstrate that the pathology and complications of copper deficiency in the male rat consuming fructose closely parallel aberration in tissue sorbitol accumulation.

Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M.; Beal, T. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1989-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

454

Influence of pH and Redox Conditions on Copper Leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is a regulatory leach test in the RCRA programs. It was developed to determine the leaching potential of landfilled waste in order to assess the hazards associated with the leachates. The test was developed to study concentration of hazardous materials in leachates, under a mismanagement scenario, when they are co-disposed with municipal waste. The test uses leaching of waste at either of two acidic pH values i.e., 2.8 and 4.93. While low pH leachant can extract many metals, some metals soluble at higher pH values are either underestimated or totally unaccounted for. The method also has limitations for application to different waste matrices. The procedure does not take into account the effect of redox conditions on leaching. Leaching studies are, therefore, being conducted to determine the effect of combinations of Eh and pH on the leaching potential of mineral and organic wastes. The goal of this study is to propose alternate methods applicable for a variety of waste matrices. The presentation will discuss the effects of combinations of pH and redox conditions on the leaching behavior of copper from a mineral processing waste.

Kavanaugh, Rathi; Al-Abed, Souhail R.; Purandare, Jaydeep; Allen, Derrick

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

Research on Chrysomelidae, Volume 2, pp. 131151, Koninklijke Brill, Leiden, 2009 Flea beetle diversity of the Sierra Tarahumara, Copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diversity of the Sierra Tarahumara, Copper Canyon, Mexico (Chrysomelidae: Alticinae)1 Plates 27­32 David G Tarahumara (Copper Canyon or Barranca del Cobre), a section of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua. The biogeographical affinities and host plants of the Copper Canyon Alticinae are also discussed. Resumen. Este

Mathis, Wayne N.

456

Interactions between Copper(II) Complexes of Mono-, Bis-, and Tris(macrocyclic) Ligands and Inorganic or Organic Guests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FULL PAPER Interactions between Copper(II) Complexes of Mono-, Bis-, and Tris(macrocyclic) Ligands. Prikhod'ko,[b] and Hans Pritzkow[a] Keywords: Copper / Host-guest complexes / Macrocycles / Molecular recognition Template synthesis The copper(II)-assisted condensation of [Cu(2,3,2-tet)]2+ [2,3,2-tet = bis

Nazarenko, Alexander

457

SPACE WAR SPACE DAILY TERRA DAILY MARS DAILY SPACE MART SPACE TRAVEL GPS DAILY ENERGY DAILY Unique Porous Copper Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unique Porous Copper Structure Enables New Generation Of Military Micro-Detonators by Staff Writers Athens GA (SPX) Dec 19, 2007 Tiny copper structures with pores at both the nanometer and micron size, the highly-uniform copper structures will be incorporated into integrated circuits - then chemically

Bennett, Gisele

458

The redox nature of copper is utilized in a large number of enzymatic processes, including that catalysed by mitochondrial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The redox nature of copper is utilized in a large number of enzymatic processes, including that catalysed by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, which makes copper an essential element for all aerobic organisms (Soloman and Lowery, 1993). However, the redox properties of copper can cause rapid generation

Grosell, Martin

459

COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS: THE FORMATION OF CARBON-CARBON AND CARBON-SULFUR BONDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS: THE FORMATION OF CARBON-CARBON AND CARBON-SULFUR BONDS Chemistry #12;© Copyright by Craig G. Bates 2005 All Rights Reserved #12;COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS without her. Thank You January 24, 2005 #12;vi ABSTRACT COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS

Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

460

EFFECTS OF CHRONIC COPPER EXPOSURE ON DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL IN THE SOUTHERN LEOPARD FROG (LITHOBATES [RANA] SPHENOCEPHALUS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF CHRONIC COPPER EXPOSURE ON DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL IN THE SOUTHERN LEOPARD FROG, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu;31:1587­1594. # 2012 SETAC Keywords--Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus Copper Amphibian Ecotoxicology Metal toxicity

Georgia, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Computational Study of Copper(II) Complexation and Hydrolysis in Aqueous Solutions Using Mixed Cluster/Continuum Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Study of Copper(II) Complexation and Hydrolysis in Aqueous Solutions Using Mixed and thermodynamic properties of Cu(II) species in aqueous solution. 1. Introduction Copper is a key component evidence that copper may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's diseases

Goddard III, William A.

