National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for determination sintered copper

  1. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    triazine) epoxy composite, polyimide ?lm (Kapton, Dupont),copper nanoink on: (a) polyimide ?lm; (b) glass ?ber BT (

  2. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    copper nanoink for printed electronics Hak-Sung Kim · Sanjay1 Introduction Printed electronics techniques such as inkjetcomponents of printed electronics are conducting lines and ?

  3. Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterlund, Helene Rodushkin, Ilia; Ylinenjaervi, Karin; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2009-04-15

    A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 deg. C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine.

  4. Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Soin, Aleksandr

    2014-04-15

    Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

  5. Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

  6. Effect of fabrication parameters on thermophysical properties of sintered wicks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domínguez Espinosa, Francisco Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Porous wicks for use in a loop heat pipe were sintered from copper and Monel powder. These wicks were characterized in terms of their shrinkage, porosity, thermal conductivity, liquid permeability and maximum capillary ...

  7. River Sediment Analysis by Slurry Sampling FAAS: Determination of Copper, Zinc and Lead Flvia L. Alves, Solange Cadore, Wilson F. Jardim and Marco A. Z. Arruda*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo

    Article River Sediment Analysis by Slurry Sampling FAAS: Determination of Copper, Zinc and Lead sediment analysis was developed. Using this procedure, copper, zinc and lead were determined. The influence of the nitric acid concentration on the slurry preparation, as well as the sediment particle size

  8. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T. (St. Charles, MO); Driemeyer, Daniel E. (Manchester, MO); Davis, John W. (Ballwin, MO)

    2000-07-18

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by sintering a stack of individual copper and tungsten powder blend layers having progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in successive powder blend layers in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  9. Sintered wire annode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  10. Sintered composite filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1986-05-02

    A particulate filter medium formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers is described. Preferred composition is about 40 vol.% quartz and about 60 vol.% stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100/sup 0/C to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550/sup 0/C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  11. Zone sintering of ceramic fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, R. Bruce (Falls Church, VA); Chidester, Kenneth M. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, H. Gene (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Cold pressed UC.sub.2 fuel compacts are sintered at temperatures greater than about 1850.degree. C. while in contact with a sintering facilitator material, e.g., tantalum, niobium, tungsten or a metal carbide such as uranium carbide, thereby allowing for a reduction in the overall porosity and leaving the desired product, i.e., a highly dense, large-grained uranium dicarbide. The process of using the sintering facilitator materials can be applied in the preparation of other carbide materials.

  12. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  13. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-11-17

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

  14. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density.

  15. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Vuono, Daniel J; Wang, Hsin; Ferber, Mattison K; Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress all depended on the porosity content in bulk-sintered silver. The only investigated property that was independent of porosity in that range was coefficient of thermal expansion.

  16. Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegner, M. Leuthold, J.; Peterlechner, M.; Divinski, S. V.; Song, X.; Wilde, G.

    2014-09-07

    Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline Cu samples with grain sizes, ?d?, of ?35 and ?44?nm produced by spark plasma sintering were investigated by the radiotracer method using the {sup 63}Ni isotope. The measured diffusivities, D{sub eff}, are comparable with those determined previously for Ni grain boundary diffusion in well-annealed, high purity, coarse grained, polycrystalline copper, substantiating the absence of a grain size effect on the kinetic properties of grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline material at grain sizes d???35?nm. Simultaneously, the analysis predicts that if triple junction diffusion of Ni in Cu is enhanced with respect to the corresponding grain boundary diffusion rate, it is still less than 500?D{sub gb} within the temperature interval from 420?K to 470?K.

  17. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    is generated using an arc plasma phenomenon in the xenon ?to conduct, which is the arc plasma phenomenon. A chargedtriggered. During the arc plasma generation, the ?ash lamp

  18. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    a power supply, capacitors, a simmer triggering pulse con-circuit con?gura- tion in the simmer triggering system. In

  19. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael R. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics.

  20. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  1. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  2. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  3. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  4. Sintered composite medium and filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A particulate filter medium is formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers. A preferred composition is about 40 vol. % quartz and about 60 vol. % stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100.degree. C. to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550.degree. C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  5. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dennig, Corinne (Asnieres sur Seine, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Alcorta, Jose (Bordeaux, FR); Coco, Isabelle (Dax, FR)

    2002-01-01

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  6. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, M.R.

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique is described suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics. 12 figs.

  7. Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A method of sintering ceramic materials following: A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article.

  8. Strain in the mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo model for sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørk, R; Tikare, V; Olevsky, E; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01

    Shrinkage strains measured from microstructural simulations using the mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for solid state sintering are discussed. This model represents the microstructure using digitized discrete sites that are either grain or pore sites. The algorithm used to simulate densification by vacancy annihilation removes an isolated pore site at a grain boundary and collapses a column of sites extending from the vacancy to the surface of sintering compact, through the center of mass of the nearest grain. Using this algorithm, the existing published kMC models are shown to produce anisotropic strains for homogeneous powder compacts with aspect ratios different from unity. It is shown that the line direction biases shrinkage strains in proportion the compact dimension aspect ratios. A new algorithm that corrects this bias in strains is proposed; the direction for collapsing the column is determined by choosing a random sample face and subsequently a random point on that face as the end point for...

  9. The Absence of Plasma in"Spark Plasma Sintering"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulbert, Dustin M.; Anders, Andre; Dudina, Dina V.; Andersson, Joakim; Jiang, Dongtao; Unuvar, Cosan; Anselmi-Tamburini, Umberto; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Mukherjee, Amiya K.

    2008-04-10

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a remarkable method for synthesizing and consolidating a large variety of both novel and traditional materials. The process typically uses moderate uni-axial pressures (<100 MPa) in conjunction with a pulsing on-off DC current during operation. There are a number of mechanisms proposed to account for the enhanced sintering abilities of the SPS process. Of these mechanisms, the one most commonly put forth and the one that draws the most controversy involves the presence of momentary plasma generated between particles. This study employees three separate experimental methods in an attempt to determine the presence or absence of plasma during SPS. The methods employed include: in-situ atomic emission spectroscopy, direct visual observation and ultra-fast in-situ voltage measurements. It was found using these experimental techniques that no plasma is present during the SPS process. This result was confirmed using several different powders across a wide spectrum of SPS conditions.

  10. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulation of Sintering on Multiprocessor Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    great time and memory constraints. A metallurgy process called sintering, by which powders are formed

  12. A comparative study of conventionally sintered and microwave sintered nickel zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rani, Rekha [Electroceramics Research Lab, GVM Girls College, Sonepat-131001, India and School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India); Juneja, J. K. [Department of Physics, Hindu College, Sonepat-131001 (India); Raina, K. K. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India); Kotnala, R. K. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi -110012 (India); Prakash, Chandra, E-mail: cprakash2014@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi - 110054 (India)

    2014-04-24

    For the present work, nickel zinc ferrite having compositional formula Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by conventional solid state method and sintered in conventional and microwave furnaces. Pellets were sintered with very short soaking time of 10 min at 1150 °C in microwave furnace whereas 4 hrs of soaking time was selected for conventional sintering at 1200 °C. Phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis technique. Scanning electron micrographs were taken for microstructural study. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature. To study magnetic behavior, M-H hysteresis loops were recorded for both samples. It is observed that microwave sintered sample could obtain comparable properties to the conventionally sintered one in lesser soaking time at lower sintering temperature.

  13. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

    2005-08-23

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

  14. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

    1999-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  15. Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1993-05-04

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

  16. Drinking Water Problems: Copper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  17. Silver Sinter Heat Exchangers Construction of a sinter press and a BET-system to measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zumbühl, Dominik

    Silver Sinter Heat Exchangers Construction of a sinter press and a BET-system to measure specific, efficient heat exchangers are of special importance. As the thermal boundary resistance, called Kapitza­resistance, is inversely proportional to the interface area, heat exchangers with large surface areas are used for the heat

  18. Organic ligands reduce copper toxicity in Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azenha, M.; Vasconcelos, M.T.; Cabral, J.P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Pseudomonas syringae cells were exposed to 100 {mu}M copper alone, or to previously equilibrated copper sulfate-ligand solutions. Ligand concentrations were determined experimentally as those that reduced the free copper concentration to 5 {mu}M (determined with a Cu{sup 2+}-selective electrode). These values were in agreement with those calculated by computational equilibrium simulation based on published stability constants. Exposure of P. syringae cells to copper sulfate, chloride, or nitrate resulted in similar high mortality, suggesting that copper was responsible for cell death. Acetate, succinate, proline, lysine, cysteine, and EDTA significantly reduced both the amount of copper bound to the cells and cell death, indicating that not only strong chelating agents but also weak and moderate copper ligands can effectively antagonize copper toxicity. However, cysteine and EDTA were considerably more effective than acetate, succinate, proline, and lysine, indicating that copper toxicity is not simply a function of free copper concentration but depends on the nature of the ligand. The results suggested that a significant fraction of copper bound to acetate, succinate, proline, or lysine was displaced to the bacteria or, alternatively, mixed copper-ligand-cell complexes could be formed. On the contrary, none of these phenomena occurred for the copper complexes with cysteine or EDTA.

  19. Multi-physics microstructural simulation of sintering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikare, Veena

    2010-06-01

    Simulating the detailed evolution of microstructure at the mesoscale is increasingly being addressed by a number of methods. Discrete element modeling and Potts kinetic Monte Carlo have achieved success in capturing different aspects of sintering well. Discrete element cannot treat the details of neck formation and other shape evolution, especially when considering particles of arbitrary shapes. Potts kMC treats the micorstructural evolution very well, but cannot incorporate complex stress states that form especially during differential sintering. A model that is capable of simulating microstructural evolution during sintering at the mesoscale and can incorporate differential stresses is being developed. This multi-physics model that can treat both interfacial energies and the inter-particle stresses will be introduced. It will be applied to simulate microstructural evolution while resolving individual particles and the stresses that develop between them due to local shrinkage. Results will be presented and the future development of this model will be discussed.

  20. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  1. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (440 Sugarwood Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Morrow, Marvin S. (Rte. #3, Box 113, Kingston, TN 37763)

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  2. Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber Fleece Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber Fleece Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  3. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Tucson, AZ)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  4. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D.

    1995-07-11

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled. 2 figs.

  5. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

    1999-06-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

  6. Yttrium oxide transparent ceramics by low-temperature microwave sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Junming, E-mail: ljmniat@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Zhong, Zhenchen; Xu, Jilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The figure shows the SEM photos of the surfaces of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramic samples obtained by microwave sintering and vacuum sintering. It is clearly demonstrated that the grain distribution of the vacuum sintering sample is not uniform with the smallest and the largest particle size at about 2 ?m and 15 ?m respectively, while the grain distribution of microwave sintering sample is uniform with the average diameter at about 2–4 ?m (the smallest reported so far) and with no abnormal growth-up or coarsening phenomenon. We have further found out that the smaller the grain size, the higher the mechanical and optical properties. Display Omitted Highlights: ? The microwave sintering temperature of the sample is lower compared with vacuum. ? The microwave sintering time of the sample is shorter compared with vacuum. ? The mechanical properties of the microwave sintering sample is improved greatly. ? The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} grain of microwave sintering sample is the smallest reported so far. -- Abstract: Yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) transparent ceramics samples have been successfully fabricated by microwave sintering processing at relatively low temperatures. In comparison with the vacuum sintering processing, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramics can be obtained by microwave sintering at lower sintering temperature and shorter sintering time, and they possess higher transmittances and mechanical properties. The technologies of low-temperature microwave sintering and the relationships of the microstructures and properties of the specified samples have been investigated in detail. We have found out that the low-temperature microwave sintering technique has its obvious advantages over the conventional methods in manufacturing yttrium oxide transparent ceramics.

  7. Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E. [CSM Taranto (Italy); Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILP Taranto Works (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

  8. Sintering aid for lanthanum chromite refractories

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flandermeyer, Brian K. (Bolingbrook, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Downers Grove, IL); Anderson, Harlan U. (Rolla, MO)

    1988-01-01

    An electronically conductive interconnect layer for use in a fuel cell or other electrolytic device is formed with sintering additives to permit densification in a monolithic structure with the electrode materials. Additions including an oxide of boron and a eutectic forming composition of Group 2A metal fluorides with Group 3B metal fluorides and Group 2A metal oxides with Group 6B metal oxides lower the required firing temperature of lanthanum chromite to permit densification to in excess of 94% of theoretical density without degradation of electrode material lamina. The monolithic structure is formed by tape casting thin layers of electrode, interconnect and electrolyte materials and sintering the green lamina together under common densification conditions.

  9. Sintering and ripening resistant noble metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van Swol, Frank B; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Miller, James E; Challa, Sivakumar R

    2013-09-24

    Durable porous metal nanostructures comprising thin metal nanosheets that are metastable under some conditions that commonly produce rapid reduction in surface area due to sintering and/or Ostwald ripening. The invention further comprises the method for making such durable porous metal nanostructures. Durable, high-surface area nanostructures result from the formation of persistent durable holes or pores in metal nanosheets formed from dendritic nanosheets.

  10. EFFECT OF PULSING PARAMETERS ON LASER ABLATIVE CLEANING OF COPPER Paper # M602

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    with the enthalpy method. Experiments are carried out on copper samples having different oxide layer thickness. The copper oxide layer thickness determined by ellipsometer, and the chemical constituents of the copper oxide layer determined via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are incorporated into this numerical

  11. Raw material preparation for ultra high production rate sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortmann, H.A.; Ritz, V.J. [Studiengesellschaft fuer Eisenerzaufbereitung, Liebenburg-Othfresen (Germany); Cappel, F.; Weisel, H.; Richter, G. [LURGI AG, Frankfurt (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    An R and D program in pot grate sintering showed, that an intensive preparation of ores, additives and coke breeze improves the sintering capacity. The tests were conducted using an ore mixture composed of typical ores imported to Europe. The highest capacities were attained up to 63.8 t/m{sup 2} {times} 24 h maximum for a sinter which well fulfills the high requirements on chemical, physical and metallurgical properties.

  12. Tailored net-shape powder composites by spark plasma sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khaleghi, Evan Aryan

    2012-01-01

    fully stabilized zirconia: Part I. Densification studies,”of nanostructured zirconia during sinter forging,” Mater.of nanostructured zirconia by current activation,” J. Am.

  13. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  14. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, Henry (Tesuque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  15. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  16. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  17. Effects of porous carbon on sintered Al-Si-Mg matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ejiofor, J.U. [Shelco Foundries, Inc., Jacksonville, AL (United States); Reddy, R.G. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The influence of microporous particulate carbon char on the mechanical, thermal, and tribological properties of wear-resistant Al-13.5Si-2.5Mg alloy composites was studied. Large increases in surface area due to the formation of micropores in coconut shell chars were achieved by high-temperature activation under CO{sub 2} gas flow. Activated char particles at 0.02 V{sub f} were used to reinforce the alloy. The composites were fabricated via a double-compaction reaction sintering technique under vacuum at a compaction pressure of 250 MPa and sintering temperature of 600 C. At more than 35% burn-off of the carbon chars at the temperature of activation, 915 C, the total surface area remained virtually unaffected. The ultimate tensile strength and hardness decreased by 23% and 6%, respectively; with increasing surface area of the reinforcement from 123 to 821 m{sup 2} g{sup {minus}1}. The yield strength and the percentage of elongation decreased by a factor of 2 and 5, respectively. No significant change in sliding wear rate was observed but the coefficient of friction increased by 13% (0.61 to 0.69). The coefficient of linear thermal expansion was reduced by 16% (11.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 9.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} C{sup {minus}1}), and remained unaffected at more than 35% burn-off. Energy-dispersive spectrometry of the particles of the activated chars showed that oxides of potassium and copper coated the open surfaces. Failure at the matrix-char interface was observed, and this was attributed to localized presence of oxides at the interfaces as identified by electron probe microanalysis. Poor wetting of the oxides by magnesium at the sintering conditions resulted in formation of weak matrix-char interface bonds.

  18. Method for sintering fuel cell electrodes using a carrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1995-03-28

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a carbon-based paint, the carbon-based paint comprising an organic binder. The carbon-based paint may be an alcohol or a solvent-based paint or a water-based paint.

  19. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1998-11-10

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  20. Method for sintering fuel cell electrodes using a carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, Richard (Victoria, AU); Bryson, E. S. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a carbon-based paint, the carbon-based paint comprising an organic binder. The carbon-based paint may be an alcohol or a solvent-based paint or a water-based paint.

  1. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plovnick, Ross (St. Louis Park, MN); Celikkaya, Ahmet (Woodbury, MN); Blake, Rodger D. (Tuscon, AZ)

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  2. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, Richard (Glen Waverly, AU); Bryson, E. S. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  3. Design of bulk nanocrystalline tungsten alloys via nano-phase separation sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Mansoo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    An accelerated sintering method called 'nano-phase separation sintering' is developed, with specific applicability to nanostructured tungsten alloys. Nanocrystalline tungsten alloys containing minority additions of chromium ...

  4. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  5. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  6. Effect of YSZ sintering temperature on mixed potential sensor performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Brosha, Eric L; Rangachary, Mukundan; Garzon, Fernando H; Nelson, Mark A; Toracco, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the influence of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sintering temperature on a Pt/YSZ/La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CrO{sub 3} mixed potential sensor performance is reported. The sintering temperature of YSZ was varied from 1000 to 1200 C. Mercury porosity measurements were performed to estimate the porosity and tortuosity of the YSZ sample as a function of sintering temperature. Further, the surface area of YSZ was computed by the BET method. After YSZ characterization, the unbiased and biased sensor response was recorded. The 1000 C sintered YSZ sample was taken as the reference for comparison purposes. Experimental results indicated a 30% reduction in porosity for the 1200 C sintered YSZ sample, accounting for a 14-fold increase in the sensor response rise time. In addition, for the same sample, a 13-fold increase in sensitivity was observed upon exposure to propylene (100 ppm), associated with a 76% reduction in surface area. The slow response time of the sensor with YSZ sintered at higher temperatures has been attributed to higher tortuosity (delay in gas permeation to the three phase interface). Whereas, reduced heterogeneous catalysis induced by lower surface area accounts for the rise in sensitivity levels. The optimum YSZ sintering temperature was found to lie between 1100 and 1150 C.

  7. End Uses Mechanical Properties Settled By The Modified Sintering Conditions Of The Metal Injection Molding Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marray, Tarek [Laboratoire Materiaux, ECAM, 40 montee Saint Barthelemy, 69321, Lyon, Cedex 05 (France); Arts et Metiers ParisTech, MecaSurf Laboratory (EA 4496), 2, Cours des Arts et Metiers, 13617 Aix en Provence (France); Jaccquet, Philippe; Moinard-Checot, Delphine [Laboratoire Materiaux, ECAM, 40 montee Saint Barthelemy, 69321, Lyon, Cedex 05 (France); Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LaBoMaP, Rue Porte de Paris, 71250 CLUNY (France); Fabre, Agnes; Barrallier, Laurent [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, MecaSurf Laboratory (EA 4496), 2, Cours des Arts et Metiers, 13617 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-01-17

    Most common mechanical applications require parts with specific properties as hard faced features. It is well known that treating parts under suitable atmospheres may improve hardness and strength yield of steels. Heat treatment process and more particularly thermo-chemical diffusion processes (such as carburizing or its variation: carbonitriding) can be performed to reach the industrial hardness profile requirements. In this work, a low-alloyed steel feedstock based on water soluble binder system is submitted to the MIM process steps (including injection molding, debinding and sintering). As-sintered parts are then treated under a low pressure carbonitriding treatment. This contribution focuses on preliminary results such as microstructural analyses and mechanical properties which are established at each stage of the process to determine and monitor changes.

  8. Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE supports innovative research focused on overcoming the current technological and commercial barreirs for copper indium gallium diselenide [Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2], or CIGS, solar cells. A list of...

  9. Microwave sintering of nanophase ceramics without concomitant grain growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Woodbridge, IL); Sickafus, Kurt E. (Santa Cruz, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A method of sintering nanocrystalline material is disclosed wherein the nanocrystalline material is microwaved to heat the material to a temperature less than about 70% of the melting point of the nanocrystalline material expressed in degrees K. This method produces sintered nanocrystalline material having a density greater than about 95% of theoretical and an average grain size not more than about 3 times the average grain size of the nanocrystalline material before sintering. Rutile TiO.sub.2 as well as various other ceramics have been prepared. Grain growth of as little as 1.67 times has resulted with densities of about 90% of theoretical.

  10. Development of Continuous, Direct Feedback Control Systems for Sintering of Metallic Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diran Apelian; Marc M. Baum

    2006-09-18

    N,N.-Ethylenebisstearimide (EBS) is one of the most commonlyused lubricants in the powder metallurgy (PM) industry in the sintering process. During sintering, the lubricated powder compacts are heat-treated to temperatures in excess of 1,200 °C thus fusing adjacent particles and yielding a part with improved mechanical strength. Delubrication commonly is achieved in the first zone of a sintering furnace by heating the part to temperatures in the 500-600 °C temperature range at a fixed rate and under controlled atmospheric conditions; this strategy minimizes defects, carbon contamination, and compact deformation. The de-lubricated part then enters the second zone (commonly in the 1200-1300 °C temperature range) for sintering. The third zone cools the sintered part at a desired rate to obtain the requisite micro-structural properties. Controlled delubrication is imperative towards achieving high quality parts for the following reasons: the elevated thermal gradient at the transition between the first and second zones can cause parts to expand rapidly and develop microscopic fissures (.blistering.); improper gas flows and belt speeds can lead to carbon deposition on the part and at the grain boundaries (sooting); delubrication products deposit throughout the furnace, even in the coolers, which are far removed from the preheating chamber, leading to significant maintenance costs; pollutants emitted in the exhaust stream of furnaces operating inefficiently are increasingly of environmental concern. In practice, lubricant removal is difficult to control, which often leads to reduced yields in PM manufacturing processes. Throughput is another important issue: process control ideally should lead to a delubrication cycle that yields defect-free parts in a minimum of furnace time, thereby increasing productivity and reducing the net energy consumption. Efficient process control requires rapid monitoring of suitable indicators, preferably gasphase products of delubrication. EBS thermolyzes relatively cleanly in a range of furnace atmospheres, but the mechanism governing the pyrolysis of EBS, compacted with iron powder, is not known and needs to be investigated to determine the parameters important for industrial control, as well as the optimal conditions of delubrication. In addition, a thorough understanding of the pre-sintering chemistry will enable the development of a process control sensor.

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Project Binder Burnout and Sintering Studies (Milestone 6.6a)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, G.

    1999-10-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Team has developed an integrated test program to understand and optimize the controlling variables for the sintering step of the plutonium immobilization process. Sintering is the key process step that controls the product minerology. It is expected that the sintering will be the limiting process step that controls the throughput of the production line. The goal of the current sintering test program is to better understand factors that affect the sintering process.

  12. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, H.

    1993-09-21

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

  13. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  14. Improvements in strand feeding and its effect of sintering performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, H.; Kersting, K.; Werner, P. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Sintering may be considered a rather simple, counter current gas-solid process. A bed of granular solids is moved horizontally on a strand of pallets and suction is applied beneath the grate. Shortly after the sinter mix is fed onto the strand the incorporated solid fuel is ignited in the surface layer and the hot gases are drawn into the bed. The temperature of the top layer is raised high enough to burn the fuel particles while air is sucked down through it. Passing the upper, already sintered part of the bed the air is first preheated then sustains the combustion reaction. The hot, still oxygen-rich combustion gases leave the sintering zone and transfer its heat to the charge below. While the solids are preheated, carbonates, combined water, and moisture are driven off, rapidly cooling the gas. Thus, a flame front propagates through the traveling bed, generating at peak temperatures enough heat to agglomerate the bed of quasi-particles into a sinter cake. The strand speed is adjusted so that the burning through of the combustion zone coincides with the end of the suction area. To ensure stable operation this cross stream reactor has to be kept in a steady state.

  15. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  16. Method and device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A microwave sintering system and method are provided for extremely uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shaped ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing through an overmoded waveguide arrangement which acts in conjunction with a mode promoter within the cavity to achieve unexpected field uniformity. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200.degree. C./min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent of non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered.

  17. Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmreich, Grant

    2012-02-14

    shrinkage was continuously measured in situ during sintering. The isothermal shrinkage rates and sintering temperatures for each pellet were fit to a simple model for the initial phase of sintering of spherical powders. The material specific constants...

  18. Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

  19. Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, D.J.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents. 6 figures.

  20. Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Daniel J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of porous NiTi Shape Memory Alloy by elevated pressure sintering 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandygriff, Eric Layton

    2002-01-01

    have not been adequately developed. Currently, three methods are commonly used for producing porous NiTi SMAs from elemental powders. These methods include conventional sintering, Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS), and sintering...

  2. Stress Intensity of Delamination in a Sintered-Silver Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVoto, D. J.; Paret, P. P.; Wereszczak, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    In automotive power electronics packages, conventional thermal interface materials such as greases, gels, and phase-change materials pose bottlenecks to heat removal and are also associated with reliability concerns. The industry trend is toward high thermal performance bonded interfaces for large-area attachments. However, because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches between materials/layers and resultant thermomechanical stresses, adhesive and cohesive fractures could occur, posing a reliability problem. These defects manifest themselves in increased thermal resistance. This research aims to investigate and improve the thermal performance and reliability of sintered-silver for power electronics packaging applications. This has been experimentally accomplished by the synthesis of large-area bonded interfaces between metalized substrates and copper base plates that have subsequently been subjected to thermal cycles. A finite element model of crack initiation and propagation in these bonded interfaces will allow for the interpretation of degradation rates by a crack-velocity (V)-stress intensity factor (K) analysis. A description of the experiment and the modeling approach are discussed.

  3. Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vasilow, T.R.; Kuo, L.J.H.; Ruka, R.J.

    1994-08-30

    A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte, substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell. 2 figs.

  4. Die Casting Copper Motor Rotors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Though it conducts electricity less efficiently than copper, aluminum is the industry’s preferred fabrication material in electric induction motor rotors. Traditional tool steel casting molds...

  5. Processing optimization and sintering time dependent magnetic and optical behaviors of Aurivillius Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Guang; Sun Lin; Ren Qing; Xu Wenfei; Yang Jing; Tang Xiaodong; Bai Wei; Duan Chungang; Chu Junhao; Wu Jing; Meng Xiangjian

    2013-01-21

    Aurivillius Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} (BTF) ceramics were synthesized using the conventional solid state reaction method by optimizing excess of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sintering time. Their structures, magnetic, and optical properties were investigated in detail. The optimum process to sinter pure Aurivillius BTF ceramics was confirmed to be 3 wt. % excess Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to compensate the Bi volatilization at 1050 Degree-Sign C for 240 min (BTF-240M). The microstructure and crystalline structure of the BTF ceramics had little dependence on the sintering time from the x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic data. Nevertheless, the magnetic and optical properties were closely related with the sintering time. The overall magnetic behavior of these BTF ceramics was superparamagnetic (SPM), whereas there were unambiguous clues for the existence of antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions. However, whether the SPM behavior was intrinsic or arised from a tiny amount of spinel Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} impurity phase cannot be thoroughly ruled out in the XRD detection limit in the present stage. The AFM interactions were weakened upon extending the sintering time. The effective magnetic moment ({mu}{sub eff}), however, demonstrated different dependency on the sintering time. It increased with the sintering time from 80 min to 240 min, and then dropped with further extending the sintering time. Compared with other BTF ceramics, the BTF-240M ceramic showed the highest values of the refractive index n and real part {epsilon}{sub 1}, as well as the lowest ones of the extinction coefficient k and imagine part {epsilon}{sub 2} in whole photon energy range. Finally, a direct inter-band transition was confirmed for these BTF ceramics and optical energy band gaps were determined to be about 3.08, 3.18, and 3.39 eV for 80 min, 150 min, and 240 min sintered BTF ceramics, respectively, yet abnormal optical behavior was observed in BTF-360M ceramic.

  6. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  7. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (12833 S. 82nd Ct., Palos Park, IL 60464); Sinha, Shome N. (5748 Drexel, 2A, Chicago, IL 60637)

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  8. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  9. Anisotropic constitutive model and FE simulation of the sintering process of slip cast traditional porcelain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarbandi, B.; Besson, J.; Boussuge, M.; Ryckelynck, D. [Centre des Materiaux / Mines ParisTech / CNRS UMR 7633 / BP 87, 91003 Evry (France)

    2010-06-15

    Slip cast ceramic components undergo both sintering shrinkage and creep deformation caused by gravity during the firing cycle. In addition sintering may be anisotropic due to the development of preferential directions during slip casting. Both phenomena induce complex deformations of parts which make the design of casting molds difficult. To help solving this problem, anisotropic constitutive equations are proposed to represent the behavior of the ceramic compacts during sintering. The model parameters are identified using tests allowing to characterize both sintering and creep. The model was implemented in a finite element software and used to simulate the deformation of a traditional ceramic object during sintering.

  10. Inkjet printed electronics using copper nanoparticle ink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung; Kim, Hak Sung; Ryu, Jongeun; Thomas Hahn, H.; Jang, Seonhee; Joung, Jae Woo

    2010-01-01

    providing printed electronics using copper nanoparticles.0049-3 Inkjet printed electronics using copper nanoparticleand quality of the printed electronics. In this paper, we

  11. Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DiSpirito, Alan A. (Ames, IA); Zahn, James A. (Harbor Beach, MI); Graham, David W. (Lawrence, KS); Kim, Hyung J. (St. Paul, MN); Alterman, Michail (Lawrence, KS); Larive, Cynthia (Lawrence, KS)

    2007-04-03

    A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

  12. Effect of TiO{sub 2} additives to the sintering of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Issa, Tarik Talib; Majeed, Kawakib Jassim; Ibrahim, Harith J. [University of Baghdad, College of Science, Physics Department, Jadiriya, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-12-16

    The effect of sintering additive on the microstructure development of yttrium oxide was investigated. Different combinations of yttrium oxide with TiO{sub 2} were used as x-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis (DTA) were sintering additive. The investigated and microstructure of resulting compacts were characterized by, using scanning electron microscopy, porosity and sintering density for all compacting samples sintered at different sintering temperature under static air.

  13. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  14. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-08-31

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  15. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plucknett, K.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

    1999-05-18

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite. 2 figs.

