National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for determination scale resistant

  1. DeterminingEGRET's EfficiencyScalingFactors 1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Andrew W.

    DeterminingEGRET's EfficiencyScalingFactors 1 Introduction The efficiencyof EGRET changedthroughout procedurewas needed to be able to track the efficienciesof the standard energyinterval to very low levels

  2. Analysis and Simulation of a Meso-scale Model of Diffusive Resistance of Bacterial Biofilms to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaret, Laurent

    Analysis and Simulation of a Meso-scale Model of Diffusive Resistance of Bacterial Biofilms Most bacteria live in biofilm communities, which offer protection against harmful external impacts mathematical model that focuses on the diffusive resistance that a growing biofilm exerts against penetration

  3. Armored scale insecticide resistance challenges San Joaquin Valley citrus growers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E.; Ouyang, Yuling; Striggow, Rebecka; Vehrs, Stacy

    2001-01-01

    the foot- hills of Fresno, Tulare and Kern coun- ties (fig.districts in Fresno, Tulare and Kern counties usedresistant scale occurred in Tulare, which had the greatest

  4. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Unknown Bridge Foundation Depth Determination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjwech, Rungroj

    2012-02-14

    as suitable to investigate unknown bridge foundations. The objective of the present study is to apply advanced 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in order to identify depth of unknown bridge foundations. A survey procedure is carried out in mixed terrain...

  5. Fracture resistance of human cortical bone across multiple length-scales at physiological strain rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fracture resistance of human cortical bone across multiple length-scales at physiological strain Accepted 22 March 2014 Available online 13 April 2014 Keywords: Bone Strain rate Fracture toughness Plasticity X-ray diffraction a b s t r a c t While most fracture-mechanics investigations on bone have been

  6. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.

  7. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  8. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Habetler, Thomas G. (Snellville, GA); Zhang, Pinjia (Atlanta, GA); Theisen, Peter J. (West Bend, WI)

    2011-05-31

    A system and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor. The circuit includes at least one contactor and at least one switch to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor. The system also includes a controller connected to the circuit and configured to modify a switching time of the at least one switch to create a DC component in an output of the system corresponding to an input to the AC motor and determine a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the injected DC component of the voltage and current.

  9. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1997-01-01

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation.

  10. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III

    1997-05-27

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie`s Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. 7 figs.

  11. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing using multiple electrodes and with resistances being defined between the electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Methods of operation of different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. The multiple electrode apparatus have a minimum of three spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage the interior of the cased well. Measurement information is obtained related to current which is caused to flow from the cased well into the adjacent geological formation. First compensation information is obtained related to a first casing resistance between a first pair of the spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes. Second compensation information is obtained related to a second casing resistance between a second pair of the spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes. The measurement information, and first and second compensation information are used to determine a magnitude related to the adjacent formation resistivity.

  12. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA)

    2000-01-01

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. Resistivity measurements are obtained from within the cased well by conducting A.C. current from within the cased well to a remote electrode at a frequency that is within the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 20 Hz.

  13. PILOT-SCALE FIELD VALIDATION OF THE LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY METHOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLASER DR; RUCKER DF; CROOK N; LOKE MH

    2011-07-14

    Field validation for the long electrode electrical resistivity tomography (LE-ERT) method was attempted in order to demonstrate the performance of the technique in imaging a simple buried target. The experiment was an approximately 1/17 scale mock-up of a region encompassing a buried nuclear waste tank on the Hanford site. The target of focus was constructed by manually forming a simulated plume within the vadose zone using a tank waste simulant. The LE-ERT results were compared to ERT using conventional point electrodes on the surface and buried within the survey domain. Using a pole-pole array, both point and long electrode imaging techniques identified the lateral extents of the pre-formed plume with reasonable fidelity, but the LE-ERT was handicapped in reconstructing the vertical boundaries. The pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays were also tested with the LE-ERT method and were shown to have the least favorable target properties, including the position of the reconstructed plume relative to the known plume and the intensity of false positive targets. The poor performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays was attributed to an inexhaustive and non-optimal coverage of data at key electrodes, as well as an increased noise for electrode combinations with high geometric factors. However, when comparing the model resolution matrix among the different acquisition strategies, the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays using long electrodes were shown to have significantly higher average and maximum values than any pole-pole array. The model resolution describes how well the inversion model resolves the subsurface. Given the model resolution performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays, it may be worth investing in tools to understand the optimum subset of randomly distributed electrode pairs to produce maximum performance from the inversion model.

  14. A multi-scale iterative approach for finite element modeling of thermal contact resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Surface topography has long been considered a key factor in the performance of many contact applications including thermal contact resistance. However, essentially all analytical and numerical models of thermal contact ...

  15. alpha(s) Determinations from Jets and Scaling Violations at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Kluge

    2006-10-13

    A review is given on recent alpha(s) determinations from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations. These are based on measurements of jet cross sections, event shape variables, as well as on the observed scaling violation of the structure function F_2. A HERA average on alpha(s)(m_Z) is presented, in comparison with world mean values.

  16. Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries Dmitry Ruzmetov, all-solid-state Li ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and small footprint are highly, into the nanometer regime, can lead to rapid self-discharge of the battery even when the electrolyte layer

  17. Determination of solid fractiontemperature relation and latent heat using full scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Determination of solid fraction­temperature relation and latent heat using full scale casting* Casting simulation results are only useful to a foundry if they reflect reality, which requires accurate of commonly used metal alloys for which no reliable material data are available. The present study focuses

  18. Depth determinations of shallow hydrothermal systems by self-potential and multi-scale wavelet tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams-Jones, Glyn

    to significantly enhance our ability to locate geothermal systems and monitor active volcanoes. © 2010 Elsevier BDepth determinations of shallow hydrothermal systems by self-potential and multi-scale wavelet studies, the depth of the hydrothermal system is always required, but rarely known via traditional

  19. Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program: Full-scale testing and demonstration final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quarles, Stephen, L.; Sindelar, Melissa

    2011-12-13

    The primary goal of the Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program was to develop a home evaluation tool that could assess the ignition potential of a structure subjected to wildfire exposures. This report describes the tests that were conducted, summarizes the results, and discusses the implications of these results with regard to the vulnerabilities to homes and buildings.

  20. Determination of the crystalline structure of scale solids from the 16H evaporator gravity drain line to tank 38H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-10-01

    August 2015, scale solids from the 16H Evaporator Gravity Drain Line (GDL) to the Tank 38H were delivered to SRNL for analysis. The desired analytical goal was to identify and confirm the crystalline structure of the scale material and determine if the form of the aluminosilicate mineral was consistent with previous analysis of the scale material from the GDL.

  1. A relationship between statistical time to breakdown distributions and pre-breakdown negative differential resistance at nanometric scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foissac, R.; Blonkowski, S.; Delcroix, P.; Kogelschatz, M.

    2014-07-14

    Using an ultra-high vacuum Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) current voltage, pre-breakdown negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics are measured together with the time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) distributions of Si/SiON (1.4 and 2.6?nm thick). Those experimental characteristics are systematically compared. The NDR effect is modelled by a conductive filament growth. It is showed that the Weibull TDDB statistic distribution scale factor is proportional to the growth rate of an individual filament and then has the same dependence on the electric field. The proportionality factor is a power law of the ratio between the surfaces of the CAFM tip and the filament's top. Moreover, it was found that, for the high fields used in those experiments, the TDDB acceleration factor as the growth rate characteristic is proportional to the Zener tunnelling probability. Those observations are discussed in the framework of possible breakdown or forming mechanism.

  2. Pre-resistance-welding resistance check

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Destefan, Dennis E. (Broomfield, CO); Stompro, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A preweld resistance check for resistance welding machines uses an open circuited measurement to determine the welding machine resistance, a closed circuit measurement to determine the parallel resistance of a workpiece set and the machine, and a calculation to determine the resistance of the workpiece set. Any variation in workpiece set or machine resistance is an indication that the weld may be different from a control weld.

  3. Scale Resistant Heat Exchanger for Low Temperature Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hays, Lance G.

    2014-11-18

    Phase 1 of the investigation of improvements to low temperature geothermal power systems was completed. The improvements considered were reduction of scaling in heat exchangers and a hermetic turbine generator (eliminating seals, seal system, gearbox, and lube oil system). A scaling test system with several experiments was designed and operated at Coso geothermal resource with brine having a high scaling potential. Several methods were investigated at the brine temperature of 235 ºF. One method, circulation of abradable balls through the brine passages, was found to substantially reduce scale deposits. The test heat exchanger was operated with brine outlet temperatures as low as 125 ºF, which enables increased heat input available to power conversion systems. For advanced low temperature cycles, such as the Variable Phase Cycle (VPC) or Kalina Cycle, the lower brine temperature will result in a 20-30% increase in power production from low temperature resources. A preliminary design of an abradable ball system (ABS) was done for the heat exchanger of the 1 megawatt VPC system at Coso resource. The ABS will be installed and demonstrated in Phase 2 of this project, increasing the power production above that possible with the present 175 ºF brine outlet limit. A hermetic turbine generator (TGH) was designed and manufacturing drawings produced. This unit will use the working fluid (R134a) to lubricate the bearings and cool the generator. The 200 kW turbine directly drives the generator, eliminating a gearbox and lube oil system. Elimination of external seals eliminates the potential of leakage of the refrigerant or hydrocarbon working fluids, resulting in environmental improvement. A similar design has been demonstrated by Energent in an ORC waste heat recovery system. The existing VPC power plant at Coso was modified to enable the “piggyback” demonstration of the TGH. The existing heat exchanger, pumps, and condenser will be operated to provide the required process conditions for the TGH demonstration. Operation of the TGH with and without the ABS system will demonstrate an increase in geothermal resource productivity for the VPC from 1 MW/(million lb) of brine to 1.75 MW/(million lb) of brine, a 75% increase.

  4. Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Solar Collector Covers to Hail by Impact With Propelled Ice Balls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for determining the ability of cover plates for flat-plate solar collectors to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. This practice is not intended to apply to photovoltaic cells or arrays. 1.2 This practice defines two types of test specimens, describes methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This practice does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice-ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this practice. 1.4 The size of ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified in this practice. This practice can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 The categories of solar collector cover plat...

  5. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-01-21

    The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

  6. Quantitative Determination of the Hubbard Model Phase Diagram from Optical Lattice Experiments by Two-Parameter Scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campo, V. L. Jr.; Capelle, K.; Quintanilla, J.; Hooley, C.

    2007-12-14

    We propose an experiment to obtain the phase diagram of the fermionic Hubbard model, for any dimensionality, using cold atoms in optical lattices. It is based on measuring the total energy for a sequence of trap profiles. It combines finite-size scaling with an additional 'finite-curvature scaling' necessary to reach the homogeneous limit. We illustrate its viability in the 1D case, simulating experimental data in the Bethe-ansatz local-density approximation. Including experimental errors, the filling corresponding to the Mott transition can be determined with better than 3% accuracy.

  7. Scales

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  8. Pixel Scale and Orientation of Pharo Determined from the Binary Star HD 165341

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metchev, Stanimir

    determined orbit (grade 1) with orbital parameters listed in both Pourbaix (2000, A&AS, 145, 215) and the 6th the uncertainty in the mean and the uncertainty in the binary's semi-major axis (0. 0052, Pourbaix 2000.097 degrees, Pourbaix 2000) in quadrature. #12;­ 2 ­ The determined value of north is significantly different

  9. Hierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material bone: Fibrillar cross-links resist fracture on several length scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Everett A.

    to its biomedical significance, bone has been used as a model for many artificial bio-ceramic composites [10,11]. In many of these artificial composites, a combina- tion of a soft polymer matrix reinforcedHierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material bone: Fibrillar cross-links resist

  10. Determination of critical length scales for corrosion processes using microelectroanalytical techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Wall, Frederick Douglas

    2004-03-01

    A key factor in our ability to produce and predict the stability of metal-based macro- to nano-scale structures and devices is a fundamental understanding of the localized nature of corrosion. Corrosion processes where physical dimensions become critical in the degradation process include localized corrosion initiation in passivated metals, microgalvanic interactions in metal alloys, and localized corrosion in structurally complex materials like nanocrystalline metal films under atmospheric and inundated conditions. This project focuses on two areas of corrosion science where a fundamental understanding of processes occurring at critical dimensions is not currently available. Sandia will study the critical length scales necessary for passive film breakdown in the inundated aluminum (Al) system and the chemical processes and transport in ultra-thin water films relevant to the atmospheric corrosion of nanocrystalline tungsten (W) films. Techniques are required that provide spatial information without significantly perturbing or masking the underlying relationships. Al passive film breakdown is governed by the relationship between area of the film sampled and its defect structure. We will combine low current measurements with microelectrodes to study the size scale required to observe a single initiation event and record electrochemical breakdown events. The resulting quantitative measure of stability will be correlated with metal grain size, secondary phase size and distribution to understand which metal properties control stability at the macro- and nano-scale. Mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion on W are dependent on the physical dimensions and continuity of adsorbed water layers as well as the chemical reactions that take place in this layer. We will combine electrochemical and scanning probe microscopic techniques to monitor the chemistry and resulting material transport in these thin surface layers. A description of the length scales responsible for driving the corrosion of the nanocrystalline metal films will be developed. The techniques developed and information derived from this work will be used to understand and predict degradation processes in microelectronic and microsystem devices critical to Sandia's mission.

  11. Determinants and Role of Trust in E-Business: A Large Scale Empirical Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sultan, Fareena

    2003-02-20

    This research investigates the determinants and role of consumer trust in e-business. It examines consumer perceptions of trust in a Web site and addresses the following key ...

  12. Trait variation within a species determines warming responses at different scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Souza, Lara [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Plant species, and the traits associated with them, can help buffer ecosystems to environmental perturbations. Few studies have examined whether within species variation, both among and within populations, can similarly buffer ecosystems to environmental perturbations, such as climatic warming, across levels of organization. Using a dominant plant species in the eastern US, Solidago altissima, we examined whether genotypes of the same species from both southern and northern latitude populations exhibited differential short-term responses to temperature at the cell, leaf, and plant level. At the cell level we quantified the production of reactive oxygen species (by-product of temperature stress) and total oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (which ameliorates temperature stress by-products). At the leaf and plant levels, we measured CO2 assimilation. Increasing temperatures had strong negative impacts on plant-level carbon gain, but weak impacts on cell-level antioxidant capacity. Southern latitude genotypes had greater total antioxidant capacity, but lower leaf-level carbon gain, than did northern genotypes under elevated temperature. At the plant level, northern and southern genotypes exhibited similar declines in carbon gain under elevated temperature, likely because total plant leaf area was higher for southern genotypes than northern genotypes, which compensated for their lower per unit area leaf-level carbon gain. Overall, short-term temperature-induced declines in carbon gain at the plant level may scale to reduce within species variation, both across and within populations, potentially altering ecosystem carbon cycling.

  13. Determination of Reference Scales for Wilson Gauge Action from Yang--Mills Gradient Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masayuki Asakawa; Takumi Iritani; Masakiyo Kitazawa; Hiroshi Suzuki

    2015-10-08

    A parametrization of the lattice spacing ($a$) in terms of the bare coupling ($\\beta$) for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory with the Wilson gauge action is given in a wide range of~$\\beta$. The Yang--Mills gradient flow with respect to the flow time~$t$ for the dimensionless observable, $t\\frac{d}{dt}t^2\\langle E(t)\\rangle$, is utilized to determine the parametrization. With fine lattice spacings ($6.3\\le\\beta\\le7.5$) and large lattice volumes ($N_{\\rm s}=64$--$128$), the discretization and finite-volume errors are significantly reduced to the same level as the statistical error.

  14. Andromeda: A mission to determine the gamma-ray burst distance scale F.A. Harrison, W.R. Cook, T.A. Prince, S.M. Schindler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prince, Thomas A.

    Andromeda: A mission to determine the gamma-ray burst distance scale F.A. Harrison, W.R. Cook, T was submitted to the STEDI program, and will also be proposed as a NASA Small Explorer. Keywords: bursts, gamma-rays, small missions 1 SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES 1.1 Gamma-ray Bursts Gamma-ray bursts GRBs were discovered

  15. Effects of QCD radiation on inclusive variables for determining the scale of new physics at hadron colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Papaefstathiou; Bryan Webber

    2009-07-10

    We examine the effects of QCD initial-state radiation on a class of quantities, designed to probe the mass scale of new physics at hadron colliders, which involve longitudinal as well as transverse final-state momenta. In particular, we derive universal functions that relate the invariant mass and energy distribution of the visible part of the final state to that of the underlying hard subprocess. Knowledge of this relationship may assist in checking hypotheses about new processes, by providing additional information about their scales. We compare our results with those of Monte Carlo studies and find good general agreement.

  16. DC Resistivity Survey (Wenner Array) At Mt Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2008 - 2010 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determination of groundwater flux patterns Notes Researchers measured DC resistivity and produced 12 resistivity...

  17. A survey of anthracnose resistant sorghum germplasm lines to identify additional resistance genes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiltse, Curtis Craig

    1998-01-01

    and their inheritance characterized. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if different sources of genetic resistance exist among a selected set of 13 resistant sorghum germplasm lines, and (2) to determine the inheritance of the different resistance genes...

  18. Automated Information Aggregation for Scaling Scale-Resistant Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Gail E.

    large utilities (energy, telecoms) installing intelligent controls, sensors, and home meters, military and not parallelizable. The problem then becomes identifying and delivering the relevant subset of the vast amount and Reinforcement Learning The field of Machine Learning (ML) has, in recent years, developed algorithms

  19. Methodology to determine the technical performance and value proposition for grid-scale energy storage systems : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Loose, Verne William; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide di erent grid bene ts and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

  20. MINIREVIEWS Evolution of Resistance to Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    . Bacteria have developed resistance to most of the antibiotics primarily due to large- scale is accumulating that bacteria may develop resistance to QSIs. The big question is whether QSIs will meet the same are composed of exopolysaccharides, which protect its structure and enable bacteria to resist toxic compounds

  1. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  2. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  3. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15

    Single-column modeling (SCM) is one of the key elements of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research initiatives for the development and testing of various physical parameterizations to be used in general circulation models (GCMs). The data required for use with an SCM include observed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water, as well as the large-scale vertical motion and tendencies of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water due to horizontal advection. Surface-based measurements operated at ARM sites and upper-air sounding networks supply most of the required variables for model inputs, but do not provide the horizontal advection term of condensed water. Since surface cloud radar and microwave radiometer observations at ARM sites are single-point measurements, they can provide the amount of condensed water at the location of observation sites, but not a horizontal distribution of condensed water contents. Consequently, observational data for the large-scale advection tendencies of condensed water have not been available to the ARM cloud modeling community based on surface observations alone. This lack of advection data of water condensate could cause large uncertainties in SCM simulations. Additionally, to evaluate GCMsâ�� cloud physical parameterization, we need to compare GCM results with observed cloud water amounts over a scale that is large enough to be comparable to what a GCM grid represents. To this end, the point-measurements at ARM surface sites are again not adequate. Therefore, cloud water observations over a large area are needed. The main goal of this project is to retrieve ice water contents over an area of 10 x 10 deg. surrounding the ARM sites by combining surface and satellite observations. Built on the progress made during previous ARM research, we have conducted the retrievals of 3-dimensional ice water content by combining surface radar/radiometer and satellite measurements, and have produced 3-D cloud ice water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10�° (latitude) x 10�° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

  4. The tale of a modern animal plague: Tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tully, Damien C. Fares, Mario A.

    2008-12-20

    Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes.

  5. Annex: Attributes of Proliferation Resistance for Civilian Nuclear...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Opportunities for Increasing the Proliferation Resistance of Global Civilian Nuclear Power Systems (TOPS) determined at its first meeting in November 1999 that a set of...

  6. Cryptic Faulting and Multi-Scale Geothermal Fluid Connections...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Multi-Scale Geothermal Fluid Connections in the Dixie Valley-Central Nevada Seismic Belt Area- Implications from Mt Resistivity Surveying Jump to: navigation, search...

  7. Polarity of annealing and structural analysis of the RNase H resistant alpha-5'-d(TACACA). beta-5'-r(AUGUGU) hybrid determined by high-field sup 1 H, sup 13 C, and sup 31 P NMR analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmeiner, W.H.; Rao, K.E.; Rayner, B.; Vasseur, J.J.; Morvan, F.; Imbach, J.L.; Lown, J.W. )

    1990-11-13

    The novel hybrid duplex alpha-5'-d(TACACA)-3'.beta-5'-r(AUGUGU)-3' was analyzed extensively by 1D and 2D NMR methods. Two forms of the duplex exist in about an 80:20 ratio. Analysis of the exchangeable imino protons of the major component revealed that three AU and one AT base pair are present in addition to two GC base pairs, confirming that the duplex anneals in parallel orientation. The presence of the AT base pair, which can only be accounted for by a parallel duplex, was confirmed by a selective INEPT experiment, which correlated the thymidine imino proton to its C5 carbon. The lesser antiparallel form could be detected by exchangeable and nonexchangeable proton resonances in both strands. An exchange peak was observed in the NOESY spectrum for the thymidine methyl group resonance in both the predominant and lesser conformations, indicating the lifetime of the individual structures was on the millisecond time scale. The nonexchangeable protons of the predominant duplex were assigned by standard methods. The sugar pucker of the ribonucleosides was determined to be of the S type by a pseudorotation analysis according to Altona, with the J-couplings measured from the multiplet components of the phase-sensitive COSY experiment. The NOE pattern observed for the alpha-deoxynucleosides also suggested an S-type sugar pucker. The adoption of an S-type sugar pucker for both strands indicates that, in contrast to RNA.DNA duplexes formed exclusively from beta-nucleotides, the alpha-DNA.beta-RNA duplex may form a B-type helix. The 31P resonances of the alpha and beta strands have very different chemical shifts in the hybrid duplex and the difference persists above the helix melting temperature, indicating an intrinsic difference in 31P chemical shift for nucleotides differing only in the configuration about the glycosidic bond.

  8. MICROPOSIT PHOTO RESISTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    MICROPOSIT® S1800® SERIES PHOTO RESISTS MICROPOSIT S1800 SERIES PHOTO RESISTS are positive and maintain linewidth control when process- ing on highly reflective substrates. MICROPOSIT S1800 SERIES PHOTO Photoresist: MICROPOSIT ® S1813 ® PHOTO RESIST Coat: 12,300Å Softbake: 115°C/60 sec. Hotplate Exposure: Nikon

  9. CX-008998: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008998: Categorical Exclusion Determination "Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-scale Physics-based Process Modeling and...

  10. CX-004958: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    958: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004958: Categorical Exclusion Determination University of Southern California-Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy...

  11. On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2012-03-09

    Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

  12. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  13. Development of a Prediction Model for Skid Resistance of Asphalt Pavements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezaei, Arash

    2012-02-14

    The skid resistance of asphalt pavement is a major characteristic that determines the driving safety on a road, especially under wet surface conditions. Skid resistance is primarily a function of the microtexture and ...