462

Use of Copper in Freshwater Aquaculture and Farm Craig Watson and Roy P.E. Yanong2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FA-13 Use of Copper in Freshwater Aquaculture and Farm Ponds 1 Craig Watson and Roy P.E. Yanong2 1 Dean Introduction Copper has been used for many years as a chemical tool in freshwater farm ponds of copper is that there is a thin line that separates effective treatment levels from overdoses, which can

Watson, Craig A.

463

Copper-free click chemistry as an emerging tool for the programmed ligation of DNA-functionalised gold  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper-free click chemistry as an emerging tool for the programmed ligation of DNA-modified gold nanoparticles using copper-free click chemistry. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with a discrete of the copper-free, `click-ligation' method allows for its universal applicability and opens up new avenues

Zheludev, Nikolay

464

Supporting information for "Update of mercury emissions from China's primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, 2000-2010"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and copper smelters, 2000-2010" Submitted to ACP for Special Issue titled "Atmospheric Mercury Processes and copper production, respectively. The imported4 concentrates were collected from smelters with large Australia and Kazakhstan,7 while copper concentrates samples were from Chile, Australia, Mexico, Mongolia

Meskhidze, Nicholas

465

EFFECT OF THERMAL PROCESSES ON COPPER-TIN ALLOYS FOR ZINC GETTERING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A contamination mitigation plan was initiated to address the discovery of radioactive zinc‐65 in a glovebox. A near term solution was developed, installation of heated filters in the glovebox piping. This solution is effective at retaining the zinc in the currently contaminated area, but the gamma emitting contaminant is still present in a system designed for tritium beta. A project was initiated to develop a solution to contain the {sup 65}Zn in the furnace module. Copper and bronze (a Cu/Sn alloy) were found to be candidate materials to combine with zinc‐65 vapor, using thermodynamic calculations. A series of binary Cu/Sn alloys were developed (after determining that commercial alloys were unacceptable), that were found to be effective traps of zinc vapor. The task described in this report was undertaken to determine if the bronze substrates would retain their zinc gettering capability after being exposed to simulated extraction conditions with oxidizing and reducing gases. Pure copper and three bronze alloys were prepared, exposed to varying oxidation conditions from 250 to 450{degree}C, then exposed to varying reduction conditions in He-H{sub 2} from 250-450{degree}C, and finally exposed to zinc vapor at 350{degree}C for four hours. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass change, and visual observation. It was observed that the as fabricated samples and the reduced samples all retained their zinc gettering capacity while samples in the "as-oxidized" condition exhibited losses in zinc gettering capacity. Over the range of conditions tested, i.e., composition, oxidation temperature, and reduction temperature, no particular sample composition appeared better. Samples reduced at 350{degree}C exhibited the greatest zinc capacity, although there were some testing anomalies associated with these samples. This work clearly demonstrated that the zinc gettering was not adversely affected by exposure to simulated process conditions and a full scale lithium and zinc trap should be fabricated for testing in the Tritium Extraction Facility.

Korinko, P.; Golyski, M.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A new copper borophosphate with novel polymeric chains and its structural correlation with raw materials in molten hydrated flux synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel copper borophosphate, Cu{sub 3}[B{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}] has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. Its crystal structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (monoclinic, Cc, a=6.1895 Ć, b=13.6209 Ć, c=11.9373 Ć, ?=97.62°, V=997.5 Ć{sup 3}, Z=4). The three-dimensional framework of the titled compound, is composed by two kinds of polymeric chains and isolated PO{sub 4} tetrahedral. One novel 4-membered tetrahedral rings has been observed in borophosphates. Magnetic measurements indicate that the title compound exits antiferromagnetic interactions. Due to the special reaction medium created by the molten hydrated flux method, a possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted. - Graphical abstract: The 3D structure consists of a framework composed of CuO{sub x} polyhedra, BO{sub 4} and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. A intersection angle between the metal chains and borophosphate chains can be noted. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel copper borophosphate has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. • One novel 4-membered tetrahedral ring has been observed firstly in borophosphates. • A possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted.