  16. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  17. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01

    . Department of Agriculture. $In cooperation with Texas Extension Service. &In cooperation with State Department of Agriculture. The long-continued ingestion of salt mixtures containing rela- tively small percentages of copper sulphate caused chronic copper... poisoning among flocks of range sheep on several West Texas ranches during the past year. The salt licks were placed before the sheep as a means of preventing or controlling stomach worm infestation despite a! lack of experimental or field evidence...

  18. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Maikel (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Nekuda, Jennifer A. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  19. Sintering atmosphere effects on the ductility of W-Ni-Fe heavy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, R.M.; Churn, K.S.

    1984-04-01

    Residual porosity has a strong negative effect on the ductility of tungsten-nickel-iron heavy metals. This investigation examined the sintering atmosphere role in stabilizing detrimental residual pore structures. Experiments are reported on alloys containing 93, 95, or 97 wt pct W with Ni:Fe ratios of 7:3. The negative effect of prolonged sintering is attributed to pore coarsening involving trapped gas. Calculated pore growth rates for hydrogen filled pores suggest that pore coarsening involves both ripening and coalescence driven by tungsten grain growth. A change in sintering atmosphere from hydrogen to argon midway through the sintering cycle can aid pore degassing and increase ductility and strength.

  20. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  1. Synthesis and Optimization of the Sintering Kinetics of Actinide Nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drryl P. Butt; Brian Jaques

    2009-03-31

    Research conducted for this NERI project has advanced the understanding and feasibility of nitride nuclear fuel processing. In order to perform this research, necessary laboratory infrastructure was developed; including basic facilities and experimental equipment. Notable accomplishments from this project include: the synthesis of uranium, dysprosium, and cerium nitrides using a novel, low-cost mechanical method at room temperature; the synthesis of phase pure UN, DyN, and CeN using thermal methods; and the sintering of UN and (Ux, Dy1-x)N (0.7 ? X ? 1) pellets from phase pure powder that was synthesized in the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Boise State University.

  2. Highly defective oxides as sinter resistant thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2005-08-16

    A thermal barrier coating material formed of a highly defective cubic matrix structure having a concentration of a stabilizer sufficiently high that the oxygen vacancies created by the stabilizer interact within the matrix to form multi-vacancies, thereby improving the sintering resistance of the material. The concentration of stabilizer within the cubic matrix structure is greater than that concentration of stabilizer necessary to give the matrix a peak ionic conductivity value. The concentration of stabilizer may be at least 30 wt. %. Embodiments include a cubic matrix of zirconia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % yttria, and a cubic matrix of hafnia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % gadolinia.

  3. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.

    1992-09-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO[sub 3], containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590 C to 950 C in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O[sub 2] to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m[sup 2]/g. 2 figs.

  4. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A3-Sinter" furnace in TRL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A3-Sinter" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "A3-Sinter which is a mixture of Hydrogen and Nitrogen. The tube is a CMOS machine. The system is operated in manual mode. Three Eurotherm temperature controllers provide a 20 inch long, flat profile in the Center

  5. Effect of Green Density on the Thermomechanical Properties of a Ceramic During Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messing, Gary L.

    Effect of Green Density on the Thermomechanical Properties of a Ceramic During Sintering Sam E the sintering process. I. Introduction AMAJOR challenge during the manufacture of ceramics is the elimination ceramics can be treated as viscoelastic solids.3 Typ- ically, densifying ceramic compacts exhibit elastic

  6. Densification and Sintering Viscosity of Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messing, Gary L.

    Densification and Sintering Viscosity of Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics Aravind Mohanram,* Gary-temperature co-sintered ceramic systems, i.e., DuPont 951Tape (DU), Heraeus CT2000 (CT), and Ferro A6M (FE from 0.1 to 100 GPa . s between 73% and 95% density. Ceramic particle-filled glasses show a higher

  7. Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetz, K., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Hoerber, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Franke, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de [Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

  8. Assessing the Thermoelectric Properties of Sintered Compounds via High-Throughput Ab-Initio Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    Assessing the Thermoelectric Properties of Sintered Compounds via High-Throughput Ab Database have been considered as nanograined, sintered-powder thermoelectrics with the high-throughput ab the electronic band gap and the carrier effective mass, and that the probability of having large thermoelectric

  9. Tribo-Chemical Modeling of Copper CMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tripathi, Shantanu; Doyle, Fiona; Dornfeld, David

    2006-01-01

    TRIBO-CHEMICAL MODELING OF COPPER CMP Shantanu Tripathi 1 ,an integrated tribo-chemical model of copper CMP thatThe role of glycine in the chemical mechanical planarization

  10. Reliability of copper interconnects in integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Zung-Sun

    2007-01-01

    As dimensions shrink and current densities increase, the reliability of metal interconnects becomes a serious concern. In copper interconnects, the dominant diffusion path is along the interface between the copper and the ...

  11. Diamine ligands in copper-catalyzed reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surry, David S.

    The utility of copper-mediated cross-coupling reactions has been significantly increased by the development of mild reaction conditions and the ability to employ catalytic amounts of copper. The use of diamine-based ligands ...

  12. Improvement of mechanical properties by additive assisted laser sintering of PEEK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroh, M., E-mail: michael.kroh@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: michael.kroh@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Eyerer, P., E-mail: peter.eyerer@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology (ICT) (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The additive assisted laser sintering was recently developed at IKT: A carbon black (CB) additive is used to adjust the polymer's laser absorption behavior with the aim to improve the interconnection of sintered powder layers. In this paper a parameter study, Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) samples were prepared with different contents of carbon black and were laser sintered with varying thermal treatment. The samples were mechanically tested and investigated by optical light and transmission electron microscopy. An influence on the morphology at the border areas of particles and intersections of laser sintered layers was found. Depending on the viscosity of the raw material and CB content, different shapes of lamellae were observed. These (trans-) crystalline or polymorph structures, respectively, influence the thermal and mechanical behavior of the virgin PEEK. Moreover, the thermal treatment during the sintering process caused an improvement of mechanical properties like tensile strength and elongation at break.

  13. Incidence of High Nitrogen in Sintered Uranium Dioxide: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B. Narasimha; Anuradha, M.; Yadav, R.B.; Jayaraj, R.N

    2005-05-15

    Nitrogen content, above the specified limit of 75 {mu}g(gU){sup -1}, was encountered in sintered uranium dioxide in the course of its manufacture. The cause was traced to the sintering process, wherein carbon, a degradation product of the die wall or admixed lubricant, was retained in the compact as a result of inadvertent reversal of gas flow in the sintering furnace. In the presence of carbon, the uranium dioxide reacted with nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere to form nitride. The compacts with high nitrogen were also those with low sintered density, arising from low green density. The low green density was due to filling problems of an inhomogeneous powder. The experiments carried out establish the causes of high nitrogen to be the carbon residue from lubricant when the UO{sub 2} is sintered in a cracked ammonia atmosphere.

  14. Characterization of Green-Emitting Translucent Zinc Oxide Ceramics Prepared Via Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Mei [University of California; DeVito, David M [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Yang, Xiaocheng [West Virginia University; Giles, Nancy C. [Air Force Institute of Technology; Neal, John S [ORNL; Munir, Zuhair [University of California

    2011-01-01

    Translucent, green-emitting zinc oxide (ZnO) bodies, 19 mm in diameter and 0.72 mm in thickness, have been prepared via spark plasma sintering method. The consolidation of ZnO powders was investigated over the temperature range of 550-1050 C and the pressure range of 55-530 MPa. Samples sintered at temperatures >850 C and pressures of {approx}120 MPa were translucent and had densities of {approx}100%. Samples sintered at 950 C and 130 MPa showed a higher maximum transmittance than the samples sintered at higher or lower temperatures or pressures, with an excellent in-line transmission of 70% in the IR region around 2330 nm. The dense ZnO ceramics exhibited a strong green emission and a weak ultraviolet emission, and the relative intensity of the green emission increased with increasing sintering temperature.

  15. Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

  16. Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (La Canada, CA); Koliwad, Krishna M. (La Canada, CA); Daud, Taher (La Crescenta, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

  17. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2009-06-09

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  18. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2010-01-08

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  19. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquefying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper. 6 figs.

  20. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquifying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper.

  1. Tetraphenylphosphonium copper(I) dicyanamide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Materials Science Division

    2007-01-01

    In the title compound, {l_brace}(C{sub 24}H{sub 20}P)[Cu(C{sub 2}N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}, the copper(I) dicyanamide anion forms a distorted three-dimensional single diamondoid network. Templating tetraphenylphosphonium cations reside within the cavities of the polymeric anion.

  2. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  3. Reduction of FeO contents in sinter under high bed operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, K.; Hazama, K.; Hoshikuma, Y.; Tarumoto, S.; Nunomura, S.; Hirota, N.

    1996-12-31

    High-bed operation (bed height more than 700 mm) is currently being carried out at the Kure No. 1 sintering plant. Before initiating this high-bed operation, the authors conducted sinter pot tests at various bed heights to investigate the effect of bed height on sintering. The following results were obtained from these pot tests: Heightening of the sinter bed increased yield at the upper layer, but at the lower layer, the yield reached a maximum value at a certain bed height. From observation of the sinter cakes, the reduction in yield is attributed to uneven burn caused by surplus heat at the lower layers. Therefore, when high-bed operation is carried out, reduction of the burning energy (reduction of the FeO content in the sinter) is required. This high-bed operation with lower FeO content has enabled the company to reduce fuel consumption and SiO{sub 2} content, while maintaining high yield and high sinter quality.

  4. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T. (St. Charles, MO); Driemeyer, Daniel E. (Manchester, MO)

    1999-11-23

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  5. Studying the sintering behavior of BeO{sub x}-SiC{sub 1-x} Composite ceramic Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Issa, Tarik Talib [Department of physics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Jadiriya, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2011-12-26

    The sintering behavior for BeO-SiC compacts composite ceramic at different sintering temperatures in air were conducted, resulting data indicated that the percentage of SiC (Wt% 5) sintered at 800 C deg. lead to higher sintering density of (1.80 gm/cm3). The x-ray diffraction pattern analysis indicated nothing change concerning the crystal structure. Microstructure development has been studied as a function SiC content. Silicon carbide found to be suppressed the sinter ability of the matrix BeO powder.

  6. Identification of copper-copper and copper-hydrogen complexes in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2013-02-15

    The centers formed in silicon as a result of interaction between the substitutional copper impurity (Cu{sub s}) and interstitial copper (Cu{sub i}) or hydrogen (H) atoms, which are mobile at room temperature, are investigated in this study using the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. It is shown that a well-known photoluminescence center, which includes four copper atoms, is formed from Cu{sub s} via the subsequent addition of Cu{sub i}. Both intermediate complexes (Cu{sub s}-Cu{sub i} and Cu{sub s}-2Cu{sub i}) are identified by their deep levels in the lower half of the band gap. It is found that Cu{sub s} atoms form complexes with one, two, and three hydrogen atoms, with Cu{sub s}-H and Cu{sub s}-2H being electrically active. It is noted that the addition of either hydrogen or copper has a similar effect on the deep-level structure of Cu{sub s}.

  7. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  8. Manufacturing and characterization of welded, sintered condensers for a loop heat pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sircar, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    A manufacturing process plan was developed for a welded condenser utilizing a sintered wick. Electronic devices have progressed to the point where new designs are limited by the thermal management system used to ensure ...

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of mullite-zirconia reaction-sintered composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torrecillas, R. (Inst. Tecnologico de Materiales, Llanera Asturias (Spain)); Moya, J.S.; De Aza, S. (Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio, Madrid (Spain)); Gros, H.; Gantozzi, G. (GEMPPM INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France))

    1993-06-01

    The flexural strength, fracture toughness (K[sub IC]), creep behavior and thermal shock of mullite-zirconia and mullite-zirconia-alumina composites obtained by reaction-sintering of zircon + alumina mixtures have been studied in the temperature interval ranging from room temperature to 1,400C. The results are discussed in terms of the microstructural features of the reaction-sintered composites.

  10. Precision digital dilatometry: a microcomputer-based approach to sintering studies. Final technical report. [SYNROC Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, A.D.; Paisley, M.J.; Hare, T.M.; Palmour, H. III

    1983-11-01

    Representing significant advances in precision, atmosphere control, programming flexibility, experimental convenience and rate-controlled sintering capability, a new University-constructed instrument designed for operation to 1873K incorporates evolutionary thermal and mechanical features with novel microcomputer-based functions for measurement, control, data logging, data reduction, and graphical data representation. Principal design features, hardware selections, and performance data are reviewed; rationales for software development are discussed and typical sintering applications shown. 13 references, 9 figures.

  11. Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

  12. Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, Roy A.

    2010-01-14

    Advancements in the semiconductor industry require new materials with improved performance. With the introduction of copper as the interconnect material for integrated circuits, efficient diffusion barriers are required ...

  13. Copper-Catalyzed Oxytrifluoromethylation of Unactivated Alkenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Rong

    A mild, versatile, and convenient method for the efficient oxytrifluoromethylation of unactivated alkenes based on a copper-catalyzed oxidative difunctionalization strategy has been developed. This methodology provides ...

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition of Ultrathin Copper Metal Films from a Liquid Copper(I) Amidinate Precursor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for electroplating Cu interconnect wires. © 2006 The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/1.2338632 All rights copper circuits are faster and last longer. The copper is electroplated inside trenches and holes in insulators.1 A thin continu- ous copper seed layer is needed before electroplating Cu. In current technology

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF COPPER AND BRONZE FOR ZINC CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P. S.

    2012-11-02

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the efficacy of using copper and bronze sheet and screen under high vacuum conditions to capture zinc vapor. The experiments were conducted in a parametric manner using a fixed zinc vaporization temperature (350°C) but varying the filter temperature from ambient to 550°C. Consistent with previous work, metallic zinc was deposited at low temperatures, but the deposit was non?adherent. At an intermediate temperature range (350?450°C), the deposit formed an alloy with both copper and bronze materials. At higher temperatures (> 500°C) the zinc did not deposit on the surfaces likely due to its high vapor pressure. Additional testing to optimize the zinc 'getter' chemistry and surface condition is warranted.

  16. Nanograin Copper Deposition Using an Impinging Jet Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swingle, Karen Diane

    copper. In Modern Electroplating, Fifth Edition; Paunovic,W. S. , Talbot, J. B. Electroplating of Copper-AluminaTechnical Background Electroplating is a widely-used method

  17. Validation of techniques to mitigate copper surface contamination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Validation of techniques to mitigate copper surface contamination in CUORE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Validation of techniques to mitigate copper surface...

  18. Validation of techniques to mitigate copper surface contamination in CUORE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandria, F.

    2014-01-01

    copper surface contamination in CUORE F. Alessandria a , R.experiment posed by surface contamination of inert detectorthat copper surface contamination levels better than 10 ?7 -

  19. An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S....

  20. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal Re-direct Destination: Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of...

  1. Reversibleirreversible plasticity transition in twinned copper nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Reversible­irreversible plasticity transition in twinned copper nanopillars J.A. Brown, N 31 October 2009 Abstract Through computer simulations, we show that plasticity in twinned copper nanopillar under compression, plastic deformation can be totally reversed when rR is in the range 0:5 6 rR 6

  2. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, P.P.; Takahashi, G.S.; Leshock, D.G.

    1991-10-14

    The fluidized-bed copper oxide process was developed to simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas of coal-fired utility boilers. This dry and regenerable process uses a copper oxide sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. Contaminants are removed without generating waste material. (VC)

  3. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-06-30

    Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li{sub 2}O-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

  4. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

  5. Improvement of productivity of sintering plant at Nagoya Works of NSC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Hitoshi; Iida, Hiroyuki; Kabuto, Shigehisa; Suzuki, Haruhisa

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that in the sintering process generally, the state of charging raw materials into the sintering machine and whether or not its stability is good significantly influence the productivity, quality and cost of this process. At the Nagoya sintering plant, therefore, the peripheral of the slit bar-type segregation charging equipment developed by Nippon Steel were improved in 1994. The main improvements were: the improvement of the raw materials charging control mode, the introduction of fluffer bar to improve permeability and the addition of equipment for removal of lumps from sinter mix. After these measures were taken, the state of segregation of the raw materials and carbon between the upper and lower portions of the sinter bed was improved, the charging stability was also improved and the charging density was decreased, making it possible to achieve productivity improvement and cost reduction as originally intended. This report described the outline and concept of the equipment improvement measures and the operation results of the actual machine.

  6. Characterization, sintering and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline barium titanate synthesized through a modified combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, C.N. [Department of Physics, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Kerala (India); Thomas, J.K. [Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)], E-mail: jkthomasemrl@gmail.com; Kumar, H.P.; Suresh, M.K. [Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); Kumar, V.R.; Wariar, P.R.S. [Department of Physics, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); Jose, R. [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Koshy, J. [Department of Physics, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Kerala (India)

    2009-04-15

    Nanocrystalline barium titanate has been synthesized through a modified combustion process in a single step for the first time. The as-prepared barium titanate powder is cubic perovskite with lattice constant a = 4.018 A. The phase purity of the nanopowder was examined using thermo gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopic investigations have shown that the particle size of the as-prepared powder is in the range 20-40 nm. The agglomerate size distribution of the as-prepared powder was studied using atomic force microscopy. The nanoparticles of barium titanate were sintered to 97% of the theoretical density at a temperature of 1350 deg. C for 3 h. The microstructure of the sintered surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric constant and loss factor of the sintered pellets at 1 MHz measured at room temperature were 1223 and 3.5 x 10{sup -3} respectively.

  7. Yb:(YLa){sub 2}O{sub 3} laser ceramics produced by microwave sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balabanov, S S; Bykov, Yu V; Egorov, S V; Eremeev, A G; Gavrishchuk, E M; Khazanov, Efim A; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Permin, D A; Zelenogorskii, V V

    2013-04-30

    The possibility of using microwave heating for sintering of optical oxide ceramics and the advantages of this method are considered. Sintering of Yb{sub 0.1}:(YLa){sub 1.9}O{sub 3} ceramics by heating with 24-GHz radiation is studied. The compacts for sintering are prepared from nanosized powders obtained by high-temperature synthesis from acetate-nitrates of rare-earth metals. The effect of addition of lanthanum oxide and of the uniaxial pressing conditions on the microstructure and optical transmission of ceramics is studied. Lasing at a wavelength of 1030 nm with an efficiency of 7.5 % is achieved in ceramic samples of the (Yb{sub 0.05}Y{sub 0.1}La{sub 0.85}){sub 2}O{sub 3} composition under pumping by a laser diode at a wavelength of 940 nm. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  8. Osteogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation of rBMSCs on Microsphere-Based Scaffolds Sintered Using Subcritical CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhamidipati, Manjari

    2011-12-31

    ........................................................................................................11 2.4.3 Supercritical fluid emulsion templating ...................................................................12 vii 2.4.4 Electrospinning... such as solvent casting with particulate leaching,(24) compression molding,(25) freeze drying,(26) heat sintering,(27, 28) injection molding,(29) layer-by-layer printing (30) or sintering (31) and electrospinning.(32) Each of these methods has its own advantages...

  9. Determination of chemical properties of a supported copper oxide catalyst 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Asok

    1955-01-01

    equilibrium slackly, and has a veleoity oharaoterised by a temperature oosffioient, It is generally rever- sible by the oomb1ned offsets of ohanges in temperature and pressure. Chcmd. sorption ooours at high velooities vhen a gas roasts with a solid... vas evaouated, then it was filled vith nitrogen of a high purity, The gas was oompressed by filling part of the oompression ohambsr with meroury, vh1ch oaused oondensa- tion in the temperature meal'ing element, whioh vas immersed in the liquid n1...

  10. Inkjet printed electronics using copper nanoparticle ink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung; Kim, Hak Sung; Ryu, Jongeun; Thomas Hahn, H.; Jang, Seonhee; Joung, Jae Woo

    2010-01-01

    diagram of drop on demand copper nanoparticle inkjet printerdemand inkjet printing system 2 Experimental details 2.1 Specimen preparation The conductive coppercopper nanoparticles at room temperature. Using drop on demand

  11. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents ...

  12. Electrolytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Heather A. G. (Heather Ann Ganung)

    2006-01-01

    While chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has proven to be exceptionally effective in protecting wood from rot and infestation, its toxic nature has led to the problem of disposal of CCA-treated lumber and remediation of waters ...

  13. Copper-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Unactivated Olefins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Andrew T.

    Activating the inactive: A copper-catalyzed allylic trifluoromethylation of unactivated terminal olefins proceeds under mild conditions to produce linear allylic trifluoromethylated products with high E/Z selectivity (see ...

  14. A multiscale constitutive model for the sintering of an air-plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating, and its response under hot isostatic pressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    and under hot isostatic pressing. It is assumed that the splats of the coating are separated by penny to pancake-shaped polycrystals, termed `splats'. During service the splats of the APS coating sinter together of sintering of an APS coating and to (ii) explore the effect of free sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP

  15. Nanoscale Growth Twins in Sputtered Copper Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderoglu, Osman

    2011-08-08

    to produce copper films in this work is magnetron sputtering which will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter II ?Experimental methods?. I.1.2. Electrodeposition Electrodeposition (also called electroplating) is a process in which a metal is coated... on that surface. A simple schematic is shown in Figure 3. Electroplating is a simple and economical way to deposit uniform coatings. It has been used in many applications in the industry. Some examples are copper conductor lines in printed circuit boards...

  16. Advantages of Microwave Sintering in Manufacturing of Anode Support Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    and facile method in the manufacturing of anode support solid oxide fuel cell(1). Two anode support SOFCsPage 5-211 Advantages of Microwave Sintering in Manufacturing of Anode Support Solid Oxide Fuel oxide fuel cell (SOFC, hereafter) has been identified as an attractive technique in the recent few

  17. Enhanced Sintering of Yttrium-Doped Barium Zirconate by Addition of ZnO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    þ CeO2 (1) This reactivity causes severe degradation of the electrolyte and precludes applications properties of doped barium zirconate have been examined. With the use of zinc ox- ide as a sintering aid, BaZr of the alkaline earth perovskite family,15,17 it has been more recently recognized that doped BaZrO3, in fact

  18. Bending Creep Test to Measure the Viscosity of Porous Materials during Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messing, Gary L.

    Bending Creep Test to Measure the Viscosity of Porous Materials during Sintering Sang-Ho Lee creep test is proposed for measuring the change in viscosity of a porous material during densification be measured. Experiments with porous Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 beams were used to illustrate the bending creep test

  19. Shapes of Spectral Lines of Nonuniform Plasma of Electric Arc Discharge Between Copper Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babich, Ida L.; Boretskij, Viacheslav F.; Veklich, Anatoly N.

    2007-09-28

    The radial profiles of the temperature and electron density in the plasma of the free burning electric arc between copper electrodes are studied by optical spectroscopy techniques. The electron density and the temperature in plasma as initial parameters were used in the calculation of the plasma composition in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) assumption. We used the Saha's equation for copper, nitrogen and oxygen, dissociation equation for nitrogen and oxygen, the equation of plasma electrical neutrality and Dalton's law as well. So, it would be possible to determine the amounts of metal vapours in plasma.

  20. The connection between the damping capacity and the crystal structure of some copper-manganese alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrary, Leon Eldon

    1960-01-01

    ferromagnetic properties. 23 Since Zener's hypothesis must be abandoned, more research should be done to determine the loss mechanism associated with the high damping of high manganese copper-manganese alloys. 24 BIBLIOGRAPHY I ~ C. M. Zener, Elasticity... with dispiacement, the same displacements were used to calculate the damping capacity for each test on a particular alloy. For the 80$ manganese-2(+ copper alioy, A was 3. 5 cm on the photorecording paper and A was 1. 5 cm. For the 84% Hn- 16$ Cu ailloy, A was 3...

  1. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Jones, Edward (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  2. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siva Sankari, R.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a function of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a function of temperature.

  3. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  4. THE EFFECT OF AUFWUCHS COPPER ON SPAT SETTLEMENT OF THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    ) reported that copper antifouling paint leaching as little as 5 x 10-6 gm copper/cm2 /day did not prevent plants and power plants located on marine systems has been shown to oxidize organic material (Sigleo, e

  5. ORNL researchers make strides toward a copper oxide solar cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers make strides toward a copper oxide solar cell (hi-res image) Amit Goyal and his team of research scientists are using copper oxide to redesign the face of solar power....

  6. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  7. Copper passivation procedure for water-filled copper cells for applications in metrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buée, Bruno; Vidal, Vladimir; Georgin, Eric; Sparasci, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the European research project MeteoMet, the LNE-CNAM and the LNE-CETIAT are developing novel copper cells for the determination of the water vapour pressure equation and the measurement of the triple point of water temperature at the highest degree of accuracy. The Water Vapour Pressure Equation (WVPE) is the basic formula for the calculation of the vapour pressure and other humidity related quantities. Improvement in the uncertainty of the water vapour formulation in the temperature range between -80^{\\cdot}C (and possibly down to -90^{\\cdot}C) and +100^{\\cdot}C is needed for the improvement of primary standards in the field of hygrometry. The Triple Point of Water (TPW, temperature 273,16 K) plays a key role in thermometry, because of its threefold function. On one side, it defines the temperature unit, the kelvin. On the other side, it is the reference point in Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SPRT) calibrations, according to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)...

  8. 6,000 years of copper smelting : Center for the Study of Copper Smelting in Ancient Societies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Marc J. (Marc Jonathan), 1969-

    2000-01-01

    In 1959 professor of archeology Beno Rothenberg began investigating the production of copper in the Sinai desert and Aravah region of southern Israel. He discovered over 650 previously unknown ancient copper mining and ...

  9. PATTERNAND PROCESS DEPENDENCIES IN COPPER DAMASCENE CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boning, Duane S.

    of the die and wafer, leading to dishing of copper and erosion of oxide. Dishing is defined as the vertical. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 [1]. Copper dishing and oxide erosion lead to considerable surface non present experimental data that shows the dependence of copper dishing and oxide ero­ sion on pitch

  10. The utilization of microwave heating for the fabrication of sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiggans, J.O.; Tiegs, T.N.; Lin, H.T.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The results of studies in which microwave heating was used to fabricate sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN) are reviewed. These results are compared to parallel studies where conventional heating was used for the fabrication of these materials. Microwave fabrication of SRBSN involves a single heating cycle, whereas conventional processing requires two separate furnace runs and sample packaging steps. SRBSN containing high levels of sintering aids which were fabricated by microwave heating showed improved strength and toughness, as compared to those materials fabricated using a conventional resistance-heated furnace. An analysis of the microstructures of the microwave fabricated materials showed enhanced acicular grain growth as compared to conventionally heated material. Results are presented on studies involving the scale-up of the microwave fabrication process.

  11. Method of preparing a sintered lithium aluminate structure for containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A porous sintered tile is formed of lithium aluminate for retaining molten lectrolyte within a fuel cell. The tile is prepared by reacting lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution with alumina particles to form beta lithium aluminate particles. The slurry is evaporated to dryness and the solids dehydrated to form a beta lithium aluminate powder. The powder is compacted into the desired shape and sintered at a temperature in excess of 1200 K. but less than 1900 K. to form a porous integral structure that is subsequently filled with molten electrolyte. A tile of this type is intended for use in containing molten alkali metal carbonates as electolyte for use in a fuel cell having porous metal or metal oxide electrodes for burning a fuel gas such as hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide with an oxidant gas containing oxygen.

  12. Effect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite K. Zehani hundred MHz, and a high resistivity, but the conventional sintering temperature is too high for co. EXPERIMENTAL: Powders of basic oxides Fe2O3, NiO, CuO and ZnO and Co2O3 were used for the preparation of Ni

  13. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shimoda, Kazuya [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Kondo, Sosuke [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Hinoki, Tatsuya [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Ozawa, Kazumi [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 °C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

  14. Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2012-05-01

    This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

  15. Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

    2014-03-10

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800°C in vacuum and about 750°C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2–CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (5–15 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000° C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

  16. Effect of gravity on three-dimensional coordination number distribution in liquid phase sintered microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.; Gereman, R.M.

    1999-10-08

    Gravity affects microstructural evolution when a liquid phase is present during sintering. The effect of gravity on the three-dimensional coordination number distribution of tungsten grains in liquid phase sintered heavy alloy specimens is quantitatively characterized. A combination of montage serial sectioning, digital image processing, and unbiased stereological sampling procedures is used to estimate the coordination number distribution in three-dimensional microstructures. The microgravity environment decreases the mean coordination number. However, hardly any isolated grains are observed in the specimens, liquid phase sintered in a microgravity environment. The effect of microgravity on the coordination numbers mainly resides in its effect on the mean coordination number. In all specimens, there is a strong correlation between grain size and coordination number, which can be expressed as [D{sub c}/{bar D}]{sup 2} = C/C{sub 0} where C{sub 0} is the mean coordination number, {bar D} the global average size of the tungsten grains, and D{sub c} the average size of only those grains which have coordination number C.

  17. Controlled metal-semiconductor sintering/alloying by one-directional reverse illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1993-01-01

    Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to create a primary hot zone with a temperature high enough to melt and alloy the metal layer with the bottom surface of the substrate. Secondary heat effects, including heat conducted through the substrate from the primary hot zone and heat created by infrared radiation reflected from the metal layer to the metal strips, as well as heat created from some primary absorption by the metal strips, combine to create secondary hot zones at the interfaces of the metal strips with the top surface of the substrate. These secondary hot zones are not as hot as the primary hot zone, but they are hot enough to sinter the metal strips to the substrate.

  18. Fluidized bed electrowinning of copper. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to: design and construct a 10,000- amp fluidized bed electrowinning cell for the recovery of copper from acidic sulfate solutions; demonstrate the technical feasibility of continuous particle recirculation from the electrowinning cell with the ultimate goal of continuous particle removal; and measure cell efficiency as a function of operating conditions.

  19. A Multinuclear Copper(I) Cluster Forms the Dimerization Interface in Copper-Loaded Human Copper Chaperone for Superoxide Dismutase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stasser, J.P.; Siluvai, G.S.; Barry, A.N.; Blackburn, N.J.