  14. CX-004438: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scale Resistant Heat Exchangers for Low Temperature Geothermal Binary Cycle Power PlantCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 11/16/2010Location(s): CaliforniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  15. From Consumer Resistance to Stakeholder Resistance The case of nanotechnology*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 From Consumer Resistance to Stakeholder Resistance The case of nanotechnology* Caroline Gauthier proposes to study the resistance of stakeholders, by exploring the nanotech field. Nanotechnology is today in the resistance context. Keywords. Nanotechnology; Resistance Bio. Caroline Gauthier is currently Professor

  16. Resistance of a Molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnus Paulsson; Ferdows Zahid; Supriyo Datta

    2002-08-08

    In recent years, several experimental groups have reported measurements of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of individual or small numbers of molecules. Our purpose in this chapter is to provide an intuitive explanation for the observed I-V characteristics using simple models to illustrate the basic physics. In contrast to the MOSFET, whose I-V is largely dominated by classical electrostatics, the I-V characteristics of molecules is determined by a more interesting interplay between nineteenth century physics (electrostatics) and twentieth century physics (quantum transport) and it is important to do justice to both aspects. We start with a qualitative discussion of the main factors affecting the I-V characteristics of molecular conductors, using a simple toy model to illustrate their role. Including the effects of: (1) Shift in the energy level due to charging effects and (2) broadening of the energy levels due to the coupling to the two contacts we obtain realistic I-V plots, even though the toy model assumes that conduction takes place independently through individual molecular levels. In general, however, the full non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism is needed. Here, we describe the NEGF formalism as a generalized version of the one-level model. This formalism provides a convenient framework for describing quantum transport and can be used in conjunction with ab initio or semi-empirical Hamiltonians. A simple semi-empirical model for a gold wire serves to illustrate the full NEGF formalism. This example is particularly instructive because it shows the lowest possible "Resistance of a 'Molecule'" per channel.

  17. Freeze resistant buoy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, David E [Knoxville, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN

    2007-08-21

    A freeze resistant buoy system includes a tail-tube buoy having a thermally insulated section disposed predominantly above a waterline, and a thermo-siphon disposed predominantly below the waterline.

  18. Neutron Irradiation Resistance of RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Dafferner, Bernhard; Aktaa, Jarir

    2008-07-01

    The neutron irradiation resistance of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 and international reference steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) have been investigated after irradiation in the Petten High Flux Reactor up to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). The embrittlement behavior and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with sub-size specimens. Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement and hardening of EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement vs. hardening behavior of RAFM steels within a proper model in terms of the parameter C={delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates non hardening embrittlement. A role of He in a process of embrittlement is investigated in EUROFER97 based steels, that are doped with different contents of natural B and the separated {sup 10}B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%). Testing on small scale fracture mechanical specimens for determination of quasi-static fracture toughness will be also presented in a view of future irradiation campaigns. (authors)

  19. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  20. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick David; Singha, Kamini; Johnson, Timothy C.; Haggerty, Roy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John W.

    2014-11-25

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area. In a synergistic add-on to our workplan, we analyzed data from field experiments performed at the DOE Naturita Site under a separate DOE SBR grant, on which PI Day-Lewis served as co-PI. Techniques developed for application to Hanford datasets also were applied to data from Naturita.

  1. Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved electroluminescence imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/12 Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved model to simulate the behavior of CIGS solar cells based on the spread sheet resistance effect on the determination of the window layer sheet resistance in CIGS solar cells, but our approach could be transferred

  2. The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale Print Arapaima gigas, a freshwater fish found in the Amazon Basin, has a remarkable ability to resist predation by piranhas through...

  3. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  4. Hydrogen Permeation Resistant Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KORINKO, PAUL; ADAMS, THAD; CREECH, GREGGORY

    2005-06-15

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings may be applied to these ferrous alloys to retard hydrogen ingress. Hydrogen is known to be very mobile in materials of construction. In this study, the permeation resistance of bare stainless steel samples and coated stainless steel samples was tested. The permeation resistance was measured using a modular permeation rig using a pressure rise technique. The coating microstructure and permeation results will be discussed in this document as will some additional testing.

  5. Intrinsic radiation resistance in human chondrosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moussavi-Harami, Farid [Departments of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Mollano, Anthony [Departments of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Martin, James A. [Departments of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Ayoob, Andrew [Departments of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Gitelis, Steven [Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Medical Oncology, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Orthopaedics Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Buckwalter, Joseph A. [Departments of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph-buckwalter@uiowa.edu

    2006-07-28

    Human chondrosarcomas rarely respond to radiation treatment, limiting the options for eradication of these tumors. The basis of radiation resistance in chondrosarcomas remains obscure. In normal cells radiation induces DNA damage that leads to growth arrest or death. However, cells that lack cell cycle control mechanisms needed for these responses show intrinsic radiation resistance. In previous work, we identified immortalized human chondrosarcoma cell lines that lacked p16{sup ink4a}, one of the major tumor suppressor proteins that regulate the cell cycle. We hypothesized that the absence of p16{sup ink4a} contributes to the intrinsic radiation resistance of chondrosarcomas and that restoring p16{sup ink4a} expression would increase their radiation sensitivity. To test this we determined the effects of ectopic p16{sup ink4a} expression on chondrosarcoma cell resistance to low-dose {gamma}-irradiation (1-5 Gy). p16{sup ink4a} expression significantly increased radiation sensitivity in clonogenic assays. Apoptosis did not increase significantly with radiation and was unaffected by p16{sup ink4a} transduction of chondrosarcoma cells, indicating that mitotic catastrophe, rather than programmed cell death, was the predominant radiation effect. These results support the hypothesis that p16{sup ink4a} plays a role in the radiation resistance of chondrosarcoma cell lines and suggests that restoring p16 expression will improve the radiation sensitivity of human chondrosarcomas.

  6. Mesoscale transport properties induced by near critical resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence in toroidal geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín-Solís, José Ramón

    Mesoscale transport properties induced by near critical resistive pressure diffusive equation for mesoscale tracer-particle transport. The indices of the fractional derivates a mesoscale regime. That is, for time scales above the fluctuation scales reaching to the trans- port scales

  7. Step-edge-induced resistance anisotropy in quasi-free-standing bilayer chemical vapor deposition graphene on SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciuk, Tymoteusz [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Cakmakyapan, Semih; Ozbay, Ekmel [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Caban, Piotr; Grodecki, Kacper; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupinski, Wlodek, E-mail: wlodek.strupinski@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szmidt, Jan [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-09-28

    The transport properties of quasi-free-standing (QFS) bilayer graphene on SiC depend on a range of scattering mechanisms. Most of them are isotropic in nature. However, the SiC substrate morphology marked by a distinctive pattern of the terraces gives rise to an anisotropy in graphene's sheet resistance, which may be considered an additional scattering mechanism. At a technological level, the growth-preceding in situ etching of the SiC surface promotes step bunching which results in macro steps ~10 nm in height. In this report, we study the qualitative and quantitative effects of SiC steps edges on the resistance of epitaxial graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. We experimentally determine the value of step edge resistivity in hydrogen-intercalated QFS-bilayer graphene to be ~190 ??m for step height hS = 10 nm and provide proof that it cannot originate from mechanical deformation of graphene but is likely to arise from lowered carrier concentration in the step area. Our results are confronted with the previously reported values of the step edge resistivity in monolayer graphene over SiC atomic steps. In our analysis, we focus on large-scale, statistical properties to foster the scalable technology of industrial graphene for electronics and sensor applications.

  8. Large-scale experimental investigation of flow characteristics in labyrinth seal geometries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Younger, James Stanton

    1994-01-01

    order to determine the flow characteristics and leakage resistance properties of advanced labyrinth seals. A unique water test facility is used to acquire leakage resistance measurements for two-dimensional, planar models of multi-cavity, stepped...

  9. Scaling Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfried Zimdahl; Diego Pavón

    2002-10-22

    We show that with the help of a suitable coupling between dark energy and cold dark matter it is possible to reproduce any scaling solution $\\rho _{X}\\propto \\rho_{M}a^{\\xi}$, where $\\rho_{X}$ and $\\rho_{M}$ are the densities of dark energy and dark matter, respectively. We demonstrate how the case $\\xi = 1$ alleviates the coincidence problem. Future observations of supernovae at high redshift as well as quasar pairs which are planned to discriminate between different cosmological models will also provide direct constraints on the coupling between dark matter and dark energy.

  10. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of River Protection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 CX-012329: Categorical Exclusion Determination PNNL Projects Involving Small-Scale Research and Development, Laboratory Operations, and Pilot Projects in the 300 Area CX(s)...

  11. Airflow resistance of selected biomass materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, S.C.; Sumner, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure drop created when air was forced through beds of selected biomass materials was determined. Materials tested included peanut hulls, peanut hull pellets, maize cobs, and wood shavings, chips and bark. The data were presented as logarithmic plots and equations of pressure drop versus airflow. The airflow resistances of the biomass materials increased with an increase in bulk density and were found to be in the range between values for ear and shelled maize. 12 references.

  12. Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on SiO2 Substrates Jun Yao, Lin Zhong-controlled resistive switching in various gap systems on SiO2 substrates is reported. The nanoscale-sized gaps are made. The switching site is further reduced in size by using multiwalled carbon nanotubes and single-walled carbon

  13. Appropriate Loads for Peak-Power During Resisted Sprinting on a Non-Motorized Treadmill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre, Matthew Joseph; Fry, Andrew C.; Lane, Michael T.

    2013-10-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine the load which allows the highest peak power for resisted sprinting on a non-motorized treadmill and to determine if other variables are related to individual differences. Thirty ...

  14. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area. In a synergistic add-on to our workplan, we analyzed data from field experiments performed at the DOE Naturita Site under a separate DOE SBR grant, on which PI Day-Lewis served as co-PI. Techniques developed for application to Hanford datasets also were applied to data from Naturita. 1. Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) faces enormous scientific and engineering challenges associated with the remediation of legacy contamination at former nuclear weapons production facilities. Selection, design and optimization of appropriate site remedies (e.g., pump-and-treat, biostimulation, or monitored natural attenuation) requires reliable predictive models of radionuclide fate and transport; however, our current modeling capabilities are limited by an incomplete understanding of multi-scale mass transfer—its rates, scales, and the heterogeneity of controlling parameters. At many DOE sites, long “tailing” behavior, concentration rebound, and slower-than-expected cleanup are observed; these observations are all consistent with multi-scale mass transfer [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1995; Haggerty et al., 2000; 2004], which renders pump-and-treat remediation and biotransformation inefficient and slow [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1994; Harvey et al., 1994; Wilson, 1997]. Despite the importance of mass transfer, there are significant uncertainties associated with controlling parameters, and the prevalence of mass transfer remains a point of debate [e.g., Hill et al., 2006; Molz et al., 2006] for lack of experimental methods to verify and measure it in situ or independently of tracer breakthrough. There is a critical need for new field-experimental techniques to measure mass transfer in-situ and estimate multi-scale and spatially variable mass-transfer parame

  15. Improved gradient flow for step scaling function and scale setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Hasenfratz

    2015-01-30

    The gradient flow renormalized coupling offers a simple and relatively inexpensive way to calculate the step scaling function and the lattice scale, but both applications can be hindered by large lattice artifacts. Recently we introduced an empirical non-perturbative improvement that can reduce, even remove $\\mathcal{O}(a^2)$ lattice artifacts. The method is easy to implement and can be applied to any lattice gauge theory of interest both in step scaling studies and for scale setting. In this talk I will briefly review this improvement method and discuss its application for determining the discrete $\\beta$ function of the 8 and 12 flavor SU(3) systems and for improved scale setting in 2+1+1 flavor QCD

  16. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  17. Magnetic reconnection mediated by hyper-resistive plasmoid instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yi-Min; Bhattacharjee, A.; Forbes, Terry G.

    2013-08-15

    Magnetic reconnection mediated by the hyper-resistive plasmoid instability is studied with both linear analysis and nonlinear simulations. The linear growth rate is found to scale as S{sub H}{sup 1/6} with respect to the hyper-resistive Lundquist number S{sub H}?L{sup 3}V{sub A}/?{sub H}, where L is the system size, V{sub A} is the Alfvén velocity, and ?{sub H} is the hyper-resistivity. In the nonlinear regime, reconnection rate becomes nearly independent of S{sub H}, the number of plasmoids scales as S{sub H}{sup 1/2}, and the secondary current sheet length and width both scale as S{sub H}{sup ?1/2}. These scalings are consistent with a heuristic argument assuming secondary current sheets are close to marginal stability. The distribution of plasmoids as a function of the enclosed flux ? is found to obey a ?{sup ?1} power law over an extended range, followed by a rapid fall off for large plasmoids. These results are compared with those from resistive magnetohydrodynamic studies.

  18. Physica E 40 (2008) 11451148 Resistivity enhancement in quasiperiodic unidirectional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    277-8581, Japan Available online 8 September 2007 Abstract Strong enhancement in the zero of the resistivity when the introduced length scales, L and S, are made smaller and approach the Fermi wave length l-similar generations. In Table 1, modulation amplitude V3 for the most dominant component S=f 3 corresponding

  19. Determining Equations for Vegetation Induced Resistance using Genetic Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Programming, Hydraulics, Hy- drology, Measurement Units Permission to make digital or hard copies of all WL | Delft Hydraulics The Netherlands mkeijzer@xs4all.nl Martin Baptist Delft University of Technology The Netherlands m.j.baptist@citg.tudelft.nl Vladan Babovic WL | Delft Hydraulics The Netherlands

  20. Cisplatin cytotoxicity associated with tetracycline resistance determinants in Escherichia coli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Froim, Doriana, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Tetracyclines, a broad-spectrum class of antibiotics, were discovered in the late 1940s, and became widely used because of their important advantages: they are inexpensive, safe, demonstrate good oral absorption, and are ...

  1. Degenerate resistive switching and ultrahigh density storage in resistive memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohn, Andrew J., E-mail: drewlohn@gmail.com; Mickel, Patrick R., E-mail: prmicke@sandia.gov; James, Conrad D.; Marinella, Matthew J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    We show that in tantalum oxide resistive memories, activation power provides a multi-level variable for information storage that can be set and read separately from the resistance. These two state variables (resistance and activation power) can be precisely controlled in two steps: (1) the possible activation power states are selected by partially reducing resistance, then (2) a subsequent partial increase in resistance specifies the resistance state and the final activation power state. We show that these states can be precisely written and read electrically, making this approach potentially amenable for ultra-high density memories. We provide a theoretical explanation for information storage and retrieval from activation power and experimentally demonstrate information storage in a third dimension related to the change in activation power with resistance.

  2. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  3. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  4. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  5. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  6. Distillation efficiencies of an industrial-scale i-butane/n-butane fractionator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemola, K.T.; Ilme, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    Rarely published industrial-scale distillation efficiency data are presented. The Murphree tray efficiencies are determined from the i-butane/n-butane fractionator performance data. Point efficiencies, numbers of overall vapor phase transfer units, numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units, and liquid phase resistances of mass transfer are backcalculated from the Murphree tray efficiencies. Various efficiency prediction and scale-up methods have been tested against experimental results. A new model for the prediction of the numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units has been developed. The model can be applied to hydrocarbon systems at high pressure. The influence of the mass-transfer coefficients, the interfacial area, and the vapor and liquid residence times on mass transfer has been analyzed separately, and as a result the NTU correlations for vapor and liquid phases are obtained. The constants of the model can be obtained by fitting the model to experimental efficiency data from a similar system.

  7. Electrical contact resistance degradation of a hot-switched simulated metal MEMS contact.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dickrell, Daniel John, III

    2005-03-01

    Electrical contact resistance testing was performed by hot-switching a simulated gold-platinum metal microelectromechanical systems contact. The experimental objective was to determine the sensitivity of the contact resistance degradation to current level and environment. The contact resistance increased sharply after 100 hot-switched cycles in air. Hot-switching at a reduced current and in nitrogen atmosphere curtailed contact resistance degradation by several orders of magnitude. The mechanism responsible for the resistance degradation was found to be arc-induced decomposition of adsorbed surface contaminants.

  8. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  9. Abrasion resistant composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Keith D; Barnes, Christopher A; Henderson, Stephen L

    2014-05-13

    A surface covering composition of abrasion resistant character adapted for disposition in overlying bonded relation to a metal substrate. The surface covering composition includes metal carbide particles within a metal matrix at a packing factor of not less than about 0.6. Not less than about 40 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter in the range of +14-32 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix. Not less than about 3 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter of +60 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix.

  10. Ash Determinations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Germination of Ashe juniper seed were compared in a controlled environment at different levels of fruit maturation, lengths of storage, and seed stratification to determine potential germination. Annual mean germination varied by an order...

  11. Variable nonlinear resistances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, James Edgar

    1955-01-01

    are shown 1n Figure 3. For a constant gr1d voltage 12 the lines are straight except at, low voltages. Fig. pent o(ie curves generally follow the curves shown in Figure 4 when plotted on linear scales. -x5 Fig. 4 13 'w'hen plotted on lop vs lop paper...

  12. Bench-scale vitrification studies with Savannah River Site mercury contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charted by the Department of Energy (DOE)--Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, mercury containing LLMW streams were targeted. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to mercury containing LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes have to be determined and the treatment for the mercury portion must also be determined. Selected additives should ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form is produced, while the mercury treatment should ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury are not released into the environment. The mercury containing LLMW selected for vitrification studies at the SRTC was mercury contaminated soil from the TNX pilot-plant facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Samples of this soil were obtained so bench-scale vitrification studies could be performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability and leach resistance. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury.

  13. Improved oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.; Baxter, D.J.

    1983-07-26

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1 to 8 wt % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C.

  14. Oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Ken (Naperville, IL); Baxter, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1-8 wt. % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500.degree.-1000.degree. C.

  15. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  16. Field examples of electrical resistivity changes during steamflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansure, A.J. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Meldau, R.F.; Weyland, H.V.

    1993-03-01

    An essential part of using electrical geodiagnostic techniques to map thermal recovery processes is understanding the relationship between the process and the formation resistivity. This paper shows how the relationship used to interpret electrical well logs can be used to understand steamflood resistivity changes. Examples are presented of data from steamfloods in fields with different reservoir characteristics. Included is a typical heavy-oil steamflood (Kern River field) and a steamflood where fresh water is used for the steam generator feedwater (Elk Hills field). Because of differences in reservoir characteristics, changes in resistivity vary from reservoir to reservoir. The information presented include well logs taken before and after steamflooding and petrophysical measurements sufficient to determine the factors that controlled the resistivity changes in each field.

  17. Sub-scale Drum Test Memo | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sub-scale Drum Test Memo Sub-scale Drum Test Memo This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident Investigation Board's...

  18. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters Final Report to the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-10

    . In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Our study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area.

  19. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. (North Chili, NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  20. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

    2011-06-07

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  1. Letters to Financial Times, February 28, 2014 Lesson for Ukraine is that resistance worked for Finland.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letters to Financial Times, February 28, 2014 Lesson for Ukraine is that resistance worked but to remain neutral in the cold war. The real lesson for Ukraine is that resistance worked in Finland under, and that Ukraine now has the real chance to leap to the west under the rubric of self-determination that Lenin

  2. Genetics and mechanism of resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in advanced generation peanut germplasm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kuicheon

    1997-01-01

    The genetic basis and mechanism for resistance to root-knot nematode was determined in six BCSF2 peanut breeding lines. The donor parent for resistance to root-knot nematode in all breeding lines was TxAG-7 and the recurrent parent used...

  3. Building Scale DC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2014-01-01

    ABORATORY Building Scale DC Microgrids Chris Marnay, Stevenemployer. Building Scale DC Microgrids Chris Marnay, IEEEgenerally known as microgrids (or µgrids). The dominance of

  4. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2015-10-27

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  5. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G

    2015-11-06

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  6. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Habetler, Thomas G. (Snellville, GA)

    2011-06-07

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  7. WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

  8. Magnetotelluric Transect of Long Valley Caldera: Resistivity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to sample the important features of the upper crustal and deeper resistivity structures. Additional control on the shallowest resistivity is provided by a continuous...

  9. Fertility versus disease resistance, a hard choice.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bart, Rebecca; Ronald, Pamela; Hake, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    resistance to all groups of pests and pathogens (insects, bacteria,bacteria, fungi, and viruses) means that the plant is often quickly outwitted and loses resistance.

  10. Off-scale salary dispositions It is very important that the dispositions of off-scale salaries be specified in departmental letters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Off-scale salary dispositions It is very important that the dispositions of off-scale salaries in determining the correct disposition. Market off-scale salaries New: A department may propose a "new" market off-scale salary award in the following circumstances: 1) a market off-scale salary is being requested

  11. Final Report: Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggerty, Roy; Day-Lewis, Fred; Singha, Kamini; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-20

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area. In a synergistic add-on to our workplan, we analyzed data from field experiments performed at the DOE Naturita Site under a separate DOE SBR grant, on which PI Day-Lewis served as co-PI. Techniques developed for application to Hanford datasets also were applied to data from Naturita.

  12. Fracture Resistance of Lithium Disilicate Restorations Following Endodontic Access Preparation; An In Vitro Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bompolaki, Despoina

    2014-12-10

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of endodontic access preparation on the fracture resistance and microstructural integrity of monolithic pressed and monolithic milled lithium disilicate complete coverage restorations...

  13. Modelling Heat Transport Across Nano-scale Material Interfaces for Next-generation Electronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    ) thermal boundary resistance between two dissimilar semiconductor materials using a combinationModelling Heat Transport Across Nano-scale Material Interfaces for Next-generation Electronic) with customized thermal transport properties. The scattering of thermal energy carriers at fabricated interfaces

  14. Corrosion resistance of concrete reinforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward-Waller, Elizabeth, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the mechanism of corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete and epoxy coated reinforcing bars as corrosion resistant alternatives. Several case studies explore the durability ...

  15. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, William G. (Philomath, OR); Lindbo, John A. (Kent, WA)

    1996-01-01

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection.

  16. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  17. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  18. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  19. Scales and Scale-like Structures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landreneau, Eric Benjamin

    2011-08-08

    Scales are a visually striking feature that grows on many animals. These small, rigid plates embedded in the skin form an integral part of our description of ?sh and reptiles, some plants, and many extinct animals. Scales exist in many shapes...

  20. Scaling the Web Scaling Web Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Scaling Web Sites Through Caching A large jump in a Web site's traffic may indi, pushing the site's through- put to its maximum point. When a Web site becomes overloaded, cus- tomers grow-generated revenue and may even tarnish the reputation of organizations relying on Web sites to support mission

  1. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency nonintrusively

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Habetler, Thomas G. (Snellville, GA); Harley, Ronald G. (Lawrenceville, GA)

    2011-08-30

    A system and method for nonintrusively determining electric motor efficiency includes a processor programed to, while the motor is in operation, determine a plurality of stator input currents, electrical input data, a rotor speed, a value of stator resistance, and an efficiency of the motor based on the determined rotor speed, the value of stator resistance, the plurality of stator input currents, and the electrical input data. The determination of the rotor speed is based on one of the input power and the plurality of stator input currents. The determination of the value of the stator resistance is based on at least one of a horsepower rating and a combination of the plurality of stator input currents and the electrical input data. The electrical input data includes at least one of an input power and a plurality of stator input voltages.

  2. Fourier-based magnetic induction tomography for mapping resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puwal, Steffan; Roth, Bradley J. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic induction tomography is used as an experimental tool for mapping the passive electromagnetic properties of conductors, with the potential for imaging biological tissues. Our numerical approach to solving the inverse problem is to obtain a Fourier expansion of the resistivity and the stream functions of the magnetic fields and eddy current density. Thus, we are able to solve the inverse problem of determining the resistivity from the applied and measured magnetic fields for a two-dimensional conducting plane. When we add noise to the measured magnetic field, we find the fidelity of the measured to the true resistivity is quite robust for increasing levels of noise and increasing distances of the applied and measured field coils from the conducting plane, when properly filtered. We conclude that Fourier methods provide a reliable alternative for solving the inverse problem.

  3. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  4. Determination of petroleum pipe scale solubility in simulated lung fluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cezeaux, Jason Roderick

    2005-08-29

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exists in connate waters and, under the right conditions during oil drilling, can plate out on the interior surfaces of oil and gas industry equipment. Once deposited, this material is commonly...

  5. Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC); Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) Sponsoring Org: USDOE SC Office of Basic Energy Sciences (SC-22)...