Duan, Ruijing; Liu, Wei, E-mail: Weiliu@ouc.edu.cn; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Xu, Hongmei; Zhao, Chenggong

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 ? among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ? High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ? Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ? Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ? Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ? Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and oxidative stress of liver.

Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)] [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Effect of a copper filler metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded titanium-stainless steel joint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cracking in an electron beam weld of titanium to stainless steel occurred during the cooling process because of internal thermal stress. Using a copper filler metal, a crack free joint was obtained, which had a tensile strength of 310 MPa. To determine the reasons for cracking in the Ti/Fe joint and the function of the copper filler metal on the improvement of the cracking resistance of the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, the microstructures of the joints were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cracking susceptibilities of the joints were evaluated with microhardness tests on the cross-sections. In addition, microindentation tests were used to compare the brittleness of the intermetallics in the welds. The results showed that the Ti/Fe joint was characterized by continuously distributed brittle intermetallics such as TiFe and TiFe(Cr){sub 2} with high hardness ({approx} 1200 HV). For the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, most of the weld consisted of a soft solid solution of copper with dispersed TiFe intermetallics. The transition region between the weld and the titanium alloy was made up of a relatively soft Ti-Cu intermetallic layer with a lower hardness ({approx} 500 HV). The formation of soft phases reduced the cracking susceptibility of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Fe joint cracked for the brittleness and residual stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Cu/Fe joint with tensile strength of 310 MPa was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu diluted Ti and Fe contents in weld and separated the TiFe{sub 2} into individual blocks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial hard Ti-Fe compounds were replaced by soft Ti-Cu compounds in the weld. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of solid solution of copper formed in the weld.

Wang, Ting, E-mail: fgwangting@163.com [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China); Zhang, Binggang, E-mail: zhang_bg@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Feng, Jicai, E-mail: fengjc@hit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China) [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Tang, Qi, E-mail: tangqi@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

CX-007624: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

470

CX-007644: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Copper Catalyzed peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/17/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

471

CX-009801: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Copper Mountain to Boysen 34.5 Kilovolt Transmission Line Structure Replacement CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 01/11/2013 Location(s): Wyoming Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

472

CX-011470: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Digestion analysis of copper foil and silicon carbide samples CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/26/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

473

Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Foundation Scholarship 2013/2014 www.fcx.com Page 1 of 4 Revised 1/22/13  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Foundation Scholarship ­ 2013/2014 www.fcx.com Page 1 of 4 Revised 1/22/13 Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. (FCX) is a leading international mining company with headquarters and probable reserves of copper, gold and molybdenum. FCX is the world's largest publicly traded copper

Tipple, Brett

474

Selenium, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc Concentrations in Sediments and Mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the Southern Basin of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selenium, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc Concentrations in Sediments and Mullet (Mugil cephalus) from. Selenium, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in sediments and the tissues of mullet­19; cadmium, 14­42; copper, 1.5­3.6; zinc, 0.77­2.2 times background). Selenium, cadmium, and copper in Lake

Canberra, University of

475

By Daniel L. Edelstein Mine production of recoverable copper in the United States United States retained its position as both the largest producer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, copper availability remained tight and average annual smelter and an electrolytic refinery in Michigan1 COPPER By Daniel L. Edelstein Mine production of recoverable copper in the United States United-high level of 1.85 and consumer of refined copper, accounting for 19% and 22%, million metric tons

476

INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

477

Nanocrystallization in spark plasma sintered Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6} bulk amorphous alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as an attractive process for the processing of multi-component Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys and their in-situ nanocomposites with controlled primary nanocrystallization. Extended Q-range small angle neutron scattering (EQ-SANS) analysis, complemented by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, was performed to characterize nanocrystallization behavior of SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS experiments show significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural/compositional changes associated with the profuse nucleation of nanoclusters (?4 nm). For the samples spark plasma sintered near and above crystallization temperature (>653 °C), the SANS data show the formation of interference maximum indicating the formation and growth of (Fe,Cr){sub 23}C{sub 6} crystallites. The SANS data also indicate the evolution of bimodal crystallite distribution at higher sintering temperatures (above T{sub x1}). The growth of primary nanocrystallites results in impingement of concentration gradient fields (soft impingement effect), leading to non-random nucleation of crystallites near the primary crystallization.