    2009-06-04

    Copper binding and X-ray aborption spectroscopy studies are reported on untagged human CCS (hCCS; CCS = copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase) isolated using an intein self-cleaving vector and on single and double Cys to Ala mutants of the hCCS MTCQSC and CSC motifs of domains 1 (D1) and 3 (D3), respectively. The results on the wild-type protein confirmed earlier findings on the CCS-MBP (maltose binding protein) constructs, namely, that Cu(I) coordinates to the CXC motif, forming a cluster at the interface of two D3 polypeptides. In contrast to the single Cys to Ser mutations of the CCS-MBP protein (Stasser, J. P., Eisses, J. F., Barry, A. N., Kaplan, J. H., and Blackburn, N. J. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 3143-3152), single Cys to Ala mutations in D3 were sufficient to eliminate cluster formation and significantly reduce CCS activity. Analysis of the intensity of the Cu-Cu cluster interaction in C244A, C246A, and C244/246A variants suggested that the nuclearity of the cluster was greater than 2 and was most consistent with a Cu4S6 adamantane-type species. The relationship among cluster formation, oligomerization, and metal loading was evaluated. The results support a model in which Cu(I) binding converts the apo dimer with a D2-D2 interface to a new dimer connected by cluster formation at two D3 CSC motifs. The predominance of dimer over tetramer in the cluster-containing species strongly suggests that the D2 dimer interface remains open and available for sequestering an SOD1 monomer. This work implicates the copper cluster in the reactive form and adds detail to the cluster nuclearity and how copper loading affects the oligomerization states and reactivity of CCS for its partner SOD1.

  20. EMI shield enhancement through the addition of copper coated glass fibers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montanye, Jeffrey Richard

    1988-01-01

    using an electroless deposition technique, and the various steps where analyzed to determine the optimum plating time and etchant requirements, The coated fibers where used in making a composite, and the mechanical, electrical, and EMI shielding... behavior was characterized as a function of fiber content and plate time. The potential for using this composite for EMI shielding was assessed. Copper-coated glass fibers gave excellent EMI shielding at relatively Iow fiber contents, e. g. , 60 dB at t3...

  1. Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes with pyridine-containing macrocycles bearing an aminopropyl pendant arm: synthesis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    pendant arm: synthesis, characterization, and modifications of the pendant amino group Aida M. Herrera of three five-coordinate nickel(II) complexes with pendant arm-containing macrocycles has been achieved and two copper(II) complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography. Protonation of the pendant arm (p

  2. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  3. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  4. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  5. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry (Palos Hts., IL)

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  6. Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1993-10-12

    The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

  7. Cathodic Arc Deposition of Copper Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacGill, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    compatibility. A cathodic arc plasma source with a copperon operating a cathodic arc plasma source with a copperdeposited using a cathodic arc plasma source with a copper

  8. Evaluation of Models for Solubility and Volatility of Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Evaluation of Models for Solubility and Volatility of Copper Compounds Under Steam Generation Conditions The loss in efficiency of power plants with mixed metallurgy,...

  9. Method of imaging the heart using copper-64 citrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crook, James E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A method of imaging the heart to provide a distinct image using positron emission tomography comprises administering copper-64 citrate and a compatible carrier.

  10. Thoria-based cermet nuclear fuel : sintered microsphere fabrication by spray drying.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.A.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Chandrmouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.; Kuchibhotla, S.; Downar, T.J.

    2002-01-09

    Cermet nuclear fuels have been demonstrated to have significant potential to enhance fuel performance because of low internal fuel temperatures and low stored energy. The combination of these benefits with the inherent proliferation resistance, high burnup capability, and favorable neutronic properties of the thorium fuel cycle produces intriguing options for advanced nuclear fuel cycles. This paper describes aspects of a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project with two primary goals: (1) Evaluate the feasibility of implementing the thorium fuel cycle in existing or advanced reactors using a zirconium-matrix cermet fuel, and (2) Develop enabling technologies required for the economic application of this new fuel form. Spray drying is a physical process of granulating fine powders that is used widely in the chemical, pharmaceutical, ceramic, and food industries. It is generally used to produce flowable fine powders. Occasionally it is used to fabricate sintered bodies like cemented carbides, but it has not, heretofore, been used to produce sintered microspheres. As a physical process, it can be adapted to many powder types and mixtures and thus, has appeal for nuclear fuels and waste forms of various compositions. It also permits easy recycling of process ''wastes'' and minimal chemical waste streams that can arise in chemical sol/gel processing. On the other hand, for radioactive powders, it presents safety challenges for processing these materials in powder form and in achieving microspheres of high density and perfection.

  11. Two-stage sintering inhibits abnormal grain growth during beta to alpha transformation in SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, Aaron M.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-09-17

    Free sintering of SiC with Al, B, and C additions in two successive stages, first under nitrogen and then under argon, produced a near full-density ceramic with equiaxed grain structure. The beta to alpha transformation proceeded to completion; however, the grain shape remained equiaxed due to the action of nitrogen present during the first stage of sintering. It is found that the beta to alpha transformation is necessary but not sufficient for producing the microstructure of interlocking plates found in high-toughness SiC.

  12. Interface Driven Energy Filtering of Thermoelectric Power in Spark Plasma Sintered Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 Nanoplatelet Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Qihua

    -ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermoelectric, and thermal transport measurements illustrateInterface Driven Energy Filtering of Thermoelectric Power in Spark Plasma Sintered Bi2Te2.7Se0 that the pellet sintered at 250 °C shows a minimum grain growth and an optimal number of interfaces for efficient

  13. Layered Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide Thin-Film-Based Devices Technology available for licenisng: A multilayer thin-film device containing copper layers...

  14. Technology and social process : oscillations in Iron Age copper production and power in Southern Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yosef, Erez

    2010-01-01

    Shale; this is the main copper ore bearing formation in theexposure of the main copper ore-bearing formation (DLS). One

  15. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  16. [Type here] Copper Indium Selenide (CIS) Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    [Type here] Copper Indium Selenide (CIS) Solar Cell CIS cells are made with a thin layer of CuInSe2) Solar Cell CIGs cells are made with a thin layer of copper indium gallium diselenide Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS). CIGS cells have up to 10% efficiency with similar durability as silicon solar cells. Since

  17. Tungsten-yttria carbide coating for conveying copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothman, Albert J. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for providing a carbided-tungsten-yttria coating on the interior surface of a copper vapor laser. The surface serves as a wick for the condensation of liquid copper to return the condensate to the interior of the laser for revolatilization.

  18. Etching of Copper Coated Mylar Tubes With CF-4 Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ecklund, Karl M.; Hartman, Keith W.; Hebert, Michael J.; Wojcicki, Stanley G.

    1996-04-01

    Using 5 mm diameter copper coated mylar straw tubes at a potential of 2.30 KV relative to a concentric 20 (mu)m diameter gold-plated tungsten anode, it has been observed that with very low flow rates of CF4-based gases the conductive copper cathode material may be removed entirely from the mylar surface.

  19. Corrosion resistance and friction of sintered NdFeB coated with Ti/TiN multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    . In industry, electroplated Ni, Zn, and Ni/Cu/Ni coatings are generally ap- plied because of their good technology, without liquid waste pollu- tion, opposite to electroplating. It can also produce coatingsCorrosion resistance and friction of sintered NdFeB coated with Ti/TiN multilayers Yuanyuan Cheng

  20. Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

  1. Copper electroplating process for sub-half-micron ULSI structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contolini, R.J.; Tarte, L.; Graff, R.T.; Evans, L.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Cox, J.N.; Puich, M.R.; Gee, J.D.; Mu, Xiao-Chun; Chiang, Chien [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1995-05-15

    We have utilized electroplating technology in a damascene process to produce low resistance copper interconnects in sub-half-micron ULSI patterns having aspect ratios of 2.4:1. The use of a pulsed-voltage plating technique allows trench filling capability without voids. Samples of 150 mm diameter were patterned and sputtered with a barrier layer, followed by a copper seed layer. Pulsed-voltage electroplating, deposited about 2 microns of copper uniformly (1 sigma < 5%) over the surface. The electroplated copper has low levels of impurities, excellent adhesion, excellent step coverage, and rates comparable to other deposition methods. We present details of the electroplating equipment, and data on the filling characteristics of the copper metallization which prevent void formation and reduce contact resistance.

  2. Transport properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbon decorated with copper clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berahman, M.; Sheikhi, M. H.

    2014-09-07

    Using non-equilibrium green function with density functional theory, the present study investigates the transport properties of decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon with a copper cluster. We have represented the decoration of zigzag graphene nanoribbon with single copper atom and cluster containing two and three copper atoms. In all the cases, copper atoms tend to occupy the edge state. In addition, we have shown that copper can alter the current-voltage characteristic of zigzag graphene nanoribbon and create new fluctuations and negative differential resistance. These alternations are made due to discontinuity in the combination of orbitals along the graphene nanoribbon. Decoration alters these discontinuities and creates more visible fluctuations. However, in low bias voltages, the changes are similar in all the cases. The study demonstrates that in the decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon, the edge states are the main states for transporting electron from one electrode to another.

  3. Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

    2012-09-01

    This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

  4. Alumina-alumina and mullite-mullite joining by reaction sintering process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torrecillas, R. (CSIC, Llanera (Spain). Inst. Tecnologico de Materiales de Asturias); Sainz, M.A.; Moya, J.S. (CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio)

    1994-10-15

    Joining of simple ceramic shapes to form complex ceramic parts can be considered as an alternative route to the difficult and expensive methods associated with fabrication of near-net-shape ceramic components. The ability to reliably joint ceramic parts to form large systems is considered nowadays as a key technology in enhancing the use of ceramics in high temperature structural applications and in dirty environments. However, as has been pointed out elsewhere, the joining of ceramics is not yet a very high developed art. Most scientific and engineering efforts have been devoted to ceramic to metal joining. Alumina and mullite are two oxides ceramics largely considered for functional as well as structural applications. The purpose of the present investigation is to join alumina-alumina and mullite-mullite ceramics through reaction sintering with zircon.

  5. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2009-02-13

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS CONTROL EQUATIONS TO SUPPORT DETOXIFICATION OF COPPER USING NATURAL HUMATE AMENDMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Halverson, N.; Nichols, R.

    2009-08-21

    Recent scientific research and changes in regulatory policies have led to reductions in the allowable discharges of several contaminant metals, including copper, into surface water. Low target concentrations and variable outfall conditions challenge the efficacy of traditional treatment technologies such as ion exchange. In reviewing various treatment options, scientists and engineers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) developed a treatment strategy focusing on toxicity reduction (rather than the removal of the copper) and demonstrated that the method is viable and promising for mitigating copper toxicity. The resulting outfall chemistry protects the ecosystem in the receiving stream in a manner that is equal to, or better than, technologies that remove copper to the emerging regulatory levels. Further, the proposed toxicity reduction strategy results in collateral beneficial changes in outfall water chemistry such that the outfall more closely matches the chemistry of natural streams for key parameters such as the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The detoxification process is based on the EPA BLM. Specifically, modeling indicates that copper toxicity can be mitigated by modest additions of natural organic carbon and that the amount of amendment needed can be determined based on pH and stream flow. The organic carbon amendments proposed for the treatment/detoxification process are extracts of natural materials that are produced for use in organic agriculture. These extracts are known by several common names such as potassium humate, soluble humic acid, and a variety of brand trademarks. When used to reduce ecosystem toxicity in surface water, these amendments bind copper and compete with the biological receptor sites, resulting in a reduction of impacts to key food chain organisms such as the Daphnia ('water flea'). Design and implementation of the process is straightforward. The core equipment consists of storage tank(s), pH sensor(s), outfall flow monitor(s), variable speed pump(s), and a programmable logic controller (PLC). The PLC collects information on pH and outfall flow, and modulates the pump flow rate to meter the correct amount of amendment into the outfall. A mathematical relationship, or control equation, is programmed into the PLC and serves as the basis of the operation. A summary of the development of, and key documentation for, the process control equation is provided.

  7. Optimization of Phase Change Heat Transfer in Biporous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Sean

    2013-01-01

    demand for efficient evaporators for heat pipes and spreaders will increase in kind. Sintered copper

  8. Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S. Y.

    1997-09-01

    This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

  9. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Kullberg, Marc L. (Lisle, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

  10. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

    1993-04-13

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

  11. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  12. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  13. Continuous Flow Coupling and Decarboxylation Reactions Promoted by Copper Tubing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yun

    A convenient and efficient flow method for Ullmann condensations, Sonogashira couplings, and decarboxylation reactions using a commercially available copper tube flow reactor (CTFR) is described. The heated CTFR effects ...

  14. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    , hyperaccumulating plants extract metals from soils and concentrate excess amounts in harvestable parts/L copper in their drinking water (1, 2), while some freshwater animals and plants experience acute toxic

  15. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  16. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2013-04-02

    A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

  17. Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature thermoelectric power generation Home Author: D. T. Morelli, E. D. Case, B. D. Hall, S. Wang Year: 2008 Abstract: URL:...

  18. Improvement of granulation of raw material by using the high-agitating mixer at Kokura No. 3 sintering plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadano, Yasuhiko; Murai, Tatsunori; Kawaguchi, Yosizumi; Komatsu, Shusaku; Sasakawa, Akira; Kawaguchi, Takazo; Matsumura, Masaru

    1995-12-01

    Recently, there have been experiments aimed at increasing the pulverized coal injection rate of a blast furnace. When increasing the pulverized coal injection rate, the gas permeability resistance in a blast furnace increases. One of the methods to decrease the gas permeability resistance in a blast furnace is to use an iron ore burden with high iron content and low slag volume. However, the problem of resource drain has already occurred in the hematite deposit in West Australia, which is the principal supplier of a good quality lumpy iron ore. As a result, pellet feed iron ore must be selected as its substitute. In this paper, the authors investigated a granulation technique for producing an iron ore sinter with high iron content and low slag volume. In addition, they developed the granulation technique of agitating materials and water at high speed. It was used in Kokura No. 3 Sinter Plant.

  19. Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts made by electron beam melting and direct laser metal sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolbus, Lindsay M [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Cornwell, Paris A [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Residual stress profiles were mapped using neutron diffraction in two simple prism builds of Inconel 718: one fabricated with electron beam melting and the other with direct laser sintering. Spatially indexed stress-free cubes were obtained by EDM sectioning equivalent prisms of similar shape. The (311) interplanar spacing examined for the EDM sectioned sample was compared to the interplanar spacings calculated to fulfill force and moment balance. We have shown that Applying force and moment balance is a necessary supplement to the measurements for the stress-free cubes with respect to accurate stress calculations in additively manufactured components. In addition, our work has shown that residual stresses in electron beam melting parts are much smaller than that of direct laser metal sintering parts.

  20. An overview of copper-laser development for isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, B.E.

    1987-03-13

    We have developed a copper-laser pumped dye-laser system that addresses all of the requirements for atomic vapor laser isotope separation. The requirement for high average power for the laser system has led to the development of copper-laser chains with injection-locked oscillators and multihundred-watt amplifiers. By continuously operating the Laser Demonstration Facility, we gain valuable data for further upgrade and optimization.

  1. Measurement of the Young's modulus and internal friction of single crystal and polycrystalline copper, and copper-graphite composites as a function of temperature and orientation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wickstrom, Steven Norman

    1988-01-01

    MEASUREMENT OF THE YOUNG'S MODULUS AND INTERNAL FRICTION OF SINGLE CRYSTAL AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by S teven Norman Wicks trom Submitted... AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by Steven Norman Wickstrom Approved as to style and content by: A(J ~a Alan Wolfenden (Chairman of Committee) Don E. Bray (Member) Donald G...

  2. Hydrostatic Microextrusion of Steel and Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berti, Guido; Monti, Manuel; D'Angelo, Luciano

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents an experimental investigation based on hydrostatic micro extrusion of billets in low carbon steel and commercially pure copper, and the relevant results. The starting billets have a diameter of 0.3 mm and are 5 mm long; a high pressure generator consisting of a manually operated piston screw pump is used to pressurize the fluid up to 4200 bar, the screw pump is connected through a 3-way distribution block to the extrusion die and to a strain gauge high pressure sensor. The sensor has a full scale of 5000 bar and the extrusion pressure is acquired at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by means of an acquisition program written in the LabVIEW environment. Tests have been conducted at room temperature and a lubricant for wire drawing (Chemetall Gardolube DO 338) acts both as the pressurizing fluid and lubricant too. In addition, billets were graphite coated. Different fluid pressures and process durations have been adopted, resulting in different extrusion lengths. The required extrusion pressure is much higher than in non-micro forming operations (this effect is more evident for steel). On the cross section of the extruded parts, hardness and grain size distribution have been measured, the former through Vickers micro hardness (10 g load) tests. In the case of the extrusion of copper, the material behaves as in microdrawing process. In the case of the extrusion of steel, the hardness increases from the core to the surface as in the drawing process, but with lower values. The analysis evidenced the presence of the external layer, but its thickness is about 1/3 of the external layer in the drawn wire and the grains appear smaller than in the layer of the drawn wire. The extruding force required along the extruding direction is higher (22-24 N) than the drawing force along the same direction (12 N): being the material, the reduction ratio, the die sliding length the same in both cases, the higher extrusion force should be caused by a higher tangential friction force and/or a higher redundant work of deformation and/or a different material behaviour. Which is the real mechanism is not clear at present, but surface layer grains in extrusion are more deformed than in wire drawing. For this reason the deformation inhomogeneity increases in extrusion and the material under the highly deformed surface layer should be subjected to lower strains, strain hardening and finally resulting in lower hardness.

  3. Behavior of melts during softening and melting down of iron ore sinter under load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Y.H. [Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    In order to achieve effective operation in the blast furnace, the distribution control and quality improvement of burden materials are very important. In spite of the difficulties in obtaining suitable samples and making direct observation, significant progress including the placement of probes into the stack, tuyere drilling and laboratory simulation studies has been made. Investigation of the behavior of melts during softening and melting down was carried out in the temperature range of 800 C to 1,515 C. In this report, emphasis is given to investigating the mineral formation and properties of melts during softening and melting down of the iron ore sinter. Sized coke layers were placed above and below the sample to maintain uniform upward flow of gas and insure a smooth downward flow of melts. When the temperature of the sample reached the set point during the test the power was shut off and the sample was cooled in the furnace air. The weight, the height, porosity and contraction of each sample were measured. Chemical composition, observation of microstructures, SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are presented.

  4. Study on corrosion behaviors of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets in different environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. J.; Li, A. H.; Zhu, M. G.; Pan, W.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Nd-Fe-B magnets have outstanding magnetic properties, but their corrosion resistance is poor because the rare-earth-rich phases in them are easily oxidized. In this article, we report an investigation of the corrosion behaviors of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with varied compositions in different corrosion conditions. The weight losses of the magnets after corrosion testing were measured after brushing off the corrosion products. The magnetic flux losses of the magnets were measured using a fluxmeter. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray analysis system was employed to observe the corrosion morphology. It was found that the humid-heat resistance of the magnets was obviously improved by partially substituting Dy for Nd and adding minor Co. The corrosion products and morphologies of Nd-Fe-B magnets for the autoclave test were different from those for the constant humid-heat test. The corrosion rates of the magnets for the former were much slower than for the latter; this is probably because the high-pressure steam led to an oxygen-deficient atmosphere, and the liquid film on the surface of the magnet specimens hindered the diffusion of oxygen into the bulk for the autoclave test.

  5. Copper accumulation and lipid oxidation precede inflammation and myelin lesions in N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate peripheral myelinopathy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viquez, Olga M.; Valentine, Holly L.; Amarnath, Kalyani [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Valentine, William M. [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States)], E-mail: bill.valentine@vanderbilt.edu

    2008-05-15

    Dithiocarbamates have a wide spectrum of applications in industry, agriculture and medicine with new applications being actively investigated. One adverse effect of dithiocarbamates is the neurotoxicity observed in humans and experimental animals. Results from previous studies have suggested that dithiocarbamates elevate copper and promote lipid oxidation within myelin membranes. In the current study, copper levels, lipid oxidation, protein oxidative damage and markers of inflammation were monitored as a function of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) exposure duration in an established model for DEDC-mediated myelinopathy in the rat. Intra-abdominal administration of DEDC was performed using osmotic pumps for periods of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Metals in brain, liver and tibial nerve were measured using ICP-MS and lipid oxidation assessed through HPLC measurement of malondialdehyde in tibial nerve, and GC/MS measurement of F{sub 2} isoprostanes in sciatic nerve. Protein oxidative injury of sciatic nerve proteins was evaluated through quantification of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts using immunoassay, and inflammation monitored by quantifying levels of IgGs and activated macrophages using immunoassay and immunohistochemistry methods, respectively. Changes in these parameters were then correlated to the onset of structural lesions, determined by light and electron microscopy, to delineate the temporal relationship of copper accumulation and oxidative stress in peripheral nerve to the onset of myelin lesions. The data provide evidence that DEDC mediates lipid oxidation and elevation of total copper in peripheral nerve well before myelin lesions or activated macrophages are evident. This relationship is consistent with copper-mediated oxidative stress contributing to the myelinopathy.

  6. De novo design and spectroscopic characterization of Cu(II)-binding peptides based upon the blue copper protein plastocyanin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugherty, Roxanne Gail

    2002-01-01

    those spectroscopic properties. Most blue copper proteins are similar to either plastocyanin or azurin, the best characterized of the blue copper proteins. All blue copper proteins contain a coordination site where Cu(II) is bound in a trigonal plane...

  7. Adsorption behavior of copper and zinc in soils: Influence of pH on adsorption characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Msaky, J.J. ); Calvet, R. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors studied adsorption of copper and zinc on three different soils: a brown silty soil, an Oxisol, and a Podzol. They determined the amounts adsorbed and the shapes of adsorption isotherms as a function of the pH of the adsorbing medium at a constant ionic strength. The adsorbed amount-pH relationship depended strongly on the natures of the metallic cation and of the soil. The pH greatly influenced the characteristics of adsorption isotherms. They based interpretation on the variations with the pH of both adsorbent affinity for the metal in relation to the surface electric charge and chemical speciation in solution. The adsorption mechanism in the Oxisol probably involves monohydroxylated cations but is more determined by bivalent cations in the brown silty soil and the Podzol. From a general point of view, adsorption of copper and zinc cannot be represented with a single adsorption constant, but should be described by adsorption isotherms obtained at various pH values.

  8. Structure of self-interstitial atom clusters in iron and copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Akiyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Ghoniem, Nasr M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The dislocation core structure of self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in bcc iron and fcc copper is determined using the hybrid ab initio continuum method of Banerjee et al. [Philos. Mag. 87, 4131 (2007)]. To reduce reliance on empirical potentials and to facilitate predictions of the effects of local chemistry and stress on the structure of defects, we present here a hybrid extension of the Peierls-Nabarro continuum model, with lattice resistance to slip determined separately from ab initio calculations. A method is developed to reconstruct atomic arrangements and geometry of SIA clusters from the hybrid model. The results are shown to compare well with molecular-dynamics simulations. In iron, the core structure does not show dependence on the size of the self-interstitial cluster, and is nearly identical to that of a straight edge dislocation. However, the core structure of SIA clusters in Cu is shown to depend strongly on the cluster size. Small SIA clusters are found to have nondissociated compact dislocation cores, with a strong merging of Shockley partial dislocations and a relatively narrow stacking fault (SF) region. The compact nature of the SIA core in copper is attributed to the strong dependence of the self-energy on the cluster size. As the number of atoms in the SIA cluster increases, Shockley partial dislocations separate and the SF region widens, rendering the SIA core structure to that of an edge dislocation. The separation distance between the two partials widens as the cluster size increases, and tends to the value of a straight edge dislocation for cluster sizes above 400 atoms. The local stress is found to have a significant effect on the atomic arrangements within SIA clusters in copper and the width of the stacking faults. An applied external shear can delocalize the core of an SIA cluster in copper, with positive shear defined to be on the (111) plane along the [112] direction. For an SIA cluster containing 1600 atoms, a positive 1 GPa shear stress delocalizes the cluster and expands the SF to 30b, while a negative shear stress of 2 GPa contracts the core to less than 5b, where b is the Burgers vector magnitude.

  9. Design, microstructure, and high-temperature behavior of silicon nitride sintered with rate-earth oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciniculk, M.K. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1991-08-01

    The processing-microstructure-property relations of silicon nitride ceramics sintered with rare-earth oxide additives have been investigated with the aim of improving their high-temperature behavior. The additions of the oxides of Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, or Yb were compositionally controlled to tailor the intergranular phase. The resulting microstructure consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and a crystalline secondary phase of RE{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with a thin residual amorphous phase present at grain boundaries. The lanthanide oxides were found to be as effective as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in densifying Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, resulting in identical microstructures. The crystallization behavior of all six disilicates was similar, characterized by a limited nucleation and rapid growth mechanism resulting in large single crystals. Complete crystallization of the intergranular phase was obtained with the exception of a residual amorphous, observed at interfaces and believed to be rich in impurities, the cause of incomplete devitrification. The low resistance to oxidation of these materials was attributed to the minimization of amorphous phases via devitrification to disilicates, compatible with SiO{sub 2}, the oxidation product of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The strength retention of these materials at 1300{degrees}C was found to be between 80% and 91% of room-temperature strength, due to crystallization of the secondary phase and a residual but refractory amorphous grain-boundary phase. The creep behavior was found to be strongly dependent on residual amorphous phase viscosity as well as on the oxidation behavior, as evidenced by the nonsteady-state creep rates of all materials. 122 refs., 51 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Investigation of relativistic intensity laser generated hot electron dynamics via copper K{sub ?} imaging and proton acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willingale, L.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A; Krushelnick, K. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Morace, A. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States) [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Università di Milano-Biocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Bartal, T.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)] [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)] [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Simultaneous experimental measurements of copper K{sub ?} imaging and the maximum target normal sheath acceleration proton energies from the rear target surface are compared for various target thicknesses. For the T-cubed laser (?4 J, 400 fs) at an intensity of ?2 × 10{sup 19} W cm{sup ?2}, the hot electron divergence is determined to be ?{sub HWHM}?22{sup °} using a K{sub ?} imaging diagnostic. The maximum proton energies are measured to follow the expected reduction with increasing target thickness. Numerical modeling produces copper K{sub ?} trends for both signal level and electron beam divergence that are in good agreement with the experiment. A geometric model describing the electron beam divergence reproduces the maximum proton energy trends observed from the experiment and the fast electron density and the peak electric field observed in the numerical modeling.

  11. Investigation of the nonlocal nonlinear optical response of copper nanostructured thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmanfarmaei, B; RashidianVaziri, M R; Hajiesmaeilbaigi, F [Laser and Optics Research School, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Nanostructured copper thin films have been prepared using the pulsed laser deposition method. Optical absorption spectra of these films exhibit plasmonic absorption peaks around 619 nm, which suggests the formation of copper nanoparticles on their surfaces. Scanning electron micrographs of the films confirm the nanoparticle formation on the films surfaces. After laser beam passing through the thin films, the observed diffraction rings on a far-field screen have been recorded. Despite the smallness of the maximal axial phase shifts of the films, which have been obtained using the nonlocal z-scan theory, a series of low-intensity rings can be observed on the far field screen for some specific positions of the thin films from the focal point. It is shown that the best approach to determining the sign and magnitude of the nonlinear refractive index of thin samples is the application of the conventional closeaperture z-scan method. (nanostructures)

  12. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy...

  13. Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwase, M. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Energy Science and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

  14. Electroplating of copper. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the electroplating of copper. The use of plated copper in solar cells and associated heat exchangers is emphasized. The mechanical properties of thin copper films are discussed in terms of deposit stress and adherence. The electrodeposition of copper on non-metallic surfaces is also presented. Problems associated with corrosive plating bath electrolytes and the disposal of plating waste are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  16. Effect of the porosity on the fracture surface roughness of sintered materials: From anisotropic to isotropic self-affine scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Cambonie; Jonathan Bares; Lamine Hattali; Daniel Bonamy; Véronique Lazarus; Harold Auradou

    2015-01-16

    To unravel how the microstructure affects the fracture surface roughness in heterogeneous brittle solids like rocks or ceramics, we characterized the roughness statistics of post-mortem fracture surfaces in home-made materials of adjustable microstructure length-scale and porosity, obtained by sintering monodisperse polystyrene beads. Beyond the characteristic size of disorder, the roughness profiles are found to exhibit self-affine scaling features evolving with porosity. Starting from a null value and increasing the porosity, we quantitatively modify the self-affine scaling properties from anisotropic (at low porosity) to isotropic (for porosity larger than 10 %).

  17. Process and reliability assessment of plasma-based copper etch process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Guojun

    2009-05-15

    The plasma-based etching processes of copper (Cu) and titanium tungsten (TiW) thin films, and the electromigration of the copper lines patterned by above etching processes were studied. Instead of vaporizing the plasma/copper reaction product, a...

  18. De Novo Design and Spectroscopic Characterization of a Dinucleating Copper-Binding Pentadecapeptide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cammers, Arthur

    of aqueous solutions of Ac-WGHGHGH- GPGHGHGH-NH2 (HGP) indicates that copper(II) binds to the peptide to form a 2:1 Cu2+ /HGP complex with four nitrogen atoms in the copper coordination environment. Electron and imidazole nitrogen donors. Circular dichroism data show that HGP is unbound below pH 5.5 and is copper

  19. ULTRASONIC ARRAY TECHNIQUE FOR THE INSPECTION OF COPPER LINED CANISTERS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ULTRASONIC ARRAY TECHNIQUE FOR THE INSPECTION OF COPPER LINED CANISTERS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE FUEL, and characterization. The applicability of linear array technique for inspection of copper lined canisters for nuclear) weld between the lid and walls of copper lined canisters developed by SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuels

  20. Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    2004-01-01

    Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

  1. First principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    First principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper Eric J. Walter a of carbon monoxide on a monolayer of copper adsorbed on the (1 1 1) face of cubic zirconia. For the bulk, oxidized and reduced (1 1 1) surfaces of cubic zirconia (c-ZrO2). For adsorption of copper

  2. Thermal chemistry of the Cu-KI5 atomic layer deposition precursor on a copper surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Qiang; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The thermal chemistry of a Cu(I) ketoiminate complex, Cu-KI5, resulting from the modification of the known Air Products CupraSelect{sup ®} copper CVD precursor Cu(hfac)(tmvs) designed to tether the two ligands via an isopropoxide linker, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum on a Cu(110) single-crystal surface by using a combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption at low temperatures was determined to take place via the displacement of the vinyl ligand by the surface. Molecular desorption was seen at 210?K, and the evolution of Cu(II)-KI5{sub 2} was established to take place at 280?K, presumably from a disproportionation reaction that also leads to the deposition of Cu(0). Other sets of desorption products were seen at 150, 250, and 430?K, all containing copper atoms and small organic moieties with molecular masses below 100 amu. The latter TPD peak in particular indicates significant fragmentation of the ligands, likely at the C–N bond that holds the vinylsilane-isopropoxide moiety tethered to the ketoimine fragment, and possibly also at the union between the vinylsilane and the alkoxide linker. The 430?K temperature measured for this chemistry may set an upper limit for clean Cu film deposition, but since reactivity on the surface was also found to be inhibited at higher surface coverages, it may be delayed to higher temperatures under atomic layer deposition conditions.