  6. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  7. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  8. Effects of microstructure on native oxide scale development and electrical characteristics of eutectic CuCu6La alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    , and the characteristics of the native oxide scales lead to contact resistances orders of magnitude higher than thoseEffects of microstructure on native oxide scale development and electrical characteristics atomic force microscopy techniques have been used to study the microstructure, oxide scale development

  9. Physical model of the contact resistivity of metal-graphene junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaves, Ferney A., E-mail: ferneyalveiro.chaves@uab.cat; Jiménez, David [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Escola d'Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Cummings, Aron W. [ICN2–Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Roche, Stephan [ICN2–Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08070 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    While graphene-based technology shows great promise for a variety of electronic applications, including radio-frequency devices, the resistance of the metal-graphene contact is a technological bottleneck for the realization of viable graphene electronics. One of the most important factors in determining the resistance of a metal-graphene junction is the contact resistivity. Despite the large number of experimental works that exist in the literature measuring the contact resistivity, a simple model of it is still lacking. In this paper, we present a comprehensive physical model for the contact resistivity of these junctions, based on the Bardeen Transfer Hamiltonian method. This model unveils the role played by different electrical and physical parameters in determining the specific contact resistivity, such as the chemical potential of interaction, the work metal-graphene function difference, and the insulator thickness between the metal and graphene. In addition, our model reveals that the contact resistivity is strongly dependent on the bias voltage across the metal-graphene junction. This model is applicable to a wide variety of graphene-based electronic devices and thus is useful for understanding how to optimize the contact resistance in these systems.

  10. Determining physical properties of the cell cortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, A; Behrndt, M; Heisenberg, C -P; Jülicher, F; Grill, S W

    2015-01-01

    Actin and myosin assemble into a thin layer of a highly dynamic network underneath the membrane of eukaryotic cells. This network generates the forces that drive cell and tissue-scale morphogenetic processes. The effective material properties of this active network determine large-scale deformations and other morphogenetic events. For example,the characteristic time of stress relaxation (the Maxwell time)in the actomyosin sets the time scale of large-scale deformation of the cortex. Similarly, the characteristic length of stress propagation (the hydrodynamic length) sets the length scale of slow deformations, and a large hydrodynamic length is a prerequisite for long-ranged cortical flows. Here we introduce a method to determine physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer (in vivo). For this we investigate the relaxation dynamics of the cortex in response to laser ablation in the one-cell-stage {\\it C. elegans} embryo and in the gastrulating zebrafish embryo. These responses can be interpreted using ...

  11. Time Scaling of Chaotic Systems: Application to Secure Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donatello Materassi; Michele Basso

    2007-10-25

    The paper deals with time-scaling transformations of dynamical systems. Such scaling functions operate a change of coordinates on the time axis of the system trajectories preserving its phase portrait. Exploiting this property, a chaos encryption technique to transmit a binary signal through an analog channel is proposed. The scheme is based on a suitable time-scaling function which plays the role of a private key. The encoded transmitted signal is proved to resist known decryption attacks offering a secure and reliable communication.

  12. Magnetic fields on resistance spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Hinz; Luke Rogers

    2015-02-03

    On a metric measure space $X$ that supports a regular, strongly local resistance form we consider a magnetic energy form that corresponds to the magnetic Laplacian for a particle confined to $X$. We provide sufficient conditions for closability and self-adjointness in terms of geometric conditions on the reference measure without assuming energy dominance.

  13. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  14. Density-Transition Scale at Quasiperpendicular Collisionless Shocks S. D. Bale* and F. S. Mozer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , the macroscopic density transition scale at 98 crossings of the quasiperpendicular terrestrial bow shock. A timing scales much smaller than a collisional mean free path. The terrestrial bow shock forms from a fast Rm =0vsh associated with some anomalous resistivity , and the kinetic Reynolds length Re =vsh

  15. Development of Submerged Entry Nozzles that Resist Clogging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Jeffrey D. Smith; Kent D. Peasle

    2002-10-14

    Accretion formation and the associated clogging of SENs is a major problem for the steel industry leading to decreased strand speed, premature changing of SENs or strand termination and the associated reductions in productivity, consistency, and steel quality. A program to evaluate potentially clog resistance materials was initiated at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The main objective of the research effort was to identify combinations of steelmaking and refractory practices that would yield improved accretion resistance for tundish nozzles and submerged entry nozzles. A number of tasks were identified during the initial kick-off meeting and each was completed with two exceptions, the thermal shock validation and the industrial trials. Not completing these two tasks related to not having access to industrial scale production facilities. Though much of the results and information generated in the project is of proprietary nature.

  16. New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive...

  17. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well...

  18. The Economic and Clinical Implications of Antibiotic Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behl, Rohini

    2013-01-01

    increase the resistance of bacteria in their urinary tractbacteria and contributes to higher levels of resistance;through which resistance is acquired in bacteria: 1) Natural

  19. Probabilistic electrical resistivity tomography of a CO2 sequestration analog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lochbühler, T; Breen, SJ; Detwiler, RL; Vrugt, JA; Linde, N

    2014-01-01

    Archie, G.E. , 1942. The electrical resistivity log as anexperiments to evaluate electrical resistivity tomography asmodel- ing and inversion of electrical resistance and gas

  20. Mechanism of acquired temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFaline-Figueroa, José L

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant form of brain cancer. After aggressive treatment, therapy resistant tumors inevitably recur. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such resistance remain unclear. ...

  1. Bacteria resist! INRA MIMA2 Imaging Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribot, Magali

    Biofilms: Bacteria resist! #12;INRA MIMA2 Imaging Center #12;#12;Biofilms everywhere ! #12 to biocides #12;MicrocoloniesBiofilm mature Détachement D.Davis, 2007. PLOS àEmergence of resistant mutants

  2. Technological Opportunities to Increase the Proliferation Resistance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities to Increase the Proliferation Resistance of Global Civilian Nuclear Power Systems (TOPS) Technological Opportunities to Increase the Proliferation...

  3. Schlumberger Resistivity Soundings At North Brawley Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Exploration Technique Schlumberger Resistivity Soundings Activity Date 1968 - 1970 Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis...

  4. Scale Models & Wind Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbines * Readings about Cape Wind and other offshore and onshore siting debates for wind farms * Student Worksheet * A number of scale model items: Ken, Barbie or other dolls...

  5. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    try on their large scale applications on Hopper for better performance. Try different compilers and compiler options The available compilers on Hopper are PGI, Cray, Intel, GNU,...

  6. Thermodynamics and scale relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Carroll

    2011-10-13

    It is shown how the fractal paths of scale relativity (following Nottale) can be introduced into a thermodynamical context (following Asadov-Kechkin).

  7. Silica Scaling Removal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    millions of dollars each year in facility down time, maintenance, discharge water treatments (blowdown), and anti-scaling chemical additives. This is particularly true for...

  8. Object Searchingin Scale-Space Guang-Rong Ji, Bao-Liang Lu*, Xia Chen, & Jian Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Bao-Liang

    an object searching method for meso-scale eddy detection in the ocean remote sensing images. The method is determined by the analysis scale and the slope of the corner's boundary. The meso-scale eddy detection

  9. Residual Stress Measurements in Side Bonded Resistance Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAUL, KORINKO

    2005-04-18

    Resistance upset welding is used to attach small diameter machined tubes to small gas vessels. Recently there has been interest in determining the level of residual stresses caused by this attachment method and its influence on environmental interactions. A test program was initiated to determine the residual stresses present due to welding using the nominal weld parameters and varying the interference between the foot and the counter bore. In this paper, the residual stress measurement technique is described, the welding conditions are provided, and the residual stress due to welding at the nominal conditions are presented.

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Adaptive Resistance in Bacteria Requires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cluzel, Philippe

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Adaptive Resistance in Bacteria Requires Epigenetic Inheritance, Genetic Noise Resistance in Bacteria Requires Epigenetic Inheritance, Genetic Noise, and Cost of Efflux Pumps. PLoS ONE 10, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America * max@fis.unam.mx Abstract Adaptive resistance emerges

  11. Thermal and mechanical properties of EPDM/PP + thermal shock-resistant ceramic composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Thermal and mechanical properties of EPDM/PP + thermal shock-resistant ceramic composites Witold the polymer matrix. The brittleness, B, decreases upon surface modification of the ceramic. The highest value-scale ceramic powder. To overcome the difficulty of particles dispersion and adhe- sion, the filler was modified

  12. Antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handelsman, Jo

    , the process by which bacteria acquire genes from the environment5 . Many of the known antibiotic resist- ance bacteria of the same or different species. There is evidence of the transfer of resistance elements bacteria15 . Strikingly, these resistant bacteria can transfer the resistance genes to human pathogens16

  13. Improving the phase stability and oxidation resistance of B-NiAl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brammer, Travis

    2011-08-15

    High temperature alloys are essential to many industries that require a stable material to perform in harsh oxidative environments. Many of these alloys are suited for specific applications such as jet engine turbine blades where most other materials would either melt or oxidize and crumble (1). These alloys must have a high melting temperature, excellent oxidation resistance, good creep resistance, and decent fracture toughness to be successfully used in such environments. The discovery of Ni based superalloys in the 1940s revolutionized the high temperature alloy industry and there has been continued development of these alloys since their advent (2). These materials are capable of operating in oxidative environments in the presence of combustion gases, water vapor and at temperatures around 1050 C. Demands for increased f uel efficiency, however, has highlighted the need for materials that can be used under similar atmospheres and at temperatures in excess of 1200 C. The current Ni based superalloys are restricted to lower temperatures due to the presence of a number of low melting phases that result in softening of the alloys above 1000 C. Therefore, recent research has been aimed at exploring and developing newer alloy systems that can meet the escalating requirements. This thesis comprises a part of such an effort. The motivation of this work is to develop a novel high temperature alloy system that shows improved performance at higher temperatures than the currently employed alloys. The desired alloy should be in accordance with the requirements established in the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) FutureGen program having an operating temperature around 1300 C. Alloys based on NiAl offer significant potential payoffs as structural materials in gas turbine applications due to a unique range of physical and mechanical properties. Alloying additions to NiAl could be used to further improve the pertinent properties that currently limit this system from replacing Ni based superalloys. Modifications to NiAl were explored to increase the phase stability and oxidation resistance which would allow these alloys to be used at even higher temperatures yielding greater efficiencies. The extended Miedema model was an effective tool that screened all of the potential phase space for ternary substitutions to NiAl and found the few potential systems worth further investigation. After production of the alloys it was determined that Ir, Rh, and Pd were the top candidates for substitution on Ni site up to 12 at%. The melting temperature of NiAl could be increased as much as 150 C with 12 at% Ir and 130 C with 12 at% Rh substitution. Pall adium on the other hand decreased the melting temperature by 50 C at the 12 at% substitution level. The grain size was found to have a profound influence on the oxidation resistance. Both Ir and Rh substitutions resulted in finer grain sizes compared to Pd substitutions or base NiAl. The grain size increased drastically during high temperature annealing with the PGM substitutions hindering grain growth only slightly. However, the addition of 0.05 at% Hf limited the grain growth dramatically during high temperature annealing. NiAl inherently has respectable oxidation resistance up to 1100 C. It was found through experimental testing that both Ir and Rh substitutions improve the oxidation resistance of NiAl at ultra-high temperatures with Ir performing the best. Both PGM substitutions decreased the growth rate as well as forming a more adherent oxide scale. Pd substitutions appeared to have a negligible effect to the oxidation resistance of NiAl. Hafnium addition of 0.05 at% was found to decrease the oxidation rate as well as increase the scale adherence. The combination of both Ir substitution (6-9 at%) and Hf addition (0.05 at%) produced the alloy with the best oxidation resistance. Although improvements in phase stability and oxidation resistance have been made to the NiAl system, more development and testing are still needed. Two major issues yet to be resolved are the low fracture toughn

  14. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, Peter; Button, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen

    2015-06-14

    The goals of the project were: Determine applicability of transmission line method (TLM) to evaluate sheet resistance of soils on module glass;
    Evaluate various soils on glass for changes in surface resistance and their ability to promote potential-induced degradation with humidity (PID);
    Evaluate PID characteristics, rate, and leakage current increases on full-size mc-Si modules associated with a conductive soil on the surface.

  15. Percolation of gallium dominates the electrical resistance of focused ion beam deposited metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faraby, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); DiBattista, M. [Qualcomm Technologies Incorporated, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Bandaru, P. R., E-mail: pbandaru@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Metal deposition through focused ion beam (FIB) based systems is thought to result in material composed of the primary metal from the metallo-organic precursor in addition to carbon, oxygen, and gallium. We determined, through electrical resistance and chemical composition measurements on a wide range of FIB deposited platinum and tungsten lines, that the gallium ion (Ga{sup +}) concentration in the metal lines plays the dominant role in controlling the electrical resistivity. Effective medium theory, based on McLachlan's formalisms, was used to describe the relationship between the Ga{sup +} concentration and the corresponding resistivity.

  16. Resistance of a water spark.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2005-11-01

    The later time phase of electrical breakdown in water is investigated for the purpose of improving understanding of the discharge characteristics. One dimensional simulations in addition to a zero dimensional lumped model are used to study the spark discharge. The goal is to provide better electrical models for water switches used in the pulse compression section of pulsed power systems. It is found that temperatures in the discharge channel under representative drive conditions, and assuming small initial radii from earlier phases of development, reach levels that are as much as an order of magnitude larger than those used to model discharges in atmospheric gases. This increased temperature coupled with a more rapidly rising conductivity with temperature than in air result in a decreased resistance characteristic compared to preceding models. A simple modification is proposed for the existing model to enable the approximate calculation of channel temperature and incorporate the resulting conductivity increase into the electrical circuit for the discharge channel. Comparisons are made between the theoretical predictions and recent experiments at Sandia. Although present and past experiments indicated that preceding late time channel models overestimated channel resistance, the calculations in this report seem to underestimate the resistance relative to recent experiments. Some possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  17. Increasing proliferation resistance of sodium fast reactor fuel cycle through use of a nuclear resonance fluorescence detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, David Ballin

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation resistance of a reprocessing facility can be improved by using a novel detection system that utilizes the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) phenomenon to determine the isotopic composition of materials ...

  18. PERSPECTIVES Can resistance against quorum-sensing interference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    interference-resistant bacteria in a clinical setting. The ISME Journal advance online publication, 29 May 2015PERSPECTIVES Can resistance against quorum-sensing interference be selected? Rodolfo García to resistance in bacterial populations. However, recently, resistance mechanisms against well

  19. Scaling behavior of regularized bosonic strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Ambjorn; Yuri Makeenko

    2015-10-12

    We implement a proper-time UV regularisation of the Nambu-Goto string, introducing an independent metric tensor and the corresponding Lagrange multiplier, and treating them in the mean-field approximation justified for long strings and/or when the dimensions of space-time is large. We compute the regularised determinant of the 2d Laplacian for the closed string winding around a compact dimension, obtaining in this way the effective action, whose minimisation determines the energy of the string ground state in the mean-field approximation. We discuss the existence of two scaling limits when the cutoff is taken to infinity. One scaling limit reproduces the results obtained by the hypercubic regularisation of the Nambu-Goto string as well as by the use of the dynamical triangulation regularisation of the Polyakov string. The other scaling limit reproduces the results obtained by canonical quantisation of the Nambu-Goto string.

  20. Osmotic force resisting chain insertion in a colloidal suspension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Castelnovo; R. K. Bowles; H. Reiss; W. M. Gelbart

    2003-03-03

    We consider the problem of inserting a stiff chain into a colloidal suspension of particles that interact with it through excluded volume forces. The free energy of insertion is associated with the work of creating a cavity devoid of colloid and sufficiently large to accomodate the chain. The corresponding work per unit length is the force that resists the entry of the chain into the colloidal suspension. In the case of a hard sphere fluid, this work can be calculated straightforwardly within the scaled particle theory; for solutions of flexible polymers, on the other hand, we employ simple scaling arguments. The forces computed in these ways are shown, for nanometer chain and colloid diameters, to be of the order of tens of pN for solution volume fraction for biophysical processes such as the ejection of DNA from viral capsids into the cell cytoplasm.

  1. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  2. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  4. Abrasion resistant track shoe grouser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Keith D; Diekevers, Mark S; Afdahl, Curt D; Steiner, Kevin L; Barnes, Christopher A

    2013-04-23

    A track shoe for a track-type vehicle. The track shoe includes a base plate and a grouser projecting away from the base plate. A capping surface structure of substantially horseshoe shaped cross-section is disposed across a distal portion of the grouser. The capping surface structure covers portions of a distal edge surface and adjacent lateral surfaces. The capping surface structure is formed from an material characterized by enhanced wear resistance relative to portions of the grouser underlying the capping surface structure.

  5. PREPARATION AND TESTING OF CORROSIONAND SPALLATION-RESISTANT COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, John

    2012-09-30

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding. It involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing has shown that the diffusion rate of Zn through the FeCrAl alloy is much faster than through the nickel superalloys. This means that the FeCrAl will serve as a sink for the Zn bonding alloy during the evaporative metal bonding process. Also, the testing has shown that the Zn diffusion mechanism is bulk diffusion, and not intergranular. This is a surprise. However, it means that quantification of the Zn diffusivities in these samples will be significantly simpler than would have been the case if grain boundary diffusion dominated. In addition to the laboratory testing, gas impinger and particulate samples are being collected from a combustor firing syngas and natural gas to determine what types of microcontaminants may reach a turbine firing syngas. The syngas is created in one of two different pilot-scale pressurized coal gasifiers. The initial analysis of the impinger solutions was for standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 29 determination of hazardous metals and did not include major element analysis. When syngas is fired, the amount of Mn in the combustor gas increases substantially. Halogens (Br2 and Cl2) and hydrogen halides (HF, HCl, and HBr) are present in amounts close to or below 1 ppm. In the near future, the solutions will be reanalyzed for major elements. SEM analysis showed that the particulate matter is primarily nonstoichiometric iron sulfate. Most of the particles were 3 ?m in diameter or less. Elements such as O, Fe, S, Cr, and Si make up the majority of the compositions of 3089 particles analyzed on the filter surface. The concentrations of O and S are high in almost all particles. The concentrations of S and Fe tend to be higher in the larger particles than in the smaller. In contrast the concentrations of O showed the reverse trend. We currently believe that the high values of Fe and Cr come from a reaction of the syngas with the stainless steel pipes used to transport the syngas, most likely by forming a vapor-phase carbonyl. During combustion, the carbonyls form nonstoichiometric sulfate particles. The excess Si is most likely coming from the coal ash, possibly through the formation of a silicon monoxide fume.

  6. Electromagnetic model for near-field microwave microscope with atomic resolution: Determination of tunnel junction impedance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reznik, Alexander N.

    2014-08-25

    An electrodynamic model is proposed for the tunneling microwave microscope with subnanometer space resolution as developed by Lee et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183111 (2010)]. Tip-sample impedance Z{sub a} was introduced and studied in the tunneling and non-tunneling regimes. At tunneling breakdown, the microwave current between probe and sample flows along two parallel channels characterized by impedances Z{sub p} and Z{sub t} that add up to form overall impedance Z{sub a}. Quantity Z{sub p} is the capacitive impedance determined by the near field of the probe and Z{sub t} is the impedance of the tunnel junction. By taking into account the distance dependences of effective tip radius r{sub 0}(z) and tunnel resistance R{sub t}(z)?=?Re[Z{sub t}(z)], we were able to explain the experimentally observed dependences of resonance frequency f{sub r}(z) and quality factor Q{sub L}(z) of the microscope. The obtained microwave resistance R{sub t}(z) and direct current tunnel resistance R{sub t}{sup dc}(z) exhibit qualitatively similar behavior, although being largely different in both magnitude and the characteristic scale of height dependence. Interpretation of the microwave images of the atomic structure of test samples proved possible by taking into account the inductive component of tunnel impedance ImZ{sub t}?=??L{sub t}. Relation ?L{sub t}/R{sub t}???0.235 was obtained.

  7. Helmet Streamers with Triple Structures: Simulations of resistive dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Wiegelmann; K. Schindler; T. Neukirch

    2008-01-21

    Recent observations of the solar corona with the LASCO coronagraph on board of the SOHO spacecraft have revealed the occurrence of triple helmet streamers even during solar minimum, which occasionally go unstable and give rise to large coronal mass ejections. There are also indications that the slow solar wind is either a combination of a quasi-stationary flow and a highly fluctuating component or may even be caused completely by many small eruptions or instabilities. As a first step we recently presented an analytical method to calculate simple two-dimensional stationary models of triple helmet streamer configurations. In the present contribution we use the equations of time- dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamics to investigate the stability and the dynamical behaviour of these configurations. We particularly focus on the possible differences between the dynamics of single isolated streamers and triple streamers and on the way in which magnetic reconnection initiates both small scale and large scale dynamical behaviour of the streamers. Our results indicate that small eruptions at the helmet streamer cusp may incessantly accelerate small amounts of plasma without significant changes of the equilibrium configuration and might thus contribute to the non-stationary slow solar wind. On larger time and length scales, large coronal eruptions can occur as a consequence of large scale magnetic reconnection events inside the streamer configuration. Our results also show that triple streamers are usually more stable than a single streamer.

  8. Determining physical properties of the cell cortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Saha; M. Nishikawa; M. Behrndt; C. -P. Heisenberg; F. Jülicher; S. W. Grill

    2015-07-02

    Actin and myosin assemble into a thin layer of a highly dynamic network underneath the membrane of eukaryotic cells. This network generates the forces that drive cell and tissue-scale morphogenetic processes. The effective material properties of this active network determine large-scale deformations and other morphogenetic events. For example,the characteristic time of stress relaxation (the Maxwell time)in the actomyosin sets the time scale of large-scale deformation of the cortex. Similarly, the characteristic length of stress propagation (the hydrodynamic length) sets the length scale of slow deformations, and a large hydrodynamic length is a prerequisite for long-ranged cortical flows. Here we introduce a method to determine physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer (in vivo). For this we investigate the relaxation dynamics of the cortex in response to laser ablation in the one-cell-stage {\\it C. elegans} embryo and in the gastrulating zebrafish embryo. These responses can be interpreted using a coarse grained physical description of the cortex in terms of a two dimensional thin film of an active viscoelastic gel. To determine the Maxwell time, the hydrodynamic length and the ratio of active stress and per-area friction, we evaluated the response to laser ablation in two different ways: by quantifying flow and density fields as a function of space and time, and by determining the time evolution of the shape of the ablated region. Importantly, both methods provide best fit physical parameters that are in close agreement with each other and that are similar to previous estimates in the two systems. We provide an accurate and robust means for measuring physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer.It can be useful for investigations of actomyosin mechanics at the cellular-scale, but also for providing insights in the active mechanics processes that govern tissue-scale morphogenesis.

  9. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  10. Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that will serve future demand for electricity. These parameters also help to determine how new capacity competesUpdated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants April 2013 Information Administration | Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii

  11. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance Print A research team from the Scripps Research Institute and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center has obtained the...

  12. Geothermal resistivity resource evaluation survey Waunita Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal resistivity resource evaluation survey Waunita Hot Springs project, Gunnison County, Colorado Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report:...

  13. Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    heated hot water in an insulated storage tank is another thermal storage option. Control Systems All types of electric resistance heating are controlled through some type...

  14. Electric Resistance Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    much heat could cause control problems, such as the accidental overheating of your home. Control Systems All types of electric resistance heating are controlled through some type...