Singh, Ashish; Harimkar, Sandip P. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)] [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Katakam, Shravana; Dahotre, Narendra B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

478

Copper gettering by aluminum precipitates in aluminum-implanted silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper in Si is shown to be strongly gettered by Al-rich precipitates formed by implanting Al to supersaturation and followed by annealing. At temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C a layer containing Al precipitates is found to getter Cu from Cu silicide located on the opposite side of a 0.25-mm Si wafer, indicating a substantially lower chemical potential for the Cu in the molten-A1 phase. Cu gettering proceeds rapidly until an atomic ratio of approximately 2 Cu atoms to 1 Al atom is reached in the precipitated Al region, after which the gettering process slows. Redistribution of Cu from one Al-rich layer to another at low Cu concentrations demonstrates that a segregation-type gettering mechanism is operating. Cu gettering occurs primarily in the region containing the precipitated Al rather than the region where the Al is entirely substitutional.

PETERSEN,GARY A.; MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

479

Fracture testing and performance of beryllium copper alloy C 17510  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of test programs was undertaken on copper beryllium alloy C 17510 for several variations in material process and chemistry. These variations in C 17510 were primarily optimized for combinations of strength and conductivity. While originally intended for use as cyclically loaded high-field, high-strength conductors in fusion energy research, material testing of C 17510 has indicated that it is an attractive and economical alternative for a host of other structural, mechanical and electrical applications. ASTM tests performed on three variations of C 17510 alloys included both J-integral and plane strain fracture toughness testing (E813, E399) and fatigue crack growth rate tests (E647), as well as verifying tensile, hardness, Charpy, and other well defined mechanical properties. Fracture testing was performed at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, which bound the thermal environment anticipated for the fusion components being designed. Fatigue crack propagation stress ratios ranged from nominal zero to minus one at each temperature.

Murray, H.A.; Zatz, I.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Ratka, J.O. (Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Fracture testing and performance of beryllium copper alloy C 17510  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of test programs was undertaken on copper beryllium alloy C 17510 for several variations in material process and chemistry. These variations in C 17510 were primarily optimized for combinations of strength and conductivity. While originally intended for use as cyclically loaded high-field, high-strength conductors in fusion energy research, material testing of C 17510 has indicated that it is an attractive and economical alternative for a host of other structural, mechanical and electrical applications. ASTM tests performed on three variations of C 17510 alloys included both J-integral and plane strain fracture toughness testing (E813, E399) and fatigue crack growth rate tests (E647), as well as verifying tensile, hardness, Charpy, and other well defined mechanical properties. Fracture testing was performed at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, which bound the thermal environment anticipated for the fusion components being designed. Fatigue crack propagation stress ratios ranged from nominal zero to minus one at each temperature.

Murray, H.A.; Zatz, I.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Ratka, J.O. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination sintered copper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Order on disorder: Copper phthalocyanine thin films on technical substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the molecular orientation of the commonly used organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPC) grown as thin films on the technically relevant substrates indium tin oxide, oxidized Si, and polycrystalline gold using polarization-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and compare the results with those obtained from single crystalline substrates [Au(110) and GeS(001)]. Surprisingly, the 20{endash}50 nm thick CuPC films on the technical substrates are as highly ordered as on the single crystals. Importantly, however, the molecular orientation in the two cases is radically different: the CuPC molecules stand on the technical substrates and lie on the single crystalline substrates. The reasons for this and its consequences for our understanding of the behavior of CuPC films in devices are discussed. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Peisert, H.; Schwieger, T.; Auerhammer, J. M.; Knupfer, M.; Golden, M. S.; Fink, J.; Bressler, P. R.; Mast, M.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Polycrystalline Copper Electrodeposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A high-fidelity kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation method (T. Treeratanaphitak, M. Pritzker, N. M. Abukhdeir, Electrochim. Acta 121 (2014) 407--414) using the semi-empirical multi-body embedded-atom method (EAM) potential has been extended to model polycrystalline metal electrodeposition. The presented KMC-EAM method enables true three-dimensional atomistic simulations of electrodeposition over experimentally relevant timescales. Simulations using KMC-EAM are performed over a range of overpotentials to predict the effect on deposit texture evolution. Results show strong agreement with past experimental results both with respect to deposition rates on various copper surfaces and roughness-time power law behaviour. It is found that roughness scales with time $\\propto t^\\beta$ where $\\beta=0.62 \\pm 0.12$, which is in good agreement with past experimental results. Furthermore, the simulations provide insights into sub-surface deposit morphologies which are not directly accessible from experimental measurements.