  3. Coagulation of quartz particles in aqueous solutions of copper(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, I.; Pugh, R.J.

    1998-12-15

    The colloidal stability of quartz suspension was determined over a wide range of pH in aqueous copper nitrate where the state of Cu(II) is changed from mainly aqua ions and monohydroxyl complexes in the acid and neutral pH to polynuclear hydroxo complexes and colloidal precipitated copper hydroxide at higher pH. Two regions of instability were observed and in both cases the particles were shown to have low electrophoretic mobility. In the neutral pH region, the uptake of Cu(II) was sufficient to reduce the mobility of the particles to zero, while in the high-pH region evidence suggested coagulation between precipitated Cu(OH){sub 2} and the quartz particles. It was shown that in all cases the coagulation was reversible and that the uptake of Cu(II) was dependent on the uncharged surface hydroxyl density. Studies of the coagulation kinetics showed that extended time scales were involved (several minutes in the neutral pH region to tens of minutes at high pH).

  4. Correlation of gold in siliceous sinters with {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He in hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, R.O.; Thompson, J.M. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kennedy, B.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Aoki, Masahiro [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Opaline sinter samples collected at Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were analyzed for gold by neutron activation and for other trace elements by the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method. No correlation was found between Au and As, Sb, or total Fe in the sinters, although the sample containing the highest Au also contains the highest Sb. There also was no correlation of Au in the sinter with the H{sub 2}S concentration in the discharged hot spring water or with the estimated temperature of last equilibration of the water with the surrounding rock. The Au in rhyolitic tuffs and lavas at YNP found within the Yellowstone caldera show the same range in Au as do those outside the caldera, while thermal waters from within this caldera all have been found to contain relatively low dissolved Au and to deposit sinters that contain relatively little Au. Therefore, it is not likely that variations in Au concentrations among these sinters simply reflect differences in leachable Au in the rocks through which the hydrothermal fluids have passed. Rather, variations in [H{sub 2}S], the concentration of total dissolved sulfide, that result from different physical and chemical processes that occur in different parts of the hydrothermal system appear to exert the main control on the abundance of Au in these sinters. Hydrothermal fluids at YNP convect upward through a series of successively shallower and cooler reservoirs where water-rock chemical and isotopic reactions occur in response to changing temperature and pressure. In some parts of the system the fluids undergo decompressional boiling, and in other parts they cool conductively without boiling. Mixing of ascending water from deep in the system with shallow groundwaters is common. All three processes generally result in a decrease in [H{sub 2}S] and destabilize dissolved gold bisulfide complexes in reservoir waters in the YNP system.

  5. THE LEAD AND COPPER RULE Anne Sandvig, HDR-EES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, J. Barry

    THE LEAD AND COPPER RULE Anne Sandvig, HDR-EES 2008 Historical Background The 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act required the use of "lead-free" pipes, solders, pipe fittings or plumbing fixtures in the 1986 Amendment and were required to meet "voluntary standards." The term "lead-free" was defined

  6. Effect of passivation on stress relaxation in electroplated copper films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Rui

    Effect of passivation on stress relaxation in electroplated copper films Dongwen Gan and Paul S. Ho of interfacial mass transport by measuring stress relaxation in electroplated Cu films with four different cap examined.3,4 In particular, Hu et al.3 demonstrated a significant improvement in the EM lifetime by coating

  7. Copper oxide/N-silicon heterojunction photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A photovoltaic device having characteristics of a high efficiency solar cell comprising a Cu.sub.x O/n-Si heterojunction. The Cu.sub.x O layer is formed by heating a deposited copper layer in an oxygen containing ambient.

  8. Computational Benchmarking in Biomimetic Nickel, Copper, and Iron Complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brothers, Scott Michael

    2012-02-14

    in the absence of experimental data. In this dissertation, such techniques serve to elucidate the observed reactivity or electronic character of both nickel and copper bound in square planar N?S? ligand fields, and of {Fe(NO)?} units, respectively. Nickel...

  9. Nanosized copper ferrite materials: Mechanochemical synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manova, Elina [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tsoncheva, Tanya, E-mail: tsoncheva@orgchm.bas.b [Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 9, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Paneva, Daniela [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Popova, Margarita [Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 9, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Velinov, Nikolay; Kunev, Boris; Tenchev, Krassimir; Mitov, Ivan [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-05-15

    Nanodimensional powders of cubic copper ferrite are synthesized by two-steps procedure of co-precipitation of copper and iron hydroxide carbonates, followed by mechanochemical treatment. X-ray powder diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reduction are used for the characterization of the obtained materials. Their catalytic behavior is tested in methanol decomposition to hydrogen and CO and total oxidation of toluene. Formation of nanosized ferrite material is registered even after one hour of milling time. It is established that the prolonging of treatment procedure decreases the dispersion of the obtained product with the appearance of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It is demonstrated that the catalytic behavior of the samples depends not only on their initial phase composition, but on the concomitant ferrite phase transformations by the influence of the reaction medium. -- Graphical abstract: It is demonstrated that the catalytic behavior of the obtained copper ferrites depends not only on their initial phase composition, but on the concomitant phase transformations by the influence of the reaction medium. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Two-step co-precipitation-ball-milling procedure for copper ferrites preparation. {yields} The phase composition of ferrites depends on the milling duration. {yields} Ferrites transforms under the reaction medium, which affects their catalytic behavior. {yields} Ferrites decompose to magnetite and carbides during methanol decomposition. {yields} Agglomeration and further crystallization of ferrite occur during toluene oxidation.

  10. Thermal Properties of Graphene-Copper-Graphene Heterogeneous Pradyumna Goli,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Properties of Graphene-Copper-Graphene Heterogeneous Films Pradyumna Goli, Hao Ning that gra- phene-Cu-graphene heterogeneous films reveal strongly enhanced thermal conductivity as compared to the reference Cu and annealed Cu films. Chemical vapor deposition of a single atomic plane of graphene on both

  11. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); McDowell, W. J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  12. Low-temperature radiation embrittlement of copper alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, (Russia)] Pokrovsky, A.S. [Scientific Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Russia); Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of low-temperature (T{sub irr} less than 0.3. T{sub melt}) irradiation on the tensile properties of copper and precipitation-hardened (PH) and dispersion-strengthened (DS) copper alloys was investigated. Samples were irradiated with fission neutrons at temperatures of 80 to 200{degrees}C to doses of 0.6 to 5 dpa. Irradiation at temperatures <150{degrees}C resulted in significant hardening and accompanying embrittlement in all of the materials. By comparing the present results with literature data, it is concluded that severe radiation embrittlement occurs in copper alloys irradiated at temperatures {le}I00{degrees}C for doses above {approximately} 0.01 to 0.1 dpa. On the other hand, irradiation at temperatures above 150{degrees}C causes only moderate embrittlement for doses up to {approximately}5 dpa. It is recommended that the minimum operating temperature for copper alloys intended for structural applications in fusion energy systems should be 150{degrees}C, unless uniform elongations

  13. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1987-10-23

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  14. Cryogenic properties of dispersion strengthened copper for high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Walsh, R. P. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Swenson, C. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Cold deformed copper matrix composite conductors, developed for use in the 100 tesla multi-shot pulsed magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), have been characterized. The conductors are alumina strengthened copper which is fabricated by cold drawing that introduces high dislocation densities and high internal stresses. Both alumina particles and high density of dislocations provide us with high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. The conductors also have high electrical conductivities because alumina has limited solubility in Cu and dislocations have little scattering effect on conduction electrons. Such a combination of high strength and high conductivity makes it an excellent candidate over other resistive magnet materials. Thus, characterization is carried out by tensile testing and fully reversible fatigue testing. In tensile tests, the material exceeds the design criteria parameters. In the fatigue tests, both the load and displacement were measured and used to control the amplitude of the tests to simulate the various loading conditions in the pulsed magnet which is operated at 77 K in a non-destructive mode. In order to properly simulate the pulsed magnet operation, strain-controlled tests were more suitable than load controlled tests. For the dispersion strengthened coppers, the strengthening mechanism of the aluminum oxide provided better tensile and fatigue properties over convention copper.

  15. Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

  16. Production of SiC-Al?b2?sO?b3 ?scomposites by pressureless sintering and hot isostatic pressing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boros, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    PRODUCTION OF Sic-A1~0~ COMPOSITES BY PRESSURELESS SINTERING AND HOT ISOSTATIC PRESSING A Thesis by STEPHEN BOROS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering PRODUCTION OP 8iC ? Alqoq COMPOSITES BY PRESSURELE88 SINTERING AND EOT ISOSTATIC PRESSING A Thesis by Stephen Boros Approved as to style and content by: Ahmed M. Gadalla (Chair...

  17. Green Technology: Hi-Temperature Microwave Sintering Reduces Ener... http://www.webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=58548 1 of 2 3/28/2008 9:51 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Dinesh

    units marketed in the U.S. Many sintering applications fall under a family of microwave technology use consumption from 12MWh to 1.2MWh. · Canada's Ontario Energy Agency projects that if the Province's ceramics coal fired power plant. · The Penn State Materials Research Center cut sintering cycle time

  18. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  19. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Alan D. (Albany, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR)

    1995-01-01

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  20. Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper/Niobium/Copper Interlayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 Interfacial fracture toughness and cyclic temperatures, and assessed in terms of interfacial chemistry and microstructure. The mean interfacial fracture

  1. Oxhide ingots, copper production, and the mediterranean trade in copper and other metals in the bronze age 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michael Rice

    2007-09-17

    of Turkey at Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya, as well as mining and smelting sites in the Mediterranean region, provide invaluable information on the production and trade of copper and tin, the main ingredients of bronze. In this thesis, I examine the evolution...

  2. Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-12-31

    An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

  3. Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, David Stuart

    1958-01-01

    are to be found in the patent literature which is often not particularly informative. Discussion of this material has, therefore been reserved for a subsequent section of this survey. If view of the considerable activity in most phases of the petro- chemicals... to have a bearing on this work and which provided sufficient information to be helpful in determining roughly what could be expected of different catalysts. In many of the patents surveyed, observed conversions of olefins to various products were...

  4. Standard specification for leak detector solutions intended for use on brasses and other copper alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for leak detector solutions suitable for use in checking the leakage of valves, pipes, fittings, joints, and so forth of a pressurized gas system fabricated from brasses and other copper alloys. 1.2 This specification deals with the stress corrosion cracking aspect of leak detector solutions. The effectiveness, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of leak detector solutions are not within the scope of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Mineralization and optical characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles using a high aspect ratio bio-template

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaman, Mohammed Shahriar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Haberer, Elaine D., E-mail: haberer@ucr.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    Organized chains of copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized, without palladium (Pd) activation, using the M13 filamentous virus as a biological template. The interaction of Cu precursor ions with the negatively charged viral coat proteins were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Discrete nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.5 nm and narrow size distribution were closely spaced along the length of the high aspect ratio templates. The synthesized material was identified as a mixture of cubic Cu?O and monoclinic CuO. UV/Vis absorption measurements were completed and a direct optical band gap of 2.87 eV was determined using Tauc's method. This value was slightly larger than bulk, signaling quantum confinement effects within the templated materials.

  6. Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nobuhiro Shigyo; Toshiya Sanami; Tsuyoshi Kajimoto; Yosuke Iwamoto; Masayuki Hagiwara; Kiwamu Saito; Kenji Ishibashi; Hiroshi Nakashima; Yukio Sakamoto; Hee-Seock Lee; Erik Ramberg; Aria A. Meyhoefer; Rick Coleman; Doug Jensen; Anthony F. Leveling; David J. Boehnlein; Nikolai V. Mokhov

    2012-02-07

    Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target was measured at the Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data allows for evaluation of neutron production process implemented in theoretical simulation codes. It also helps exploring the reasons for some disagreement between calculation results and shielding benchmark data taken at high energy accelerator facilities, since it is evaluated separately from neutron transport. The experiment was carried out using a 120 GeV proton beam of 3E5 protons/spill. Since the spill duration was 4 seconds, proton-induced events were counted pulse by pulse. The intensity was maintained using diffusers and collimators installed in the beam line to MTBF. The protons hit a copper block target the size of which is 5cm x 5cm x 60 cm long. The neutrons produced in the target were measured using NE213 liquid scintillator detectors, placed about 5.5 m away from the target at 30^{\\circ} and 5 m 90^{\\circ} with respect to the proton beam axis. The neutron energy was determined by time-of-flight technique using timing difference between the NE213 and a plastic scintillator located just before the target. Neutron detection efficiency of NE213 was determined on basis of experimental data from the high energy neutron beam line at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron spectrum was compared with the results of multi-particle transport codes to validate the implemented theoretical models. The apparatus would be applied to future measurements to obtain a systematic data set for secondary particle production on various target materials.

  7. "Rapid Pattern Based Powder Sintering Technique and Related Shrinkage Control," Jack Zhou and Z. He, Journal of Materials and Design, Vol. 19, pp. 241-248, 1998.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jack

    "Rapid Pattern Based Powder Sintering Technique and Related Shrinkage Control," Jack Zhou and Z. He TECHNIQUE AND RELATED SHRINKAGE CONTROL Jack G. Zhou and Zongyan He Department of Mechanical Engineering by the authors. It is an integration of three techniques: rapid prototyping, lost wax casting and powder

  8. Constrained sintering of an air-plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating A.C.F. Cocks a,*, N.A. Fleck b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    b a Department of Engineering Science, Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK b Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington St., Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK Received 5 October 2009; received in revised of the zirconia. Recently, Fleck and Cocks [5] have developed a sintering model for APS material. They assumed

  9. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Leisch, Jennifer (Denver, CO); Taylor, Matthew (West Simsbury, CT); Stanbery, Billy J. (Austin, TX)

    2011-09-20

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  10. Effects of low temperature annealing on the adhesion of electroless plated copper thin films in TiN deposited silicon integrated circuit substrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tate, Adam Timothy

    2013-02-22

    ], (These tests have been used to determine the adhesion of a variety of materials, not only thin films. ) While many tests exist and have been employed to make qualitative comparisons of adhesion strengths, little quantitative data on thin fil adhesion... It has been demonstrated that an anneal following metal deposition results in improved adhesion of the metal thin film to the substrate [2]. Both low temperature and high temperature anneals can be performed to improve the adhesion of a copper fil...

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathula, Sivaiah [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay, E-mail: adhar@nplindia.org [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-11

    Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Validation of techniques to mitigate copper surface contamination in CUORE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Alessandria; R. Ardito; D. R. Artusa; F. T. Avignone III; O. Azzolini; M. Balata; T. I. Banks; G. Bari; J. Beeman; F. Bellini; A. Bersani; M. Biassoni; T. Bloxham; C. Brofferio; C. Bucci; X. Z. Cai; L. Canonica; S. Capelli; L. Carbone; L. Cardani; M. Carrettoni; N. Casali; N. Chott; M. Clemenza; C. Cosmelli; O. Cremonesi; R. J. Creswick; I. Dafinei; A. Dally; V. Datskov; A. De Biasi; M. M. Deninno; S. Di Domizio; M. L. di Vacri; L. Ejzak; R. Faccini; D. Q. Fang; H. A. Farach; E. Ferri; F. Ferroni; E. Fiorini; M. A. Franceschi; S. J. Freedman; B. K. Fujikawa; A. Giachero; L. Gironi; A. Giuliani; J. Goett; A. Goodsell; P. Gorla; C. Gotti; E. Guardincerri; T. D. Gutierrez; E. E. Haller; K. Han; K. M. Heeger; H. Z. Huang; R. Kadel; K. Kazkaz; G. Keppel; L. Kogler; Yu. G. Kolomensky; D. Lenz; Y. L. Li; C. Ligi; X. Liu; Y. G. Ma; C. Maiano; M. Maino; M. Martinez; R. H. Maruyama; Y. Mei; N. Moggi; S. Morganti; T. Napolitano; S. Newman; S. Nisi; C. Nones; E. B. Norman; A. Nucciotti; F. Orio; D. Orlandi; J. L. Ouellet; M. Pallavicini; V. Palmieri; L. Pattavina; M. Pavan; M. Pedretti; G. Pessina; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; V. Rampazzo; R. Reil; F. Rimondi; C. Rosenfeld; C. Rusconi; S. Sangiorgio; N. D. Scielzo; M. Sisti; A. R. Smith; L. Sparks; F. Stivanello; L. Taffarello; M. Tenconi; W. D. Tian; C. Tomei; S. Trentalange; G. Ventura; M. Vignati; B. S. Wang; H. W. Wang; C. A. Whitten Jr; T. Wise; A. Woodcraft; L. Zanotti; C. Zarra; B. X. Zhu; S. Zucchelli

    2013-04-04

    In this article we describe the background challenges for the CUORE experiment posed by surface contamination of inert detector materials such as copper, and present three techniques explored to mitigate these backgrounds. Using data from a dedicated test apparatus constructed to validate and compare these techniques we demonstrate that copper surface contamination levels better than 10E-07 - 10E-08 Bq/cm2 are achieved for 238U and 232Th. If these levels are reproduced in the final CUORE apparatus the projected 90% C.L. upper limit on the number of background counts in the region of interest is 0.02-0.03 counts/keV/kg/y depending on the adopted mitigation technique.

  13. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  14. Nanophase copper ferrite using an organic gelation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriram, D.; Amarakoon, V.R.W. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States). NYS Coll. of Ceramics; Snyder, R.L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Nanocrystalline copper ferrite (Cu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4}) was synthesized using a forward strike gelation method with polyacrylic acid (PAA) as a gelating agent. The dried gel was calcined at a low temperature of 400 C to get the final powder. The effect of pH and the ratio of the cation to the carboxylic group in the initial gel were studied with respect to both the phases and the crystallite size of the final powders synthesized. Phase and crystallite size analysis were done using x-ray diffraction and TEM. Saturation magnetization results were obtained using a SQUID magnetometer. The reactions occurring in the nano-size copper ferrite, in air as a function of temperature, were tracked using a dynamic high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) system.

  15. Simulations for Tracking Cosmogenic Activation in Germanium and Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-11-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in copper cryostats and shielding materials are used in measurements of the extraordinarily rare nuclear decay process, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0???), and for dark matter searches. Cosmogenic production of 68Ge and 60Co in the germanium and copper represent an irreducible background to these experiments as the subsequent decays of these isotopes can mimic the signals of interest. These radioactive isotopes can be removed by chemical and/or isotopic separation, but begin to grow-in to the material after separation until the material is moved deep underground. This work is motivated by the need to have a reliable, experimentally benchmarked simulation tool for evaluating shielding materials used during transportation and near-surface manufacturing of experiment components. The resulting simulations tool has been used to enhance the effectiveness of an existing transport shield used to ship enriched germanium from the separations facility to the detector manufacturing facility.

  16. Solvothermal synthesis of copper sulfide semiconductor micro/nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Covellite copper sulfide (CuS) micro/nanometer crystals in the shape of hierarchical doughnut-shaped, superstructured spheric-shaped and flowerlike architectures congregated from those nanoplates with the thickness of 20-100 nm have been prepared by a solvothermal method. The as-obtained CuS products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A systematic investigation has been carried out to understand the factors influencing the evolution of CuS particle morphology which found to be predominant by solvent, surfactant, sulfur resource and copper salt. The possible formation mechanism for the nanostructure formation was also discussed. These CuS products show potential applications in solar cell, photothermal conversion and chemical sensor.

  17. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

    1998-08-08

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  18. Gas response properties of citrate gel synthesized nanocrystalline MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Effect of sintering temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, J.Y.; Mulla, I.S.; Suryavanshi, S.S.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Synthesis of nanocrystalline MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by economical citrate gel combustion method. ? Structural, morphological, and gas response properties of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ? Enhancement in selectivity of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} towards LPG with sintering temperature. ? Use of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} to detect different gases at different operating temperatures. -- Abstract: Spinel type MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} material was synthesized by citrate gel combustion method. The effect of sintering temperature on structural, morphological, and gas response properties was studied. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscope study confirms nanocrystalline spinel structure of the synthesized powder. The material was tested for response properties to various reducing gases like liquid petroleum gas (LPG), acetone, ethanol, and ammonia. The results demonstrated n-type semiconducting behavior of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} material. It was revealed that MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sintered at 973 K was most sensitive to LPG at 648 K and to acetone at 498 K. However MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sintered at 1173 K exhibited higher response and selectivity to LPG with marginal increase in the operating temperature. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited a fast response and a good recovery. It was observed that the particles size, porosity, and surface activity of the sensor material is affected by the sintering temperature.

  19. Determining whether metals nucleate homogeneously on graphite: A case study with copper

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appy, David; Lei, Huaping; Han, Yong; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Tringides, Michael C.; Shao, Dahai; Kwolek, Emma J.; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

    2014-11-05

    In this study, we observe that Cu clusters grow on surface terraces of graphite as a result of physical vapor deposition in ultrahigh vacuum. We show that the observation is incompatible with a variety of models incorporating homogeneous nucleation and calculations of atomic-scale energetics. An alternative explanation, ion-mediated heterogeneous nucleation, is proposed and validated, both with theory and experiment. This serves as a case study in identifying when and whether the simple, common observation of metal clusters on carbon-rich surfaces can be interpreted in terms of homogeneous nucleation. We describe a general approach for making system-specific and laboratory-specific predictions.

  20. Microtextural characterization of copper shaped charge jet fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S.I.; Bingert, J.F.; Zernow, L.

    1995-09-01

    The microstructures of two soft-caught copper shaped charge jet particles were investigated. In particular, the spatial distributions of crystallographic texture within the particles were characterized using point specific measurements of crystallographic orientation. Significant variations in preferred orientation were observed. These results are discussed in fight of previous computer simulations of the jetting process which showed significant radial gradients in both strain and strain rate.

  1. Ash Determinations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Germination of Ashe juniper seed were compared in a controlled environment at different levels of fruit maturation, lengths of storage, and seed stratification to determine potential germination. Annual mean germination varied by an order...

  2. Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

    2013-08-06

    A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

  3. Copper foil adhesion within polyimide/glass multilayer printed wiring boards: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.

    1987-04-01

    Copper foil adhesion to polyimide/glass prepreg was evaluated. Typical peel strength obtained between prepreg and the smooth side of the copper foil was 1 to 3 lb./in. width. Peel strength between prepreg and the rough side of the copper foil ranged between 6 and 7 lb./in. width. An alternate test for evaluating the integrity of multilayer printed wiring boards is described.

  4. Mapping mesoscale heterogeneity in the plastic deformation of a copper single crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magid, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    1 Introduction Crystal plasticity is a heterogeneousmodeling of crystal plasticity promise significant advancesthe mechanisms of plasticity in single crystal copper. The

  5. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ions from water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Von Stosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2008-01-01

    P. R. V. Extraction of fission palladium by Aliquat 336 andnitrate salt and potassium palladium chloride were used. [Copper, Mercury, Silver and Palladium Ions from Water Using

  6. A model of material removal and post process surface topography for copper CMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Seungchoun; Doyle, Fiona M.; Dornfeld, David

    2011-01-01

    post process surface topography for copper CMP Seungchounis due to the uneven surface topography generated during theand the post CMP topography. Two synergistic mechanisms were

  7. Technology and social process : oscillations in Iron Age copper production and power in Southern Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yosef, Erez

    2010-01-01

    Y. , 1984. Mineralogy and Petrography of Copper Nodules in8.2.3 Petrography (optical microscopy) ………. ………………. 8.2.4microscope petrography …………………………………… 856 Table 9.1:

  8. Isentropic expansion of copper plasma in Mbar pressure range at “Luch” laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bel'kov, S. A.; Derkach, V. N.; Garanin, S. G.; Mitrofanov, E. I.; Voronich, I. N.; Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V.

    2014-01-21

    We present experimental results on thermodynamic properties of dense copper plasma in Mbar pressure range. The laser facility “Luch” with laser intensity 10{sup 14}?W/cm{sup 2} is used to compress copper up to ?8?Mbar by a strong shock wave; subsequent expansion of copper plasma into Al, Ti, Sn allows us to obtain release isentropes of copper by the impedance–matching method. A theoretical analysis and quantum simulations show that in our experiments strongly coupled quantum plasma is generated.

  9. Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in supercondu...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in superconducting cuprate bilayers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalous expansion of the...

  10. Nickel(II) and Copper(I,II)-based Metal-Organic Frameworks Incorporati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nickel(II) and Copper(I,II)-based Metal-Organic Frameworks Incorporating an Extended Trispyrazolate Linker Previous Next List Tabacaru, Aurel; Galli, Simona; Pettinari, Claudio;...

  11. Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MA, QIANG

    2010-01-01

    1 1.2. Atomic layer deposition………………………………………………..…. …2cell for atomic layer deposition……………………………26 2.8.Scheme process of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of copper(

  12. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Complete FiberCopper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure...

  13. Technology and social process : oscillations in Iron Age copper production and power in Southern Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yosef, Erez

    2010-01-01

    in press. A unique casting mold from the new excavations atmining, smelting and casting copper. An ethnoarchaeologicalin press. A unique casting mold from the new excavations at

  14. Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-08-10

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

  15. Routine production of copper-64 using 11.7MeV protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffery, C. M.; Smith, S. V.; Asad, A. H.; Chan, S.; Price, R. I. [Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Centre for Forensic Science, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia) and ARC Centre of Excellence in A (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) and Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) and Imaging and Applied (Australia); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia) and School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

    2012-12-19

    Reliable production of copper-64 ({sup 64}Cu) was achieved by irradiating enriched nickel-64 ({sup 64}Ni, >94.8%) in an IBA 18/9 cyclotron. Nickel-64 (19.1 {+-} 3.0 mg) was electroplated onto an Au disc (125{mu}m Multiplication-Sign 15mm). Targets were irradiated with 11.7 MeV protons for 2 hours at 40{mu}A. Copper isotopes ({sup 60,61,62,64}Cu) were separated from target nickel and cobalt isotopes ({sup 55,57,61}Co) using a single ion exchange column, eluted with varying concentration of low HCl alcohol solutions. The {sup 64}Ni target material was recovered and reused. The {sup 64}Cu production rate was 1.46{+-}0.3MBq/{mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni(n = 10) (with a maximum of 2.6GBq of {sup 64}Cu isolated after 2hr irradiation at 40uA. Radionuclidic purity of the {sup 64}Cu was 98.7 {+-} 1.6 % at end of separation. Cu content was < 6mg/L (n = 21). The specific activity of {sup 64}Cu was determined by ICP-MS and by titration with Diamsar to be 28.9{+-}13.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.70{+-}0.35Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n = 10) and 13.1{+-}12.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.35{+-}0.32Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n 9), respectively; which are in agreement, however, further work is required.

  16. Electrochemical planarization of copper surfaces with submicron features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalupa, R.; Andryushchenko, T.; Han, J.; Ghosh, T.; Shankar, S.; Fischer, P. [Design Technology Solutions Department, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Components Research Department, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Design Technology Solutions Department, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Components Research Department, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Electrochemical planarization (ECP) of copper surfaces in a phosphoric acid-based electrolyte solution is discussed. A first-principles, quantum chemistry modeling work is presented that further validates the water-facilitated (and water rate limited) chemistry model for copper oxidation at the anode. This model has been previously deduced by other researchers [R. Vidal and A. West, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 2689 (1995); B. Du and I. I. Suni, J. Appl. Electrochem. 34, 1215 (2004); R. Vidal and A. West J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 2682 (1995)] based on electrochemical experiments. Resulting water-limited model is validated against experimental data and applied to study the planarization behavior of a set of surface features. Aspect ratios and dimensions of these features were chosen to represent realistic (nonidealized, low aspect ratio structures) post-Damascene electroplate surface topography. Results are presented in a form of remaining feature amplitude versus mean copper thickness removed [A. C. West et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C652 (2005)]--allowing at-a-glance evaluation of the process against desired targets. The dominant effects of the mass transport boundary layer (BL) thickness on this planarization efficiency are discussed as are the challenges seen at typical flow conditions in ECP systems. Impact of changing the BL thickness and the requisite modulation of flow conditions analysis is included. Insights into practical challenges associated with BL buildup transient and associated surface roughening are summarized [D. Padhi et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, 610 (2003)]. Challenges of applying ECP as a straightforward substitute to the robust chemical mechanical polish (CMP) process are significant. Practical modifications to upstream process flow to enable ECP would include optimized electroplating process or a CMP preprocessing step.

  17. Microstructure and properties of copper thin films on silicon substrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Vibhor Vinodkumar

    2009-05-15

    .999% pure copper at a rate of 400 A/min. The NaCl surface was polished with moist metallographic polishing cloth and rinsing in methanol. NaCl was maintained at a temperature of 330?C during condensation process and then cooled to room temp in about 7... 1.2.1. Physical vapor deposition Physical vapor deposition is an atomistic deposition process, where materials are transported in the form of vapor to the substrate where it condenses, in the presence of high vacuum or low pressure...

  18. Copper Palladium Hydrogen Separation Membranes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool MagneticCopper Palladium Hydrogen

  19. Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnetti, David J.

    2010-07-14

    ............................... 2 1-2 Simple Schematic of Injection Casting Process for U-10Zr or U-10Zr-Pu ..... 3 2-1 Various Sinter Mechanics: 1 Surface Diffusion; 2 Lattice Diffusion (from the surface); 3 Vapor Transport; 4 Grain Boundary Diffusion; 5 Lattice...-24 The Linear Shrinkage of the Pellet 3, with Time 0 Beginning when the System Reached an Equilibrium at 650?C....................................................... 61 4-25 Uncalibrated Pellet 3 Shrinkage Data with Temperature...

  20. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electrodeposition of Copper: A Multistep Free Energy Calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    on perfecting Cu electroplating.16 The copper electrodeposition plays a major role in applications such as (i) production of protective coatings and/or decorative coatings on diverse substrates,17 (ii) production conductivity and higher electromigration. In general, copper is deposited by an electroplating process, due

  1. Orogenic movement mechanism for the formation of symmetrical relief features in copper nitride thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zexian, Cao

    Orogenic movement mechanism for the formation of symmetrical relief features in copper nitride thin heterogeneity, etc. In preparing thin films of the thermally unstable copper nitride Cu3N, growth proceeds-gap semiconduc- tors such as SiC and GaN that are expected to operate at temperatures over 300 °C demand both

  2. Ambient induced degradation and chemically activated recovery in copper phthalocyanine thin film transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Ambient induced degradation and chemically activated recovery in copper phthalocyanine thin film 2009 The electrical degradation aging of copper phthalocyanine CuPc organic thin film transistors OTFTs of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3159885 I. INTRODUCTION The recent demand for low cost, versatile electronic de

  3. OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF PATTERN DEPENDENCIES IN COPPER CMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boning, Duane S.

    features and erosion of oxide are a continuing problem in copper CMP [1-9]. Such problems can affect chip within the chip. Pattern interactions also lead to considerable surface non-planarity with consequent is defined as the recessed height of a copper line compared to the neighboring oxide, and erosion is defined

  4. SETUP AND PERFORMANCE OF THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS FOR THE 2005 RUN WITH COPPER IONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AHRENS, L.; ALESSI, J.; GARDNER, C.J.