  15. Transgenic mice that express the human multidrug-resistance gene in bone marrow enable a rapid identification of agents that reverse drug resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickisch, G.H.; Merlino, G.T.; Galski, H.; Gottesman, M.M.; Pastan, I. )

    1991-01-15

    The development of preclinical models for the rapid testing of agents that circumvent multidrug resistance in cancer is a high priority of research on drug resistance. A common form of multidrug resistance in human cancer results from expression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes a M{sub r} 170,000 glycoprotein that functions as a plasma membrane energy-dependent multidrug efflux pump. The authors have engineered transgenic mice that express this multidrug transporter in their bone marrow and demonstrated that these animals are resistant to leukopenia by a panel of anticancer drugs including anthracyclines, vinca alkaloids, etoposide, taxol, and actinomycin D. Differential leukocyte counts indicate that both neutrophils and lympohcytes are pretected. Drugs such as cisplatin, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil, which are not handled by the multidrug transporter, produce bone marrow suppression in both normal and transgenic mice. The resistance conferred by the MDR1 gene can be circumvented in a dose-dependent manner by simultaneous administration of agents previously shown to be inhibitors of the multidrug transporter in vitro, including verapamil isomers, quinidine, and quinine. They conclude that MDR1-transgenic mice provide a rapid and reliable system to determine the bioactivity of agents that reverse multidrug resistance in animals.

  16. Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2000-08-21

    Scale insects damage landscape plants, shrubs and trees. This publication explains how to control scale insects economically without damaging the environment, including sampling for scale crawlers, using natural enemies and applying pesticides....

  17. PREPARATION AND TESTING OF CORROSIONAND SPALLATION-RESISTANT COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, John

    2014-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding and involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing to determine the diffusion rate of Zn through the alloys has been completed. However, an analytical solution does not exist to model the diffusion of zinc through the alloys. For this reason, a finite difference algorithm using MATLAB was developed. It makes use of the hopscotch algorithm. The model allows the user to specify the dimensions of the metal parts, the Zn concentration at the bondline, the mesh size, time step, and Zn diffusivity. The experimentally measured values of diffusivity for Zn in APMT and Rene 80/CM 247LC are approximately 2.7 × 10-12 and 4 × 10-14 m2/s, respectively. While the qualitative behavior of the model appears correct, a comparison of the diffusion predictions with the experimental results from earlier in the project indicates that the expected Zn concentration is significantly higher than that measured experimentally. The difference depends on the assumed initial concentration, which is difficult to quantify exactly under experimental conditions for t = 0. In addition to the diffusion work, the coefficients of thermal expansions were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information has been entered into a finite element model using ANSYS so that appropriate force-applying structures can be designed for use in joining structures composed of APMT and the nickel alloys. Finite element modeling has been performed to finalize the fabrication geometry for the corrosion-testing phase. The addition of another bolt increases stress uniformity away from the region where the clamping is applied. It appears that a bolt spacing of approximately 25 mm in each jig is appropriate. This will allow the fabrication of 50-mm-wide sections of joints for the corrosion-testing task. Gasifier sampling activities continue to determine what types of trace contaminants may occur in cleaned syngas that could lead to corrosion or deposition in turbines firing coal syngas. The EERC has several pilot-scale gasifiers that are continually used in a variety of test configurations as determined by the needs of the projects that are funding the tests. We are sampling both noncombusted and combusted syngas produced during some of the pilot-scale gasifier tests. This year sampling was performed of both syngas and combusted syngas while the entrained-flow gasifier (EFG) was firing subbituminous coal from the Antelope Mine in Wyoming. Results of scanning electron microscope analyses of the syngas before combustion showed no submicron particles, only flakes of iron oxide that had likely formed on steel surfaces inside the combustor. As shown in the 2013 annual report, soot was also collected from the syngas when the much-lower-temperature fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) was fired, indicating that the much higher temperature of the EFG prevented soot formation. However, particles collected from the combusted syngas consist almost entirely of submicron soot, and little to no vaporized metals made it past the warm-gas filters and scrubbers in the high-temperature EFG system which could then deposit in a turbine system burning a higher hydrogen syngas. These results are consistent with the analyses of the particulates collected from combusted syngas when the lowertemperature FBG system is

  18. PREPARATION AND TESTING OF CORROSIONAND SPALLATION-RESISTANT COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, John

    2013-10-31

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding and involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing to determine the diffusion rate of Zn through the alloys has been completed. We have found that we were not able to create joints when temperatures much lower than the original temperature of 1214°C are used. Therefore, we limited our diffusion rate measurements to the two hold temperatures used in the procedure: 700° and 1214°C. The diffusivity of zinc in both APMT and CM247LC is quite similar at 700°C. Diffusivity in the APMT appears to be slightly higher, but the midline composition after 30 minutes at this temperature is quite similar. At 1214°C, the situation is very different. The calculated diffusivity of zinc in APMT is approximately 15 times higher than in CM247LC or Rene® 80 (~120 vs. ~8 ?m²/min) at that temperature. In addition to the diffusion work, the coefficients of thermal expansions were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information has been entered into a finite element model using ANSYS so that appropriate force-applying structures can be designed for use in joining structures composed of APMT and the nickel alloys. Gasifier sampling activities continue to determine what types of trace contaminants may occur in cleaned syngas that could lead to corrosion or deposition in turbines firing coal syngas. The EERC has several pilot-scale gasifiers that are continually used in a variety of test configurations as determined by the needs of the projects that are funding the tests. We are sampling both noncombusted and combusted syngas produced during some of the pilot-scale gasifier tests. After modifying our sampling procedures to minimize contamination from the oxidizer, we obtained very good filter samples from both syngas and from the combustion products of the syngas blended with natural gas. Scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that the particles captured on the filter from the syngas were typically 0.2 to 0.5 ?m in diameter, whereas those captured from the combusted syngas were slightly larger and more spherical. However, the particles were so small that we could not obtain good spectra from them either at the EERC or JEOL America, the maker of the EERC electron microscope systems. Therefore, the EERC applied for and received time on electron microscopes using different signal analyzers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) ShaRE User Facility, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Scientific User Facilities Division of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. At ORNL, both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy were performed on the samples because these are surface analyses that analyze electrons emitted from within a few nanometers of the surfaces of the particles and filters. The XPS data show that the particles do not contain any metals and, in fact, have an atomic composition almost identical to that of the polycarbonate filter. We currently believe that this indicates that the particles are primarily soot-based and not formed from volatilization of metals in the fluid-bed gasifier. The data indicate that the soot-based particles are not well burned in the thermal oxidizer, although they are significantly oxidized, nitrided, and sulfidized in the combustor. Ion etching to remove the

  19. Urban Scaling in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography, and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the for...

  20. Micro-scale mass-transfer variations during electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutija, D.P.

    1991-08-01

    Results of two studies on micro-scale mass-transfer enhancement are reported: (1) Profiled cross-sections of striated zinc surfaces deposited in laminar channel flow were analyzed with fast-fourier transforms (FFT) to determine preferred striation wavelengths. Striation frequency increases with current density until a minimum separation between striae of 150 {mu}m is reached. Beyond this point, independent of substrate used, striae meld together and form a relatively smooth, nodular deposit. Substrates equipped with artificial micron-sized protrusions result in significantly different macro-morphology in zinc deposits. Micro-patterned electrodes (MPE) with hemispherical protrusions 5 {mu}m in diameter yield thin zinc striae at current densities that ordinarily produce random nodular deposits. MPEs with artificial hemi-cylinders, 2.5 {mu}m in height and spaced 250 {mu}m apart, form striae with a period which matches the spacing of micron-sized ridges. (2) A novel, corrosion-resistant micromosaic electrode was fabricated on a silicon wafer. Measurements of mass-transport enhancement to a vertical micromosaic electrode caused by parallel bubble streams rising inside of the diffusion boundary-layer demonstrated the presence of two co-temporal enhancement mechanisms: surface-renewal increases the limiting current within five bubble diameters of the rising column, while bubble-induced laminar flows cause weaker enhancement over a much broader swath. The enhancement caused by bubble curtains is predicted accurately by linear superposition of single-column enhancements. Two columns of smaller H{sub 2} bubbles generated at the same volumetric rate as a single column of larger bubbles cause higher peak and far-field enhancements. 168 refs., 96 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. High impact resistant ceramic composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derkacy, James A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-07-16

    A ceramic material and a method of forming a ceramic material which possesses a high impact resistance. The material comprises: (a) a first continuous phase of .beta.-SiC; and (b) a second phase of about 25-40 vol % TiB.sub.2. Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is preferably used as a densification aid. The material is formed by hot-pressing the mixture at a temperature from greater than about 1800.degree. C. to less than the transition temperature of .beta.-SiC to .alpha.-SiC. The hot-pressing is performed at a pressure of about 2000 psi to about 4000 psi in an inert atmosphere for several hours and results in the formation of a two phase sintered ceramic composite material.

  2. High impact resistant ceramic composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derkacy, J.A.

    1991-07-16

    A ceramic material and a method of forming a ceramic material which possesses a high impact resistance are disclosed. The material comprises: (a) a first continuous phase of [beta]-SiC; and (b) a second phase of about 25-40 vol % TiB[sub 2]. Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] is preferably used as a densification aid. The material is formed by hot-pressing the mixture at a temperature from greater than about 1800 C to less than the transition temperature of [beta]-SiC to [alpha]-SiC. The hot-pressing is performed at a pressure of about 2000 psi to about 4000 psi in an inert atmosphere for several hours and results in the formation of a two phase sintered ceramic composite material. 6 figures.

  3. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  4. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  5. A new formula to compute apparent resistivities from marine magnetometric resistivity data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    A new formula to compute apparent resistivities from marine magnetometric resistivity data Jiuping formulas to compute the apparent resistiv- ity have their own limitations and are invalid for a deep-sea experiment. In this paper, we derive an apparent-resistivity formula based upon the magnetic field resulting

  6. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  7. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

  8. The scale invariant generator technique for quantifying anisotropic scale invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    The scale invariant generator technique for quantifying anisotropic scale invariance G.M. Lewisa, 1 invariant generator technique (SIG). The accuracy of the technique is tested using anisotropic multifractal characteristics. The scale invariant generator technique can pro®tably be applied to the scale invariant study

  9. Micropropagation of Frost-Resistant Eucalyptus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micropropagation of Frost-Resistant Eucalyptus1 Michel Boulay2 For 10 years now, AFOCEL has at the Workshop on Eucalyptus in California, June 14-16, 1983, Sacramento, California. 2 Head of the in vitro lab, AFOCEL, Nangis, France. 102 Abstract: A method for the in vitro propagation of frost resistant eucalyptus

  10. Analysis of Antibiotic Resistant Genes in Aquacultural Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    1 Analysis of Antibiotic Resistant Genes in Aquacultural Bacteria JY Wang* YJ Geng RX Wang J Feng in the selection pressure, retained the resistant strains, spread among the same or different species of bacteria also increased #12;3 2.Potential Hazards of Resistant Bacteria · Resistant bacteria · Resistant gene

  11. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that the parent aluminum skin must experience significant yield strains before any damage to the doubler will occur.

  12. Sensor system scaling issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-07-01

    A model for IR sensor performance is used to compare estimates of sensor cost effectiveness. Although data from aircraft sensors indicate a weaker scaling, their agreement is adequate to support the assessment of the benefits of operating up to the maximum altitude of most current UAVs.

  13. Scaling the Web Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Web Server Software Architectures W eb site scalability depends on several things -- workload characteristics,1 security mechanisms,2 Web cluster architectures3 -- as I've discussed in previous issues. Another important item that can affect a site's performance and scalability is the Web

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundary thermal resistance in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tianyi Chen; Di Chen; Bulent H. Sencer; Lin Shao

    2014-09-01

    By means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have calculated Kaptiza resistance of UO2 with or without radiation damage. For coincident site lattice boundaries of different configurations, the boundary thermal resistance of unirradiated UO2 can be well described by a parameter-reduced formula by using boundary energies as variables. We extended the study to defect-loaded UO2 by introducing damage cascades in close vicinity to the boundaries. Following cascade annealing and defect migrations towards grain boundaries, the boundary energy increases and so does Kaptiza resistance. The correlations between these two still follow the same formula extracted from the unirradiated UO2. The finding will benefit multi-scale modeling of UO2 thermal properties under extreme radiation conditions by combining effects from boundary configurations and damage levels.

  15. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous ion, Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+} is oxidized to Fe{sup 3+} - in the presence of goethite seed particles. Rhenium does not mimic that process; it is not a strong enough reducing agent to duplicate the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Fe{sup 2+} redox reactions. Laboratory tests conducted in parallel with these scaled tests identified modifications to the liquid chemistry necessary to reduce ReO{sub 4}{sup -} and capture rhenium in the solids at levels similar to those achieved by Um (2010) for inclusion of Tc into goethite. By implementing these changes, Re was incorporated into Fe-rich solids for testing at VSL. The changes also changed the phase of iron that was in the slurry product: rather than forming goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), the process produced magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Magnetite was considered by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL to probably be a better product to improve Re retention in the melter because it decomposes at a higher temperature than goethite (1538 C vs. 136 C). The feasibility tests at VSL were conducted using Re-rich magnetite. The tests did not indicate an improved retention of Re in the glass during vitrification, but they did indicate an improved melting rate (+60%), which could have significant impact on HLW processing. It is still to be shown whether the Re is a solid solution in the magnetite as {sup 99}Tc was determined to be in goethite.

  16. Functional Metagenomics Reveals Previously Unrecognized Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Gulls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martiny, Adam C; Martiny, Jennifer B. H; Weihe, Claudia; Field, Andrew; Ellis, Julie C

    2011-01-01

    multidrug resistant bacteria and resistance genes have beenbacteria in birds www.frontiersin.org Antibiotic resistanceAntibiotic-resistance pro?le in environmental bacteria

  17. APPROACH TO HEALTH MONITORING OFAN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE WITH RESISTIVE LADDER SENSORS DURING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    APPROACH TO HEALTH MONITORING OFAN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE WITH RESISTIVE LADDER SENSORS DURING FULL ladder sensors for health monitoring of an aircraft structure. Cracks forming can affect significantly and its size determination is one of the basic aims for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system

  18. Process and Layout Dependent Substrate Resistance Modeling for Deep Sub-Micron ESD Protection Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    of substrate resistance determines the on/off state of the parasitic bipolar transistor (n+ -p-n+ or p+ -n-p) of the base and emitter junction of the parasitic BJT and Isub0 is the y-inter- cept. Rd models

  19. 18 m THICK HIGH FREQUENCY CAPACITIVE HARPSS RESONATORS WITH REDUCED MOTIONAL RESISTANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    thermal oxide layer is first grown on the low resistivity SOI substrate. The oxide is patterned and kept be as large as a few tens of microns. Trench sidewalls are coated with a thin sacrificial LPCVD oxide layer. The thickness of the deposited sacrificial oxide layer determines the capacitive gap size in between the SCS

  20. Author's Accepted Manuscript Full range determination of 222

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; surface water; groundwater. 1. INTRODUCTION Radon is a rare gas with three natural radioactive isotopesAuthor's Accepted Manuscript Full range determination of 222 Rn at the watershed scale by liquid Rn at the watershed scale by liquid scintillation counting, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, http

  1. An Elastica Arm Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Bosi; D. Misseroni; F. Dal Corso; D. Bigoni

    2015-09-18

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  2. An Elastica Arm Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  3. Earth resistivity measurement near substation ground grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lodwig, S.G.; Mateja, S.A. [ComEd, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Proper substation grounding grid design requires good, accurate soil resistivity measurements. This data is essential to model the substation ground grid to design a safe ground grid with a satisfactory ground grid resistance at minimum cost. For substations with several decades of service, there is some concern that a grid may have deteriorated, been damaged during equipment installation or excavation, or that initial soil resistivity measurements were lost or may not have been correctly performed. Ground grid conductors change the substation surface voltage distribution. Any voltage measurements taken at the complete substation will also vary from the tests made without conductors present. During testing, current was injected in the soil by probes placed near the ground grid. The current tends to follow the ground grid conductors since copper is a far better conductor than the soil it is placed in. Resistance readings near grids will be lower than readings in undisturbed soil. Since computer models were unavailable for many years, analyzing the effect of the grid conductors on soil resistivity measurements was very difficult. As a result, soil resistivity measurements made close to substations were of little use to the engineer unless some means of correcting the measured values could be developed. This paper will present results of soil resistivity measurements near a substation ground grid before and after a ground grid has been installed and describes a means of calculating the undisturbed soil model.

  4. Scaling laws of solar and stellar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus J. Aschwanden; Robert A. Stern; Manuel Güdel

    2007-10-12

    In this study we compile for the first time comprehensive data sets of solar and stellar flare parameters, including flare peak temperatures T_p, flare peak volume emission measures EM_p, and flare durations t_f from both solar and stellar data, as well as flare length scales L from solar data. Key results are that both the solar and stellar data are consistent with a common scaling law of EM_p ~ T_p^4.7, but the stellar flares exhibit ~250 times higher emission measures (at the same flare peak temperature). For solar flares we observe also systematic trends for the flare length scale L(T_p) ~ T_p^0.9 and the flare duration t_F(T_p) ~ T_p^0.9 as a function of the flare peak temperature. Using the theoretical RTV scaling law and the fractal volume scaling observed for solar flares, i.e., V(L) ~ L^2.4, we predict a scaling law of EM_p ~ T_p^4.3, which is consistent with observations, and a scaling law for electron densities in flare loops, n_p ~ T_p^2/L ~ T_p^1.1. The RTV-predicted electron densities were also found to be consistent with densities inferred from total emission measures, n_p=(EM_p/q_V*V)^1/2, using volume filling factors of q_V=0.03-0.08 constrained by fractal dimensions measured in solar flares. Our results affect also the determination of radiative and conductive cooling times, thermal energies, and frequency distributions of solar and stellar flare energies.

  5. The propagation of kinetic energy across scales in turbulent flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardesa, José I; Dong, Siwei; Jiménez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A temporal study of energy transfer across length scales is performed in 3D numerical simulations of homogeneous shear flow and isotropic turbulence, at Reynolds numbers in the range $Re_{\\lambda}=107-384$. The average time taken by perturbations in the energy flux to travel between scales is measured and shown to be additive, as inferred from the agreement between the total travel time from a given scale to the smallest dissipative motions, and the time estimated from successive jumps through intermediate scales. Our data suggests that the propagation of disturbances in the energy flux is independent of the forcing and that it defines a `velocity' that determines the energy flux itself. These results support that the cascade is, on average, a scale-local process where energy is continuously transmitted from one scale to the next in order of decreasing size.

  6. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  7. Occurrence, Prevalence, and Disinfection Potential of Tetracycline Resistance Genes and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in a Subtropical Watershed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Bailey Ann

    2013-02-26

    , and resistance will most likely be maintained. Therefore, in order to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance, it will be important to prevent antibiotic resistance from becoming established in the environment. This can be done by educating the public about...

  8. Molecular genetic analysis of bacterial antimicrobial peptide resistance phenotypes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pence, Morgan A.

    2012-01-01

    of AMP resistance mechanisms in bacteria with pathogenicresistance mechanism among Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteriabacteria demonstrated comparable survival in human serum and whole blood, resistance

  9. Evolution of extreme resistance to ionizing radiation via genetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Search Results Published Article: Evolution of extreme resistance to ionizing radiation via genetic adaptation of DNA repair Title: Evolution of extreme resistance to...

  10. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbine Engines Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbine Engines...

  11. ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance Print Thursday, 25 July 2013 13:44 In the...

  12. Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene...

  13. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

  14. Strength and Resistivity Properties of Fouled Ballast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neupane, Madan

    2015-05-31

    . Resistivity tests using a Wenner 4 probe array in horizontal alignment and fall of potential method with a vertical probe and vertical alignment were carried out. Also, the light weight deflectometer (LWD) test for the measurement of dynamic modulus, static...

  15. Genomic analysis of hepatic insulin resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raab, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Type II Diabetes mellitus is a genetically complex disease characterized by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, which results in simultaneous hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Because of the prevalence of type II ...

  16. Transcriptional regulation of adipose insulin resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Kin Yui Alice

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a condition that underlies type 2 diabetes and various cardiovascular diseases. It is highly associated with obesity, making it a pressing medical problem in face of the obesity epidemic. The obesity ...

  17. Advanced Tools For Characterizing HMA Fatigue Resistance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, James Jefferies

    2011-02-22

    Accurately and efficiently characterizing the material properties of hot mix asphalt (HMA) is critical to the design and development of pavements that can experience repeated loading for long periods of time and resist ...

  18. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help...

  19. An analysis and validation pipeline for large-scale RNAi-based screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Magalhães, João Pedro

    An analysis and validation pipeline for large-scale RNAi-based screens Michael Plank1 , Guang Hu2 pipeline to prioritize these candidates incorporating effect sizes, functional enrichment analysis associated with oxidative stress resistance, as a proof-of-concept of our pipeline we demonstrate

  20. Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 coating - a new criticality-controlled material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C K; Rebak, R; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

    2007-03-28

    An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B) was added to promote glass formation and the absorption of thermal neutrons. Since this amorphous metal has a higher boron content than conventional borated stainless steels, it provides the nuclear engineer with design advantages for criticality control structures with enhanced safety. While melt-spun ribbons with limited practical applications were initially produced, large quantities (several tons) of gas atomized powder have now been produced on an industrial scale, and applied as thermal-spray coatings on prototypical half-scale spent nuclear fuel containers and neutron-absorbing baskets. These prototypes and other SAM2X5 samples have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both salt-fog and long-term immersion testing. Modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in various relevant environments, and are reported here. While these coatings have less corrosion resistance than melt-spun ribbons and optimized coatings produced in the laboratory, substantial corrosion resistance has been achieved.

  1. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  2. Sensing of buried wastes through resistivity measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, Bollam Muralidhar

    1991-01-01

    for detailed hydrogeologic studies. In this work, the applicability of one of the geophysical methods namely "earth resistivity" to ground water contamination problem is investigated. The earth resistivity is inversely proportional to the conductivity... of effort in a site investigation program. ACRNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my sincere appreciation and thanks to Dr. Derek V. Morris, chair of the advisory committee, for his guidance and support throughout the course of my study. z would like...

  3. The San Jose Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conradi, Albert F.

    1906-01-01

    for controlling the scale. The most important spray mixtures in use are lime-sulphur salt, lime-sulphur, whale oil soap, kero? sene, crude petroleum, Kero-water, and kerosene or crude oil emulsions. All these preparations are mainly winter sprays, being applied... salt as those containing it. t 7 8 0 I R y 0 - . 8 E 2 This wash consists of a solution made by dissolving two pounds of potash soap into a gallon of boiling water. It is applied while hot. The solution is safe to use on all kinds of trees. When...

  4. Small-scale strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the world of power project development there is a market for smaller scale cogeneration projects in the range of 1MW to 10MW. In the European Union alone, this range will account for about $25 Billion in value over the next 10 years. By adding the potential that exists in Eastern Europe, the numbers are even more impressive. In Europe, only about 7 percent of needed electrical power is currently produced through cogeneration installations; this is expected to change to around 15 percent by the year 2000. Less than one year ago, two equipment manufacturers formed Dutch Power Partners (DPP) to focus on the market for industrial cogeneration throughout Europe.

  5. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Hu, Michael Z.

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  6. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard Brian (Athens, GA); Summers, Anne O. (Athens, GA); Rugh, Clayton L. (Athens, GA)

    1999-10-12

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  7. Conduction in alumina with atomic scale copper filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xu; Liu, Jie; Anantram, M. P.

    2014-10-28

    The conductance of atomic scale filaments with three and seven Cu atoms in ?-alumina are calculated using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the filament with 3 Cu atoms is sufficient to increase the conductance of 1.3?nm thick alumina film by more than 10{sup 3} times in linear response. As the applied voltage increases, the current quickly saturates and differential resistance becomes negative. Compared to the filament with three Cu atoms, while the conductance of the filament with seven Cu atoms is comparable in linear response, they carry as much as twenty times larger current at large biases. The electron transport is analyzed based on local density of states, and the negative differential resistance in the seven Cu filaments occurs due to their narrow bandwidth.