Treeratanaphitak, Tanyakarn; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Pulsed electrodeposition of copper/nickel multilayers on a rotating disk electrode. 1: Galvanostatic deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin Cu/Ni multilayers were deposited on a rotating disk electrode by square-wave galvanostatic pulses in one-third and full strength Watts nickel baths with 50 to 1,000 ppm Cu{sup 2+}. A theoretical model was developed to predict the copper content in the Ni layer. Factors affecting the deposition which include the mass-transfer rate, copper ion concentration, temperature, and applied current density were studied. The copper content in the Ni layer was analyzed experimentally by X-ray diffraction and potentiodynamic stripping. Theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental results.

Yang, C.C.; Cheh, H.Y. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Modelling off Hugoniot Loading Using Ramp Compression in Single Crystal Copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of a ramp load to a sample is a method by which the thermodynamic variables of the high pressure state can be controlled. The faster the loading rate, the higher the entropy and higher the temperature. This paper describes moleculer dynamics (MD) simulations with 25 million atoms which investigate ramp loading of single crystal copper. The simulations followed the propagation of a 300ps ramp load to 3Mbar along the [100] direction copper. The simulations were long enough to allow the wave front to steepen into a shock, at which point the simulated copper sample shock melted.

Hawreliak, J; Remington, B A; Lorenzana, H; Bringa, E; Wark, J

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

485

Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

487

Binding of copper and nickel to cavities in silicon formed by helium ion implantation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavities formed in Si by He ion implantation and annealing are shown to be strong traps for Cu and Ni impurities. Experiments utilizing ion-beam analysis and transmission electron microscopy indicate that Cu is trapped at the internal surfaces of cavities up to {approximately}1 monolayer coverage with a binding energy of 2.2{plus_minus}0.2 eV relative to solution. This is greater than the heat of solution from the precipitated Cu{sub 3}Si phase, determined to be 1.7 eV in agreement with earlier work. Copper at cavity-wall sites is reversibly replaced by H during heating in H{sub 2} gas, indicating the relative stability of the two surface terminations. Initial results for Ni impurities indicate that trapping at cavities is again energetically preferred to silicide formation. The saturation coverage of Ni on the internal surfaces, however, is an order of magnitude smaller for Ni than Cu, consistent with published studies of external-surface adsorption. These results suggest that cavity trapping may getter metallic impurities in Si more effectively than methods based on silicide precipitation.

Myers, S.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Bishop, D.M.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20 vol.% Al nanocomposite powders using high energy milling and their sinterability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al nanocomposite powders were prepared via high energy ball milling. After 20 h milling, the size of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20 vol.% Al nanocomposite particles was in the range of 23-29 nm. A uniform distribution of nanosized Al reinforcement throughout the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix, coating the particles was successfully obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. A competition between the cold welding mechanism and the fracturing mechanism were found during milling and finally the above two mechanisms reached an equilibrium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest value of relative density was obtained for the sintered bodies at 1500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The harness of the sintered composite was decreased while the fracture toughness was improved after addition Al into alumina. -- Abstract: In this study, alumina-based matrix nanocomposite powders reinforced with Al particles were fabricated and investigated. The sinterability of the prepared nanocomposite powder at different firing temperature was also conducted. Their mechanical properties in terms of hardness and toughness were tested. Alumina and aluminum powder mixtures were milled in a planetary ball mill for various times up to 30 h in order to produce Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20% Al nanocomposite. The phase composition, morphological and microstructural changes during mechanical milling of the nanocomposite particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, respectively. The crystallite size and internal strain were evaluated by XRD patterns using Scherrer methods. A uniform distribution of the Al reinforcement in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders. The results revealed that there was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. The crystal size decreased with the prolongation of milling times, while the internal strain increased. A simple model is presented to illustrate the mechanical alloying of a ductile-brittle component system. A competition between the cold welding mechanism and the fracturing mechanism were found during powder milling and finally the above two mechanisms reached an equilibrium. The maximum relative density was obtained at 1500 Degree-Sign C. The harness of the sintered composite was decreased while the fracture toughness was improved after addition Al into alumina.