    2005-05-16

    Copper ions for the 2005 run [1] of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are accelerated in the Tandem, Booster and AGS prior to injection into RHIC. The setup and performance of these accelerators with copper are reviewed in this paper.

  5. Hybrid solar cells based on porous Si and copper phthalocyanine derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Euler, William B.

    Hybrid solar cells based on porous Si and copper phthalocyanine derivatives I. A. Levitskya 25 October 2004) We demonstrate a solar cell based on n-type nanoporous Si (PSi) filled with copper of the PSi structure and pore filling on the solar cell performance is discussed. © 2004 American Institute

  6. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  7. Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel Arpana S. Murthy-strength stainless steel was investigated using three-dimen- sional atom probe tomography. A decrease in copper; Stainless steels; First-principle electron theory; Casting; Precipitation Precipitation-hardened (PH) steels

  8. Copper nanocrystal modified activated carbon for supercapacitors with enhanced volumetric energy and power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Copper nanocrystal modified activated carbon for supercapacitors with enhanced volumetric energy of Cu can greatly increase the volumetric capacitance and power density of AC. online 4 March 2013 Keywords: Supercapacitor Copper Volumetric capacitance Activated carbon a b s t r a c

  9. Copper Precipitation Hardened, High Strength, Weldable Steel by Semyon Vaynman 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copper Precipitation Hardened, High Strength, Weldable Steel by Semyon Vaynman 1 , Morris E. Fine 1 strength was achieved by copper precipitation hardening. The steel was designed to be air cooled from hot through precipitation hardening. Ni was added to prevent hot- shortness during hot rolling. Nb and Ti were

  10. Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bane, K L F; Tu, J J

    2006-01-01

    Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

  11. Effect of sintering in ball-milled K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} thermoelectric nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Ioannou, M.; Chrissafis, K.; Chung, D.Y.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Kyratsi, Th.

    2012-09-15

    K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} has many attractive features for thermoelectric applications. Recently, K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposite materials, consisting of nano-crystalline, micro-crystalline and amorphous phases, have been fabricated based on powder technology techniques. The Seebeck coefficient has been enhanced while the thermal conductivity has been decreased presenting, thus, interesting behavior. The behavior of the materials under heat treatment conditions is now of interest, as the application of sintering process is necessary for the development of thermoelectric modules. In this work, the crystallization of the K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nano-composites is studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results show that crystallization follows a multiple-step process with different activation energies. The thermoelectric properties are also discussed in the range that crystallization occurs. - Graphical Abstract: {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposites follow a multiple-step crystallization process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based composites consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering results multiple-step crystallization with variable activation energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties follow a step-like behavior during sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties are attributed to the strain relaxation, nucleation and grain growth.

  12. Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and physical properties of the new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelinska, Mariya; Assoud, Abdeljalil [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: kleinke@uwaterloo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    The new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} has been obtained by annealing the elements at 1073 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the title compound crystallizes in a new structure type, space group Pnma (no. 62) with lattice dimensions of a=8.2326(3) A, b=25.9466(9) A, c=7.3402(3) A, V=1567.9(1) A{sup 3}, Z=4 for La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86(4)}Te{sub 7}. The structure of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is remarkably complex. The Cu and Te atoms build up a three-dimensional covalent network. The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. Electrical property measurements on a sintered pellet of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86}Te{sub 7} indicate that it is a p-type semiconductor in accordance with the electronic structure calculations. -- Graphical abstract: Oligomeric unit comprising interconnected CuTe{sub 3} pyramids and CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} adopts a new structure type. {yields} All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. {yields} The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is a p-type semiconductor.

  13. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

  14. Achievement of high coercivity in sintered R-Fe-B magnets based on misch-metal by dual alloy method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, E Wang, Zhen-Xi; Chen, Zhi-An; Rao, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Bo-Ping; Chen, Guo-An; Zhao, Yu-Gang; Zhang, Jin

    2014-03-21

    The R-Fe-B (R, rare earth) sintered magnets prepared with different ratio of alloys of MM-Fe-B (MM, misch-metal) and Nd-Fe-B by dual alloy method were investigated. As expected, the high ratio of MM-Fe-B alloy degrades the hard magnetic properties heavily with intrinsic coercivity lower than 5 kOe. When the atomic ratio MM/R???21.5% the magnetic properties can reach a practical level of B{sub r}???12.1 kGs, H{sub cj}???10.7 kOe, and (BH){sub max}???34.0 MGOe. And the effect of H{sub cj} enhancement by the grain boundary diffusion process is obvious when MM/R???21.5%. It is revealed that the decrement of intrinsic magnetic properties of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B matrix phase is not the main reason of the degradation of the magnets with high MM ratio. The change of deteriorated microstructure together with phase component plays fundamental roles in low H{sub cj}. In high MM ratio magnets, (a) after annealing, Ce atoms inside main phase are inclined to be segregated in the outer layer of the main phase grains; (b) there is no thin layer of Ce-rich phase as an analogue of Nd-rich phase to separate main phase grains; (c) excessive Ce tends to form CeFe{sub 2} grains.

  15. Effects of Metal Coating on Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold. 1. Copper on Dodecanethiol and Octadecanethiol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrick, Michael Lenn

    Effects of Metal Coating on Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold. 1. Copper on Dodecanethiol on copper-coated SAMsconductedinourlaboratories.2 Inourpreviouswork, we fabricated gold-conjugated oligomer to characterize the SAM after the copper coating process. Prior studies on SAM/metal interfaces have been reported

  16. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. EFFECT OF THERMAL PROCESSES ON COPPER-TIN ALLOYS FOR ZINC GETTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Golyski, M.

    2013-11-01

    A contamination mitigation plan was initiated to address the discovery of radioactive zinc‐65 in a glovebox. A near term solution was developed, installation of heated filters in the glovebox piping. This solution is effective at retaining the zinc in the currently contaminated area, but the gamma emitting contaminant is still present in a system designed for tritium beta. A project was initiated to develop a solution to contain the {sup 65}Zn in the furnace module. Copper and bronze (a Cu/Sn alloy) were found to be candidate materials to combine with zinc‐65 vapor, using thermodynamic calculations. A series of binary Cu/Sn alloys were developed (after determining that commercial alloys were unacceptable), that were found to be effective traps of zinc vapor. The task described in this report was undertaken to determine if the bronze substrates would retain their zinc gettering capability after being exposed to simulated extraction conditions with oxidizing and reducing gases. Pure copper and three bronze alloys were prepared, exposed to varying oxidation conditions from 250 to 450{degree}C, then exposed to varying reduction conditions in He-H{sub 2} from 250-450{degree}C, and finally exposed to zinc vapor at 350{degree}C for four hours. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass change, and visual observation. It was observed that the as fabricated samples and the reduced samples all retained their zinc gettering capacity while samples in the "as-oxidized" condition exhibited losses in zinc gettering capacity. Over the range of conditions tested, i.e., composition, oxidation temperature, and reduction temperature, no particular sample composition appeared better. Samples reduced at 350{degree}C exhibited the greatest zinc capacity, although there were some testing anomalies associated with these samples. This work clearly demonstrated that the zinc gettering was not adversely affected by exposure to simulated process conditions and a full scale lithium and zinc trap should be fabricated for testing in the Tritium Extraction Facility.

  18. A new copper borophosphate with novel polymeric chains and its structural correlation with raw materials in molten hydrated flux synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Ruijing; Liu, Wei Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Xu, Hongmei; Zhao, Chenggong

    2014-02-15

    A novel copper borophosphate, Cu{sub 3}[B{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}] has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. Its crystal structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (monoclinic, Cc, a=6.1895 Å, b=13.6209 Å, c=11.9373 Å, ?=97.62°, V=997.5 Å{sup 3}, Z=4). The three-dimensional framework of the titled compound, is composed by two kinds of polymeric chains and isolated PO{sub 4} tetrahedral. One novel 4-membered tetrahedral rings has been observed in borophosphates. Magnetic measurements indicate that the title compound exits antiferromagnetic interactions. Due to the special reaction medium created by the molten hydrated flux method, a possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted. - Graphical abstract: The 3D structure consists of a framework composed of CuO{sub x} polyhedra, BO{sub 4} and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. A intersection angle between the metal chains and borophosphate chains can be noted. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel copper borophosphate has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. • One novel 4-membered tetrahedral ring has been observed firstly in borophosphates. • A possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted.

  19. The preparation of a novel polymer film based on salicylaldoxime and its influence on aqueous copper electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.; Vaughan, D.H.; Cardosi, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The metal complexing ligand salicylaldoxime was electropolymerized onto platinum electrodes and the resulting film characterized by reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy. The modified electrode response to aqueous iron, copper, cobalt and lead ions was investigated with the iron(III) and copper (II) ions showing significantly altered electrochemistry. The response of the modified electrode towards aqueous copper ion was found to be directly proportional to copper concentration with little interference from lead ions. The retention of copper ions, film stability and the nature of the film action are discussed along with its potential use in sensor construction.

  20. Gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline type-I Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) clathrates prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anno, Hiroaki; JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 ; Yamada, Hiroki; Nakabayashi, Takahiro; Hokazono, Masahiro; Shirataki, Ritsuko; JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075

    2012-09-15

    The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) compounds with the type-I clathrate structure is presented. Samples were prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. Powder x-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show that the solubility limit of gallium in the type-I clathrate phase is close to x=15, which is slightly higher than that for a single crystal. The carrier concentration at room temperature decreases from 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} as the Ga content x increases. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity vary systematically with the carrier concentration when the Ga content x varies. The effective mass (2.0m{sub 0}), the carrier mobility (10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}), and the lattice thermal conductivity (1.1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are determined for the Ga content x=14.51. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is about 0.55 at 900 K for the Ga content x=14.51. The calculation of ZT using the experimentally determined material parameters predicts ZT=0.8 (900 K) at the optimum carrier concentration of about 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. - Graphical abstract: The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties is presented on polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} with the type-I clathrate structure prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches 0.55 at 900 K due to the increase in the Ga content (close to x=15), and a calculation predicts further improvement of ZT at the optimized carrier concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallographic properties of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} clathrates are characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arc melting and spark plasma sintering process enables increase of Ga content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We elucidate the Ga composition dependence of thermoelectric properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is improved due to the increased Ga content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation predicts a potential ZT=0.8 at 900 K at optimized carrier concentration.

  1. Effect of a copper filler metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded titanium-stainless steel joint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ting, E-mail: fgwangting@163.com [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China); Zhang, Binggang, E-mail: zhang_bg@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Feng, Jicai, E-mail: fengjc@hit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China) [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Tang, Qi, E-mail: tangqi@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Cracking in an electron beam weld of titanium to stainless steel occurred during the cooling process because of internal thermal stress. Using a copper filler metal, a crack free joint was obtained, which had a tensile strength of 310 MPa. To determine the reasons for cracking in the Ti/Fe joint and the function of the copper filler metal on the improvement of the cracking resistance of the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, the microstructures of the joints were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cracking susceptibilities of the joints were evaluated with microhardness tests on the cross-sections. In addition, microindentation tests were used to compare the brittleness of the intermetallics in the welds. The results showed that the Ti/Fe joint was characterized by continuously distributed brittle intermetallics such as TiFe and TiFe(Cr){sub 2} with high hardness ({approx} 1200 HV). For the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, most of the weld consisted of a soft solid solution of copper with dispersed TiFe intermetallics. The transition region between the weld and the titanium alloy was made up of a relatively soft Ti-Cu intermetallic layer with a lower hardness ({approx} 500 HV). The formation of soft phases reduced the cracking susceptibility of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Fe joint cracked for the brittleness and residual stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Cu/Fe joint with tensile strength of 310 MPa was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu diluted Ti and Fe contents in weld and separated the TiFe{sub 2} into individual blocks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial hard Ti-Fe compounds were replaced by soft Ti-Cu compounds in the weld. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of solid solution of copper formed in the weld.

  2. Sonochemical preparation of copper sulfides with different phases in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristl, Matjaž, E-mail: matjaz.kristl@uni-mb.si [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Hojnik, Nuša [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Sašo [Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Material Synthesis, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drofenik, Miha [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Material Synthesis, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? Sonochemical preparation of copper sulfides in aqueous solutions is reported. ? CuS and Cu{sub 2}S nanoparticles with crystallite sizes between 7 and 18 nm were obtained. ? Crystallite size can be changed using different complexing agents. ? Thermal behavior was studied by TG and XRD measurements. - Abstract: There is a growing interest in the synthesis of nanostructured copper sulfides due to their ability to form compounds with various stoichiometries. We report a sonochemical route for the preparation of copper sulfides with different compositions in aqueous solutions, using different, general and convenient copper sources such as copper acetate, copper hydroxide or basic copper carbonate and thiourea or thioacetamide as sulfur precursors under ambient air. Phase analysis, purity and morphology of the products were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results revealed that nanoparticles of covellite, CuS, with crystallite sizes between 7 and 18 nm can be obtained by using different precursors and complexing agents and that chalcocite, Cu{sub 2}S, can also be prepared sonochemically.

  3. Room-temperature dislocation climb in copper-niobium interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoagland, Richard G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hirth, John P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Using atomistic simulations, we show that dislocations climb efficiently in metallic copper-niobium interfaces through absorption and emission of vacancies in the dislocation core, as well as an associated counter diffusion of Cu atoms in the interfacial plane. The high efficiency of dislocation climb in the interface is ascribed to the high vacancy concentration of 0.05 in the interfacial plane, the low formation energy of 0.12 e V with respect to removal or insertion of Cu atoms, as well as the low kinetic barrier of 0.10 eV for vacancy migration in the interfacial Cu plane. Dislocation climb in the interface facilitates reactions of interfacial dislocations, and enables interfaces to be in the equilibrium state with respect to concentrations ofpoint defects.

  4. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  5. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  6. Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstead, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degree}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME K{sub Ia} curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. High-speed photography of energetic materials and components with a copper vapor laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosser, L.R.; Reed, J.W.; Stark, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the properties of energetic materials, such as burn rate and ignition energy, is of primary importance in understanding their reactions and the functioning of devices containing them. One method for recording such information is high-speed photography at rates of up to 20,000 images per second. When a copper vapor laser is synchronized with the camera, laser-illuminated images can be recorded that detail the performance of a material and/or component in a manner never before possible. The laser can also be used for ignition of the energetic material, thus eliminating the need for bridgewires or electric squibs that can interfere with photography. Details of such ignitions are readily observable, and the burn rate of a material can be determined directly from the film. There are indications that information useful for the modeling of pyrotechnic reactions will become available as well. Recent results from high-speed photography of several pyrotechnic materials and devices will be presented. 9 figs.

  8. Structures of nitrato-(2-hydroxybenzaldehydo) (2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper and nitrato-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehydo)(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Paladi, L. G. [Moldova State University (Moldova, Republic of); Antosyak, B. Ya.; Simonov, Yu. A. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Tsapkov, V. I., E-mail: vtsapkov@gmail.com [Moldova State University (Moldova, Republic of); Bocelli, G. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (Italy); Gulea, A. P. [Moldova State University (Moldova, Republic of); Ginju, D. [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi (Romania); Palomares-Sanchez, S. A. [Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2011-03-15

    Nitrato-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehydo)(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper (I) and nitrato-(2-hydroxybenzaldehydo)(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper (II) were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom in complex I can be described as a distorted tetragonal pyramid whose base is formed by the phenol and carbonyl oxygen atoms of the monodeprotonated 2-hydroxy-5nitrobenzaldehyde molecule and the nitrogen atoms of the 2,2 Prime -bipyridyl ligand and whose apex is occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group. In the crystal structure, complexes I are linked by the acido ligands and the NO{sub 2} groups of the aldehyde molecule into infinite chains. In complex II, the central copper atom is coordinated by 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2,2 Prime -bipyridyl, and the nitrato group, resulting in the formation of centrosymmetric dimers. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom can be described as a bipyramid (4 + 1 + 1) with the same base as in complex I. The axial vertices of the bipyramid are occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group and the bridging phenol oxygen atom of the adjacent complex related to the initial complex by a center of symmetry. In the crystal structure, complexes II are hydrogen bonded into infinite chains.

  9. Coulomb-oscillator origin of superconductivity in p-doped copper oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manfred Bucher

    2013-06-28

    Emergence, development and cessation of superconductivity in three representative compounds of copper oxide families---cation doped Ca_2-xNa_xCuO2Cl2 and La_2-xAe_xCuO4 (Ae = Ba, Sr), as well as oxygen enriched YBa2Cu3O_6+x ---are explained with the Coulomb-oscillator model of superconductivity. By the model, non-resistive current is carried by axial Coulomb oscillations of s electrons through neighbor nuclei---here excited 3s electrons from O^2- ions through next-nearest neighbor oxygen nuclei---if their accompanying lateral oscillation is sufficiently confined to prevent lateral overswing. Cation doping gives rise to a superlattice in the layers that sandwich each CuO2 plane. In Ca_2-xNa_xCuO2Cl2, having one CuO2 plane per unit cell, superconductivity emerges when laterally confined Coulomb oscillators start connecting along 6 x 6 superlattice domains (in units of planar lattice constants) and it peaks at 4 x 4 domains when, at doping x = 1/8, the superlattice is completed. With further doping a new, off-set superlattice grows. Its frustrating effect gradually reduces superconductivity to cessation. The same mechanism holds for La_2-xAe_xCuO4 which has two, staggered CuO2 planes per unit cell. The staggering causes superconducting frustration or boost between adjacent layer sandwiches. This results in a double hump of the transition temperature Tc(x), instead of a dome, with a deep furrow or dip at x = 1/8 for Ae = Ba or Sr, respectively. Oxygen enrichment of YBa2Cu3O_6+x indirectly leads to effective doping in the CuO2 planes themselves (Cu^2+ --> Cu^3+). The ionization of copper ions at the corners of planar unit cells determines whether lateral oscillations between next-nearest neighbor O^2- ions overswing (Tc = 0) or are confined to wide or narrow electron tracks. Their percolating connectivity gives rise to respective plateaus of Tc = 57 K and Tc = 90 K, and intermediate ramps.

  10. Nanocrystallization in spark plasma sintered Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6} bulk amorphous alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ashish; Harimkar, Sandip P.; Katakam, Shravana; Dahotre, Narendra B.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2013-08-07

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as an attractive process for the processing of multi-component Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys and their in-situ nanocomposites with controlled primary nanocrystallization. Extended Q-range small angle neutron scattering (EQ-SANS) analysis, complemented by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, was performed to characterize nanocrystallization behavior of SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS experiments show significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural/compositional changes associated with the profuse nucleation of nanoclusters (?4 nm). For the samples spark plasma sintered near and above crystallization temperature (>653 °C), the SANS data show the formation of interference maximum indicating the formation and growth of (Fe,Cr){sub 23}C{sub 6} crystallites. The SANS data also indicate the evolution of bimodal crystallite distribution at higher sintering temperatures (above T{sub x1}). The growth of primary nanocrystallites results in impingement of concentration gradient fields (soft impingement effect), leading to non-random nucleation of crystallites near the primary crystallization.

  11. Results Of Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation (CCPO) Of Tank 48H Simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Pareizs, J. M.; Newell, J. D.; Fondeur, F. F.; Nash, C. A.; White, T. L.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. A processing temperature of 50 ?C as part of an overall set of conditions appears to provide a viable TPB destruction time on the order of 4 days. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. The data in this report suggests 100-250 mg/L as a minimum. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. An addition rate of 0.4 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is suggested for the process. SRNL recommends that for pH adjustment, an acid addition rate 42 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is used. This is the same addition rate used in the testing. Even though the TPB and phenylborates can be destroyed in a relative short time period, the residual organics will take longer to degrade to <10 mg/L. Low level leaching on titanium occurred, however, the typical concentrations of released titanium are very low (~40 mg/L or less). A small amount of leaching under these conditions is not surprising and is consistent with a previous study. Acidification with phosphoric and formic acids, in lieu of nitric acid, provides benefits in reducing the amount of benzene emitted over the lifetime of a reaction. Analyses of the post-reaction residual material indicate that slurry initially adjusted down to a pH 7 produced a greater degree of energetic material than material initially adjusted to a pH of 9. No more than 140 {micro}g/m{sup 3} of mercury was indicated in reactor head spaces at any time. An estimation of less than 1% of the initial mercury was vaporized in each experiment. A limited number of replicate tests were performed to determine experimental reproducibility. These tests indicate a reasonable degree of reproducibility. The conclusion of the simulant testing has provided a set of reaction conditions that can destroy the TPB and phenylborates quickly. While longer times will be required to degrade the residual organics, the reactions appear to perform in a consistent manner. A real waste test or tests are recommended and further investigation into the use of phosphoric or formic acid is warranted.

  12. CX-007644: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Copper Catalyzed peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/17/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  13. CX-007624: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  14. CX-011470: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Digestion analysis of copper foil and silicon carbide samples CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/26/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  15. CX-009801: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Copper Mountain to Boysen 34.5 Kilovolt Transmission Line Structure Replacement CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 01/11/2013 Location(s): Wyoming Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  16. Liquid precursor for deposition of copper selenide and method of preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Franciscus Antonius Maria Van Hest, Marinus; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-08

    Liquid precursors containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and methods of depositing a precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  17. EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE ON THE ACOUSTIC EMISSION GENERATED DURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF COPPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baram, J.

    2011-01-01

    but only after some extent of plastic deformation, It can,The Inhomogeneity of Plastic Deformation, A.S.M. Seminar,EMISSION GENERATED DURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF COPPER J,

  18. Room Temperature Aryl Trifluoromethylation via Copper- Mediated Oxidative Cross-Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchwald, Stephen Leffler

    A method for the room temperature copper-mediated trifluoromethylation of aryl and heteroaryl boronic acids has been developed. This protocol is amenable to normal benchtop setup and reactions typically require only 1?4 ...

  19. 1208 Organometallics1988,7,1208-1213 Copper(I) Alkyls. Synthesis and Characterization of Tertiary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    -Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Received December 28. 1986 Alkylation of copper(I1)acetate reflections and 62 variables. Introduction Lithium dialkylcuprates, LiCuR2,are used extensively in organic

  20. EFFECT OF GRINDING AND PELLETING OF HAY ON COPPER METABOLISM IN SHEEP.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECT OF GRINDING AND PELLETING OF HAY ON COPPER METABOLISM IN SHEEP. STUDIES WITH RADIOACTIVE was undertaken. The sheep were then given the same lucern hay ground and pelleted (containing 12 mg Cu/kg D

  1. Copper and Zinc Drive Inter-Domain Structure in the Cellular Prion Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Eric Graham Burton

    2015-01-01

    C. (1986). Scrapie and cellular PrP isoforms are encoded byStrittmatter, S.M. (2009). Cellular prion protein mediatesW. , et al. (1997). The cellular prion protein binds copper

  2. The properties of copper foams with negative Poisson's ratio via resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakes, Roderic

    such as flexural rigidity and plane strain fracture toughness [3]. Re- entrant transformation of copper foam the softening point, and cooled. For ductile metal foams, the material is compressed permanently in increments

  3. DWPF coupled feed flowsheet material balance with batch one sludge and copper nitrate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1993-09-28

    The SRTC has formally transmitted a recommendation to DWPF to replace copper formate with copper nitrate as the catalyst form during precipitate hydrolysis [1]. The SRTC was subsequently requested to formally document the technical bases for the recommendation. A memorandum was issued on August 23, 1993 detailing the activities (and responsible individuals) necessary to address the impact of this change in catalyst form on process compatibility, safety, processibility environmental impact and product glass quality [2]. One of the activities identified was the preparation of a material balance in which copper nitrate is substituted for copper formate and the identification of key comparisons between this material balance and the current Batch 1 sludge -- Late Wash material balance [3].

  4. GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 208 -Copper sequestration by black carbon in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 208 - Copper sequestration by black carbon in contaminated soil the quality of agricultural products and underground water and impacts the stability of soil organic carbon

  5. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cone, PhD Engineering, Dept. of Applied Science, University of California, Davis The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray...

  6. Microstructural breakdown and scale-up effects in equal channel angular extrusion of cast copper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadri, Shabibahmed Jehangir

    2006-10-30

    Channel Angular Extrusion of Cast Copper. (August 2005) Shabibahmed Jehangir Kadri, B.S., Gujarat University (India) Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. K. Theodore Hartwig The primary objectives of this study were: (1) to verify the effectiveness...

  7. Rapid sintering of TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes using intense pulsed white light for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Hwa-Young; Kim, Jae-Yup; Ah Lee, Jin; Lee, Kwangsoo; Yoo, Kicheon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, BongSoo; Young Kim, Jin; Kim, Honggon; Jung Son, Hae; Kim, Jihyun; Ah Lim, Jung E-mail: mjko@kist.re.kr; Jae Ko, Min E-mail: mjko@kist.re.kr

    2014-04-07

    Intense pulsed white light (IPWL) sintering was carried out at room temperature, which is suitable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabrication process on plastic substrates for the mass production. Five seconds irradiation of IPWL on TiO{sub 2} electrode significantly improves the photocurrent density and power conversion efficiency of DSSCs by more than 110% and 115%, respectively, compared to the DSSCs without IPWL treatment. These improvements were mainly attributed to the enhanced interconnection between the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced by IPWL illumination, which is confirmed by the impedance spectra analysis.

  8. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  9. Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

    1990-01-01

    THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by JAY MATTHEW OCHTERBECK Submitted to the 0%ce of Graduate Studies of Texas AJrM IJniversity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis JA'r '(IATTHEW OCHTERBECK Approved...

  10. Copper induced osteopenia and its relationship to the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in the rat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, Cindy Deann

    1992-01-01

    COPPER INDUCED OSTEOPENIA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS IN THE RAT A Thesis CINDY DEANN YEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Nutrition COPPER INDUCED OSTEOPENIA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS IN THE RAT A Thesis CINDY DEANN YEE Approved as to style and content...

  11. Flocculation studies on freshly precipitated copper ferrocyanide for the removal of cesium from radioactive liquid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, P.K.; Amalraj, R.V. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India)); Krishnasamy, V. (Anna Univ., Madras (India))

    1993-01-01

    Flocculation of copper ferrocyanide precipitate, used for the removal of Cs-isotopes from low-level and intermediate-level radioactive liquid waste, has been studied. Application of optimum dosages of flocculants, such as Polyelectrolytes and Fe[sup 3+] ions, is observed to enhance the removal of Cs and aid the separation of solid and liquid phases. Electrophoretic measurements have been used as a tool to determine the optimum dose of ferric ions by finding out the reversal of charge concentration (RCC) for Cu-ferrocyanide, precipitated in effluents of different specific conductances. The optimum requirement of Fe[sup 3+] ions increases with increasing specific conductances of the effluents. Presence of a complexing agent like EDTA affects the removal of Cs and also the separation of phases. The problem can be solved, at least for low concentration of EDTA, by lowering the pH to an optimum value, which has again been determined through electrophoretic measurements. It is inferred that uptake of Fe[sup 3+] ions by Cu-ferrocyanide proceeds through adsorption and ion-exchange with Cu[sup 2+] ions. When Cs[sup +] is present at very low concentration, for example as a radiopollutant, its removal is favored on addition of Fe[sup 3+] as flocculant, but at higher concentrations, the Cs[sup +] ions also partially undergo exchange with the Cu[sup 2+] ions, thus participating in the formation of precipitate. Addition of Fe[sup 3+], then, may not be desirable, as it may exchange with both Cu[sup 2+] and Cs[sup +] ions, releasing them into solution.

  12. TAO, Vol. 11, No. 4, 753-764, December 2000 A Rapid Method for the Determination of 137

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huh, Chih-An

    - ronments from atomic bomb tests, nuclear accidents, and nuclear waste disposal. As an ele- ment, the determination of 137 Cs in aqueous systems can be applied to moni- tor the release of nuclear wastes-effective, and can be more easily performed aboard ships. (Key words: 137 Cs, Seawater, Copper hexacyanoferrates) 1

  13. An investigation of bulk nanocrystalline copper fabricated via severe plastic deformation and nanoparticle consolidation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haouaoui, Mohammed

    2007-04-25

    ], conventional area reduction extrusion [22-23], sintering of nanopowders produced either by evaporation-condensation techniques or mechanical alloying [24-28], crystallization from amorphous phases [29], and electrodeposition [2,30-32] are among the main... processing methods available to obtain bulk NC materials. 3 Because NC materials fabricated by the previous methods involving consolidation or electrodeposition are produced in very small quantities, most of the mechanical characterization studies on NC...

  14. Determination of Elastic Properties and Characterization of Thermal Barrier Coatings using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical properties of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are extremely important to engine design. However, the determination of these properties is often difficult because of the unique and complicated microstructure of the coatings. In this presentation the determination of the elastic constants of plasma sprayed Yttria stabilized Zirconia thermal barrier coatings using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy will be described along with an analysis that enables the determination of the elastic constants as a function of temperature and coating direction. In this work, results on the following issues will be discussed: 1) the elastic anisotropy of thermal barrier coatings, which is associated with coating failure modes; 2) sintering effects on coating compliance comparing with thermal behavior, which is important to coating performance on engineering structures, such as turbine engines; 3) coating elastic modulus at high temperatures close to the service condition, which provides insights of coating mechanical behavior in both fundamental and practical studies.

  15. Buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni (RE=Rare Earth), and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approach, which includes chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

  16. Neutral atomic jet generation by laser ablation of copper targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matos, J. B. de; Rodrigues, N. A. S.