  8. Determining neutrino properties using future galaxy redshift surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. B. Abdalla; S. Rawlings

    2007-02-12

    Current measurements of the large-scale structure of galaxies are able to place an $\\sim 0.5 ~ \\rm eV$ upper limit on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. An order-of-magnitude improvement in raw sensitivity, together with an insensitivity to systematic effects, is needed to reach the lowest value allowed by particle physics experiments. We consider the prospects of determining both the neutrino mass scale and the number of of massive neutrinos using future redshift surveys, specifically those undertaken with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), with and without additional constraints from the upcoming Planck CMB experiment. If the sum of the neutrino masses $\\sum m_i \\gtsimeq 0.25 ~ \\rm eV$ then the imprint of neutrinos on large-scale structure (LSS) should be enough, on its own, to establish the neutrino mass scale and, considered alongside CMB constraints, it will also determine the number of massive neutrinos $N_{\

  9. Scaling the Web in Designing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Trade-offs in Designing Web Clusters 76 SEPTEMBER · OCTOBER 2002 http://computer.org/internet/ 1089-7801/02/$17.00 ©2002 IEEE IEEE INTERNET COMPUTING H igh-volume Web sites often use clusters approaches to scaling Web clusters: adding more servers of the same type (scaling out, or horizontally

  10. Metrology for electron-beam lithography and resist contrast at the sub-10 nm scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Huigao

    Exploring the resolution limit of electron-beam lithography is of great interest both scientifically and technologically. However, when electron-beam lithography approaches its resolution limit, imaging and metrology of ...

  11. Wear 260 (2006) 886894 Scaling laws governing the erosion and impact resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    2006-01-01

    coatings A.G. Evansa,, N.A. Fleckb, S. Faulhabera, N. Vermaaka, M. Maloneyc, R. Daroliad a Materials used in gas turbines exhibit two majorcategoriesoffailure:onebasedonoxidation[1­10]and the other; accepted 19 May 2005 Available online 8 August 2005 Abstract Airfoils coated with columnar thermal barriers

  12. Antibiotic Resistance Bioscene 17 Measurement of Mutation to Antibiotic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonovics, Janis

    . Ampicillin resistance (Apr ) in Gram-negative bacteria can arise from mutations in outer membrane proteinsAntibiotic Resistance Bioscene 17 Measurement of Mutation to Antibiotic Resistance: Ampicillin Resistance in Serratia marcescens *Pryce L. Haddix, Eric T. Paulsen and Terry F. Werner Harris-Stowe State

  13. 6 College of Science Quarterly Resistance is ... inevitable.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    the disease, increasing the rate at which resistance evolves. One of the first antimalarial drugs, quinine

  14. Evolution of Resistance and Virulence in Drosophila and its Parasitoids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . proportion of resistant genotype proportion of virulent genotype encapsulation proportion of genotypes

  15. Microstructural Stability and Oxidation Resistance of 9-12 Chromium Steels at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, O.N.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.; Hawk, J.A.

    2006-05-01

    Various martensitic 9-12 Cr steels are utilized currently in fossil fuel powered energy plants for their good elevated temperature properties such as creep strength, steam side oxidation resistance, fire side corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. Need for further improvements on the properties of 9-12 Cr steels for higher temperature (>600oC) use is driven by the environmental concerns (i.e., improve efficiency to reduce emissions and fossil fuel consumption). In this paper, we will discuss the results of the research done to explore new subsitutional solute solution and precipitate hardening mechanisms for improved strength of 9-12 Cr martensitic steels. Stability of the phases present in the steels will be evaluated for various temperature and time exposures. A comparison of microstructural properties of the experimental steels and commercial steels will also be presented.

    The influence of a Ce surface treatment on oxidation behavior of a commercial (P91) and several experimental steels containing 9 to 12 weight percent Cr was examined at 650ºC in flowing dry and moist air. The oxidation behavior of all the alloys without the Ce modification was significantly degraded by the presence of moisture in the air during testing. For instance the weight gain for P91 was two orders of magnitude greater in moist air than in dry air. This was accompanied by a change in oxide scale from the formation of Cr-based scales in dry air to the formation of Fe-based scales in moist air. The Ce surface treatment was very effective in improving the oxidation resistance of the experimental steels in both moist and dry air. For instance, after exposure to moist air at 650ºC for 2000 hours, an experimental alloy with the cerium surface modification had a weight gain three orders of magnitude lower than the alloy without the Ce modification and two orders of magnitude lower than P91. The Ce surface treatment suppressed the formation of Fe-based scales and promoted the formation of more protective Cr-based scales. However, the Ce surface treatment was not effective in improving the resistance of P91. The results are discussed in terms of synergistic effects of constituent alloying elements.

  16. Small Scale Cosmological Perturbations: An Analytic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wayne Hu; Naoshi Sugiyama

    1996-04-19

    Through analytic techniques verified by numerical calculations, we establish general relations between the matter and cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra and their dependence on cosmological parameters on small scales. Fluctuations in the CMB, baryons, cold dark matter (CDM), and neutrinos receive a boost at horizon crossing. Baryon drag on the photons causes alternating acoustic peak heights in the CMB and is uncovered in its bare form under the photon diffusion scale. Decoupling of the photons at last scattering and of the baryons at the end of the Compton drag epoch, freezes the diffusion-damped acoustic oscillations into the CMB and matter power spectra at different scales. We determine the dependence of the respective acoustic amplitudes and damping lengths on fundamental cosmological parameters. The baryonic oscillations, enhanced by the velocity overshoot effect, compete with CDM fluctuations in the present matter power spectrum. We present new exact analytic solutions for the cold dark matter fluctuations in the presence of a growth- inhibiting radiation {\\it and} baryon background. Combined with the acoustic contributions and baryonic infall into CDM potential wells, this provides a highly accurate analytic form of the small-scale transfer function in the general case.

  17. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, Jim; Knight, Tawnie

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  18. Multiscale functions, Scale dynamics and Applications to partial differential equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacky Cresson; Frédéric Pierret

    2015-09-03

    Modeling phenomena from experimental data, always begin with a \\emph{choice of hypothesis} on the observed dynamics such as \\emph{determinism}, \\emph{randomness}, \\emph{derivability} etc. Depending on these choices, different behaviors can be observed. The natural question associated to the modeling problem is the following : \\emph{"With a finite set of data concerning a phenomenon, can we recover its underlying nature ?} From this problem, we introduce in this paper the definition of \\emph{multi-scale functions}, \\emph{scale calculus} and \\emph{scale dynamics} based on the \\emph{time-scale calculus} (see \\cite{bohn}). These definitions will be illustrated on the \\emph{multi-scale Okamoto's functions}. The introduced formalism explains why there exists different continuous models associated to an equation with different \\emph{scale regimes} whereas the equation is \\emph{scale invariant}. A typical example of such an equation, is the \\emph{Euler-Lagrange equation} and particularly the \\emph{Newton's equation} which will be discussed. Notably, we obtain a \\emph{non-linear diffusion equation} via the \\emph{scale Newton's equation} and also the \\emph{non-linear Schr\\"odinger equation} via the \\emph{scale Newton's equation}. Under special assumptions, we recover the classical \\emph{diffusion} equation and the \\emph{Schr\\"odinger equation}.

  19. Genetic basis of resistance to trauma in inbred strains of mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radojicic, C.; Andric, B.; Simovic, M.; Dujic, A.; Marinkovic, D. )

    1990-02-01

    In this study the resistance to mechanical, thermal, and radiation trauma in four inbred strains of mice (AKR, BALB/c, CBA, and C57Bl/6) was compared with the degree of genetic resemblance, by analyzing the allozyme variabilities of these strains. It was shown that the highest degree of genetic resemblance was among CBA and AKR strains, which correlated with a similar degree of resistance to trauma. On the other hand, BALB/c and C57Bl/6 strains expressed significant differences, both genetically and with respect to the responses to trauma. The hypothesis is introduced that the genetic determination of the resistance to trauma is based on: (a) a polygenic control of general physiological homeostasis, with the possibility that (b) some specific genes or single loci may contribute more than others to such adaptations of the strains tested.

  20. Analysis of Soluble Re Concentrations in Refractory from Bulk Vitrification Full-Scale Test 38B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2006-06-30

    The capacity of the waste treatment plant (WTP) being built at the Hanford Site is not sufficient to process all of the tank waste accumulated from more than 40 years of nuclear materials production. Bulk vitrification can accelerate tank waste treatment by providing some supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) treatment capacity. Bulk vitrification combines LAW and glass-forming chemicals in a large metal container and melts the contents using electrical resistance heating. A castable refractory block (CRB) is used along with sand to insulate the container from the heat generated while melting the contents into a glass waste form. This report describes engineering-scale (ES) and full-scale (FS) tests that have been conducted. Several ES tests showed that a small fraction of soluble Tc moves in the CRB and results in a groundwater peak different than WTP glass. The total soluble Tc-99 fraction in the FS CRB is expected to be different than that determined in the ES tests, but until FS test results are available, the best-estimate soluble Tc-99 fraction from the ES tests has been used as a conservative estimate. The first FS test results are from cold simulant tests that have been spiked with Re. An estimated scale-up factor extrapolates the Tc-99 data collected at the ES to the FS bulk vitrification waste package. Test FS-38A tested the refractory design and did not have a Re spike. Samples were taken and analyzed to help determine Re CRB background concentrations using a Re-spiked, six-tank composite simulant mixed with soil and glass formers to produce the waste feed. Although this feed is not physically the same as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System feed , the chemical make-up is the same. Extensive sampling of the CRB was planned, but difficulties with the test prevented completion of a full box. An abbreviated plan is described that looks at duplicate samples taken from refractory archive sections, a lower wall sample, and two base samples to gain early information about Re and projected Tc-99 levels in the FS box.

  1. On the emergence of scale-free production networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gualdi, Stanislao

    2015-01-01

    Building upon the standard model of monopolistic competition on the market for intermediary goods, we propose a simple dynamical model of the formation of production networks. The model subsumes the standard general equilibrium approach and robustly reproduces key stylized facts of firms' demographics. Firms' growth rates are negatively correlated with size and follow a core double-exponential distribution followed by fat tails. Firms' size and production network are power-law distributed. These properties emerge because continuous inflow of new firms shifts away the model from a steady state to a disequilibrium regime in which firms get scaled according to their resistance to competitive forces.

  2. GaAs, AlGaAs and InGaP Tunnel Junctions for Multi-Junction Solar Cells Under Concentration: Resistance Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeldon, Jeffrey F.; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Walker, Alex; Kolhatkar, Gitanja; Hall, Trevor J.; Hinzer, Karin; Masson, Denis; Riel, Bruno; Fafard, Simon; Jaouad, Abdelatif; Turala, Artur; Ares, Richard; Aimez, Vincent

    2010-10-14

    The following four TJ designs, AlGaAs/AlGaAs, GaAs/GaAs, AlGaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs are studied to determine minimum doping concentration to achieve a resistance of <10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm{sup 2} and a peak tunneling current suitable for MJ solar cells up to 1500-suns concentration (operating current of 21 A/cm{sup 2}). Experimentally calibrated numerical models are used to determine how the resistance changes as a function of doping concentration. The AlGaAs/GaAs TJ design is determined to require the least doping concentration to achieve the specified resistance and peak tunneling current, followed by the GaAs/GaAs, and AlGaAs/AlGaAs TJ designs. The AlGaAs/InGaP TJ design can only achieve resistances >5x10{sup -4} {omega}cm{sup 2}.

  3. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiaro, Christopher, E-mail: cchiaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States)] [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Lazarova, Darina L., E-mail: dlazarova@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Bordonaro, Michael, E-mail: mbordonaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States)] [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or reverse butyrate resistance.

  4. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-08-22

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  5. The Internal Resistance of a Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singal, Ashok K

    2013-01-01

    The standard exposition of the internal resistance of a battery, as given in the undergraduate text-books, is lacking in proper physics. The battery has a tendency to maintain the electric potential difference across its terminals equal to its chemical potential, and in an open circuit, when no electric current flows, these two do match. However in a closed circuit, a drop in electric potential across the battery terminals is inevitable for a steady flow of electric current throughout the circuit, because the chemical reactions driving the electric current within the battery can proceed only if the electric potential at its terminals differs from the chemical potential. It is shown that for small voltage changes, the current passing through the battery is linearly proportional to the change in potential from the open-circuit value (i.e., its chemical potential), giving rise to a semblance of an internal resistance in series with the external resistance.

  6. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  7. Greenbug-resistance Studies with Small Grains. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chada, H. L.; Atkins, I. M.; Gardenhire, J. H.; Weibl, D. E.

    1961-01-01

    , and this strain is now being used in breed- ing programs at several locations. More recently a second unnamed resistant variety, C.I. 9058 from Iraq, was fou~icl. Arriaga (1, 2, 3), working in Argentina, developed an insectary technique and tested small... selection. "46S.71-6-0-1-0-0-0-"Cebada negra" selection from Argentina. parison in all tests. The re;~ctioll\\ of Wintex ant1 Omugi to insect,^^\\ infestations are shown in Figure S Of the 1,230 strain5 tcstetl, I(iO were Found to be more resist...

  8. Emerging pathogens: Dynamics, mutation and drug resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perelson, A.S.; Goldstein, B.; Korber, B.T. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were to develop models of the spread of pathogens, such as HIV-1 and influenza, in humans, and then to use the models to address the possibility of designing appropriate drug therapies that may limit the ability of the pathogen to escape treatment by mutating into a drug resistant form. We have developed a model of drug-resistance to amantidine and rimantadine, the two major antiviral drugs used to treat influenza, and have used the model to suggest treatment strategies during an epidemic.

  9. Resistance of cotton to pink bollworm damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brazzel, J. R.

    1956-01-01

    for resistance to pink bollworra damage, College Station, Texas, 1SAI . 12. Group comparisons analyses for a number of cottons with Deltapine TA based on number of larvae re? covered per gram of boll weight in greenhouse screening experiments for pink... screening experiment for resistance to pink bollworm damage, College Station, Texas, 195U- 1955: (A) Deltapine 15, (B) G^ thurberi, (C) Texas 389, (D) MW-298, (E) G^ stocksii, '(F) Stoneville 2-B x G. tomentosum, (G) Hexaploia Z-61j., (H) MW-1U7 . ? 5U...

  10. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  11. Role of oxygen vacancies in resistive switching in Pt/Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jinho; Kwon, Deok-Hwang; Park, Hongwoo; Kim, M., E-mail: mkim@snu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, C. U. [Department of Physics, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin, Kyungki 449-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-03

    Oxygen vacancies at the metal/oxide interface, driven by an electric field, have been considered responsible for the switching to the low-resistance state. We studied the electrical properties, along with microscopic observations, of the Pt/Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (001) single-crystal system. Electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed highly accumulated oxygen vacancies at the interface in the high-resistance state, contrasting to common explanation. Higher resistance state by more oxygen vacancies was further confirmed in Pt/H{sub 2}-annealed SrTiO{sub 3}. These results suggest the presence of an interfacial state which dominantly determined the resistivity by changing the barrier height at the interface.

  12. NEPA Determination Complete

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has determined that this proposed project is a major Federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. To comply with the National Environmental Policy Act ...

  13. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M.; Welch, D.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.

    2014-10-15

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  14. Voltage Impacts of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Although most utility-scale wind turbines in the United States are added at the transmission level in large wind power plants, distributed wind power offers an alternative that could increase the overall wind power penetration without the need for additional transmission. This report examines the distribution feeder-level voltage issues that can arise when adding utility-scale wind turbines to the distribution system. Four of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory taxonomy feeders were examined in detail to study the voltage issues associated with adding wind turbines at different distances from the sub-station. General rules relating feeder resistance up to the point of turbine interconnection to the expected maximum voltage change levels were developed. Additional analysis examined line and transformer overvoltage conditions.

  15. The Price of Synchrony: Resistive Losses due to Phase Synchronization in Power Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassam Bamieh; Dennice F. Gayme

    2012-09-21

    We investigate the total resistive losses incurred in returning a power network of identical generators to a synchronous state following a transient stability event or in maintaining this state in the presence of persistent stochastic disturbances. We formulate this cost as the input-output $H^2$ norm of a linear dynamical system with distributed disturbances. We derive an expression for the total resistive losses that scales with the size of the network as well as properties of the generators and power lines, but is independent of the network topology. This topologically invariant scaling of what we term the price of synchrony is in contrast to typical power system stability notions like rate of convergence or the region of attraction for rotor-angle stability. Our result indicates that highly connected power networks, whilst desirable for higher phase synchrony, do not offer an advantage in terms of the total resistive power losses needed to achieve this synchrony. Furthermore, if power flow is the mechanism used to achieve synchrony in highly-distributed-generation networks, the cost increases unboundedly with the number of generators.

  16. Method and apparatus for determination of mechanical properties of functionally-graded materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giannakopoulos, Antonios E. (Somerville, MA); Suresh, Subra (Wellesley, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of mechanical properties of homogenous or functionally-graded materials from indentation testing are presented. The technique is applicable to indentation on the nano-scale through the macro-scale including the geological scale. The technique involves creating a predictive load/depth relationship for a sample, providing an experimental load/depth relationship, comparing the experimental data to the predictive data, and determining a physical characteristic from the comparison.

  17. Effect of embedded metal nanocrystals on the resistive switching characteristics in NiN-based resistive random access memory cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Min Ju; Kim, Hee-Dong; Man Hong, Seok; Hyun Park, Ju; Su Jeon, Dong; Geun Kim, Tae, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-07

    The metal nanocrystals (NCs) embedded-NiN-based resistive random access memory cells are demonstrated using several metal NCs (i.e., Pt, Ni, and Ti) with different physical parameters in order to investigate the metal NC's dependence on resistive switching (RS) characteristics. First, depending on the electronegativity of metal, the size of metal NCs is determined and this affects the operating current of memory cells. If metal NCs with high electronegativity are incorporated, the size of the NCs is reduced; hence, the operating current is reduced owing to the reduced density of the electric field around the metal NCs. Second, the potential wells are formed by the difference of work function between the metal NCs and active layer, and the barrier height of the potential wells affects the level of operating voltage as well as the conduction mechanism of metal NCs embedded memory cells. Therefore, by understanding these correlations between the active layer and embedded metal NCs, we can optimize the RS properties of metal NCs embedded memory cells as well as predict their conduction mechanisms.

  18. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  19. Determination of formation water resistivity using shale properties in geopressured wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dusenbery, Richard Allen

    1983-01-01

    Oil and Minerals Prairie Cana Well Rl Lear Petroleum Keolemay '. ll Martin Exploration 2-Crown Zellerbach Shale. R w . 1277 onm-m . 049 ohm-m . 122 ohm-m . 078 ohm-m Method 12, 000 ppm 39, 000 ppm 15, 800 ppm 27, 000 ppm Lab R w . 13 ohm... not change within a specified tolerance. The results compared favorably with the shale method. The details of each well tested are found in the next section. Logs for each of the wells analyzed are contained in Reference B. Riddle Oil Com an Well: Saldana...

  20. Determination of soil moisture by using resistance blocks with gravimetric comparisons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Paul Burton

    1959-01-01

    the ttu8ng of application of irrigation water~ 8oourate soil mc8s'hem ~4ormation is susen~4 to ohtsin optimum orop pro8uotion, Swenson sn8 ~n (5) worhkng on tho Texas Sigh plains obteins8 percent, greater yisM from grain soxghum rsosiving V S inches... a ~ e o o ~ ~ ~ ~ a a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e o EXSCUBBXCE CE EESULTS e a a ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ e a a ~ a ~ EuinfeD sn8 Xrrigoiian ~ o ~ o e ~ o a ~ o o a e ~ a o Celibro49. on Cares for the Surfeoe SaLL - Ymtho8 "SI". . . CslibroQ. on Curves for the Suh...

  1. Scale, scaling and multifractals in geophysics: twenty Shaun Lovejoy1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Scale, scaling and multifractals in geophysics: twenty years on Shaun Lovejoy1 and Daniel Schertzer number of degrees of freedom approaches to nonlin- ear geophysics: a) the transition from fractal are generally necessary for geophysical applications. We illustrate these ideas with data analyses from both

  2. Resistance heater for use in a glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A resistance heating element that includes: a resistance heating medium of a mixture of electrically conductive and insulative particles in powdered form mixed together in predetermined proportions to achieve a given resistivity; a hollow outer electrode surrounding the resistance heating medium; and an inner electrode coaxially disposed within said outer electrode. In its preferred embodiments, the electrically conductive powder is selected from the group consisting essentially of graphite, Inconel alloy, molybdenum, nichrome alloy and stainless steel, while the insulator powder is silicon dioxide or alumina. The resistance heating element, being resistant to damage from mechanical shock and corrosion at elevated temperatures, is used in a glass melter.

  3. CX-012688: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessment of Corrosion Resistance of Promising Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Under Reactor Conditions – Notre Dame University CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 41869 Location(s): IndianaOffices(s): Nuclear Energy

  4. CX-012401: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Computational Design and Performance Prediction of Creep-Resistant Ferritic Superalloys CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 41884 Location(s): TennesseeOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-011316: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation of Deep Subsurface Resistivity Imaging for Hydrofracture Monitoring CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 10/01/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. CX-012284: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation of Deep Subsurface Resistivity Imaging for Hydrofracture Monitoring CX(s) Applied: B3.1, B3.6 Date: 06/12/2014 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  7. CX-010257: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterizing Fracture Properties Using Resistivity measured at Different Frequencies CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 04/03/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  8. CX-002965: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mixed Conducting Corrosion Resistant Materials for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel CellsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 07/12/2010Location(s): IllinoisOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  9. Electrical resistivity mechanism in magnetorheological elastomer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    polymer. Once the polymer is cured, this anisotropic structure is kept, giving to the composite new the conduction mechanism in such composite, the influence of pressure on the electrical resistivity of metal of the insulating polymer layer strongly adsorbed on the surface of particles. 1. Introduction Conductive polymer

  10. GNP NanocompositeDirect current resistivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    and polymer Carbon nanoparticles are highly conductive and shape and size make them attractive choice with suspension for 6 hours: Achieve uniform composite solution and thorough contact between GNP and Polymer rate Want low electrical resistivity and low relative permittivity The Polymer Composite: Polymers

  11. Magnetic field annealing for improved creep resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P.; Ludtka, Gail M.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Nicholson, Don M.; Rios, Orlando; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-12-22

    The method provides heat-resistant chromia- or alumina-forming Fe-, Fe(Ni), Ni(Fe), or Ni-based alloys having improved creep resistance. A precursor is provided containing preselected constituents of a chromia- or alumina-forming Fe-, Fe(Ni), Ni(Fe), or Ni-based alloy, at least one of the constituents for forming a nanoscale precipitate MaXb where M is Cr, Nb, Ti, V, Zr, or Hf, individually and in combination, and X is C, N, O, B, individually and in combination, a=1 to 23 and b=1 to 6. The precursor is annealed at a temperature of 1000-1500.degree. C. for 1-48 h in the presence of a magnetic field of at least 5 Tesla to enhance supersaturation of the M.sub.aX.sub.b constituents in the annealed precursor. This forms nanoscale M.sub.aX.sub.b precipitates for improved creep resistance when the alloy is used at service temperatures of 500-1000.degree. C. Alloys having improved creep resistance are also disclosed.