Zawrah, M.F., E-mail: mzawrah@hotmail.com [National Research Center, Ceramics Department (Egypt); Abdel-kader, H.; Elbaly, N.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University (Egypt)] [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University (Egypt)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

Rapid sintering of TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes using intense pulsed white light for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intense pulsed white light (IPWL) sintering was carried out at room temperature, which is suitable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabrication process on plastic substrates for the mass production. Five seconds irradiation of IPWL on TiO{sub 2} electrode significantly improves the photocurrent density and power conversion efficiency of DSSCs by more than 110% and 115%, respectively, compared to the DSSCs without IPWL treatment. These improvements were mainly attributed to the enhanced interconnection between the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced by IPWL illumination, which is confirmed by the impedance spectra analysis.

Jin, Hwa-Young [Photo-Electronic Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Yup; Ah Lee, Jin; Lee, Kwangsoo; Yoo, Kicheon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, BongSoo; Young Kim, Jin; Kim, Honggon; Jung Son, Hae [Photo-Electronic Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihyun [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ah Lim, Jung, E-mail: jalim@kist.re.kr, E-mail: mjko@kist.re.kr [Interface Control Research Center, Future Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jae Ko, Min, E-mail: jalim@kist.re.kr, E-mail: mjko@kist.re.kr [Photo-Electronic Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Green School, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

490

Size Dependence of a Temperature-Induced Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Copper(I) Sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determination of the phase diagrams for the nanocrystalline forms of materials is crucial for our understanding of nanostructures and the design of functional materials using nanoscale building blocks. The ability to study such transformations in nanomaterials with controlled shape offers further insight into transition mechanisms and the influence of particular facets. Here we present an investigation of the size-dependent, temperature-induced solid-solid phase transition in copper sulfide nanorods from low- to high-chalcocite. We find the transition temperature to be substantially reduced, with the high chalcocite phase appearing in the smallest nanocrystals at temperatures so low that they are typical of photovoltaic operation. Size dependence in phase trans- formations suggests the possibility of accessing morphologies that are not found in bulk solids at ambient conditions. These other- wise-inaccessible crystal phases could enable higher-performing materials in a range of applications, including sensing, switching, lighting, and photovoltaics.

Rivest, Jessy B; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jain, Prashant K; Toney, Michael F; Alivisatos, A Paul

2011-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

491

Results Of Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation (CCPO) Of Tank 48H Simulants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. A processing temperature of 50 ?C as part of an overall set of conditions appears to provide a viable TPB destruction time on the order of 4 days. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. The data in this report suggests 100-250 mg/L as a minimum. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. An addition rate of 0.4 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is suggested for the process. SRNL recommends that for pH adjustment, an acid addition rate 42 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is used. This is the same addition rate used in the testing. Even though the TPB and phenylborates can be destroyed in a relative short time period, the residual organics will take longer to degrade to <10 mg/L. Low level leaching on titanium occurred, however, the typical concentrations of released titanium are very low (~40 mg/L or less). A small amount of leaching under these conditions is not surprising and is consistent with a previous study. Acidification with phosphoric and formic acids, in lieu of nitric acid, provides benefits in reducing the amount of benzene emitted over the lifetime of a reaction. Analyses of the post-reaction residual material indicate that slurry initially adjusted down to a pH 7 produced a greater degree of energetic material than material initially adjusted to a pH of 9. No more than 140 {micro}g/m{sup 3} of mercury was indicated in reactor head spaces at any time. An estimation of less than 1% of the initial mercury was vaporized in each experiment. A limited number of replicate tests were performed to determine experimental reproducibility. These tests indicate a reasonable degree of reproducibility. The conclusion of the simulant testing has provided a set of reaction conditions that can destroy the TPB and phenylborates quickly. While longer times will be required to degrade the residual organics, the reactions appear to perform in a consistent manner. A real waste test or tests are recommended and further investigation into the use of phosphoric or formic acid is warranted.