    2014-08-15

    This work aimed the obtainment of a neutral atomic jet departing from a plume generated by laser ablation of copper targets. A pair of electrodes together with a transducer pressure sensor was used to study the ablated plume charge composition and also to measure the ion extraction from the plasma plume. The neutral beam was produced with this setup and the relative abundance of neutrals in the plasma was measured, it decreases from 30% to 8% when the laser fluence is varied from 20 J/cm{sup 2} to 32 J/cm{sup 2}. The necessary voltage to completely remove the ions from the plume varied from 10 V to 230 V in the same fluence range. TOF analysis resulted in center of mass velocities between 3.4 and 4.6 km/s, longitudinal temperature in the range from 1 × 10{sup 4} K to 2.4 × 10{sup 4} K and a Mach number of M = 2.36, calculated using purely hydrodynamic expansion approximation.

  17. Dissociation of dilute immiscible copper alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barmak, K.; Lucadamo, G. A.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Lavoie, C.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2000-03-01

    The dissociation behavior of dilute, immiscible Cu-alloy thin films is found to fall into three broad categories that correlate most closely with the form of the Cu-rich end of the binary alloy phase diagrams. Available thermodynamic and tracer diffusion data shed further light on alloy behavior. Eight alloying elements were selected for these studies, with five elements from groups 5 and 6, two from group 8, and one from group 11 of the periodic table. They are respectively V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ru, and Ag. The progress of precipitation in approximately 500-nm-thick alloy films, containing 2.5-3.8 at. % solute, was followed with in situ resistance and stress measurements as well as with in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. In addition, texture analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of Cu(Ta) and Cu(Ag). For all eight alloys, dissociation occurred upon heating, with the rejection of solute and evolution of microstructure often occurring in multiple steps that range over several hundred degrees between approximately 100 and 900 degree sign C. However, in most cases, substantial reductions in resistivity of the films took place below 400 degree sign C, at temperatures of interest to copper metallization schemes for silicon chip technology. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leite, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: carlos.leite@pucrs.br [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90035-003 (Brazil); Maboni, Lucas de Oliveira [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Farmácia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Rosemberg, Denis Broock [Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó, Chapecó, CEP 89809-000 (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-01

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 ?M of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1?, TNF-?, COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE{sub 2} occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence of neutrophil migration), increased expression of genes involved in inflammatory events (IL-1? and TNF-?) and, reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at 4 h. At 24 h, the copper concentration is found highly increased, what is coincident with oxidative stress. Regarding the purinergic system, it is possible to observe an inhibition of ecto-5?-NT and ADA, with the consequent increase of AMP and ADA, respectively, at 24 h. The expression of enzyme-related genes shows a decrease in the expression of ecto-5?-NT and variable expressions of ADA subfamily enzymes. - Highlights: • Copper led to increased oxidative stress, and decreased the antioxidants' defenses. • Copper induced time-related changes of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-10 and PGE{sub 2} levels. • ADA activity controls the levels of adenosine in copper-induced inflammation. • ADA 2 is the main ADA subfamily involved. • The purinergic system seems to be involved in the resolution of inflammation.

  19. Atomic layer deposition growth of a novel mixed-phase barrier for seedless copper electroplating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sumit; Greenslit, Daniel; Chakraborty, Tonmoy; Eisenbraun, Eric T. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    A novel plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition-grown mixed-phase/nanolaminate Ru-TaN barrier has been investigated, and it was confirmed that the copper diffusion barrier and direct-plate characteristics of the mixed-phase barrier can be modulated by varying the metal ratio in the film. This liner was subsequently optimized to yield a composition that combines the robust barrier properties of TaN with direct-plate characteristics of Ru. It was found that the deposited multicomponent system consists of individual crystalline and amorphous phase regions distributed across the barrier. The resulting optimized mixed-phase barrier was found to exhibit excellent copper diffusion barrier characteristics in layers as thin as 2 nm. A high degree of (111) texture (>84%) was observed for the direct-plated copper on this Ru-TaN barrier, which was very similar to the electroplated Cu deposited on a physical vapor deposition copper-seed control sample. Additionally, the filling characteristics in sub-50-nm features were found to be equivalent to those of conventionally copper-seeded interconnect structures.

  20. Cleaning and passivation of copper surfaces to remove surface radioactivity and prevent oxide formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bachelor, Paula P.; Day, Anthony R.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Litke, Kevin E.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schulte, Shannon M.; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2007-08-21

    High-purity copper is an attractive material for constructing ultra-low-background radiation measurement devices. Many low-background experiments using high-purity copper have indicated surface contamination emerges as the dominant background. Radon daughters plate out on exposed surfaces, leaving a residual 210Pb background that is difficult to avoid. Dust is also a problem; even under cleanroom conditions, the amount of U and Th deposited on surfaces can represent the largest remaining background. To control these backgrounds, a copper cleaning chemistry has been developed. Designed to replace an effective, but overly aggressive concentrated nitric acid etch, this peroxide-based solution allows for a more controlled cleaning of surfaces. The acidified hydrogen peroxide solution will generally target the Cu+/Cu2+ species which are the predominant surface participants, leaving the bulk of copper metal intact. This preserves the critical tolerances of parts and eliminates significant waste disposal issues. Accompanying passivation chemistry has also been developed that protects copper surfaces from oxidation. Using a high-activity polonium surface spike, the most difficult-to-remove daughter isotope of radon, the performance of these methods are quantified. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  1. Comparison of availability of copper(II) complexes with organic ligands to bacterial cells and to chitin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D.; Azenha, M.A.O.; Cabral, J.P.S.

    1997-10-01

    Bacterial cells or chitin were exposed to solutions with 100 {micro}M total but only 5 {micro}M free copper, due to the presence of a proper concentration of proline, lysine, cysteine, or ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA). The influence of the nature and concentration of the particles and soluble ligands, on the sorption and on the desorption of the copper, at pH 6.50 and 25.0 C, was investigated. The metal sorbed by the particles and that left in the solution were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, after different periods of contact between particles and solution. The interpretation of the results was based on the copper(II) speciation calculated through equilibrium approaches applied to homogeneous or heterogeneous systems. A significant fraction of copper bound to the organic ligands was displaced to the bacteria or chitin, and the extent of chemical reaction depended on the nature of both the soluble (or leaving) ligands and sites on the particle surface (or entering ligands), as expected by the equilibrium theory. But with chitin, the uptake of copper in the presence of cysteine or EDTA was higher than expected, which may be due to the adsorption of the soluble copper complexes on the particle surface. In consequence of a competition between soluble and particulate ligands (cells or chitin), the free copper(II) concentration decreased in the solution, even in the presence of very strong chelators. The results indicate that copper availability is not a simple function of the initial free copper concentration in the solution. Desorption of the previously fixed copper, originated by free soluble ligands indicated that the sorption of copper was quasireversible for both particles, though a larger dismissal of the equilibrium position occurred for the cells, probably due to their biological activity.

  2. (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2013 increased by 4% to about 1.22 million tons,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .9% and consumption was projected to remain essentially unchanged. U.S. mine production increased by about 4% in 2013 Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2013 increased by 4% to about 1.22 million tons of production--accounted for more than 99% of domestic mine production; copper also was recovered in Idaho

  3. Irradiation effects on fracture toughness of two high-copper submerged-arc welds, HSSI series 5. Volume 2, Appendices E and F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Haggag, F.M.; McCabe, D.E.; Iskander, S.K.; Bowman, K.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Menke, B.H. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

    1992-10-01

    The Fifth Irradiation Series in the Heavy-Section Steel irradiation (HSSI) Program was aimed at obtaining a statistically significant fracture toughness data base on two weldments with high-copper contents to determine the shift and shape of the K{sub lc} curve as a consequence of irradiation. The program included irradiated Charpy V-notch impact, tensile, and drop-weight specimens in addition to compact fracture toughness specimens. Compact specimens with thicknesses of 25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm [1T C(T), 2T C(T), and 4T C(T), respectively] were irradiated. Additionally, unirradiated 6T C(T) and 8T C(T) specimens with the same K{sub lc} measuring capacity as the irradiated specimens were tested. The materials for this irradiation series were two weldments fabricated from special heats of weld wire with copper added to the melt. One lot of Linde 0124 flux was used for all the welds. Copper levels for the two welds are 0.23 and 0.31 wt %, while the nickel contents for both welds are 0.60 wt %. Twelve capsules of specimens were irradiated in the pool-side facility of the Oak Ridge Research Reactor at a nominal temperature of 288{degree}C and an average fluence of about 1.5 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). This volume, Appendices E and F, contains the load-displacement curves and photographs of the fracture toughness specimens from the 72W weld (0.23 wt % Cu) and the 73 W weld (0.31 wt % Cu), respectively.

  4. Proc. of 36th Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium, April 16-18, 1999, Copper Mountain, Colorado AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR KINEMATIC ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoff, William A.

    Proc. of 36th Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium, April 16-18, 1999, Copper Mountain, Colorado;Proc. of 36th Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium, April 16-18, 1999, Copper Mountain, Colorado

  5. Fabrication and characterization of silver- and copper-coated Nylon 6 forcespun nanofibers by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihut, Dorina M., E-mail: dorinamm@yahoo.com; Lozano, Karen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States); Foltz, Heinrich [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles were deposited as thin films onto substrates consisting of Nylon 6 nanofibers manufactured using forcespinning{sup ®} equipment. Different rotational speeds were used to obtain continuous nanofibers of various diameters arranged as nonwoven mats. The Nylon 6 nanofibers were collected as successive layers on frames, and a high-vacuum thermal evaporation method was used to deposit the silver and copper thin films on the nanofibers. The structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy–scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electrical resistance measurements. The results indicate that evaporated silver and copper nanoparticles were successfully deposited on Nylon 6 nanofibers as thin films that adhered well to the polymer substrate while the native morphology of the nanofibers were preserved, and electrically conductive nanostructures were achieved.

  6. Determination of Desorbed Species During Heating of AgI-Mordenite Provided by ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croes, Kenneth James; Garino, Terry J.; Mowry, Curtis D.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-12-15

    This study is focused on describing the desorbed off gases due to heating of the AgIMordenite (MOR) produced at ORNL for iodine (I2) gas capture from nuclear fuel aqueous reprocessing. In particular, the interest is for the incorporation of the AgI-MOR into a waste form, which might be the Sandia developed, low temperature sintering, Bi-Si oxide based, Glass Composite Material (GCM). The GCM has been developed as a waste form for the incorporation any oxide based getter material. In the case where iodine may be released during the sintering process of the GCM, additional Ag flake is added as further insurance in total iodine capture and retention. This has been the case for the incorporated ORNL developed AgIMOR. Thermal analysis studies were carried out to determine off gasing processes of ORNL AgIMOR. Independent of sample size, ~7wt% of total water is desorbed by 225°C. This includes both bulk surface and occluded water, and are monitored as H2O and OH. Of that total, ~5.5wt% is surface water which is removed by 125°C, and 1.5wt% is occluded (in zeolite pore) water. Less than ~1 wt% total water continues to desorb, but is completely removed by 500°C. Above 300°C, the detectable remaining desorbing species observed are iodine containing compounds, including I and I2.

  7. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolussi, Kurt

    Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation Thomas Pichler a,b,*, Kurt Nicolussi a , Gert Goldenberg c September 2012 Accepted 7 September 2012 Keywords: Dendrochronology Copper-mining Fire-setting Wood

  8. Theoretical Study of Mechanism and Selectivity of Copper-Catalyzed C-H Bond Amidation of Indoles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Rongzhen

    Theoretical Study of Mechanism and Selectivity of Copper-Catalyzed C-H Bond Amidation of Indoles theory calculations are used to study the reaction mechanism and origins of C2 selectivity in a copper the observed regioselectivity. Instead, an unprecedented mechanism based on a four-center reductive elimination

  9. A novel 2D coordination polymer based on a copper(II) tetramer with p-sulfonated thiacalix[4]arene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Song

    A novel 2D coordination polymer based on a copper(II) tetramer with p-sulfonated thiacalix[4]arene and sulfato-bridged Cu(II) tetramer coor- dinating to fully deprotonated p-sulfonated thiacalix[4]arene.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Crystal structure; 2D Coordination polymer; Copper tetramer; p

  10. The Khopik porphyry copper prospect, Lut Block, Eastern Iran: Geology, alteration and mineralization, fluid inclusion, and oxygen isotope studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraus, Mary

    The Khopik porphyry copper prospect, Lut Block, Eastern Iran: Geology, alteration.R. Stern b a Research Center for Ore Deposits of Eastern Iran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran b and mineralization Microthermometry Stable isotope The Khopik porphyry copper (Au, Mo) prospect in Eastern Iran

  11. The copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackel, R.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-12

    The Atomic Vapor Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program has developed a high-average-power, pulsed, tunable, visible laser system. Testing of this hardware is in progress at industrial scales. The copper-dye Laser system is prototypical of a basic module of a uranium-AVLIS plant The laser demonstration facility (LDF) system consists of copper vapor lasers arranged in oscillator-amplifier chains providing optical pump power to dye-laser master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains. This system is capable of thousands of watts (average) tunable between 550 and 650 mm. The copper laser system consists of 12 chains operating continuously. The copper lasers operate at nominally 4.4 kHz, with 50 ns pulse widths and produce 20 W at near the diffraction limit from oscillators and >250 W from each amplifier. Chains consist of an oscillator and three amplifiers and produce >750 W average, with availabilities >95% (i.e., >8300 h/y). The total copper laser system power averages {approximately}9000 W and has operated at over 10,000 W for extended intervals. The 12 copper laser beams are multiplexed and delivered to the dye laser system where they pump multiple dye laser chains. Each dye chain consists of a master oscillator and three or four power amplifiers. The master oscillator operates at nominally 100 mW with a 50 MHz single mode bandwidth. Sustained dye chain powers are up to 1400 W with dye conversion efficiency >50%, ASE content <5%, and wavefront quality correctable to <{lambda}/10 RMS, using deformable mirrors. The dye laser system is capable of repetition rates which are multiples of 4.4 kHz, up to 26 kHz.

  12. The copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackel, R.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-12

    The Atomic Vapor Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program has developed a high-average-power, pulsed, tunable, visible laser system. Testing of this hardware is in progress at industrial scales. The copper-dye Laser system is prototypical of a basic module of a uranium-AVLIS plant The laser demonstration facility (LDF) system consists of copper vapor lasers arranged in oscillator-amplifier chains providing optical pump power to dye-laser master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains. This system is capable of thousands of watts (average) tunable between 550 and 650 mm. The copper laser system consists of 12 chains operating continuously. The copper lasers operate at nominally 4.4 kHz, with 50 ns pulse widths and produce 20 W at near the diffraction limit from oscillators and >250 W from each amplifier. Chains consist of an oscillator and three amplifiers and produce >750 W average, with availabilities >95% (i.e., >8300 h/y). The total copper laser system power averages [approximately]9000 W and has operated at over 10,000 W for extended intervals. The 12 copper laser beams are multiplexed and delivered to the dye laser system where they pump multiple dye laser chains. Each dye chain consists of a master oscillator and three or four power amplifiers. The master oscillator operates at nominally 100 mW with a 50 MHz single mode bandwidth. Sustained dye chain powers are up to 1400 W with dye conversion efficiency >50%, ASE content <5%, and wavefront quality correctable to <[lambda]/10 RMS, using deformable mirrors. The dye laser system is capable of repetition rates which are multiples of 4.4 kHz, up to 26 kHz.

  13. Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palto Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  14. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2010-10-14

    We have attempted to hydrogenate adsorbed formate species on copper catalysts to probe the importance of this postulated mechanistic step in methanol synthesis. Surface formate coverages up to 0.25 were produced at temperatures between 413K and 453K on supported (Cu/SiO2) copper and unsupported copper catalysts. The adlayers were produced by various methods including (1) steady state catalytic conditions in CO2-H2 (3:1, 6 bar) atmospheres, and (2) by exposure of the catalysts to formic acid. As reported in earlier work, the catalytic surface at steady state contains bidentate formate species with coverages up to saturation levels of ~ 0.25 at the low temperatures of this study. The reactivity of these formate adlayers was investigated at relevant reaction temperatures in atmospheres containing up to 6 bar H2 partial pressure by simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements. The yield of methanol during the attempted hydrogenation (“titration”) of these adlayers was insignificant (<0.2 mol % of the formate adlayer) even in dry hydrogen partial pressures up to 6 bar. Hydrogen titration of formate species produced from formic acid also failed to produce significant quantities of methanol, and attempted titration in gases consisting of CO-hydrogen mixtures or dry CO2 were also unproductive. The formate decomposition kinetics, measured by IR, were also unaffected by these changes in the gas composition. Similar experiments on unsupported copper also failed to show any methanol. From these results, we conclude that methanol synthesis on copper cannot result from the direct hydrogenation of (bidentate) formate species in simple steps involving adsorbed H species alone. Furthermore, experiments performed on both supported (Cu/SiO2) and unsupported copper catalysts gave similar results implying that the methanol synthesis reaction mechanism only involves metal surface chemistry. Pre-exposure of the bidentate formate adlayer to oxidation by O2 or N2O produces a change to a monodentate configuration. Attempted titration of this monodentate formate/O coadsorbed layer in dry hydrogen produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production of water is also observed during this titration as the copper surface is re-reduced. These results indicate that co-adsorbates related to surface oxygen or water-derived species may be critical to methanol production on copper, perhaps assisting in the hydrogenation of adsorbed formate to adsorbed methoxyl.

  15. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore »and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  16. The influence of chloride ions on the corrosion of copper in soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirani, Raju K

    1980-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF CHLORIDE IONS ON THE CORROSION OF COPPER IN SOIL A Thesis by RA JU K . H I RAN I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1980 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE INFLUENCE OF CHLORIDE IONS ON THE CORROSION OF COPPER IN SOIL A Thesis by RAJU K. HIRANI Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) '(2. (Member ) (Member) (Member) ( ea o Dep...

  17. Application of copper vapour lasers for controlling activity of uranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barmina, E V; Sukhov, I A; Lepekhin, N M; Priseko, Yu S; Filippov, V G; Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A

    2013-06-30

    Beryllium nanoparticles are generated upon ablation of a beryllium target in water by a copper vapour laser. The average size of single crystalline nanoparticles is 12 nm. Ablation of a beryllium target in aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride leads to a significant (up to 50 %) decrease in the gamma activity of radionuclides of the uranium-238 and uranium-235 series. Data on the recovery of the gamma activity of these nuclides to new steady-state values after laser irradiation are obtained. The possibility of application of copper vapour lasers for radioactive waste deactivation is discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. APdCu(Se2)(Se3) (A ) K and Rb): New Quaternary Copper Palladium Polyselenides with Unusual Metal-Selenium Coordination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    APdCu(Se2)(Se3) (A ) K and Rb): New Quaternary Copper Palladium Polyselenides with Unusual Metal structurally characterized quaternary copper palladium polychalcogenides with a (Se2)2- and a (Se3)2- fragment ) K and Rb), which are the first quaternary copper palladium polychalcogenides obtained

  19. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  20. CX-012214: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Copper Mountain-Pilot Butte 34.5 Kilovolt Transmission Line Structure Pole Replacement Project, Fremont County, Wyoming CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/05/2014 Location(s): Wyoming Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  1. CX-004456: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boysen-Copper Mountain Structure 98/1 Replacement Project, Fremont County, WyomingCX(s) Applied: B1.3, B4.6Date: 11/10/2010Location(s): Fremont County, WyomingOffice(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  2. CX-010287: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Understanding Nitrous Oxide Selective Catalytic Reduction Mechanism and Activity on Copper/Chabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 05/08/2013 Location(s): CX: none Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  3. DOI: 10.1002/cvde.200606485 Thin, Continuous, and Conformal Copper Films by Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of less than 50 X/ , a value low enough to serve as seed layers for advanced electroplating techniques to generate Cu spots on Cu3N films.[9] Cu3N films can also be reduced to copper-seed layers for electroplating nonuniform coatings inside narrow holes. Atomic layer de- position (ALD) is known to make uniform films even

  4. SEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    /L. Extraction. The extraction procedure is the same for the sample, standards and blank (water between sample extractions with water. The chloroform extracts at this point will normally be cloudySEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION Background Reading: Harris

  5. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper for Ultra-Sensitive Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Liezers, Martin; Miley, Harry S.; Overman, Nicole R.; Reeves, James H.

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These new efforts require materials with purity levels at or below 1 uBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 uBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at 10 uBq/kg for 232Th has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  6. RESULTS OF COPPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION (CCPO) OF TANK 48H SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Pareizs, J.; Newell, J.; Fondeur, F.; Nash, C.; White, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. The following observations were made with respect to the major processing variables investigated. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. Testing with simulated slurries continues. Current testing is examining lower copper concentrations, refined peroxide addition rates, and alternate acidification methods. A revision of this report will provide updated findings with emphasis on defining recommended conditions for similar tests with actual waste samples.

  7. A constitutive model for fcc crystals with application to polycrystalline OFHC copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    The kinematics of crystal plasticity has been developed by Hill (1966), Rice (1971), Hill and Rice (1972 with the experimental results is achieved through the crystal plasticity model than the cor- responding continuum (1998) for OFHC copper. It turns out that the simulation using the crystal plasticity model pro- vides

  8. Efficacy of florfenicol, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in controlling a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    1 Efficacy of florfenicol, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in controlling a natural waterborne exposures to KMnO4 a) 2 mg/L above the KMnO4 demand (PPD) for 24 h, or b) 10 mg/L, above the PPD

  9. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai, Jing; Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 ; Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. {yields} The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. {yields} The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 {sup o}C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  10. Copper and zinc balance in exercising horses fed two forms of mineral supplements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Elizabeth Lynn

    2009-05-15

    This study was undertaken to compare the absorption and retention of copper and zinc when supplemented to exercising horses in the form of sulfate or organic-chelate mineral supplements. Nine mature horses were used in a modified-switchback designed...

  11. Demonstration of Proton-coupled Electron Transfer in the Copper-containing Nitrite Reductases*S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The reduction of nitrite (NO2 ) into nitric oxide (NO), cata- lyzed by nitrite reductase, is an important reaction in the deni- trification pathway. In this study, the catalytic mechanism of the copper effect (SKIE) of 1.3 0.1 indicated the involve- ment of one protonation to the rate-limiting catalytic

  12. Neutron diffraction measurements of dislocation density in copper crystals deformed at high strain rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Mala N.; Chaplot, S. L.; Rawat, S.

    2013-02-05

    Neutron diffraction measurements of the rocking curves were carried out for single crystals of copper subjected to dynamic compression at 10{sup 3}/s strain rate. The line broadening is expected to be produced by dislocations, and an analysis of this broadening gives the dislocation density. Dislocation density is found to increase with increase of pressure.

  13. Copper corrosion and its relationship to solar collectors:a compendium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.; Mahoney, Alan Roderick

    2007-07-01

    Copper has many fine qualities that make it a useful material. It is highly conductive of both heat and electricity, is ductile and workable, and reasonably resistant to corrosion. Because of these advantages, the solar water heating industry has been using it since the mid-1970s as the material of choice for collectors, the fundamental component of a solar water heating system. In most cases copper has performed flawlessly, but in some situations it has been known to fail. Pitting corrosion is the usual failure mode, but erosion can also occur. In 2000 Sandia National Laboratories and the Copper Development Association were asked to analyze the appearance of pin-hole leaks in solar collector units installed in a housing development in Arizona, and in 2002 Sandia analyzed a pitting corrosion event that destroyed a collector system at Camp Pendleton. This report includes copies of the reports and accounts of these corrosion failures, and provides a bibliography with references to many papers and articles that might be of benefit to the solar community. It consolidates in a single source information that has been accumulated at Sandia relative to copper corrosion, especially as it relates to solar water heaters.

  14. Water diffusion coefficients during copper electropolishing and IAN IVAR SUNI2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    Water diffusion coefficients during copper electropolishing BING DU1 and IAN IVAR SUNI2* 1, including several with ethanol and other species added as diluents. Diluents allow a wider range of water in the mass transfer limited regime are shown to depend on both the number of water acceptor molecules

  15. Structure Effects on the Energetics of the Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 by Copper Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, William

    2011-08-19

    Polycrystalline copper electrocatalysts have been experimentally shown to be capable of reducing CO{sub 2} into CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} with relatively high selectivity, and a mechanism has recently been proposed for this reduction on the fcc(211) surface of copper, which was assumed to be the most active facet. In the current work, we use computational methods to explore the effects of the nanostructure of the copper surface and compare the effects of the fcc(111), fcc(100) and fcc(211) facets of copper on the energetics of the electroreduction of CO{sub 2}. The calculations performed in this study generally show that the intermediates in CO{sub 2} reduction are most stabilized by the (211) facet, followed by the (100) facet, with the (111) surface binding the adsorbates most weakly. This leads to the prediction that the (211) facet is the most active surface among the three in producing CH{sub 4} from CO{sub 2}, as well as the by-products H{sub 2} and CO. HCOOH production may be mildly enhanced on the more close-packed surfaces ((111) and (100)) as compared to the (211) facet, due to a change in mechanism from a carboxyl intermediate to a formate intermediate. The results are compared to experimental data on these same surfaces; the predicted trends in voltage requirements are consistent between the experimental and computational data.

  16. High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic and propane isotherms measured at ambient temperatures and ideal adsorption solution theory (IAST) calculations revealed increasing propylene/propane selectivities with increasing pressures. The eld of highly

  17. Graphene Nucleation Density on Copper: Fundamental Role of Background Pressure Ivan Vlassiouk,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Graphene Nucleation Density on Copper: Fundamental Role of Background Pressure Ivan Vlassiouk the effect of background pressure and synthesis temperature on the graphene crystal sizes in chemical vapor of the background pressure and provide the activation energy for graphene nucleation in atmospheric pressure CVD (9

  18. Investigations at Tal-i Iblis : evidence for copper smelting during the Chalcolithic period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frame, Lesley (Leslie Diana)

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines a small corpus of artifacts from Tal-i Iblis, Iran dating to the mid-6th millennium BCE. When excavated in the late 1960s, these artifacts were presumed to be evidence of an early copper smelting ...

  19. Chlorination of dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin vapor by copper (II) chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    Chlorination of dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin vapor by copper (II) chloride Jae-Yong Ryu, James limited in- vestigation of dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) chlorination by CuCl2 to form chlorinated DD (CDD 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Dibenzofuran; Dibenzo-p-dioxin; CDF; CDD

  20. Performance Model of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process for SO2/NOx Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    technology for controlling SO2 and NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The development strategies for coal-fired power plants. Details of the IECM's copper oxide process, power plant air preheater via the power plant air preheater. The net chemical reactions occurring in the absorber are: CuO (s

  1. Copper modified austenitic stainless steel alloys with improved high temperature creep resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1987-04-28

    An improved austenitic stainless steel that incorporates copper into a base Fe-Ni-Cr alloy having minor alloying substituents of Mo, Mn, Si, T, Nb, V, C, N, P, B which exhibits significant improvement in high temperature creep resistance over previous steels. 3 figs.

  2. STATISTICAL REVIEW OF THE ALASKA SALMON FISHERIES PART III: PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, COPPER RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATISTICAL REVIEW OF THE ALASKA SALMON FISHERIES PART III: PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, COPPER RIVER Assistant, Alaska Service CONTENTS Introduction_ ~ _~ _ Prince William Sound__ ~ ~ _ Western part _ Knight 217 218 220 221 Prince William Sound-Continued. Eastern part _ Valdez Arm districL _ Port Fidalgo

  3. (N-heterocyclic-carbene)Copper(I)-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation using carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirokman, Gergely

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents work towards the development of a new catalytic C-C bond forming reaction. Alkynes and olefins insert into [(IPr)CuH]2 (IPr = N,N-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,3-imidazol-2-ylidene) to give copper vinyl ...

  4. Copper-silver-titanium-tin filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-04-05

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another at about 800.degree. C. is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 at. % copper, 40 to 50 at. % silver, 1 to 15 at. % titanium, and 2 to 8 at. % tin. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  5. Copper-silver-titanium filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 atomic percent copper, 15 to 50 atomic percent silver and 10 to 45 atomic percent titanium. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  6. Fusion Engineering and Design 42 (1998) 289297 Nuclear heating measurements for SS-316, copper, graphite,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 42 (1998) 289­297 Nuclear heating measurements for SS-316, copper for the reduction of design margins are stringently addressed in the design criteria. The uncertainty of the data base relevant to nuclear heating is considered as one of the most crucial problems in the designs

  7. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A Brønsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. • The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. • Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. • The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1–0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 °C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  8. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Zarnoch, Kenneth P. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  9. Bell beaker copper use in central Europe: a distinctive tradition? A re-evaluation of the composition of copper artefacts and its effects on the properties of the metal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merkl, Matthias Bernd

    2010-11-24

    This thesis is concerned with the manufacture of copper artefacts by the users of Bell Beaker pottery in the Eastern Bell Beaker group in central Europe, and addresses the question: did these metalworkers have distinct ...

  10. Copper mediated synthesis of mono-and dichlorinated diaryl ethers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    ): (ppm) 158.32, 156.28, 135.01, 130.45, 129.91, 123.98, 123.15, 119.40, 118.75, 116.66. GC/MS (EI, 70 e and after compound. Electron impact (EI) mass spectra (Thermo Scientific Focus DSQ) were determined (CDCl3, 75 MHz): (ppm) 157.19, 129.68, 123.15, 118.83. GC/MS (EI, 70 eV): m/z (%) 171 (13), 170 (M

  11. Crystal structures of bis-ligand complexes of copper(II) with 2-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]-4,6-dinitrophenol, 2,4-dichloro-6-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]phenol, and 2,4-dibromo-6-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]phenol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)], E-mail: chumakov.xray@phys.asm.md; Tsapkov, V. I. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Bocelli, G. [National Research Council (IMEM-CNR), Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (Italy); Palomares-Sanchez, S. A.; Ortiz, R. S. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Gulea, A. P. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The crystal structures of bis{l_brace}2,4-dibromo-6-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]phenolato{r_brace}copper (I), bis{l_brace}2,4-dichloro-6-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]phenolato{r_brace}copper (II), and bis{l_brace}2-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]-4,6-dinitrophenolato{r_brace}copper (III) in which the metal atom is located at the center of symmetry are determined using X-ray diffraction. Crystals of compounds I and II are isostructural. The copper atom in the structures of compounds I and I coordinates two singly deprotonated bidentate molecules of the ligand through the phenol oxygen atoms and the azomethine nitrogen atoms with the formation of a distorted planar square. In the crystals, complexes I and II form one-dimensional infinite chains along the b axis. In the structure of compound III, the coordination polyhedron of the central atom is an elongated tetragonal bipyramid with the base formed by the azomethine nitrogen atoms and the phenol oxygen atoms. Both vertices of the bipyramid are occupied by the oxygen atoms of the amino alcohol groups of the neighboring complexes, which are related to the initial complex through the center of symmetry. In turn, the oxygen atoms of the alcohol groups of the initial complex are located at the vertices of the coordination bipyramids of the metal atoms of the neighboring centrosymmetric complexes, thus forming infinite polymer chains along the a axis.