  12. Drift Scale THM Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rutqvist

    2004-10-07

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a drift to transport any exposed radionuclides out of the drift to the groundwater below, and eventually to people within the accessible environment. Absent sufficient water, radionuclides cannot be transported and there would be no significant health effect on people, even if radioactive waste containers were damaged or corroded to such an extent that radionuclides were exposed to water.

  13. Anomalous Viscosity, Resistivity, and Thermal Diffusivity of the Solar Wind Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahendra K. Verma

    1995-09-05

    In this paper we have estimated typical anomalous viscosity, resistivity, and thermal difffusivity of the solar wind plasma. Since the solar wind is collsionless plasma, we have assumed that the dissipation in the solar wind occurs at proton gyro radius through wave-particle interactions. Using this dissipation length-scale and the dissipation rates calculated using MHD turbulence phenomenology [{\\it Verma et al.}, 1995a], we estimate the viscosity and proton thermal diffusivity. The resistivity and electron's thermal diffusivity have also been estimated. We find that all our transport quantities are several orders of magnitude higher than those calculated earlier using classical transport theories of {\\it Braginskii}. In this paper we have also estimated the eddy turbulent viscosity.

  14. Resistance to Antibiotics of Clinical Relevance in the Fecal Microbiota of Mexican Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Dunn, Jacob C.; Day, Jennifer M. W.; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F.

    2014-09-18

    further confirmed this by aligning the sequences with in-house control sequences using the MEGA5 software [34]. For further corroboration of felid species identification, we used a second molecular marker, a species- specific fragment polymorphism of a... role in determining ATBR in wildlife, as some species come in to more frequent contact with humans, human landscapes, or domestic animals than others [19–21]. However, very few studies have traced resistance genes found in antibiotic-free environments...

  15. SCALING PROPERTIES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUCTUATIONS IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Jean Carlos; Mason, Joanne; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Cattaneo, Fausto E-mail: j.mason@exeter.ac.uk E-mail: cattaneo@flash.uchicago.edu

    2014-09-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale—the Alfvén velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this also imposes stringent conditions on numerical studies of MHD turbulence. In contrast with the hydrodynamic case, the discretization scale in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence should decrease faster than the dissipation scale, in order for the simulations to remain resolved as the Reynolds number increases.

  16. Overview of Lead Scale Formation and Solubility J. Barry Maynard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, J. Barry

    Overview of Lead Scale Formation and Solubility J. Barry Maynard University of Cincinnati 2008 The response of lead source materials in premise and distribution systems to changes in water treatment. These determinations are particularly critical for lead compounds, of which there have been many reported. Knowledge

  17. Economic assessment of small-scale electricity generation from wind 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Kristen Dawn

    2007-09-17

    Analysis was done to determine if small-scale wind energy could be economically feasible on a cotton farm with 1,200 irrigated acres, a house, and a barn. Lubbock and Midland were locations chosen for this model farm and the twenty-year analysis. A...

  18. Static potential from spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patricio Gaete; Eduardo Guendelman; Euro Spallucci

    2007-04-11

    We determine the static potential for a heavy quark-antiquark pair from the spontaneous symmetry breaking of scale invariance in a non-Abelian gauge theory. Our calculation is done within the framework of the gauge-invariant, path-dependent, variables formalism. The result satisfies the 't Hooft basic criterion for achieving confinement.

  19. Discussion of possible evidence for non-linear BCS resistance in SRF cavity data to model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, P.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab; Ciovati, G.L.; /Jefferson Lab; Eremeev, G.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Gurevich, A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Lilje, L.; /DESY; Visentin, B.; /Saclay

    2005-07-01

    Very powerful RF cavities are now being developed for future large-scale particle accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC). The basic model for the cavity quality factor Q-slope in high gradient SRF cavities, i.e. the reduction of Q with increasing operating electric and magnetic fields, is the so-called thermal feedback model (TFBM). Most important for the agreement between the model and experimental data, however, is which different surface resistance contributions are included in the TFBM. This paper attempts to further clarify if the non-linear pair-breaking correction to the BCS resistance [1,2] is among those surface resistance contributions, through a comparison of TFBM calculations with experimental data from bulk Nb cavities built and tested at several different laboratories.

  20. Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S

    2009-06-03

    This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.

  1. Genomic analysis identifies targets of convergent positive selection in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farhat, Maha R.

    M. tuberculosis is evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely ...

  2. Total synthesis of lysobactin : a natural product antibiotic active against methicillin and vancomycin resistant bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman-Martinez, Aikomari

    2007-01-01

    has led bacteria to evolve and develop resistance toantibiotic resistance in many different kinds of bacteria.is a resistance mechanism utilized by MRSA and VRE bacteria.

  3. CRISPR--a widespread system that provides acquired resistance against phages in bacteria and archaea.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenner, Marsha W

    2007-01-01

    confers acquired phage resistance in Bacteria and Archaea. Aacquired resistance against phages in bacteria and archaeaof phage resistance into sensitive industrial bacteria.

  4. The Structure of Fitness Landscapes in Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria : : Molecular Origins and Evolutionary Consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deris, John Barrett

    generically when bacteria exhibit resistance to translation-Mediated Drug Resistance in Bacteria: an Update. Drugs, 69(more antibiotics. Drug resistance in bacteria is genetically

  5. Total synthesis of lysobactin : a natural product antibiotic active against methicillin and vancomycin resistant bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman-Martinez, Aikomari

    2007-01-01

    Gram-Positive Resistant Bacteria. (IN PREPARATION. ) xxVancomycin Resistant Bacteria by Aikomarí Guzmán-Martíneznew strains of harmful bacteria that are resistant to

  6. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea Southwest Rift And...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data acquired on the southwest rift delineated two distinct basement resistivity structures northwest of the rift zone: a high-resistivity basement at approximately 60 m a.s.l,...

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity At Kilauea Southwest Rift And South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data acquired on the southwest rift delineated two distinct basement resistivity structures northwest of the rift zone: a high-resistivity basement at approximately 60 m a.s.l,...

  8. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings Laser Processing Techniques Used for the Production of Wear-Resistant Steel Coatings from Iron-Based Glassy Powders Introduction Steel...

  9. Deinococcus geothermalis: The Pool of Extreme Radiation Resistance Genes Shrinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarova, Kira S.

    2008-01-01

    diverse bacteria at the opposite ends of IR resistance, thesensitive bacteria [5,144]. Instead, the stress-resistancebacteria, homologs of these kinases are fused to phosphotransferases that mediate resistance

  10. Engineering Synthetic Bacteriophage to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Timothy Kuan-Ta

    Antibiotic resistance is a rapidly evolving problem that is not being adequately met by new antimicrobial drugs. Thus, there is a pressing need for effective antibacterial therapies that can be adapted against antibiotic-resistant ...

  11. Environmental Scientists Find Antibiotics, Bacteria, Resistance Genes in Feedlot Dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Environmental Scientists Find Antibiotics, Bacteria, Resistance Genes in Feedlot Dust :: Texas Tech Today http://today.ttu.edu/2015/01/environmental-scientists-find-antibiotics Print Email + Font - Font Environmental Scientists Find Antibiotics, Bacteria, Resistance Genes

  12. Breaking a Pocket of Resistance in the Fight Against Cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breaking a Pocket of Resistance in the Fight Against Cancer Breaking a Pocket of Resistance in the Fight Against Cancer Print Thursday, 12 December 2013 11:55 ras protein The new...

  13. Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. II. Islands interacting with resistive walls or resonant magnetic perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    magnetic islands. Such islands degrade plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travelTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. II. Islands interacting with resistive walls-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity Phys. Plasmas 12

  14. Large-Scale Magnetic Field Re-generation by Resonant MHD Wave Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Galtier; S. Nazarenko

    2007-10-24

    We investigate numerically the long-time behavior of balanced Alfven wave turbulence forced at intermediate scales. Whereas the usual constant-flux solution is found at the smallest scales, two new scalings are obtained at the forcing scales and at the largest scales of the system. In the latter case we show, in particular, that the spectrum evolves first to a state determined by Loitsyansky invariant and later a state close to the thermodynamic equipartition solution predicted by wave turbulence. The astrophysical implications for galactic magnetic field generation are discussed.

  15. Structural basis for cross-resistance to ribosomal PTC antibiotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yonath, Ada E.

    resistance mechanisms are typically based on minimizing drug binding by A3G mutation or methylation by erm

  16. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donald, Bruce Randall

    - cally competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resis- tant bacteria in vitro reveals to prospec- tively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure. drugProtein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate Stephanie M

  17. High-Frequency Resistivity of Soft Magnetic Granular Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-Frequency Resistivity of Soft Magnetic Granular Films Weidong Li Yuqin Sun C. R. Sullivan From TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005 3283 High-Frequency Resistivity of Soft Magnetic resistivity. In order to confirm their electrical characteristics at high frequency, the frequency and current

  18. The Activity of Glycopeptide Antibiotics Against Resistant Bacteria Correlates with their Ability to Induce the Resistance System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwun, Min Jung; Hong, Hee-Jeon

    2014-08-04

    Glycopeptide antibiotics containing a hydrophobic substituent display the best activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and they have been assumed to be poor inducers of the resistance system. Using a panel of 26 glycopeptide derivatives...

  19. Deterministic Scale-Free Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert-Laszlo Barabasi; Erzsebet Ravasz; Tamas Vicsek

    2002-02-06

    Scale-free networks are abundant in nature and society, describing such diverse systems as the world wide web, the web of human sexual contacts, or the chemical network of a cell. All models used to generate a scale-free topology are stochastic, that is they create networks in which the nodes appear to be randomly connected to each other. Here we propose a simple model that generates scale-free networks in a deterministic fashion. We solve exactly the model, showing that the tail of the degree distribution follows a power law.

  20. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equvalent resistance of non-trivial electrical ciruits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. At the end, we derive - in a closed form - the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The final result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. For the more inquisitive reader, additional proofs and technical details are provided in the appendix.

  1. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

  2. Conformal chemically resistant coatings for microflow devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A.; Zdeblick, Mark

    2003-05-13

    A process for coating the inside surfaces of silicon microflow devices, such as electrophoresis microchannels, with a low-stress, conformal (uniform) silicon nitride film which has the ability to uniformly coat deeply-recessed cavities with, for example, aspect ratios of up to 40:1 or higher. The silicon nitride coating allows extended exposure to caustic solutions. The coating enables a microflow device fabricated in silicon to be resistant to all classes of chemicals: acids, bases, and solvents. The process involves low-pressure (vacuum) chemical vapor deposition. The ultra-low-stress silicon nitride deposition process allows 1-2 .mu.m thick films without cracks, and so enables extended chemical protection of a silicon microflow device against caustics for up to 1 year. Tests have demonstrated the resistance of the films to caustic solutions at both ambient and elevated temperatures to 65.degree. C.

  3. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braski, David N. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowcliffe, Arthur F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01% to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties.

  4. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  5. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  6. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1987-02-11

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01 to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties. 4 figs.

  7. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2005-02-15

    A device for a vehicle with a pair of swinging rear doors, which converts flat sheets of pliable material hinged to the sides of the vehicle adjacent the rear thereof into effective curved airfoils that reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, when the doors are closed by hand, utilizing a plurality of stiffeners disposed generally parallel to the doors and affixed to the sheets and a plurality of collapsible tension bearings struts attached to each stiffener and the adjacent door.

  8. Clothes That Care -- Flame Resistant Protection. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerbel, Claudia

    1980-01-01

    Concerns. Flame-resistant clothes are sometimes different than those made of traditional fabrics. Some consumer complain of allergic reactions , decreased durability, a less desir able feel or hand, shrinkage problems, wrinkling and increased cost.... To gain satisfaction from FR purchases, carefully examine clothing before buying. Read the care instructions , look for labels stating maximum shrinkage of one percent and report any allergic reactions or poor fabric performance to the retailer...

  9. Demonstration Scale Projects Michael Cooney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    investigated the application of anaerobic digestion to primary clarifier treatment as a means to lower bulk packing material in anaerobic digesters. #12;Demonstration Scale Projects Michael Cooney With a grant from the DOE, a 3,000 gallon anaerobic

  10. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  11. Osmotic pressure: resisting or promoting DNA ejection from phage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meerim Jeembaeva; Martin Castelnovo; Frida Larsson; Alex Evilevitch

    2008-06-24

    Recent in vitro experiments have shown that DNA ejection from bacteriophage can be partially stopped by surrounding osmotic pressure when ejected DNA is digested by DNase I on the course of ejection. We argue in this work by combination of experimental techniques (osmotic suppression without DNaseI monitored by UV absorbance, pulse-field electrophoresis, and cryo-EM visualization) and simple scaling modeling that intact genome (i.e. undigested) ejection in a crowded environment is, on the contrary, enhanced or eventually complete with the help of a pulling force resulting from DNA condensation induced by the osmotic stress itself. This demonstrates that in vivo, the osmotically stressed cell cytoplasm will promote phage DNA ejection rather than resisting it. The further addition of DNA-binding proteins under crowding conditions is shown to enhance the extent of ejection. We also found some optimal crowding conditions for which DNA content remaining in the capsid upon ejection is maximum, which correlates well with the optimal conditions of maximum DNA packaging efficiency into viral capsids observed almost 20 years ago. Biological consequences of this finding are discussed.

  12. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copuroglu, O. . E-mail: o.copuroglu@citg.tudelft.nl; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    2006-08-15

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack.

  13. Significant enhancement of the strength-to-resistivity ratio by using nanotwins in epitaxial Cu films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Amit; Ronningh, Filip; Anderoglu, Osman; Zhang, X

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial nanotwinned Cu films, with an average twin spacing ranging from 7 to 16 nm, exhibit a high ratio of strength-to-electrical resisitivity, -400 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}. The hardness of these Cu films approaches 2.8 GPa, and their electrical resistivities are comparable to that of oxygen-free high-conductivity Cu. Compared to high-angle grain boundaries, coherent twin interfaces possess inherently high resistance to the transmission of single dislocations, and yet an order of magnitude lower electron scattering coefficient, determined to be 1.5-5 x 10{sup -7} {mu}{Omega}cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Analytical studies as well as experimental results show that, in polycrystalline Cu, grain refinement leads to a maximum of the strength-to-resistivity ratio, -250 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}, when grain size is comparable to the mean-free path of electrons. However, in twinned Cu, such a ratio increases continuously with decreasing twin spacing down to a few nanometers. Hence nanoscale growth twins are more effective to achieve a higher strength-to-resistivity ratio than high-angle grain boundaries.

  14. Hybrid Rocket Burning Rate Enhancement by Nano-Scale Additives in HTPB Fuel Grains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, James C

    2014-12-10

    particles. The implementation of commercial aluminum particles at a mass loading of 5% as a burning rate enhancer was assessed on a lab-scale burner. Traditional temporally and spatially averaged techniques were applied to determine the regression rates...

  15. Novel Attrition-Resistant Fischer Tropsch Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weast, Logan, E.; Staats, William, R.

    2009-05-01

    There is a strong national interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process because it offers the possibility of making liquid hydrocarbon fuels from reformed natural gas or coal and biomass gasification products. This project explored a new approach that had been developed to produce active, attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that are based on glass-ceramic materials and technology. This novel approach represented a promising solution to the problem of reducing or eliminating catalyst attrition and maximizing catalytic activity, thus reducing costs. The technical objective of the Phase I work was to demonstrate that glass-ceramic based catalytic materials for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis have resistance to catalytic deactivation and reduction of particle size superior to traditional supported Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials. Additionally, these novel glass-ceramic-based materials were expected to exhibit catalytic activity similar to the traditional materials. If successfully developed, the attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials would be expected to result in significant technical, economic, and social benefits for both producers and public consumers of Fischer-Tropsch products such as liquid fuels from coal or biomass gasification. This program demonstrated the anticipated high attrition resistance of the glass-ceramic materials. However, the observed catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient to justify further development at this time. Additional testing documented that a lack of pore volume in the glass-ceramic materials limited the amount of surface area available for catalysis and consequently limited catalytic activity. However, previous work on glass-ceramic catalysts to promote other reactions demonstrated that commercial levels of activity can be achieved, at least for those reactions. Therefore, we recommend that glass-ceramic materials be considered again as potential Fischer-Tropsch catalysts if it can be demonstrated that materials with adequate pore volume can be produced. During the attrition resistance tests, it was learned that the glass-ceramic materials are very abrasive. Attention should be paid in any further developmental efforts to the potential for these hard, abrasive materials to damage reactors.

  16. Studies of Ocean Predictability at Decade to Century Time Scales Using a Global Ocean General Circulation Model in a Parallel Computing Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, T.P.

    1998-11-30

    The objectives of this report are to determine the structure of oceanic natural variability at time scales of decades to centuries, characterize the physical mechanisms responsible for the variability; determine the relative importance of heat, fresh water, and moment fluxes on the variability; determine the predictability of the variability on these times scales. (B204)

  17. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA ACADEMIC SALARY SCALES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA ACADEMIC SALARY SCALES July 1, 2014* You can navigate the salary scales is the annual salary rate for Step 9, plus 11 percent For information on the "Minimum Scales" from 10 and the Adjunct Professor Series are also paid on the Academic-Year Ladder Ranks Salary Scale. Adjusted Scale 7

  18. 2D MHD MODELS OF THE LARGE SCALE SOLAR Eirik Endeve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    by the ideal gas law, P 2nkT. In order to study the acceleration of high- and low- speed solar wind one must2D MHD MODELS OF THE LARGE SCALE SOLAR CORONA Eirik Endeve£ , Thomas E. Holzer and Egil Leer to determine the structure of the large scale solar corona. When our numerical calculations are initiated

  19. A quantitative evaluation of effective shale content and its influence on electrical resistivity and permeability of reservoir rocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Parayath Eravi Bhaskara

    1965-01-01

    content of the rock and provides an independent determination of the amount of "effective" shale content in the rock. The relationship found by Hill and Milburn was b = -835 ? - . 0055 CEC PV where CEC/PV is expressed as milliequivalent cation... was working satisfactorily. CEC PV PPM x 0. 25 Milliequivalents/cc of Pore Volume 68. 7 xPV DISCUSSION OF RESULTS A tabulation of results obtained appears in Table 6 through Table 8 in the Appendix. Variation of core resistivity with the resistivity...

  20. Data Analysis, Pre-Ignition Assessment, and Post-Ignition Modeling of the Large-Scale Annular Cookoff Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Terrones; F.J. Souto; R.F. Shea; M.W.Burkett; E.S. Idar

    2005-09-30

    In order to understand the implications that cookoff of plastic-bonded explosive-9501 could have on safety assessments, we analyzed the available data from the large-scale annular cookoff (LSAC) assembly series of experiments. In addition, we examined recent data regarding hypotheses about pre-ignition that may be relevant to post-ignition behavior. Based on the post-ignition data from Shot 6, which had the most complete set of data, we developed an approximate equation of state (EOS) for the gaseous products of deflagration. Implementation of this EOS into the multimaterial hydrodynamics computer program PAGOSA yielded good agreement with the inner-liner collapse sequence for Shot 6 and with other data, such as velocity interferometer system for any reflector and resistance wires. A metric to establish the degree of symmetry based on the concept of time of arrival to pin locations was used to compare numerical simulations with experimental data. Several simulations were performed to elucidate the mode of ignition in the LSAC and to determine the possible compression levels that the metal assembly could have been subjected to during post-ignition.

  1. SCALING SOLID RESUSPENSION AND SORPTION FOR THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.

    2010-12-14

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing 1.3 million gallon waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending Monosodium Titanate (MST), Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. In addition, SRNL will also be conducting pilot-scale tests to determine the mixing requirements for the strontium and actinide sorption. As part of this task, the results from the pilot-scale tests must be scaled up to a full-scale waste tank. This document describes the scaling approach. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scale model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX Program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). MST additions are through Riser E1, the proposed MST addition riser in Tank 41H. To determine the approach to scaling the results from the pilot-scale tank to Tank 41H, the authors took the following approach. They reviewed the technical literature for methods to scale mixing with jets and suspension of solid particles with jets, and the technical literature on mass transfer from a liquid to a solid particle to develop approaches to scaling the test data. SRNL assembled a team of internal experts to review the scaling approach and to identify alternative approaches that should be considered.

  2. Time scales in nuclear giant resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WD Heiss; RG Nazmitdinov; FD Smit

    2009-12-18

    We propose a general approach to characterise fluctuations of measured cross sections of nuclear giant resonances. Simulated cross sections are obtained from a particular, yet representative self-energy which contains all information about fragmentations. Using a wavelet analysis, we demonstrate the extraction of time scales of cascading decays into configurations of different complexity of the resonance. We argue that the spreading widths of collective excitations in nuclei are determined by the number of fragmentations as seen in the power spectrum. An analytic treatment of the wavelet analysis using a Fourier expansion of the cross section confirms this principle. A simple rule for the relative life times of states associated with hierarchies of different complexity is given.

  3. Chemistry, scale, and performance of the Hawaii geothermal project-A plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baughman, E.C.; Uemura, R.T.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of scale, corrosion, and erosion of the geothermal resource on HGP-A Geothermal Wellhead Power Plant. Analysis of the fluid chemistry was made to interpret the cause of corrosion and scale deposition in the brine and steam systems. It was found that metal sulfide scale formation occurred in the steam system and silica type scale formation in the brine system. The rate of scale deposition was strongly influenced by the chemical conditions in those systems. Although scale and corrosion did occur in the plant piping systems and equipment, they did not appreciably affect the performance of the plant. The results of this study will make the utilities more aware of the effects of geothermal fluid chemistry on scale deposition and corrosion which may increase plant efficiency and reduce maintenance of future plants. 7 refs., 67 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-12-15

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  5. Deep Resistivity Structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore H. Asch, Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Erin L. Wallin; and Jackie M. Williams.

    2006-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian – Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large fault structures such as the CP Thrust fault, the Carpetbag fault, and the Yucca fault that cross Yucca Flat are also discernable as are other smaller faults. The subsurface electrical resistivity distribution and inferred geologic structures determined by this investigation should help constrain the hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development.

  6. CX-009031: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative Manufacturing Process for Improving the Erosion/Corrosion Resistance of Power Plant Components via Powder Metallurgy & Hot Isostatic Processing Methods – Electric Power Research Institute CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/20/2012 Location(s): CX: none Offices(s): Nuclear Energy

  7. CX-011709: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Field Testing of the Electromagnetic/Resistivity and Magnetic System in U.S. CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 01/15/2014 Location(s): Nevada, Nevada, Nevada Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-011317: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation of Deep Subsurface Resistivity Imaging for Hydrofracture Monitoring CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 10/01/2013 Location(s): North Dakota Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-100009: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development of an Abrasion-Resistant Antisoiling Coating for Front-Surface Reflectors Award Number: DE-EE0006696 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B3.15 Solar Energy Technologies Date: 08/28/2014 Location(s): Colorado Office(s): Golden Field Office

  10. External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    brine to provide in situ scale deposition observations without the disadvantage of dismantling piping for visual scale inspection. Exposure times and film orientations have been...

  11. Erosion resistant elbow for solids conveyance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Everett, J.W.

    1984-10-23

    An elbow and process for fabrication for use in particulate material conveyancing comprises a curved outer pipe, a curved inner pipe having the same radius of curvature as the outer pipe, concentric with and internal to the outer pipe, comprising an outer layer comprised of a first material and an inner layer comprised of a second material wherein said first material is characterized by high erosion resistance when impinged by particulate material and wherein said second material is characterized by high tensile strength and flexibility, and an inner pipe supporting means for providing support to said inner pipe, disposed between said inner pipe and said outer pipe. 4 figs.

  12. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR); McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

    1998-01-01

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  13. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.K.; McCray, S.B.; Friesen, D.T.

    1998-03-10

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  14. High efficiency, oxidation resistant radio frequency susceptor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Klett, James W.