Peters, T. B.; Pareizs, J. M.; Newell, J. D.; Fondeur, F. F.; Nash, C. A.; White, T. L.; Fink, S. D.

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

492

Hydrogenolysis of methyl formate over copper on silica. I. Study of surface species by in situ infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrogenolysis of methyl formate to methanol over silica-supported copper has been studied using in situ infrared spectroscopy coupled with simultaneous determination of rate. Under flow reaction conditions two forms of adsorbed methyl formate exist. One has a carbonyl absorption at 1726 cm/sup -1/ and is bound to the support by the hydrogen bonding with a heat of adsorption of 65 kJ mol/sup -1/. The second absorbs at 1666 cm/sup -1/ and is bound to copper with an approximate heat of adsorption of 140 kJ mol/sup -1/. At 457 K the hydrogenolysis rate is directly proportional to the band intensity of the latter and hence it, or another species in equilibrium with it, is involved in the rate-determining step. Adsorption of CO from CO/H/sub 2/ mixtures gives rise to a single infrared band at 2117 cm/sup -1/, the corresponding heat of adsorption being 60 kJ mol/sup -1/. Competitive measurements under hydrogenolysis conditions show that methyl formate will partially displace adsorbed CO and not vice versa. Nonetheless CO does reversibly inhibit the rate and this is attributed to its adsorption displacing hydrogen from the surface. The lower concentration of surface hydrogen also reduces the rate of hydrogenation of a formaldehyde intermediate leading to its deposition as a polymer as revealed by infrared bands at 1483 and 1375 cm/sup -1/. The same polymer accretes more rapidly during the reverse methanol to methyl formate reaction for which CO is a substantial by-product and hydrogen pressures are much lower than used for hydrogenolysis. Continuous deactivation of the catalyst is then observed.

Monti, D.M.; Cant, N.W.; Trimm, D.L.; Wainwright, M.S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Technology and social process : oscillations in Iron Age copper production and power in Southern Jordan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mining and Extractive Metallurgy. (pp. 103-134). London:Copper Smelting, Archaeo- Metallurgy 1. (pp. 16-20). London.2000. Ancient African Metallurgy: The Scio-Cultural Contex :

Ben-Yosef, Erez

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Significant Energy and Material Reductions in the Continuous Casting of Certain Copper Alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This project addresses the continuous casting of barstock in certain copper alloys. A superheated reservoir of molten alloy is maintained in a continuously heated holding furnace (tundish) during casting. These tundishes are currently heated...

Nielson, W. D.

495

Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Rare-Earth and Copper Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

100 nm Si 3 N 4 windows 100Ć copper films were deposited inthick Si 3 N 4 window, the 100Ć Fe film was deposited inis present in the film on the window membrane. Cu 2 O has

Kvashnina, Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study of oxidation/passivation of copper and silicon.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray-scattering technique studies of copper and silicon electrochemical interfaces are reported. These two examples illustrate the application of synchrotron x-ray techniques for oxidation, passivation, and dissolution of metals and semiconductors.

Chu, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Parkhutik, V.; You, H.

1999-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

497

E-Print Network 3.0 - auracyanins blue copper Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Chemistry 36 R E S E A R C H L E T T E R Copper deciency in potato dextrose agar causes reduced Summary: as a cofactor for a range of oxidases and oxygenases, including...

498

Preliminary Characterisation of Low-Temperature Bonded Copper Interconnects for 3-D Integrated Circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits can be fabricated by bonding previously processed device layers using metal-metal bonds that also serve as layer-to-layer interconnects. Bonded copper interconnects test structures ...

Leong, Hoi Liong

499

Modeling of pattern dependencies in the fabrication of multilevel copper metallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multilevel copper metallization for Ultra-Large-Scale-Integrated (ULSI) circuits is a critical technology needed to meet performance requirements for advanced interconnect technologies with sub-micron dimensions. It is ...

Cai, Hong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Craft production in an Islamic Empire : copper exploitation in the southern Jordanian periphery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lynn 1991 Ancient Copper Mining at Wadi Amram, Israel: A nand Desertification: The Wadi Faynan Landscape Survey,D. Mattingly, eds. Pp. 761-810. Wadi Faynan Series, Vol. 2.

Jones, Ian William Nasser

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z