  12. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} added (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O{sub 3} ceramics sintered at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dohyung; Yoo, Juhyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semyung University, Jechon, Chungbuk 390-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Insung; Song, Jaesung [Piezoelectric Devices Research Group, KERI, Changwon 641-12 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, in order to develop low temperature sintering ceramics for a thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer, (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O{sub 3} ceramics were fabricated using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, MnO{sub 2}, and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering aids at 870, 900, and 930 deg. C. Their respective dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. At the sintering temperature of 900 deg. C, the optimum value was shown for the density of 6.94 g/cm{sup 3}, thickness vibration mode electromechanical coupling factor (henceforth, k{sub t}) of 0.497, thickness vibration mode mechanical quality factor (henceforth, Q{sub mt}) of 3162, and dielectric constant (henceforth, {epsilon}{sub r}) of 209 for thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer application.

  13. Filling Narrow Trenches by Iodine-Catalyzed CVD of Copper and Manganese on Manganese Nitride Barrier/Adhesion Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electromigration.1,2 The dual-damascene process, which involves copper electroplating in preformed trenches deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD), the electroplating process has the ability to fill sub

  14. Quantitative analysis of heavy metals emission during the combustion and baling of polyvinyl chloride insulated copper wire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickard, David Paul

    1996-01-01

    was conducted and compared to the airborne dust samples collected during the baling process. From these results, occupational exposures to heavy metals during the reclamation of PVC insulated copper wire were assessed. Bulk ash and dust samples were ?aken...

  15. Development of process to transfer large areas of LPCVD graphene from copper foil to a porous support substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Sean C. (Sean Carson)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I present a procedure by which to transfer greater than 25 mm² areas of high-quality graphene synthesized via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition from copper foil to porous support substrates. Large-area, ...

  16. Irradiation damage of single crystal, coarse-grained, and nanograined copper under helium bombardment at 450 °C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Weizhong

    The irradiation damage behaviors of single crystal (SC), coarse-grained (CG), and nanograined (NG) copper (Cu) films were investigated under Helium (He) ion implantation at 450 °C with different ion fluences. In irradiated ...

  17. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Stanley R. (Windsor, SC); Korinko, Paul S. (Aiken, SC)

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  18. Carboxylato compounds of chromium, copper, rhodium and molybdenum and new advances in the chemistry of V2(NXN)4 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillard, Elizabeth Anne

    2004-09-30

    investigated the triisopropylbenzoato complexes of some metals which are known for their ability to form a vast array of tetracarboxylato complexes, namely chromium, copper, molybdenum, and rhodium, and have found that these novel compounds display some...

  19. Unfolding pathway of CotA-laccase and the role of copper on the prevention of refolding through aggregation of the unfolded state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, Andre T. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da Republica, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal)] [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da Republica, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Lopes, Carlos [Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine, Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)] [Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine, Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Martins, Ligia O. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da Republica, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal)] [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da Republica, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Melo, Eduardo Pinho, E-mail: emelo@ualg.pt [Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine, Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CotA-laccase unfolds with an intermediate state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper stabilizes the native and the intermediate state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper binding to the unfolded state prevents refolding through protein aggregation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper incorporation in CotA-laccase occurs as a later step during folding. -- Abstract: Copper is a redox-active metal and the main player in electron transfer reactions occurring in multicopper oxidases. The role of copper in the unfolding pathway and refolding of the multicopper oxidase CotA laccase in vitro was solved using double-jump stopped-flow experiments. Unfolding of apo- and holo-CotA was described as a three-state process with accumulation of an intermediate in between the native and unfolded state. Copper stabilizes the native holo-CotA but also the intermediate state showing that copper is still bound to this state. Also, copper binds to unfolded holo-CotA in a non-native coordination promoting CotA aggregation and preventing refolding to the native structure. These results gather information on unfolding/folding pathways of multicopper oxidases and show that copper incorporation in vivo should be a tight controlled process as copper binding to the unfolded state under native conditions promotes protein aggregation.

  20. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  1. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Li, Z. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely copper-chromium and copper-cerium, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650 to 850 C. Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines (inlet > 750 C) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Results of fixed-bed reactor tests conducted in this quarter, indicate that, at 750 C, pre-reduction with H{sub 2} in the presence of H{sub 2}O does not effect the performance of either sorbent for H{sub 2}S removal. For the pre-reduced CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} sorbent, copper utilization before the first H{sub 2}S breakthrough is substantially higher in synthesis feed gas mixture than in feed gas containing 30 Vol% H{sub 2}, and slightly lower than in 10 vol% H{sub 2}. In sulfidation-regeneration testing of copper- and additive-rich sorbents, chromium-rich CuO-3Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} sorbent demonstrated very high H{sub 2}S removal efficiency and high copper conversion levels (comparable to that of the 1:1 molar composition sorbent). Similar results were obtained with the cerium-rich CuO-3CeO{sub 2} sorbent, but only for the first cycle. The H{sub 2}S removal performance of both copper-rich sorbents was inferior to that of the respective 1:1 molar compositions. CuO-CeO{sub 2} sorbent testing in a TGA indicates no appreciable decrease in the sulfidation rate over 5 1/2 cycles. However, weight changes during regeneration of the CuO-CeO{sub 2} suggest that some copper or cerium sulfates formed.

  2. 1D Zigzag Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) and Nickel(II) with Mixed Ligands Syntheses and Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    FULL PAPER 1D Zigzag Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) and Nickel(II) with Mixed Ligands Paik Suh*[a] Keywords: Magnetic properties / N ligands / Polymers / Copper / Nickel / Self assembly The one-dimensional coordination polymers [Cu(NO3)2(2,2 - bipy)(4,4 -bipy)]n·2nCH3OH (1) and [Ni(tren)(4

  3. Crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds. Phase 2: Results of duplex-type experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The objective of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Sixth Irradiation Series is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest toughness data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degrees}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). This is the second report giving the results of the tests on irradiated duplex-type crack-arrest specimens. A previous report gave results of tests on irradiated weld-embrittled-type specimens. Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens irradiated in the same capsules as the crack-arrest specimens were also tested, and a 41-J transition temperature shift was determined from these specimens. {open_quotes}Mean{close_quote} curves of the same form as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) K{sub la} curve were fit to the data with only the {open_quotes}reference temperature{close_quotes} as a parameter. The shift between the mean curves agrees well with the 41-J transition temperature shift obtained from the CVN specimen tests. Moreover, the four data points resulting from tests on the duplex crack-arrest specimens of the present study did not make a significant change to mean curve fits to either the previously obtained data or all the data combined.

  4. Method of preparing copper-dendritic composite alloys for mechanical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA)

    1988-01-01

    Copper-dendritic composite alloys are prepared for mechanical reduction to increase tensile strength by dispersing molten droplets of the composite alloy into an inert gas; solidifying the droplets in the form of minute spheres or platelets; and compacting a mass of the spheres or platelets into an integrated body. The spheres preferably have diameters of from 50 to 2000 .mu.m, and the platelets thicknesses of 100 to 2000 .mu.m. The resulting spheres or platelets will contain ultra-fine dendrites which produce higher strengths on mechanical reduction of the bodies formed therefrom, or comparable strengths at lower reduction values. The method is applicable to alloys of copper with vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, iron and cobalt.

  5. Microwave assisted growth of copper germanide thin films at very low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sayantan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Alford, T. L. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2013-08-26

    Herein the synthesis of Cu{sub 3}Ge films by exposing Cu-Ge alloy films to microwave radiation is reported. It is shown that microwave radiation led to the formation of copper germanide at temperatures ca. 80 °C. The electrical properties of the Cu{sub 3}Ge films are presented and compared for various annealing times. X-ray diffraction shows that the Cu{sub 3}Ge films formed after microwave annealing is crystalline in the orthorhombic phase. Rutherford backscattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the formation of copper oxide encapsulation layer. Despite the slight oxidation of Cu during the microwave anneal the lowest resistivity of Cu{sub 3}Ge films obtained is 14 ??-cm.

  6. Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Junjun, E-mail: junjun.shen@hzg.de; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid-State Joining Processes, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2014-05-12

    A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

  7. A surface science investigation of the formation of passivating layers on copper surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.

    1996-01-01

    ), and calcium phosphate dihydrate (e) are compared to . . . 35 . . . 37 phosphate adsorbed from solution (c). . . . . 38 Figure 18 A series of XPS spectra corresponding to the TPD spectra in Figure 15. The spectra are arranged such that from the bottom..., and magnesium chloride. The two solutions termed weak and strong electrolyte varied only in concentration, particularly, the phosphate concentration of 1 ppm and 5 ppm, respectively. To begin this investigation a 5 inonolayer copper film grown on a tantalum...

  8. Precipitation hardening in nickel-copper base alloy Monel K 500

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, G.K.; Tewari, R.; Wadekar, S.L.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Rao, P.

    1993-12-01

    The occurrence of a significant amount of age hardening, due to the precipitation of the {gamma}{prime} phase, has been demonstrated in the nickel-copper base alloy MONEL K 500. The microstructure of the precipitation-hardened and deformed alloy has been examined in peak-aged, underaged and overaged conditions. An attempt has been made to compare the observed increments in strength in these three aged conditions to those predicted on the basis of relevant theoretical models.

  9. Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonawane, Yogesh S.; Kanade, K.G.; Kale, B.B. Aiyer, R.C.

    2008-10-02

    Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu X wt% (X = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and inductive coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). FE-SEM showed the self-aligned Cu-doped ZnO nano-clusters with particles in the range of 40-45 nm. The doping of 0.5% of copper changes the electrical conductivity by an order of magnitude whereas the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) reduces with increase in copper wt% in ZnO. The material has shown an excellent sensitivity for the H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases with limited temperature selectivity through the optimized operating temperature of 130, 190 and 220 deg. C for H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases, respectively at 625 ppm gas concentration. The %SF was observed to be 1460 for H{sub 2} at 1% Cu doping whereas the 0.5% Cu doping offered %SF of 950 and 520 for CO and LPG, respectively. The response and recovery time was found to be 6 to 8 s and 16 s, respectively.

  10. A reliable control system for measurement on film thickness in copper chemical mechanical planarization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongkai; Qu, Zilian; Zhao, Qian; Tian, Fangxin; Zhao, Dewen; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, a variety of film thickness measurement techniques for copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) are subsequently proposed. In this paper, the eddy-current technique is used. In the control system of the CMP tool developed in the State Key Laboratory of Tribology, there are in situ module and off-line module for measurement subsystem. The in situ module can get the thickness of copper film on wafer surface in real time, and accurately judge when the CMP process should stop. This is called end-point detection. The off-line module is used for multi-points measurement after CMP process, in order to know the thickness of remained copper film. The whole control system is structured with two levels, and the physical connection between the upper and the lower is achieved by the industrial Ethernet. The process flow includes calibration and measurement, and there are different algorithms for two modules. In the process of software development, C++ is chosen as the programming language, in combination with Qt OpenSource to design two modules’ GUI and OPC technology to implement the communication between the two levels. In addition, the drawing function is developed relying on Matlab, enriching the software functions of the off-line module. The result shows that the control system is running stably after repeated tests and practical operations for a long time.

  11. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study of copper selective-area atomic layer deposition on palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Han; Qi, Jie; Willis, Brian G.

    2014-07-01

    Selective area copper atomic layer deposition on palladium seed layers has been investigated with in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry to probe the adsorption/desorption and reaction characteristics of individual deposition cycles. The reactants are copper bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) vapor and hydrogen gas. Self-limiting atomic layer deposition was observed in the temperature range of 135–230?°C in a low pressure reactor. Under optimal conditions, growth occurs selectively on palladium and not on silicon dioxide or silicon nitride layers. Based on in-situ ellipsometry data and supporting experiments, a new mechanism for growth is proposed. In the proposed mechanism, precursor adsorption is reversible, and dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen are the stable surface intermediates between growth cycles. The mechanism is enabled by continuous diffusion of palladium from the seed layer into the deposited copper film and strong H* binding to palladium sites. Less intermixing can be obtained at low growth temperatures and short cycle times by minimizing Cu/Pd inter-diffusion.

  12. An unusual 3D interdigitated architecture assembled from Keggin polyoxometalates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Haijun; Yang, Ming; Kang, Lu; Ma, Huiyuan; Liu, Bo; Li, Shaobin; Liu, Heng

    2013-02-15

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, [Cu{sub 2}(bipy){sub 3}({mu}{sub 1}-H{sub 2}O){sub 2}({mu}{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH)(H{sub 2}BW{sub 12}O{sub 40})]{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O (1) (bipy=4,4 Prime -bipy), has been synthesized in hydrothermal condition and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, TG analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses poly-pendant layered motifs composed of 12-tungstoborates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes, in which the mono-coordinated bipy molecules are orderly appended to both sides of the layer, respectively. Adjacent layers mutually engage in a zipper-like pattern to result in a novel 3D interdigitated architecture. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility of 1 showed that there existed weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. Toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, 1 has good electrocatalytic activity and remarkable stability. - A new compound has been obtained, which represents the first interdigitated architecture assembled by POMs and dinuclear copper(II) complexes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of interdigitated architecture assembled by POMs and dinuclear copper(II) complexes is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A zipper-like pattern is observed in the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IR, TG, XRPD, magnetism and electrochemical property of the title compound were studied.

  13. Palladium diffusion into bulk copper via the (100) surface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bussmann, Ezra; Pohl, Karsten; Sun, Jiebing; Kellogg, Gary Lee

    2009-01-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy, we measure the diffusion of Pd into bulk Cu at the Cu(100) surface. Interdiffusion is tracked by measuring the dissolution of the Cu(100)-c(2 x 2)-Pd surface alloy during annealing (T > 240 C). The activation barrier for Pd diffusion from the surface alloy into the bulk is determined to be (1.8 {+-} 0.6) eV. During annealing, we observe the growth of a new layer of Cu near step edges. Under this new Cu layer, dilute Pd remaining near the surface develops a layered structure similar to the Cu{sub 3}Pd L 1{sub 2} bulk alloy phase.

  14. IACT Peer-Reviewed Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T.; Dietrich, P. J.; Sollberger, F. G.; Ribeiro, F. H.; and Dumesic, J. A.; "Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Sintering for Supported Copper Catalysts during...

  15. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Copper- and silver-zirconia aerogels: Preparation, structural properties and catalytic behavior in methanol synthesis from carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeppel, R.A.; Stoecker, C.; Baiker, A. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry] [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry

    1998-10-25

    Copper- and silver-zirconia aerogels containing 10 at% IB metal were prepared from tetra-n-butoxy zirconium(IV) and IB metal acetates using the solution sol-gel method and ensuring high-temperature (HT) and low-temperature (LT) supercritical drying, respectively. The influence of preparation parameters and calcination on the structural and catalytic properties of the aerogels for the synthesis of methanol from carbon dioxide and hydrogen was investigated. After calcination in air at 573 K, the catalysts had BET surface areas in the range of 100--143 m{sup 2}/g (Cu/ZrO{sub 2}) and 77--125 m{sup 2}/g (Ag/ZrO{sub 2}), respectively. Due to the reductive alcoholic atmosphere during high-temperature supercritical drying, metallic copper and silver existed in all raw HT-aerogels. The mean size of the copper crystallites wa/s 30 nm. The silver crystallite size for the HT-aerogel prepared with nitric acid was 10 nm, whereas for samples prepared with acetic acid it was 5--7 nm. Calcination in air at 573 K led to the formation of highly dispersed amorphous copper oxide and silver. Comparing the catalytic behavior of the calcined copper-zirconia aerogels with corresponding xerogels prepared by coprecipitation revealed highest activity for the LT-aerogel, whereas the HT-aerogels were least active. In contrast, similar catalytic behavior was observed for the differently dried silver-zirconia samples. Generally, CO{sub 2}-conversion of the copper-zirconia samples. Generally, CO{sub 2}-conversion of the copper-zirconia aerogels was markedly higher than that of the corresponding silver-zirconia aerogels, whereas methanol selectivity was similar.

  17. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  18. NEPA Determination Complete

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has determined that this proposed project is a major Federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. To comply with the National Environmental Policy Act ...

  19. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  20. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  1. Copper-to-silicon-carbide joints development for Future CLIC Hom Dampers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gil Costa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic-to-metal joints have been of paramount importance for the nuclear and aeronautic industry since the last century. In this document, two different approaches to the Cu-to-SiC joining are briefly described and discussed. The first approach consists of an intermediate piece of lower Coefficient of Thermal Expansion than copper aiming to reduce the expansion mismatch with the ceramic during the brazing cycle. Soldering is selected as a second attempt, whose lower joining temperature reduces the absolute expansion difference between Cu and SiC. In addition, four SiC metallization processes are proposed and some of them have been also tested and discussed.

  2. Enantioselective and regiodivergent copper-­catalyzed electrophilic arylation of allylic amides with diaryliodonium salts - SI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahard, Elise; Male, Henry P. J.; Tissot, Matthieu; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    2015-08-07

    !from!lithium!aluminium!hydride!and!calcium!hydride;!acetonitrile,!toluene!and!dichloromethane!were!distilled!from!calcium!hydride;! 1,2>dichloroethane! and! 1,4>dioxane!were! purchased! from!Acros!Organics.! HPLC! grade! iso>propanol!and!n>hexane!were... !purchased!from!Fisher!Scientific.!For!purification!purposes,!petroleum!ether!40>60,!hexanes!and!ethyl!acetate!were!distilled!before!use;!diethyl!ether!was!used!as!purchased!from!Sigma!Aldrich.!!!Reagents:!All!reagents!were!purified!by!standard!procedures!or!used!as!purchased!at!the!highest!commercial!quality.1! Copper...

  3. Cryogenic RF Material Testing with a High-Q Copper Cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Jiquan; Tantawi, Sami; Martin, David; Yoneda, Charles [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2010-11-04

    An X-band RF cryogenic material testing system has been developed in the past few years. This system employs a high-Q copper cavity with an interchangeable flat bottom working under a TE{sub 013} like mode. By measuring the cavity Qs with a network analyzer, the system can characterize the surface resistance of different samples at different temperatures. Using a 50 MW 2{mu}s pulsed klystron, the system can measure the quenching H field for superconducting samples, up to 300-400 mT. In this paper, we will present the most recent developments of the system and testing results.

  4. Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Chun (Monroeville, PA)

    2012-04-24

    A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

  5. Interaction of o-aminophenol and o-nitrophenol with copper, zinc, molybdenum, and chromium ferrocyanides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, B.B.; Kamaluddin

    1997-09-15

    Removal of o-aminophenol and o-nitrophenol from aqueous solution through adsorption on copper, zinc, molybdenum, and chromium ferrocyanides were studied in pH range 2--10 at 27 C. At pH 7.0 o-nitrophenol adsorbed more than o-aminophenol on all the metal ferrocyanides studied. The Langmuir type of adsorption is followed in the concentration range of 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}4} M of o-aminophenol and o-nitrophenol solutions.

  6. Copper clusters capture and convert carbon dioxide to make fuel | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool MagneticCopper Palladium

  7. Copper-tin Electrodes Improve Capacity and Cycle Life for Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool MagneticCopper Palladium- Energy

  8. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to(Conference)Connect Passivation Effects in Copper Thin

  9. Low-Cycle-Fatigue Behavior of Copper Materials and Their Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogoFeet)LowCycle-Fatigue Behavior of Copper

  10. The use of a macroscopic formulation describing the effects of dynamic compaction and porosity on plasma sprayed copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arrigoni, M.; Boustie, M. [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique (LCD UPR CNRS 9028), ENSMA, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Bolis, C.; Berthe, L. [Laboratoire d'Application des Lasers de Puissance (LALP UPR CNRS 1576), 16 bis Av Prieur de la Cote d'Or, 94114 Arcueil Cedex (France); Barradas, S.; Jeandin, M. [Ecole des Mines de Paris/C2P-Centre de Projection Plasma, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France)

    2008-04-15

    Coatings processed by thermal deposition techniques involve porosity. The Laser adhesion test developed for testing bond strength of a coating on its substrate requires a good knowledge of shock wave propagation in such media. Experiments carried out on plasma sprayed copper samples, about 14% porous, with velocity interferometer system for any reflector measurements display the discrepancy of previously used models. Hence, a one-dimensional formulation of the compaction process, based on a simple P-{alpha} model, is proposed to improve the correlation between experimental and computed data signals obtained on a plasma sprayed copper under dynamic loading. Besides, this improvement allows the estimation of the bond strength of a plasma sprayed copper on aluminum substrate.

  11. Use of He Gas Cooled by Liquid Hydrogen with a 15-T Pulsed Copper Solenoid Magnet McDonald, K.T.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    its heat capacity plummets, approximately as T3 , below ~30 K. The heating rate, proportional to /cpUse of He Gas Cooled by Liquid Hydrogen with a 15-T Pulsed Copper Solenoid Magnet McDonald, K 91324, USA The power required to energize a copper magnet is minimized by operation at the lowest

  12. Synthesis and Properties of a Molecular Dumbbell with Bis-4-oxo Copper(II/I) Hepta Metal Centers Mi Young Han, Kil Sik Min, and Myunghyun Paik Suh*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Synthesis and Properties of a Molecular Dumbbell with Bis-µ4-oxo Copper(II/I) Hepta Metal Centers to their interesting structures as well as potential applications as nanoscale molecular devices1,2 and new inorganic magnetic materials that can be applied to memory devices.3-5 Especially the polynuclear copper complexes

  13. Rolling contact fatigue in high vacuum using ion plated nickel-copper-silver solid lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2011-01-15

    Ion plated, nickel-copper-silver coated steel ball bearings that were tested in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) experiments in high vacuum are presented in this article. ANSI T5 ball bearings were coated with approximately 10 nm of nickel-copper followed by 100 nm of silver using a dc ion plating process. The balls were then tested for RCF in vacuum in the 10{sup -7} Torr range at 130 Hz rotational speed and at 4.1 GPa Hertzian contact stress. The significance of this work is in the extension of RCF testing to an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application using silver as a lubricant instead of oil. The effects of pressure and voltage on the ion plating process were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and RCF life testing in UHV. Test results with a ball size of 5/16 in. in UHV show that deposition at voltages greater than 2.5 kV shortens the RCF life and introduces a unique failure mode. Voltage and pressure fluctuations during the deposition process result in significant thickness monitor measurement errors as well. A regulator control scheme that minimizes the process pressure overshoot is also simulated.

  14. Direct production of nanostructured copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apaydin, Ramazan Oguzhan; Ebin, Burcak; Gurmen, Sebahattin

    2013-12-16

    Copper-Nickel (CuNi) nanostructured alloy particles were produced by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Hydrogen Reduction Method (USP-HR) from high purity copper and nickel nitrate aqueous solutions. The effect of the precursor solution in the range of 0.1 and 0.5 mol/L on the morphology and crystallite size of CuNi nanoparticles were investigated under 2 h running time, 700 °C operating temperature and 0.5 L/min H{sub 2} flow rate. Particle size, morphology, composition and crystallite structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Particle characterization studies show that nanostructured alloy particles have cubic crystal structure and they are in submicron size range with spherical morphology. The crystallite sizes of the particles calculated with Scherrer formula are 40 and 34 nm and average particles sizes observed from the SEM images are 300 and 510 nm for each experiment respectively.

  15. Copper damage modeling with the tensile hopkinson bar and gas gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, D. L.; Thissell, W. R.; Trujillo, C. P.; Schwartz, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Ductile damage nucleation in recovered copper tensile Hopkinson bar specimens has been modeled using the 2D EPIC code. The model has also been successfully applied to spallation gas gun data to greatly expand the pressure range. The split tensile Hopkinson pressure bar permits the creation of damage at fairly high strain rates (10{sup 4}/s) with large plastic strains (100%). Careful momentum trapping allows incipient damage states to be arrested and recovered for metallurgical examination. The use of notched samples allows the pressure - flow stress, or triaxiality, to be varied from 1/3 to about 1.2 to study the interplay of pressure and deviatoric stress. In this paper, we will concentrate on modeling the nucleation of ductile damage in pure copper (Hitachi). With the same material, we also study spallation in a gas gun experiment to obtain the nucleation stress under high pressure and small plastic strain. The goal of the modeling is to obtain a unified nucleation model suitable for both.

  16. Copper K-shell emission cross sections for laser–solid experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, J. R.; Betti, R.; Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.

    2013-08-15

    Published measurements and models of the cross section for electrons causing K-shell emission from copper are reviewed to find a suitable expression to use when analyzing K{sub ?}-emission measurements in laser–solid experiments at peak intensities above 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Few measurements exist in the 0.1- to 10-MeV electron energy range currently of interest, leaving a number of possible suitable models that are summarized here with a number of typing errors corrected. Two different limiting forms for the cross section at relativistic energies are used, and existing measurements do not give a clear indication as to which is correct. Comparison with the limiting form of electron stopping power indicates an alternative relativistic form and also that the density-effect correction will be important in copper above 10 MeV. For data analysis relying on relative K{sub ?} emission caused by electrons with energy much greater than the K-shell binding energy, the existing uncertainty in cross sections is unimportant, but it will be a source of uncertainty when using absolute values and for electron energies up to ?6× the binding energy. K-shell emission caused by photons and protons is also briefly reviewed.

  17. Direct Metal Transfer Between Periplasmic Proteins Identifies a Bacterial Copper Chaperone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagai, I.; Rensing, C.; Blackburn, N.; McEvoy, M.M.

    2009-05-11

    Transition metals require exquisite handling within cells to ensure that cells are not harmed by an excess of free metal species. In Gram-negative bacteria, copper is required in only small amounts in the periplasm, not in the cytoplasm, so a key aspect of protection under excess metal conditions is to export copper from the periplasm. Additional protection could be conferred by a periplasmic chaperone to limit the free metal species prior to export. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we have demonstrated that two periplasmic proteins, CusF and CusB, of the Escherichia coli Cu(I)/Ag(I) efflux system undergo a metal-dependent interaction. Through the development of a novel X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach using selenomethionine labeling to distinguish the metal sites of the two proteins, we have demonstrated transfer of Cu(I) occurs between CusF and CusB. The interaction between these proteins is highly specific, as a homologue of CusF with a 51% identical sequence and a similar affinity for metal, did not function in metal transfer. These experiments establish a metallochaperone activity for CusF in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria, serving to protect the periplasm from metal-mediated damage.

  18. Laser induced plasma on copper target, a non-equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oumeziane, Amina Ait, E-mail: a.aitoumeziane@gmail.com; Liani, Bachir [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria)] [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria); Parisse, Jean-Denis [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)] [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive numerical model for the UV laser ablation of metal targets, it focuses mainly on the prediction of laser induced plasma thresholds, the effect of the laser-plasma interaction, and the importance of the electronic non-equilibrium in the laser induced plume and its expansion in the background gas. This paper describes a set of numerical models for laser-matter interaction between 193-248 and 355?nm lasers and a copper target. Along with the thermal effects inside the material resulting from the irradiation of the latter with the pulsed laser, the laser-evaporated matter interaction and the plasma formation are thoroughly modelled. In the laser induced plume, the electronic nonequilibrium and the laser beam absorption have been investigated. Our calculations of the plasmas ignition thresholds on copper targets have been validated and compared to experimental as well as theoretical results. Comparison with experiment data indicates that our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, the inclusion of electronic non-equilibrium in our work indicated that this important process must be included in models of laser ablation and plasma plume formation.

  19. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-15

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the “cold” cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93?°C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  20. Size tunable elemental copper nanoparticles: extracellular synthesis by thermoanaerobic bacteria and capping molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Jacobs, Christopher B; Gresback, Ryan G; Ivanov, Ilia N; Meyer III, Harry M; Kidder, Michelle; Joshi, Pooran C; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Graham, David E; Moon, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal sized elemental copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from inexpensive oxidized copper salts by an extracellular metal-reduction process using anaerobic Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 bacteria in aqueous solution. The bacteria nucleate NPs outside of the cell, and they control the Cu2+ reduction rate to form uniform crystallites with an average diameter of 1.75 0.46 m after 3-day incubation. To control the size and enhance air stability of Cu NPs, the reaction mixtures were supplemented with nitrilotriacetic acid as a chelator, and the surfactant capping agents oleic acid, oleylamine, ascorbic acid, or L-cysteine. Time-dependent UV-visible absorption measurements and XPS studies indicated well-suspended, bimodal colloidal Cu NPs (70 150 and 5 10 nm) with extended air-stability up to 300 min and stable Cu NP films surfaces with 14% oxidation after 20 days. FTIR spectroscopy suggested that these capping agents were effectively adsorbed on the NP surface providing oxidation resistance in aqueous and dry conditions. Compared to previously reported Cu NP syntheses, this biological process substantially reduced the requirement for hazardous organic solvents and chemical reducing agents, while reducing the levels of Cu oxide impurities in the product. This process was highly reproducible and scalable from 0.01 to 1-L batches.

  1. THERMODYNAMICS AND MECHANISMS OF SINTERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pask, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    E. Hoge and Joseph A. Pask, "Thermodynamics of So:!.id StateJoseph A. Pask, "Thermodynamics and Geometric Considerations8419 r- ,y / ( /)~; - - I THERMODYNAMICS AND MECHANISMS OF

  2. Grain size effect on the giant dielectric constant of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} nanoceramics prepared by mechanosynthesis and spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Mohamad M.; Yamada, Koji

    2014-04-21

    In the present work, CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} (CCTO) nanoceramics with different grain sizes were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at different temperatures (SPS-800, SPS-900, SPS-975, and SPS-1050) of the mechanosynthesized nano-powder. Structural and microstructural properties were studied by XRD and field-emission scanning electron microscope measurements. The grain size of CCTO nanoceramics increases from 80?nm to ?200?nm for the ceramics sintered at 800?°C and 975?°C, respectively. Further increase of SPS temperature to 1050?°C leads to micro-sized ceramics of 2–3??m. The electrical and dielectric properties of the investigated ceramics were studied by impedance spectroscopy. Giant dielectric constant was observed in CCTO nanoceramics. The dielectric constant increases with increasing the grain size of the nanoceramics with values of 8.3?×?10{sup 3}, 2.4?×?10{sup 4}, and 3.2?×?10{sup 4} for SPS-800, SPS-900, and SPS-975, respectively. For the micro-sized SPS-1050 ceramics, the dielectric constant dropped to 2.14?×?10{sup 4}. The dielectric behavior is interpreted within the internal barrier layer capacitance picture due to the electrical inhomogeneity of the ceramics. Besides the resistive grain boundaries that are usually observed in CCTO ceramics, domain boundaries appear as a second source of internal layers in the current nanoceramics.