    2004-10-26

    An article and method of producing an article for converting energy from one form to another having a pitch-derived graphitic foam carbon foam substrate and a single layer coating applied to all exposed surfaces wherein the coating is either silicon carbide or carbides formed from a Group IVA metal. The article is used as fully coated carbon foam susceptors that more effectively absorb radio frequency (RF) band energy and more effectively convert the RF energy into thermal band energy or sensible heat. The essentially non-permeable coatings also serve as corrosion or oxidation resistant barriers.

  15. Resistance proof, folding-inhibitor drugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Broglia; G. Tiana; R. Berera

    2002-10-09

    Conventional drugs work, as a rule, by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of specific proteins, capping their active site. In this paper we present a model of non- conventional drug design based on the inhibiting effects small peptides obtained from segments of the protein itself have on the folding ability of the system. Such peptides attach to the newly expressed (unfolded) protein and inhibit its folding, inhibition which cannot be avoided but through mutations which in any case denaturate the enzyme. These peptides, or their mimetic molecules, can be used as effective alternative drugs to those already available, displaying the advantage of not suffering from the upraise of resistence.

  16. Electrical resistivity and magnetic investigations of the geothermal systems in the Rotorua area, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibby, H.M. ); Dawson, G.B.; Rayner, H.H.; Bennie, S.L.; Bromley, C.J. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that electrical and magnetic data are used in an investigation of a 450 km{sup 2} region in order to delineate the Rotorua City Geothermal system and determine its relationship with other geothermal systems in the region. Three distinct regions of low ({lt}30 Omega m) apparent resistivity are delineated. The southern of these outlines the Rotorua City Geothermal System which has an area of about 18 km{sup 2}, with the northern third covered by Lake Rotorua. The boundary of the system is characterized by a rapid lateral change in apparent resistivity which can be modeled as a single, near vertical zone in which the distance between hot and cold water is very narrow. Magnetic properties also change in the vicinity of the discontinuity in some areas, consistent with hydrothermal alteration having destroyed the magnetite in the rocks of the geothermal system. Hot water is believed to be rising, driven by buoyancy forces across the whole of the low resistivity region. There is some indication, particularly in the south, that the boundary between hot and cold fluids dips away from the field. A second low resistivity zone (the East Lake Rotorua anomaly) with an area of about 8 km{sup 2}, is believed to outline a second independent geothermal system, with surface manifestations on Mokoia Island, and on the eastern shore of the lake. High heat flow in lake bottom sediments, and a reduction in magnetic signature over this region supports this conclusion. A third resistivity low under the west of Lake Rotorua has no associated thermal features and is believed to be a fossil hydrothermal system. There is no apparent relationship between the location of the geothermal systems and the Rotorua caldera. The aeromagnetic measurements have delineated several highly magnetic bodies which cannot be linked with surface geology. These are believed to be caused by buried rhyolite dome complexes at shallow depth.

  17. Proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles: issues and impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power may depend to a significant degree on the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen proliferation resistance and nuclear materials accountability. The challenges for fast reactors and related fuel cycles are especially critical. They are being explored in the Generation IV Tnternational Forum (GIF) and the Tnternational Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiative, as well as by many states that are looking to these systems for the efficient lise of uranium resources and long-term energy security. How do any proliferation risks they may pose compare to other reactors, both existing and under development, and their fuel cycles? Can they be designed with intrinsic (technological) features to make these systems more proliferation resistant? What roles can extrinsic (institutional) features play in proliferation resistance? What are the anticipated safeguards requirements, and will new technologies and approaches need to be developed? How can safeguards be facilitated by the design process? These and other questions require a rethinking of proliferation resistance and the prospects for new technologies and other intrinsic and extrinsic features being developed that are responsive to specific issues for fast reactors and related fuel cycles and to the broader threat environment in which these systems will have to operate. There are no technologies that can wholly eliminate the risk of proliferation by a determined state, but technology and design can playa role in reducing state threats and perhaps in eliminating non-state threats. There will be a significant role for extrinsic factors, especially the various measures - from safeguards and physical protection to export controls - embodied in the international nuclear nonproliferation regime. This paper will offer an assessment of the issues surrounding, and the prospects for, efforts to develop proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles in the context of a nuclear renaissance. The focus of the analysis is on fast reactors.

  18. Sheet resistance under Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haj?asz, M., E-mail: m.hajlasz@m2i.nl [Materials innovation institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands); MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Donkers, J. J. T. M.; Sque, S. J.; Heil, S. B. S. [NXP Semiconductors Research, High Tech Campus 46, 5656 AE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gravesteijn, D. J. [NXP Semiconductors Research, High Tech Campus 46, 5656 AE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Rietveld, F. J. R. [NXP Semiconductors, Gerstweg 2, 6534 AE, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schmitz, J. [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-06-16

    For the determination of specific contact resistance in semiconductor devices, it is usually assumed that the sheet resistance under the contact is identical to that between the contacts. This generally does not hold for contacts to AlGaN/GaN structures, where an effective doping under the contact is thought to come from reactions between the contact metals and the AlGaN/GaN. As a consequence, conventional extraction of the specific contact resistance and transfer length leads to erroneous results. In this Letter, the sheet resistance under gold-free Ti/Al-based Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on Si substrates has been investigated by means of electrical measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and technology computer-aided design simulations. It was found to be significantly lower than that outside of the contact area; temperature-dependent electrical characterization showed that it exhibits semiconductor-like behavior. The increase in conduction is attributed to n-type activity of nitrogen vacancies in the AlGaN. They are thought to form during rapid thermal annealing of the metal stack when Ti extracts nitrogen from the underlying semiconductor. The high n-type doping in the region between the metal and the 2-dimensional electron gas pulls the conduction band towards the Fermi level and enhances horizontal electron transport in the AlGaN. Using this improved understanding of the properties of the material underneath the contact, accurate values of transfer length and specific contact resistance have been extracted.

  19. Multi-channel conduction in redox-based resistive switch modelled using quantum point contact theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miranda, E., E-mail: enrique.miranda@uab.cat; Suñé, J. [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallés, Barcelona (Spain)] [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallés, Barcelona (Spain); Mehonic, A.; Kenyon, A. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)] [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-25

    A simple analytic model for the electron transport through filamentary-type structures in Si-rich silica (SiO{sub x})-based resistive switches is proposed. The model is based on a mesoscopic description and is able to account for the linear and nonlinear components of conductance that arise from both fully and partially formed conductive channels spanning the dielectric film. Channels are represented by arrays of identical scatterers whose number and quantum transmission properties determine the current magnitude in the low and high resistance states. We show that the proposed model not only reproduces the experimental current-voltage (I-V) characteristics but also the normalized differential conductance (dln(I)/dln(V)-V) curves of devices under test.

  20. Scaling Properties of Universal Tetramers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadizadeh, M. R.; Yamashita, M. T. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomio, Lauro [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Delfino, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-23

    We evidence the existence of a universal correlation between the binding energies of successive four-boson bound states (tetramers), for large two-body scattering lengths (a), related to an additional scale not constrained by three-body Efimov physics. Relevant to ultracold atom experiments, the atom-trimer relaxation peaks for |a|{yields}{infinity} when the ratio between the tetramer and trimer energies is {approx_equal}4.6 and a new tetramer is formed. The new scale is also revealed for a<0 by the prediction of a correlation between the positions of two successive peaks in the four-atom recombination process.

  1. On coaxial minors of determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babcock, Wealthy Consuelo

    1922-01-01

    . Approved by: ROOlOb SlSb^ Contents Page I. Introduction 1 II. Independence of Coaxial Minors of Special Determinants 9 A. Symmetric Determinant 9 B. Skew-symmetric Determinant ...14 C. Circulant 17 D. Hankel's Determinant 19 III... Introduction The work on coaxial minors of a deter­ minant has centered about the problems of deter­ mining the number of independent coaxial minors, of finding independent sets, and of expressing the determinant in terms of the minors of an independent set...

  2. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1996-05-08

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charactered by the Department of Enregy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, LLW streams containing mercury and organics were targeted. This report will present the results of studies with mercury contaminated waste. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes had to be determined, and the treatment for the mercury portion had to also be determined. The selected additives had to ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form was produced, while the mercury treatment had to ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury were not released into the environment.

  3. Transport of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance-carrying plasmids through porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    . Rysz and P.J.J. Alvarez Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, MS 317, PO engineering challenge, with antibiotic resistance genetic elements as environmental pollutants. The transportBr) prior to the plasmid solution resulted in DNA retardation and increased filtration in a zirconia

  4. Proliferation resistance of small modular reactors fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polidoro, F.; Parozzi, F.; Fassnacht, F.; Kuett, M.; Englert, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the proliferation resistance of different types of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) has been examined and classified with criteria available in the literature. In the first part of the study, the level of proliferation attractiveness of traditional low-enriched UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels to be used in SMRs based on pressurized water technology has been analyzed. On the basis of numerical simulations both cores show significant proliferation risks. Although the MOX core is less proliferation prone in comparison to the UO{sub 2} core, it still can be highly attractive for diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material. In the second part of the paper, calculations to assess the proliferation attractiveness of fuel in typical small sodium cooled fast reactor show that proliferation risks from spent fuel cannot be neglected. The core contains a highly attractive plutonium composition during the whole life cycle. Despite some aspects of the design like the sealed core that enables easy detection of unauthorized withdrawal of fissile material and enhances proliferation resistance, in case of open Non-Proliferation Treaty break-out, weapon-grade plutonium in sufficient quantities could be extracted from the reactor core.

  5. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alman, David; Marcio, Duffles

    2014-02-05

    The objective of this Stage Gate IV project was to test and substantiate the viability of an erosion?resistant nanocoating for application on compressor airfoils for gas turbines in both industrial power generation and commercial aviation applications. To effectively complete this project, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development teamed with MDS Coating Technologies Inc. (MCT), Delta Air Lines ? Technical Operations Division (Delta Tech Ops), and Calpine Corporation. The coating targeted for this application was MCT’s Next Generation Coating, version 4 (NGC?v4 ? with the new registered trademark name of BlackGold®). The coating is an erosion and corrosion resistant composite nanostructured coating. This coating is comprised of a proprietary ceramic?metallic nano?composite construction which provides enhanced erosion resistance and also retains the aerodynamic geometry of the airfoils. The objective of the commercial aviation portion of the project was to substantiate the coating properties to allow certification from the FAA to apply an erosion?resistant coating in a commercial aviation engine. The goal of the series of tests was to demonstrate that the durability of the airfoils is not affected negatively with the application of the NGC v4 coating. Tests included erosion, corrosion, vibration and fatigue. The results of the testing demonstrated that the application of the coating did not negatively impact the properties of the blades, especially fatigue performance – which is of importance in acceptance for commercial aviation applications. The objective of the industrial gas turbine element of the project was to evaluate the coating as an enabling technology for inlet fogging during the operation of industrial gas turbines. Fluid erosion laboratory scale tests were conducted to simulate inlet fogging conditions. Results of these tests indicated that the application of the erosion resistant NGC?v4 nanocoating improved the resistance to simulated inlet fogging conditions by a factor of 10 times. These results gave confidence for a field trial at Calpine’s power plant in Corpus Christi, TX, which commenced in April 2012. This test is still on?going as of November 2013, and the nanocoated blades have accumulated over 13,000 operational hours on this specific power plant in approximately 19 months of operation.

  6. Tests of gravity at the solar system scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc-Thierry Jaekel; Serge Reynaud

    2011-07-25

    As confirmed by tests performed in the solar system, General Relativity (GR) presently represents the best description of gravitation. It is however challenged by observations at very large length scales, and already at the solar system scale, tracking of the Pioneer 10/11 probes has failed to confirm their expected behavior according to GR. Metric extensions of GR, which are presented here, have the quality of preserving the fundamental properties of GR while introducing scale dependent modifications. We show that they moreover represent an appropriate family of gravitation theories to be compared with observations when analysing gravity tests. We also discuss different tests which could allow one to determine the metric extension of GR prevailing in the solar system.

  7. Scaling in the quantum Hall regime of graphene Corbino devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Eva C.; Burghard, Marko [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Giesbers, A. J. M. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Molecular Materials and Nanosystems, Eindhoven University of Technology, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-05-19

    The scaling behavior of graphene devices in Corbino geometry was investigated through temperature dependent conductivity measurements under magnetic field. Evaluation of the Landau level width as a function of temperature yielded a relatively low temperature exponent of ??=?0.16?±?0.05. Furthermore, an unusually large value close to 7.6?±?0.9 was found for the universal scaling constant ?, while the determined inelastic scattering exponent of p?=?2 is consistent with established scattering mechanisms in graphene. The deviation of the scaling parameters from values characteristic of conventional two-dimensional electron gases is attributed to an inhomogeneous charge carrier distribution in the Corbino devices. Direct evidence for the presence of the latter could be gained by spatially resolved photocurrent microscopy away from the charge neutrality point of the devices.

  8. Signature-change events in emergent spacetimes with anisotropic scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinfurtner, Silke; Visser, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of quantum fields coupled to a spacetime geometry exhibiting finite regions of Euclidean (Riemannian) signature. Although from a gravity perspective this situation might seem somewhat far fetched, we will demonstrate its direct physical relevance for an explicitly realizable condensed matter system whose linearized perturbations experience an effective emergent spacetime geometry with externally controllable signature. This effective geometry is intrinsically quantum in origin, and its signature is determined by the details of the microscopic structure. At the level of the effective field theory arising from our condensed matter system we encounter explicit anisotropic scaling in time and space. Here Lorentz symmetry is an emergent symmetry in the infrared. This anisotropic scaling of time and space cures some of the technical problems that arise when working within a canonical quantisation scheme obeying strict Lorentz invariance at all scales, and so is helpful in permitting sig...

  9. Tubulin Bond Energies and Microtubule Biomechanics Determined from Nanoindentation in Silico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barsegov, Valeri

    Tubulin Bond Energies and Microtubule Biomechanics Determined from Nanoindentation in Silico Olga explore the biomechanics of microtubule polymers using multi- scale computational modeling and experimental force-deformation spectra enabled us to correlate the microtubule biomechanics with dynamic

  10. SCALE IN FEET STEVENSON COLLEGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    PARKING LOT 109 PARKING LOT 110 PARKING LOT 108 STEVENSON EVENT CENTER #12;E N SCALE IN FEET 0 8040 STEVENSON COLLEGE Disabled parking space Disabled access path Disabled access ramp Power-assisted doors Emergency blue light phone Metered parking Campus shuttle stop Santa

  11. Presented by Statistics at Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Department of Energy Contact George Ostrouchov Statistics and Data Sciences Computer Science and MathematicsPresented by Statistics at Scale George Ostrouchov Statistics and Data Sciences Computer Science and Mathematics Division #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Ostrouchov_SDS_SC10 Common

  12. SCALE DRAM subsystem power analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhalodia, Vimal

    2005-01-01

    To address the needs of the next generation of low-power systems, DDR2 SDRAM offers a number of low-power modes with various performance and power consumption tradeoffs. The SCALE DRAM Subsystem is an energy-aware DRAM ...

  13. Scaling the Web Load Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Load Testing of Web Sites D evelopers typically measure a Web appli- cation on a Web site's IT infrastructure are a function of the site's expect- ed traffic. Ideally, you want, you shouldn't upgrade your Web servers if customers experience most delays in the database server

  14. Scaling the Web Composing Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Composing Web Services:A QoS View A n Internet application can invoke several ser- vices -- a stock-trading Web service, for example, could invoke a payment service, which could then invoke an authentication service. Such a scenario is called a composite Web service, and it can

  15. FINAL REPORT: Mechanistically-Base Field Scale Models of Uranium Biogeochemistry from Upscaling Pore-Scale Experiments and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Brian D.

    2013-11-04

    Biogeochemical reactive transport processes in the subsurface environment are important to many contemporary environmental issues of significance to DOE. Quantification of risks and impacts associated with environmental management options, and design of remediation systems where needed, require that we have at our disposal reliable predictive tools (usually in the form of numerical simulation models). However, it is well known that even the most sophisticated reactive transport models available today have poor predictive power, particularly when applied at the field scale. Although the lack of predictive ability is associated in part with our inability to characterize the subsurface and limitations in computational power, significant advances have been made in both of these areas in recent decades and can be expected to continue. In this research, we examined the upscaling (pore to Darcy and Darcy to field) the problem of bioremediation via biofilms in porous media. The principle idea was to start with a conceptual description of the bioremediation process at the pore scale, and apply upscaling methods to formally develop the appropriate upscaled model at the so-called Darcy scale. The purpose was to determine (1) what forms the upscaled models would take, and (2) how one might parameterize such upscaled models for applications to bioremediation in the field. We were able to effectively upscale the bioremediation process to explain how the pore-scale phenomena were linked to the field scale. The end product of this research was to produce a set of upscaled models that could be used to help predict field-scale bioremediation. These models were mechanistic, in the sense that they directly incorporated pore-scale information, but upscaled so that only the essential features of the process were needed to predict the effective parameters that appear in the model. In this way, a direct link between the microscale and the field scale was made, but the upscaling process helped inform potential users of the model what kinds of information would be needed to accurately characterize the system.

  16. Consistency among distance measurements: transparency, BAO scale and accelerated expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Avgoustidis; Licia Verde; Raul Jimenez

    2009-06-11

    We explore consistency among different distance measures, including Supernovae Type Ia data, measurements of the Hubble parameter, and determination of the Baryon acoustic oscillation scale. We present new constraints on the cosmic transparency combining $H(z)$ data together with the latest Supernova Type Ia data compilation. This combination, in the context of a flat $\\Lambda$CDM model, improves current constraints by nearly an order of magnitude. We re-examine the recently reported tension between the Baryon acoustic oscillation scale and Supernovae data in light of possible deviations from transparency, concluding that the source of the discrepancy may most likely be found among systematic effects of the modelling of the low redshift data or a simple $\\sim 2-\\sigma$ statistical fluke, rather than in exotic physics. Finally, we attempt to draw model-independent conclusions about the recent accelerated expansion, determining the acceleration redshift to be $z_{acc}=0.35^{+0.20}_{-0.13}$ (1-$\\sigma$).

  17. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  18. Scaling tests with dynamical overlap and rooted staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duerr, Stephan; Hoelbling, Christian

    2005-03-01

    We present a scaling analysis in the 1-flavor Schwinger model with the full overlap and the rooted staggered determinant. In the latter case the chiral and continuum limit of the scalar condensate do not commute, while for overlap fermions they do. For the topological susceptibility a universal continuum limit is suggested, as is for the partition function and the Leutwyler-Smilga sum rule. In the heavy-quark force no difference is visible even at finite coupling. Finally, a direct comparison between the complete overlap and the rooted staggered determinant yields evidence that their ratio is constant up to O(a{sup 2}) effects.

  19. Spatial localization of resistive drift wave structure in tokamak...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial localization of resistive drift wave structure in tokamak edge plasmas with an embedded magnetic island Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial localization of...

  20. Phase-space jets drive transport and anomalous resistivity (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport and anomalous resistivity In the presence of wave dissipation, phase-space structures spontaneously emerge in nonlinear Vlasov dynamics. These structures include not only...

  1. Schlumberger Resistivity Soundings At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Basis This study was conducted to learn about and model the resistivity structures in the Puna area Notes Five Schlumberger soundings were conducted and interpreted...

  2. Nobel Laureate speaks on antibiotics and drug resistance | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nobel Laureate speaks on antibiotics and drug resistance Ramakrishnan cited several pioneers of antibiotic research in his talk. Ramakrishnan cited several pioneers of antibiotic...

  3. CRISPR--a widespread system that provides acquired resistance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CRISPR--a widespread system that provides acquired resistance against phages in bacteria and archaea. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CRISPR--a widespread system that...

  4. 3D Mt Resistivity Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3D Mt Resistivity Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment And Environmental Mitigation At The Glass Mountain Kgra, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  5. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering Ltd, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  6. Dipole-Dipole Resistivity At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dipole-Dipole Resistivity At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering Ltd, 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  7. Hot Particle and Turbulent Transport Effects on Resistive Instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, Dylan P.

    2012-10-16

    This research project included two main thrusts; energetic particle effects on resistive MHD modes in tokamaks, and turbulence interactions with tearing modes in simplified geometry.

  8. RADIATION DAMAGE RESISTANCE OF REVERSE ELECTRODE GE COAXIAL DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    Parker, "Radiation Damage of Germanium Detectors", Bull. Am.to radiation damage between the two detectors was clearlyRADIATION DAMAGE RESISTANCE OF REVERSE ELECTRODE GE COAXIAL DETECTORS

  9. Resisting Traffic Analysis on Encrypted Data Streams | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resisting Traffic Analysis on Encrypted Data Streams New innovations in energy delivery systems and control systems continue to advance the reliability and resilience of the...

  10. Application Of Electrical Resistivity And Gravimetry In Deep...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application Of Electrical Resistivity And Gravimetry In Deep Geothermal Exploration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Application...

  11. Progress report on electrical resistivity studies, COSO Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Progress report on electrical resistivity studies, COSO Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Progress...

  12. Electrical Resistivity and Self-Potential Surveys Blue Mountain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electrical Resistivity and Self-Potential Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  13. Electrical Resistivity At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electrical Resistivity At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (KELLER, Et Al., 1977) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Electrical...

  14. Progress Report on Electrical Resistivity Studies Coso Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Progress Report on Electrical Resistivity Studies Coso Geothermal Area Inyo County California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Progress...

  15. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiOsub x (x < 2) selective solar thermal absorbers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation-resistant,...

  16. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  17. DC Resistivity Survey (Schlumberger Array) At Raft River Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: DC Resistivity Survey (Schlumberger Array) At Raft River Geothermal Area (1974-1975) Exploration...

  18. Resistivity Log At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is probably caused by K766hot saline reservoir fluid, by increased porosity due to fracturing and dissolution of minerals, and by high subsurface temperatures. The resistivity...

  19. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  20. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  1. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Beowawe Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Garg, Et Al., 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  2. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  3. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  4. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Hualalai Northwest Rift...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  5. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  6. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mauna Loa Southwest Rift...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mauna Loa Southwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Valles Caldera - Redondo...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Wilt & Haar, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  8. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)...

  9. A Preliminary Resistivity Investigation (Ves) Of The Langada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Ves) Of The Langada Hot Springs Area In Northern Greece Abstract In total 24 direct current resistivity soundings were carried out during the preliminary stages of a...

  10. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  11. Direct-Current Resistivity At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Garg...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Garg, Et Al., 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  12. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  13. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  14. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  15. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  16. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area (Richards, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  17. Direct-Current Resistivity At Cove Fort Area - Liquid (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Cove Fort Area - Liquid (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  18. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  19. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  20. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  1. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Valles Caldera - Sulphur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Wilt & Haar, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration...

  2. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Pribnow, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  3. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO, 1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  4. Selection of a Wear-Resistant Tractor Drivetrain Material: Success...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Drivetrain Material: Success stories at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Selection of a Wear-Resistant Tractor Drivetrain Material: Success...

  5. Dipole-Dipole Resistivity At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Ross...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dipole-Dipole Resistivity At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Ross, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Dipole-Dipole...