  3. Investigation on effects of surface morphologies on response of LPG sensor based on nanostructured copper ferrite system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satyendra; Yadav, B.C.; Gupta, V.D.; Dwivedi, Prabhat K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the variations in resistance with time for copper ferrite system synthesized in various molar ratio. A maximum variation in resistance was observed for copper ferrite prepared in 1:1 molar ratio. Highlights: ? Evaluation of structural, optical and surface morphologies. ? Significant variation in LPG sensing properties. ? Surface modification of ferric oxide pellet by copper ferrite. ? CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} pellets for LPG sensing at room temperature. -- Abstract: Synthesis of a copper ferrite system (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) via chemical co-precipitation method is characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology (scanning electron microscope) and optical absorption spectroscopy. These characteristics show their dependence on the relative compositions of the two subsystems. They are further confirmed by the variation in the band gap. A study of gas sensing properties shows the spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized in 1:1 molar ratio exhibit best response to LPG adsorption/resistance measurement. Thus resistance based LPG sensor is found robust, cheap and may be applied for kitchens and industrial applications.

  4. Non-LTE analysis of copper abundances for the two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, H L; Nissen, P E; Zhao, G

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct halo populations were found in the solar neighborhood by a series of works. They can be clearly separated by [alpha\\Fe] and several other elemental abundance ratios including [Cu/Fe]. Very recently, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) study revealed that relatively large departures exist between LTE and non-LTE results in copper abundance analysis. We aim to derive the copper abundances for the stars from the sample of Nissen et al (2010) with both LTE and non-LTE calculations. Based on our results, we study the non-LTE effects of copper and investigate whether the high-alpha population can still be distinguished from the low-alpha population in the non-LTE [Cu/Fe] results. Our differential abundance ratios are derived from the high-resolution spectra collected from VLT/UVES and NOT/FIES spectrographs. Applying the MAFAGS opacity sampling atmospheric models and spectrum synthesis method, we derive the non-LTE copper abundances based on the new atomic model with current atomic data obt...

  5. Thermal chemistry of copper(I)-N,N '-di-sec-butylacetamidinate on Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Qiang; Zaera, Francisco; Gordon, Roy G.

    2012-01-15

    The surface chemistry of copper(I)-N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinate on Cu(110) single-crystal surfaces has been characterized under ultrahigh vacuum by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A series of thermal stepwise conversions were identified, starting with the partial dissociative adsorption of the copper acetamidinate dimers into a mixture of monomers and dimers on the surface. An early dissociation of a C-N bond leads to the production of N-sec-butylacetamidine, which is detected in TPD experiments in three temperature regimes, the last one centered around 480 K. Butene, and a small amount of butane, is also detected above approximately 500 K, and hydrogen production, an indication of dehydrogenation of surface fragments, is observed at 460, 550 and 670 K. In total, only about 10% of the initial copper(I)-N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinate adsorbed monolayer decomposes, and only about {approx}3% of carbon is left behind on the surface after heating to high temperatures. The implications of this surface chemistry to the design of chemical film growth processes using copper acetamidinates as precursors are discussed.

  6. Carbon for electronics Electronics, as we know is based on silicon, and on metals like copper. One may ask why

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, George

    and a semiconductor, and nano-scale forms of the material can be made to resemble a metal, such as copper and a semiconductor such a silicon. The materials are based on carbon, and ­ in contrast to polymers ­ carbon alone common form of carbon, graphite is a semimetal, it's electronic properties lie between a metal

  7. Effect of laser irradiation on the structure and valence states of copper in Cu-phosphate glass by XPS studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekki, Abdelkarim

    Effect of laser irradiation on the structure and valence states of copper in Cu-phosphate glass a polaron. It is well known that laser irradiation could modify the surface chemistry of transition metal in altogether new ways. The effect of the laser irradiation is up to the depth of few microns and less than 1 mm

  8. Systematic Approach to Compare the Inflammatory Response of Liver Cell Culture Systems Exposed to Silver, Copper, and Nickel Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Nivedita

    2011-10-21

    hepatotoxicity concerns, the inflammatory response of hepatocytes after exposure to metal colloids was assessed. Four ~30-nm-sized metal colloids, including silver (nano-Ag), copper (nano-Cu) and nickel (nano-Ni) were examined in an effort to understand...

  9. Sputtered Molybdenum Bilayer Back Contact for Copper Indium Diselenide-Based Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    -of-the-art polycrystalline copper indium gallium diselenide solar cells with good results. Thin Solid Films, 260 (1), pp. 26), have emerged as promising polycrystalline thin-film semiconductors for solar cell absorber layers.2 polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology. 3 Solar cells fabricated at the National Renewable Energy

  10. SU-E-T-10: A Dosimetric Comparison of Copper to Lead-Alloy Apertures for Electron Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusk, B; Hogstrom, K; Gibbons, J; Carver, R [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric differences of copper compared to conventional lead-alloy apertures for electron beam therapy. Methods: Copper apertures were manufactured by .decimal, Inc. and matching lead-alloy, Cerrobend, apertures were constructed for 32 square field sizes (2×2 – 20×20 cm{sup 2}) for five applicator sizes (6×6–25×25 cm{sup 2}). Percent depth-dose and off-axis-dose profiles were measured using an electron diode in water with copper and Cerrobend apertures for a subset of aperture sizes (6×6, 10×10, 25×25 cm{sup 2}) and energies (6, 12, 20 MeV). Dose outputs were measured for all field size-aperture combinations and available energies (6–20 MeV). Measurements were taken at 100 and 110 cm SSDs. Using this data, 2D planar absolute dose distributions were constructed and compared. Passing criteria were ±2% of maximum dose or 1-mm distance-to-agreement for 99% of points. Results: A gamma analysis of the beam dosimetry showed 93 of 96 aperture size, applicator, energy, and SSD combinations passed the 2%/1mm criteria. Failures were found for small field size-large applicator combinations at 20 MeV and 100-cm SSD. Copper apertures showed a decrease in bremsstrahlung production due to copper's lower atomic number compared to Cerrobend (greatest difference was 2.5% at 20 MeV). This effect was most prominent at the highest energies with large amounts of shielding material present (small field size-large applicator). Also, an increase in electrons scattered from the collimator edge of copper compared to Cerrobend resulted in an increased dose at the field edge for copper at shallow depths (greatest increase was 1% at 20 MeV). Conclusion: Apertures for field sizes ?6×6 cm{sup 2} at any energy, or for small fields (?4×4 cm{sup 2}) at energies <20 MeV, showed dosimetric differences less than 2%/1mm for more than 99% of points. All field size-applicator size-energy combinations passed 3%/1mm criteria for 100% of points. Work partially funded by .decimal, Inc. (Sanford, FL)

  11. Synthesis and structural characterisation of iron(II) and copper(II) diphosphates containing flattened metal oxotetrahedra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keates, Adam C.; Wang, Qianlong; Weller, Mark T.

    2014-02-15

    Single crystal and bulk polycrystalline forms of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M=Fe(II), Cu(II)) have been synthesised and their structures determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the tetragonal system, space group P-42{sub 1}m. Their structures are formed from infinite sheets of linked oxopolyhedra of the stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2?} with potassium cations situated between the layers. The MO{sub 4} tetrahedra share oxygen atoms with [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 4?} diphosphate groups and the potassium ions have KO{sub 8} square prismatic geometry. In both compounds the M(II) centre has an unusual strongly flattened, tetrahedral coordination to oxygen, as a result of the Jahn–Teller (JT) effect for the high spin d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing or a second order JT effect for d{sup 9} Cu(II) centres in four fold coordination. The uncommon transition metal ion environments found in these materials are reflected in their optical absorption spectra and magnetism data. - Graphical abstract: The structures of the tetragonal polymorphs of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, M=Cu(II), Fe(II), consist of infinite sheets of stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2?}, formed from linked pyrophosphate groups and MO{sub 4} tetrahedra, separated by potassium ions. In both compounds the unusual tetrahedral coordination of the M(II) centre is strongly flattened as a result of Jahn–Teller (JT) effects for high spin, d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing and second-order JT effects for d{sup 9} Cu(II). Display Omitted - Highlights: • Tetrahedral copper and iron(II) coordinated by oxygen. • New layered phosphate structure. • Jahn–Teller and d{sup 10} distorted coordinations.

  12. Selective Capture of Cesium and Thallium from Natural Waters and Simulated Wastes with Copper Ferrocyanide Functionalized Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert J.; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Timchalk, Charles; Yantasee, Wassana

    2010-10-15

    Copper(II) ferrocyanide immobilized inside mesoporous silica MCM-41 supports (Cu-FC-EDA-SAMMSTM) has been evaluated against iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) (insoluble Prussian blue) for the sorption of cesium (Cs+) and thallium (Tl+) from natural waters and simulated wastes. The affinities (in term of distribution coefficients, Kd) of both sorbents for Cs and Tl were measured as a function of solution pH, competing cations, and matrices. For the entire pH studied (pH 0.1 to 7.3), Cu-FC-EDA-SAMMS had higher affinities for Cs and Tl (one to two orders of magnitude higher Kd) than Prussian blue and was less negatively impacted by the solution pH, competing cations, and matrices. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics of the two sorbents for Cs and/or Tl were also determined in seawater and simulated acid and alkaline wastes. SAMMS outperformed Prussian blue in terms of maximum adsorption capacity (e.g., 21.7 versus 2.6 mg Cs/g in acid waste stimulant, pH 1.1), and rate (e.g., over 95 wt% of Cs was removed after 2 minutes with SAMMS, while only 75 wt% was removed with Prussian blue). The lower affinity, capacity, and rate of Cs and Tl sorption on Prussian blue than those on Cu-FC-EDA-SAMMS were attributed to the molecular pore sizes, which restrict mass transport, and the insoluble Cs abducts of the Prussian blue, which restrict the ability of neighboring binding sites to further bind Cs ions. On the other hand, the large pores of SAMMS not only enable faster diffusion and faster binding chemistry, but they also allow isolation of binding sites so that one Cs binding event does not impact further Cs binding. In addition, iron (Fe) dissolved from insoluble Prussian blue over 10-fold of that from Cu-FC-EDA-SAMMS after 24 hours of contact time, indicating poorer material stability of Prussian blue.

  13. Investigation of the suppression effect of polyethylene glycol on copper electroplating by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hung, C.-C.; Lee, W.-H.; Wang, Y.-L.; Chan, D.-Y.; Hwang, G.-J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); College of Science and Engineering, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700, Taiwan (China)

    2008-09-15

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an additive that is commonly used as a suppressor in the semiconductor copper (Cu)-electroplating process. In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the electrochemical behavior of PEG in the Cu-electroplating process. Polarization analysis, cyclic-voltammetry stripping, and cell voltage versus plating time were examined to clarify the suppression behavior of PEG. The equivalent circuit simulated from the EIS data shows that PEG inhibited the Cu-electroplating rate by increasing the charge-transfer resistance as well as the resistance of the adsorption layer. The presence of a large inductance demonstrated the strong adsorption of cuprous-PEG-chloride complexes on the Cu surface during the Cu-electroplating process. Increasing the PEG concentration appears to increase the resistances of charge transfer, the adsorption layer, and the inductance of the electroplating system.

  14. Percolating porosity in ultrafine grained copper processed by High Pressure Torsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegner, Matthias Leuthold, Jörn; Peterlechner, Martin; Divinski, Sergiy V. Wilde, Gerhard; Setman, Daria; Zehetbauer, Michael; Pippan, Reinhard

    2013-11-14

    Defect structures in copper of different purity (nominally 99.99 and 99.999?wt.?%) deformed via High Pressure Torsion (HPT) with varying processing parameters are investigated utilizing the radiotracer diffusion technique. While the degree of deformation is kept constant, the effects of applied quasi-hydrostatic pressure, processing temperature, post-deformation annealing treatments, and of the impurity concentration on the deformed samples are analyzed in terms of the formation of interconnected internal porosity. Furthermore, the anisotropy of the developing porosity network is examined. The porosity channels occurred to be interconnected along the direction parallel to the surface normal with a volume fraction of the order of a few ppm while no long-range penetration along the internal porosity could be detected when measured along the azimuthal or radial directions of a HPT processed sample.

  15. Copper coated carbon fiber reinforced plastics for high and ultra high vacuum applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burri, F; Feusi, P; Henneck, R; Kirch, K; Lauss, B; Ruettimann, P; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Schnabel, A; Voigt, J; Zenner, J; Zsigmond, G

    2013-01-01

    We have used copper-coated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CuCFRP) for the construction of high and ultra-high vacuum recipients. The vacuum performance is found to be comparable to typical stainless steel used for this purpose. In test recipients we have reached pressures of 2E-8 mbar and measured a desorption rate of 1E-11 mbar*liter/s/cm^2; no degradation over time (2 years) has been found. Suitability for baking has been found to depend on the CFRP production process, presumably on the temperature of the autoclave curing. Together with other unique properties of CuCFRP such as low weight and being nearly non-magnetic, this makes it an ideal material for many high-end vacuum applications.

  16. Substituted copper phthalocyanine/multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid material for Cl{sub 2} sensing application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Anshul Kumar, E-mail: dramanmahajan@yahoo.co.in; Saini, Rajan, E-mail: dramanmahajan@yahoo.co.in; Singh, Rajinder, E-mail: dramanmahajan@yahoo.co.in; Mahajan, Aman, E-mail: dramanmahajan@yahoo.co.in; Bedi, R. K., E-mail: dramanmahajan@yahoo.co.in [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005 (India); Aswal, D. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In this work, hybrid of soluble copper phthalocyanine (CuPcOC{sub 8}) and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been synthesized. The formation of CuPcOC{sub 8}-MWCNTs hybrid is confirmed by atomic force microscopy, UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy. Subsequently, a chemi-resistive sensor is fabricated by drop casting CuPcOC{sub 8}-MWCNTs hybrid onto glass substrate. It has been demonstrated that CuPcOC{sub 8}-MWCNTs hybrid is highly selective towards Cl{sub 2} gas with minimum detection limit of 100 ppb. The response of sensor increases linearly with increase in the concentration of Cl{sub 2} gas. For 2000 ppb of Cl{sub 2}, CuPcOC{sub 8}-MWCNTs hybrid gives a response as large as 53% in 40 seconds.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Horizontal Continuous Casting Process of C194 Copper Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Guojie; Xie Shuisheng; Cheng Lei; Cheng Zhenkang [State Key Laboratory for Fabrication and Processing of Nonferrous Metals, Beijing General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals, China, 100088 (China)

    2007-05-17

    Horizontal Continuous Casting (H.C.C) is an important method to cast C194 copper ingot. In this paper, numerical simulation is adopted to investigate the casting process in order to optimize the H.C.C technical parameters, such as the casting temperature, casting speed and cooling intensity. According to the numerical results, the reasonable parameters are that the casting temperature is between 1383K{approx}1463K, the casting speed is between 7.2m/h{approx}10.8m/h and the speed of cooling water is between 3.6m/s{approx}4.6m/s. The results of numerical simulation provide the significant reference to the subsequent experiments.

  18. Simulation and Experiment on Direct Continuous Casting Process of Lead Frame Copper Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Guojie; Xie Shuisheng; Cheng Lei [State Key Laboratory for Fabrication and Process of Nonferrous Metals, Beijing General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals, 100088 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Direct Continuous Casting (D.C.C) is an important method in casting lead frame copper alloy. In this paper, numerical simulation is adopted to investigate the casting process in order to optimize the D.C.C technical parameters, such as the casting temperature, casting speed and cooling intensity. According to the numerical results, the reasonable parameters are that the casting temperature is between 1413 Kapprox1413 K, the casting speed is between 8 m/happrox10 m/h and the speed of cooling water is between 4.2 m/sapprox4.6 m/s. And the depth of liquid-solid boundary is measured in different casting temperature and casting speed by experiments. The results show the actual measurements have a little deviation with the numerical simulation. The results of numerical simulation provide the significant reference to the actual experiments.

  19. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  20. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woehrl, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.woehrl@uni-due.de; Schulz, Stephan [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ochedowski, Oliver; Gottlieb, Steven [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Shibasaki, Kosuke [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)] [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO{sub 2} substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm{sup 2}. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

  1. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  2. Surface-confined 2D polymerization of a brominated copper-tetraphenylporphyrin on Au(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smykalla, Lars; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich; Hietschold, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A coupling-limited approach for the Ullmann reaction-like on-surface synthesis of a two-dimensional covalent organic network starting from a halogenated metallo-porphyrin is demonstrated. Copper-octabromo-tetraphenylporphyrin molecules can diffuse and self-assemble when adsorbed on the inert Au(111) surface. Splitting-off of bromine atoms bonded at the macrocyclic core of the porphyrin starts at room temperature after the deposition and is monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for different annealing steps. Direct coupling between the reactive carbon sites of the molecules is, however, hindered by the molecular shape. This leads initially to an ordered non-covalently interconnected supramolecular structure. Further heating to 300{\\deg}C and an additional hydrogen dissociation step is required to link the molecular macrocycles via a phenyl group and form large ordered polymeric networks. This approach leads to a close-packed covalently bonded network of overall good quality. The structures are characte...

  3. A study of the regeneration process in diesel particulate traps using a copper fuel additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, J.C.; Opris, C.N.; Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 C to 375 C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration. The higher peak trap temperatures were predominantly controlled by the effect of the exhaust flow rates on the energy transfer processes. The total regeneration time was faster for the controlled regeneration compared to the uncontrolled regeneration. All traps passed the controlled regeneration tests having maximum temperatures less than 900 C. During the uncontrolled regeneration tests, trap failure occurred at 135 and 139 g particulate matter loadings. The maximum temperatures were in excess of 1,150 C. The pressure drop across the trap was modeled using the one dimensional Darcy`s law which accounted for the pressure drop due to the ceramic wall and the particulate layer. The experimental results for the substrate correlate well with the empirical substrate pressure drop models available in the literature. The models also enable an estimate to be made regarding trap mass loading. These data along with the laboratory data have indicated that mass loadings greater than 110 g followed by high temperature operation and subsequent engine idling can result in trap failures during regeneration.

  4. Responses of phtyoplankton photosynthesis and phosphorus kinetics to resuspended sediments in copper sulfate-treated ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalewajko, C. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Prepas, E.E. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    1996-01-01

    Six farm ponds (dugouts) and one lake that differ in the history of copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) treatment were selected for studies of effects of sediments resuspension on phytoplankton. All sites are located within 50 km of Peace River, Alberta, and are shallow, hardwater, and eutrophic. Effects of sediment resuspension on phytoplankton photosynthesis were assessed by changes in the photosynthesis-irradiance P-D curve parameters, Pmax and {alpha}, after addition of sediment at 2% v/v to lakewater samples; the effects on phytoplankton P-state were assessed by changes in {sup 32}PO{sub 4} turnover time. Copper concentrations in sediments of Gour No. 4, the dugout that had received the largest dosage of CuSO{sub 4}, were 60-times greater than untreated sites but were only 1.5 to 3-times greater at the other treated sites. Changes of Pmax and {alpha} were not correlated with Cu concentrations in the sediments. Instead, the prevailing P-state in lakewater could better explain the observed trends in Pmax after sediment addition. Pmax values decreased at sites where phytoplankton were P-limited ({sup 32} P-PO{sub 4} turnover time <63 min) and increased at more P-sufficient sites ({sup 32}P-PO{sub 4} turnover time >63 min). Stimulation of Pmax and increase in {sup 32}P-PO{sub 4} turnover time were positively correlated. With the exception of Gour No. 4, values of a increased in all treatments. Similar changes in Pmax and a in response to sediment addition occurred in laboratory experiments with P-sufficient cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae. We suggest that, with the exception of grossly Cu-polluted sediments, resuspension of sediments in waters previously treated with CuSO{sub 4} will enhance phytoplankton photosynthesis by increasing P availability, and possibly by supplying Cu at trace metal levels. 25 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. PBX 9404 detonation copper cylinder tests: a comparison of new and aged material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mier, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Briggs, Matthew E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present detonation copper cylinder test results on aged PBX 9404 (94 wt% HMX, 3 wt% CEF, 2.9 wt% NC, 0.1 wt% DPA) explosive. The charges were newly pressed from 37.5 year-old molding powder. We compare these results to equivalent data performed on the same lot when it was 3.5 years old. Comparison of the detonation energy inferred from detonation speed to that inferred from wall motion suggests that the HMX energy is unchanged but the NC energy has decreased to {approx}25% of its original value. The degradation of explosives and their binders is a subject of continual interest. Secondary explosives such as HMX are sufficiently stable near room temperature that they do not measurably degrade over a period of at least several decades. For formulated systems the bigger concern is binder degradation, for which the three main issues are strength, initiation safety, and (if the binder is energetic) energy content. In this paper we examine the detonation energy of new and aged PBX 9404 (94 wt% HMX, 3 wt% tris-{beta} chloroethylphosphate (CEF), 2.9 wt% nitrocellulose (NC), 0.1 wt% diphenylamine (DPA) [1, 2]), measured via the detonation copper cylinder test. In 1959, two independent PBX 9404 accidents [3] raised serious concerns about the safety of the formulation. Over about a decade's time, Los Alamos pursued a safer, energetically equivalent replacement, which ultimately became PBX 9501. In order to accurately compare the performance of the PBX 9404 and PBX 9501 formulations, W. Campbell and R. Engelke (C & E) developed a stringent cylinder test protocol that they called the Los Alamos Precision Cylinder Test [4]. The present aging study is possible because excellent PBX 9404 data from those qualification tests endures.

  6. Reactions of platinum in oxygen- and hydrogen-treated Pt/. gamma. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts. II. Ultraviolet-visible studies, sintering of platinum, and soluble platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lietz, G.; Lieske, H.; Spindler, H.; Hanke, W.; Voelter, J.

    1983-05-01

    Alumina-supported platinum (Pt/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) catalysts treated in oxygen between 100 and 600/sup 0/C and in hydrogen at 500/sup 0/C were studied by uv-vis reflectance spectroscopy. The formation of different oxidized Pt surface species previously indicated by temperature programmed reduction (TPR) studies (H. Lieske, G. Lietz, H. Spindler, and J. Voelter, J. Catal. 81, 8(1983)) was confirmed by characteristic uv-vis spectra. The results are used as the basis for a model describing the types of surface reactions and details of the platinum surface species formed in oxygen and in hydrogen, and for a model of the sintering in oxygen. The amount of soluble platinum was found to correspond with the amount of highly dispersed platinum. Hence, only surface platinum atoms are soluble. 16 figures.

  7. On coaxial minors of determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babcock, Wealthy Consuelo

    1922-01-01

    . Approved by: ROOlOb SlSb^ Contents Page I. Introduction 1 II. Independence of Coaxial Minors of Special Determinants 9 A. Symmetric Determinant 9 B. Skew-symmetric Determinant ...14 C. Circulant 17 D. Hankel's Determinant 19 III... Introduction The work on coaxial minors of a deter­ minant has centered about the problems of deter­ mining the number of independent coaxial minors, of finding independent sets, and of expressing the determinant in terms of the minors of an independent set...

  8. Lubricant effect of copper nanoclusters on the dislocation core in -Fe Zhengzheng Chen,1 Nicholas Kioussis,1 Nasr Ghoniem,2 and Tadashi Hasebe3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Lubricant effect of copper nanoclusters on the dislocation core in -Fe Zhengzheng Chen,1 Nicholas lubricant effect in facilitating the shear of atomic rows and the contrasting effects of Cu and Cr

  9. Experiments Concerning the Mold Materials Used in the Production of the Copper Ingots from the Late Bronze Age Shipwreck Excavated at Uluburun, Turkey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Thomas S.

    2010-01-14

    Underwater excavations of a Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Uluburun, Turkey recovered a combined 475 oxhide and plano-convex discoid copper ingots. While the hoard of ingots excavated at Uluburun brings the total number of ...

  10. J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 15153-15162 15153 Fluorescence Quenching of Pyrene by Copper(I1) in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bales, Barney

    J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 15153-15162 15153 Fluorescence Quenching of Pyrene by Copper(I1) in Sodium, University of Uppsala, $75121 Uppsala, Sweden Received: March 27, 1995; In Final Form: June 23, 1995

  11. Room Temperature Copper(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization of Enamides to 2,5-Disubstituted Oxazoles via Vinylic C–H Functionalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Chi Wai

    A copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of enamides to oxazoles via vinylic C–H bond functionalization at room temperature is described. Various 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles bearing aryl, vinyl, alkyl, and heteroaryl ...

  12. Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the biocorrosion of copper by Gum Arabic, BCS and Pseudomonas atlantica exopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolley, J.G.; Geesey, G.G.; Hankins, M.R.; Wright, R.B.; Wichlacz, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thin films (3.4 nm) of copper on germanium substrates were exposed to 10% Gum Arabic aqueous solution, 1% BCS (aqueous and simulated sea water solutions) and 0.5% Pseudomonas atlantica exopolymer (aqueous and simulated sea water solutions). Pre- and post-exposure characterization were done by Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ancillary graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the removal process of the copper thin film from the germanium substrate. Results indicate that the copper was oxidized by the Gum Arabic and BCS, and some was removed from the Cu/Ge interface by all three polymers and incorporated into the polymer matrix. Thus biocorrosion of copper was exhibited by the Gum Arabic, BCS and Pseudomonas atlantica exopolymer. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Copper-catalyzed arylation of 1,2-amino alcohols. Synthesis of N-terminal, peptide helix initiators, and characterization of highly helical, capped polyalanine peptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Job, Gabriel Ethan

    2005-01-01

    I. An improved Ullmann reaction for N- or O-arylation of 1,2-aminoalcohols with aryl iodides is described. The procedures enjoy several advantages over traditional methods: a substoichiometric amount of copper catalyst is ...

  14. Production of J=/ at Large x F in 800 GeV/c p--Copper and p--Beryllium Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production of J=/ at Large x F in 800 GeV/c p--Copper and p--Beryllium Collisions M. S. Kowitt section of J=/ with 800 GeV/c protons on copper and beryllium, with good acceptance for p? ! 5 GeV/c over observed via the decay J=/ ! ¯ + ¯ \\Gamma . For a portion of the data , a thick beryllium target (91.4 cm

  15. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene on platinum–copper alloys at the single-atom limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucci, Felicia R.; Liu, Jilei; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Yang, Ming; Allard, Lawrence F.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2015-10-09

    Platinum is ubiquitous in the production sectors of chemicals and fuels; however, its scarcity in nature and high price will limit future proliferation of platinum-catalysed reactions. One definite approach to conserve platinum involves understanding the smallest number of platinum atoms needed to catalyse a reaction, then designing catalysts with the minimal platinum ensembles. Here we design and test a new generation of platinum–copper nanoparticle catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene,, an industrially important reaction. Isolated platinum atom geometries enable hydrogen activation and spillover but are incapable of C–C bond scission that leads to loss of selectivity and catalyst deactivation. ?-Alumina-supported single-atom alloy nanoparticle catalysts with <1 platinum atom per 100 copper atoms are found to exhibit high activity and selectivity for butadiene hydrogenation to butenes under mild conditions, demonstrating transferability from the model study to the catalytic reaction under practical conditions.

  16. Synthesizing photovoltaic thin films of high quality copper-zinc-tin alloy with at least one chalcogen species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teeter, Glenn; Du, Hui; Young, Matthew

    2013-08-06

    A method for synthesizing a thin film of copper, zinc, tin, and a chalcogen species ("CZTCh" or "CZTSS") with well-controlled properties. The method includes depositing a thin film of precursor materials, e.g., approximately stoichiometric amounts of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and a chalcogen species (Ch). The method then involves re-crystallizing and grain growth at higher temperatures, e.g., between about 725 and 925 degrees K, and annealing the precursor film at relatively lower temperatures, e.g., between 600 and 650 degrees K. The processing of the precursor film takes place in the presence of a quasi-equilibrium vapor, e.g., Sn and chalcogen species. The quasi-equilibrium vapor is used to maintain the precursor film in a quasi-equilibrium condition to reduce and even prevent decomposition of the CZTCh and is provided at a rate to balance desorption fluxes of Sn and chalcogens.

  17. Operando X-ray absorption and EPR evidence for a single electron redox process in copper catalysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Qingquan; Zhang, Jian; Peng, Pan; Zhang, Guanghui; Huang, Zhiliang; Yi, Hong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-05-26

    An unprecedented single electron redox process in copper catalysis is confirmed using operando X-ray absorption and EPR spectroscopies. The oxidation state of the copper species in the interaction between Cu(II) and a sulfinic acid at room temperature, and the accurate characterization of the formed Cu(I) are clearly shown using operando X-ray absorption and EPR evidence. Further investigation of anion effects on Cu(II) discloses that bromine ions can dramatically increase the rate of the redox process. Moreover, it is proven that the sulfinic acids are converted into sulfonyl radicals, which can be trapped by 2-arylacrylic acids and various valuable ?-keto sulfonesmore »are synthesized with good to excellent yields under mild conditions.« less

  18. Preparation of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Hasoon, Falah S. (Arvada, CO); Wiesner, Holm (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Golden, CO)

    1999-02-16

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of 13.6% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor thin film. The film is fabricated by first simultaneously electrodepositing copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a glass/molybdenum substrate (12/14). The electrodeposition voltage is a high frequency AC voltage superimposed upon a DC voltage to improve the morphology and growth rate of the film. The electrodeposition is followed by physical vapor deposition to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In.sub.1-n Ga.sub.x)Se.sub.2, with the ratio of Ga/(In+Ga) being approximately 0.39.

  19. Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

  20. Copper-substituted perovskite compositions for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen reduction electrodes in other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rieke, Peter C. (Pasco, WA); Coffey, Gregory W. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Kennewick, WA); Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Hardy, John S. (Richland, WA); Singh, Prabhaker (Richland, WA); Thomsen, Edwin C. (Richland, WA)

    2010-07-20

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells. Also provided are electrochemical devices that include active oxygen reduction electrodes, such as solid oxide fuel cells, sensors, pumps and the like. The compositions comprises a copper-substituted ferrite perovskite material. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using the electrode compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having cathodes comprising the compositions.