  6. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  8. Thermoelectric Contact Resistances Professor HoSung Lee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ho Sung

    Thermoelectric Contact Resistances Professor HoSung Lee Contents Thermoelectrics....................................................................................................................1 Ideal Formulas for Thermoelectric generators.................................................................1 Realistic Formulas for Thermoelectric generators

  9. Improving delamination resistance of multilayer printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    Bendix has incorporated black oxide innerlayer surface treatment and dry nitrogen prepreg conditioning into the manufacturing process for multilayer PWBs. Before these changes, interlaminar adhesion was marginal and delaminations regularly occurred during solder dipping and leveling. Since the implementation of these changes, Bendix has not experienced any delaminated multilayer PWBs, and they may be immersed in molten solder for 2 minutes or more without visual damage. Both black oxide and red oxide innerlayer surface treatments have shown the capability to provide acceptable delamination resistance for multilayer PWBs made from FR-4 material. Optimum processing parameters for applying the oxide treatment have been determined. In order to manufacture a multilayer PWB that will withstand solder dipping/leveling as well as subsequent drag soldering, its is necessary to remove absorbed moisture from the prepreg before lamination. Data have been gathered on the rate of moisutre removal from prepreg when dried and on the rate of moisture reabsorption when dried prepreg is exposed to 24/sup 0/C/50% RH environment.

  10. Gradient flow and scale setting on MILC HISQ ensembles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MILC Collaboration; A. Bazavov; C. Bernard; N. Brown; C. DeTar; J. Foley; Steven Gottlieb; U. M. Heller; J. Komijani; J. Laiho; L. Levkova; R. L. Sugar; D. Toussaint; R. S. Van de Water

    2015-03-24

    We report on a scale determination with gradient-flow techniques on the $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ ensembles generated by the MILC collaboration. The ensembles include four lattice spacings, ranging from approximately 0.15 to 0.06 fm, and both physical and unphysical values of the quark masses. The scales $\\sqrt{t_0}/a$ and $w_0/a$ and their tree-level improvements, $\\sqrt{t_{0,{\\rm imp}}}$ and $w_{0,{\\rm imp}}$, are computed on each ensemble using Symanzik flow and the cloverleaf definition of the energy density $E$. Using a combination of continuum chiral perturbation theory and a Taylor-series ansatz for the lattice-spacing and strong-coupling dependence, the results are simultaneously extrapolated to the continuum and interpolated to physical quark masses. We determine the scales $\\sqrt{t_0} = 0.1416({}_{-5}^{+8})$ fm and $w_0 = 0.1717({}_{-11}^{+12})$ fm, where the errors are sums, in quadrature, of statistical and all systematic errors. The precision of $w_0$ and $\\sqrt{t_0}$ is comparable to or more precise than the best previous estimates, respectively. We also find the continuum mass-dependence of $w_0$ that will be useful for estimating the scales of other ensembles. We also estimate the integrated autocorrelation length of $\\langle E(t) \\rangle$. For long flow times, the autocorrelation length of $\\langle E \\rangle$ appears to be comparable to or smaller than that of the topological charge.

  11. Wilson flow and scale setting from lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. G. Bornyakov; R. Horsley; R. Hudspith; Y. Nakamura; H. Perlt; D. Pleiter; P. E. L. Rakow; G. Schierholz; A. Schiller; H. Stüben; J. M. Zanotti

    2015-08-24

    We give a determination of the phenomenological value of the Wilson (or gradient) flow scales t0 and w0 for 2+1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The simulations are performed keeping the average quark mass constant, which allows the approach to the physical point to be made in a controlled manner. O(a) improved clover fermions are used and together with four lattice spacings this allows the continuum extrapolation to be taken.

  12. Estimating Field-Scale Hydraulic Parameters of Heterogeneous Soils Using A Combination of Parameter Scaling and Inverse Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Andy L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2002-12-10

    As the Hanford Site transitions into remediation of contaminated soil waste sites and tank farm closure, more information is needed about the transport of contaminants as they move through the vadose zone to the underlying water table. The hydraulic properties must be characterized for accurate simulation of flow and transport. This characterization includes the determination of soil texture types, their three-dimensional distribution, and the parameterization of each soil texture. This document describes a method to estimate the soil hydraulic parameter using the parameter scaling concept (Zhang et al. 2002) and inverse techniques. To this end, the Groundwater Protection Program Science and Technology Project funded vadose zone transport field studies, including analysis of the results to estimate field-scale hydraulic parameters for modeling. Parameter scaling is a new method to scale hydraulic parameters. The method relates the hydraulic-parameter values measured at different spatial scales for different soil textures. Parameter scaling factors relevant to a reference texture are determined using these local-scale parameter values, e.g., those measured in the lab using small soil cores. After parameter scaling is applied, the total number of unknown variables in hydraulic parameters is reduced by a factor equal to the number of soil textures. The field-scale values of the unknown variables can then be estimated using inverse techniques and a well-designed field experiment. Finally, parameters for individual textures are obtained through inverse scaling of the reference values using an a priori relationship between reference parameter values and the specific values for each texture. Inverse methods have the benefits of 1) calculating parameter values that produce the best-fit between observed and simulated values, 2) quantifying the confidence limits in parameter estimates and the predictions, 3) providing diagnostic statistics that quantify the quality of calibration and data shortcomings and needs, and 4) not restricting the initial and boundary-flow conditions, the constitutive relationships, or the treatment of heterogeneity. On this project, inverse modeling was performed using the combination of two computer models, one for forward flow modeling and the other for nonlinear regression. The forward model used to simulate water flow was the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) numerical simulator (White and Oostrom 2000). STOMP was designed to solve a variety of nonlinear, multiple-phase, flow and transport problems for unsaturated porous media. The Universal CODE (UCODE) model (Poeter and Hill 1998) was used to perform inverse modeling posed as a parameter-estimation problem using nonlinear regression. Inverse techniques were applied to two cases of one-dimensional flow in layered soils and one case of three-dimensional flow in a heterogeneous soil. The results show that the simulation errors were significantly reduced after applying parameter scaling and inverse modeling. When compared to the use of local-scale parameters, parameter scaling reduced the sum of squared weighted residue by 93 to 96% for the relatively smaller scale (~2 m [~6.6 ft]) one-dimensional flow and 59% for the more complex Sisson and Lu site, which has the spatial scale of about 18 m (60 ft). This parameter estimation method will be applied to analyze the first two years of field experiments completed at the Sisson and Lu site.

  13. Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Surveys at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth S. Haines; Bethany L. Burton; Donald S. Sweetkind; Theodore H. Asch

    2009-03-30

    In April 2007, the USGS collected direct-current (DC) electrical resistivity data and shear- (S) and compressional- (P) wave seismic data to provide new detail of previously mapped, overlapping fault splays at two administrative areas in the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In NTS Area 7, we collected two-dimensional DC resistivity data along a transect crossing the Yucca Fault parallel to, and between, two transects along which resistivity data were collected in a previous study in 2006. In addition, we collected three-dimensional DC resistivity data in a grid that overlies part of the 2007 transect. The DC resistivity data show that the fault has a footwall that is more conductive than the hanging wall and an along-strike progression of the fault in a location where overlapping splays are present. Co-located with the northernmost of the two 2006 DC resistivity transects, we acquired S- and P-wave seismic data for both reflection and refraction processing. The S-wave data are corrupted by large amounts of converted (P-wave) energy likely due to the abundance of fractured caliche in the shallow subsurface. The P-wave data show minimal reflected energy, but they show clear refracted first arrivals. We have inverted these first arrival times to determine P-wave seismic velocity models. The seismic model for the transect in Area 7 shows low velocities extending to the base of the model at the location of the Yucca Fault, as well as low velocities at the eastern end of the transect, in the vicinity of the adjacent crater. These new surveys provide further detail about the geometry of the Yucca Fault in this location where it shows two overlapping splays. We collected P- and S-wave seismic data along a transect in the southern part of NTS Area 2, corresponding with the location of a 2006 DC resistivity transect that targeted a set of small faults identified with field mapping. Again, the S-wave data are difficult to interpret. The P-wave data show clear first arrivals that we inverted, yielding a velocity model that shows lateral heterogeneity similar to the 2006 DC resistivity models. Finally, we collected P-wave data along a second transect in Area 2, located north of the first line and in an area of a very minor fault that was targeted by another 2006 DC resistivity survey. The P-wave refraction velocity model shows generally high velocities, with a zone of somewhat lower velocities in the central part of the transect. The position of the low velocity zone corresponds with the location of a minor fault, though it is unclear whether the two are related. Together, these results demonstrate the value of geophysical data for mapping the subsurface extent of faults. The 2007 DC resistivity data complement the 2006 data and provide important new detail of the overlapping fault splays. The seismic data demonstrate the ability of P-wave refraction methods to identify the damage zones at faults, and they show the difficulties associated with S-wave methods in areas with caliche. Combining all of the geophysical data from the Area 7 studies, we are able to develop a coherent interpretation of the relation between the site geology, the fault, and the observations.

  14. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    In this proceedings I review the physics that future experiments will use to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  15. Low thermal resistance power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassani, Vahab (Denver, CO); Vlahinos, Andreas (Castle Rock, CO); Bharathan, Desikan (Arvada, CO)

    2007-03-13

    A power module assembly with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate with passageways or openings for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface to an upper surface. A circuit substrate is provided and positioned on the spreader plate to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate includes a bonding layer configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening in the plate. The assembly includes power modules mounted on the circuit substrate on a surface opposite the bonding layer. The power modules are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

  16. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

    2005-08-23

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

  17. Improved high temperature creep resistant austenitic alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1988-05-13

    An improved austenitic alloy having in wt% 19-21 Cr, 30-35 Ni, 1.5-2.5 Mn, 2-3 Mo, 0.1-0.4 Si, 0.3-0.5 Ti, 0.1-0.3 Nb, 0.1-0.5 V, 0.001-0.005 P, 0.08-0.12 C, 0.01-0.03 N, 0.005-0.01 B and the balance iron that is further improved by annealing for up to 1 hour at 1150-1200/degree/C and then cold deforming 5-15%. The alloy exhibits dramatically improved creep rupture resistance and ductility at 700/degree/C. 2 figs.

  18. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-03-07

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.

  19. Load-resistant coaxial transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

  20. Tamper-resistant encryption of quantum information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambainis, Andris; Winter, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the notion of \\emph{tamper resistance} of a quantum state encryption scheme (in dimension $d$): in addition to the requirement that an adversary cannot learn information about the state, here we demand that no controlled modification of the encrypted state can be effected. We show that such a scheme is equivalent to a \\emph{unitary 2-design} [Dankert \\emph{et al.}], as opposed to normal encryption which is unitary 1-design. Our other main results include a new proof of the lower bound of $(d^2-1)^2+1$ on the number of unitaries in a 2-design [Gross \\emph{et al.}], which lends itself to a generalization to approximate 2-design. Furthermore, while in each dimension there is a unitary 2-design with $\\leq d^5$ elements, we show that there are approximate 2-designs with $O(\\epsilon^{-2} d^4 \\log d)$ elements.

  1. High temperature creep resistant austenitic alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Swindeman, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodwin, Gene M. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An improved austenitic alloy having in wt % 19-21 Cr, 30-35 Ni, 1.5-2.5 Mn, 2-3 Mo, 0.1-0.4 Si, 0.3-0.5 Ti, 0.1-0.3 Nb, 0.1-0.5 V, 0.001-0.005 P, 0.08-0.12 C, 0.01-0.03 N, 0.005-0.01 B and the balance iron that is further improved by annealing for up to 1 hour at 1150.degree.-1200.degree. C. and then cold deforming 5-15 %. The alloy exhibits dramatically improved creep rupture resistance and ductility at 700.degree. C.

  2. EINSTEIN'S SIGNATURE IN COSMOLOGICAL LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Wands, David

    2014-10-10

    We show how the nonlinearity of general relativity generates a characteristic nonGaussian signal in cosmological large-scale structure that we calculate at all perturbative orders in a large-scale limit. Newtonian gravity and general relativity provide complementary theoretical frameworks for modeling large-scale structure in ?CDM cosmology; a relativistic approach is essential to determine initial conditions, which can then be used in Newtonian simulations studying the nonlinear evolution of the matter density. Most inflationary models in the very early universe predict an almost Gaussian distribution for the primordial metric perturbation, ?. However, we argue that it is the Ricci curvature of comoving-orthogonal spatial hypersurfaces, R, that drives structure formation at large scales. We show how the nonlinear relation between the spatial curvature, R, and the metric perturbation, ?, translates into a specific nonGaussian contribution to the initial comoving matter density that we calculate for the simple case of an initially Gaussian ?. Our analysis shows the nonlinear signature of Einstein's gravity in large-scale structure.

  3. CX-100059 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Pilot-Scale Mixotrophic Algae Integrated Biorefinery Award Number: DE-EE0006245 CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.15 Date: 09/15/2014 Location(s): IA Office(s): Golden Field Office

  4. CX-010749: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pilot-Scale Mixotrophic Algae Integrated Biorefinery CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.15 Date: 08/15/2013 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  5. CX-008817: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Indoor Bench Scale Research Projects and Conventional Laboratory Operations CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/08/2012 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): New Brunswick Laboratory

  6. CX-003632: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Analysis of Evaporator Scale SampleCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/10/2010Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  7. CX-010018: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2H Evaporator Scale Sample Analysis CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/28/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  8. CX-004268: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport MembranesCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 10/20/2010Location(s): Boulder, ColoradoOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-008289: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport Membranes CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 05/01/2012 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  10. CX-008311: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport Membranes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 04/24/2012 Location(s): Kansas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. CX-002139: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large Scale Solar InstallationCX(s) Applied: B5.1Date: 04/29/2010Location(s): Manitowoc, WisconsinOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  12. CX-006067: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Indoor Bench-Scale Research Projects and Conventional Laboratory OperationsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 06/21/2011Location(s): Richland, WashingtonOffice(s): Office of River Protection-Richland Office

  13. CX-008970: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08/01/2012 Location(s): Spain Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  14. CX-004179: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench Scale Testing on the Cesium Nitric Acid Recovery Evaporator (CNP)CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/23/2010Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

  15. CX-010277: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large Scale Screening of Low Cost Ferritic Steel Designs for AUSC Boiler CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 05/22/2013 Location(s): Tennessee Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. CX-003112: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-Scale Wind Training ProgramCX(s) Applied: A9Date: 07/16/2010Location(s): New YorkOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  17. CX-009268: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor Development and Scale-Up for New and Retrofit CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/11/2012 Location(s): Multiple Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  18. CX-008002: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small Scale Research and Development, Laboratory Operations, and Pilot Projects CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/28/2011 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office

  19. CX-004658: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Large Scale Solar - Ground Mounted - Ram ManufacturingCX(s) Applied: B5.1Date: 12/02/2010Location(s): Saint George, UtahOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  20. CX-006312: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small-Scale Spring Chinook and Coho ReintroductionCX(s) Applied: B1.20Date: 07/21/2011Location(s): Cle Elum, WashingtonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  1. CX-003977: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large Scale Production of Fuels and Feeds from Marine MicroalgaeCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 09/22/2010Location(s): HawaiiOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  2. CX-010235: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-Scale Production of Fuels and Feed from Marine Microalgae CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 02/14/2013 Location(s): New York Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  3. CX-012256: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent Carbon Dioxide Capture Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/11/2014 Location(s): Norway Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  4. CX-011846: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench-Scale Research Projects & Conventional Laboratory Operations CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/26/2014 Location(s): New Jersey Offices(s): Princeton Site Office

  5. CX-012064: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2H Evaporator Scale Dissolution Studies CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/10/2014 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  6. CX-009372: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/17/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  7. CX-012421: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Low-Leakage Shaft End Seals for Utility-Scale SCO2 Turbo Expanders CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11Date: 41880 Location(s): TexasOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-010958: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Ohio Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-010955: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Massachusetts Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  10. CX-010956: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. CX-010957: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench Scale Development and Test of Aerogel Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/16/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  12. Scaled Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill,Sayreville, NewScaled

  13. Flavor from the Electroweak Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Bauer; Marcela Carena; Katrin Gemmler

    2015-06-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter space that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. Flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.

  14. Electrically resistive coating for remediation (regeneration) of a diesel particulate filter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Amanda C. (Malibu, CA); Kirby, Kevin K. (Calabasas Hills, CA); Gregoire, Daniel J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    2012-02-14

    A resistively heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The resistively heated DPF includes a DPF having an inlet surface and at least one resistive coating on the inlet surface. The at least one resistive coating is configured to substantially maintain its resistance in an operating range of the DPF. The at least one resistive coating has a first terminal and a second terminal for applying electrical power to resistively heat up the at least one resistive coating in order to increase the temperature of the DPF to a regeneration temperature. The at least one resistive coating includes metal and semiconductor constituents.

  15. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  16. THE EFFECT OF SUBBANDGAP ILLUMINATION ON THE BULK RESISTIVITY OF CDZNTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, J.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.; Burger, A.; Groza, M.; Buliga, V.

    2013-08-13

    The variation in bulk resistivity during infrared (IR) illumination above 950 nm of state-of-the-art CdZnTe (CZT) crystals grown using the traveling heating method or the modified Bridgman method is documented. The change in steady-state current with and without illumination is also evaluated. The influence of secondary phases (SP) on current?voltage (I?V) characteristics is discussed using IR transmission microscopy to determine the defect concentration within the crystal bulk. SP present within the CZT are connected to the existence of deep, IR-excitable traps within the bandgap.

  17. Corrosion resistant iron aluminides exhibiting improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKamey, Claudette G. (Knoxville, TN); Tortorelli, Peter F. (Knoxville, TN); David, Stan A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a corrosion-resistant intermetallic alloy comprising, in atomic percent, an FeAl iron aluminide containing from about 30 to about 40% aluminum alloyed with from about 0.01 to 0.4% zirconium and from 0.01 to about 0.8% boron. The alloy exhibits considerably improved room temperature ductility for enhanced usefulness in structural applications. The high temperature strength and fabricability is improved by alloying with molybdenum, carbon, chromium and vanadium.

  18. Corrosion resistant iron aluminides exhibiting improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, C.T.; McKamey, C.G.; Tortorelli, P.F.; David, S.A.

    1994-06-14

    The specification discloses a corrosion-resistant intermetallic alloy comprising, in atomic percent, an FeAl iron aluminide containing from about 30 to about 40% aluminum alloyed with from about 0.01 to 0.4% zirconium and from 0.01 to about 0.8% boron. The alloy exhibits considerably improved room temperature ductility for enhanced usefulness in structural applications. The high temperature strength and fabricability is improved by alloying with molybdenum, carbon, chromium and vanadium. 9 figs.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD TO MAP GROUNDWATER SEEPAGE ZONES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toran, Laura

    rates. Study Site Mirror Lake (Figure 1) in the White Mountains of New Hampshire is a glacially formedASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD TO MAP GROUNDWATER SEEPAGE ZONES IN HETEROGENEOUS Geological Survey, Denver, CO Abstract We collected underwater electrical resistivity data along

  20. An aluminum resist substrate for microfabrication by LIGA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, James J.; Boehme, Dale R.; Hauck, Cheryl A. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter; Hunter, Luke L.; Griffiths, Stewart K.; McLean, Dorrance E.; Aigeldinger, Georg; Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Hachman, John T.; Losey, Matthew W.; Skala, Dawn M.; Korellis, John S.; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2005-04-01

    Resist substrates used in the LIGA process must provide high initial bond strength between the substrate and resist, little degradation of the bond strength during x-ray exposure, acceptable undercut rates during development, and a surface enabling good electrodeposition of metals. Additionally, they should produce little fluorescence radiation and give small secondary doses in bright regions of the resist at the substrate interface. To develop a new substrate satisfying all these requirements, we have investigated secondary resist doses due to electrons and fluorescence, resist adhesion before exposure, loss of fine features during extended development, and the nucleation and adhesion of electrodeposits for various substrate materials. The result of these studies is a new anodized aluminum substrate and accompanying methods for resist bonding and electrodeposition. We demonstrate successful use of this substrate through all process steps and establish its capabilities via the fabrication of isolated resist features down to 6 {micro}m, feature aspect ratios up to 280 and electroformed nickel structures at heights of 190 to 1400 {micro}m. The minimum mask absorber thickness required for this new substrate ranges from 7 to 15 {micro}m depending on the resist thickness.

  1. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks Geoffrey is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling

  2. Transmission Line Resistance Compression Networks for Microwave Rectifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    Transmission Line Resistance Compression Networks for Microwave Rectifiers Taylor W. Barton, Joshua--This work presents a development of multi-way transmission-line resistance compression networks (TLRCNs) and their application to rf-to-dc conversion. We derive analytical expressions for the behavior of TLRCNs, and describe

  3. Background resistivity model from seismic velocities Dieter Werthmller1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are conductive, for in- stance, brine, or resistive, for instance, hydrocarbons. Geophysicists process seismic of aligning seismic arrivals. This process of deriving a geophysical property directly from the dataBackground resistivity model from seismic velocities Dieter Werthmüller1 , Anton Ziolkowski1

  4. Disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. B. Jones

    2004-11-01

    Lower limits are found for the disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter in the neutron-drip region which is amorphous and heterogeneous in nuclear charge. This temperature-independent resistivity, large compared with that produced by phonon scattering, has direct consequences for theories of neutron-star magnetic field generation and evolution.

  5. Evaluation of Plasma Resistant Hollow Fiber Membranes For Artificial Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    Evaluation of Plasma Resistant Hollow Fiber Membranes For Artificial Lungs HEIDE J. EASH,* HEATHER in artificial lungs (ox- ygenators) undergo plasma leakage (or wetting) in which blood plasma slowly fills2 gas permeance of a plasma resistant fiber imposes the greatest constraint upon artificial lung

  6. Fast Algorithms for Power Grid Analysis Based on Effective Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Fast Algorithms for Power Grid Analysis Based on Effective Resistance Selc¸uk K¨ose and Eby G method significantly outperforms previously proposed power grid analysis techniques in terms and the impedance of the power grid. The effective resistance between any two nodes in a uniform grid structure has

  7. Use of dual plane PIV to assess scale-by-scale energy budgets in wall turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marusic, Ivan

    Use of dual plane PIV to assess scale-by-scale energy budgets in wall turbulence N Saikrishnan1-layer, the buffer region, the logarithmic region and the outer region. In the space of scales, turbulent energy is produced at the large scales and transferred to smaller scales, finally dissipating in the form of heat

  8. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handelsman, Jo

    Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization Nikolina­ resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria of antibiotic- resistant bacteria, antibiotic-resistance genes (collectively known as the "resistome

  9. Determination of Thermoelectric Module Efficiency A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; McCarty, Robin [Marlow Industries, Inc; Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Yamamoto, Atsushi [AIST, Japan; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany

    2014-01-01

    The development of thermoelectrics (TE) for energy conversion is in the transition phase from laboratory research to device development. There is an increasing demand to accurately determine the module efficiency, especially for the power generation mode. For many thermoelectrics, the figure of merit, ZT, of the material sometimes cannot be fully realized at the device level. Reliable efficiency testing of thermoelectric modules is important to assess the device ZT and provide the end-users with realistic values on how much power can be generated under specific conditions. We conducted a general survey of efficiency testing devices and their performance. The results indicated the lack of industry standards and test procedures. This study included a commercial test system and several laboratory systems. Most systems are based on the heat flow meter method and some are based on the Harman method. They are usually reproducible in evaluating thermoelectric modules. However, cross-checking among different systems often showed large errors that are likely caused by unaccounted heat loss and thermal resistance. Efficiency testing is an important area for the thermoelectric community to focus on. A follow-up international standardization effort is planned.

  10. Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunbar, John

    2012-12-31

    Electrical methods offer a geophysical approach for determining the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate in deep marine environments. Methane hydrate is essentially non-conductive. Hence, sediments containing hydrate are more resistive than sediments without hydrates. To date, the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been used in marine hydrates studies. This project evaluated an alternative electrical method, direct current resistivity (DCR), for detecting marine hydrates. DCR involves the injection of direct current between two source electrodes and the simultaneous measurement of the electric potential (voltage) between multiple receiver electrodes. The DCR method provides subsurface information comparable to that produced by the CSEM method, but with less sophisticated instrumentation. Because the receivers are simple electrodes, large numbers can be deployed to achieve higher spatial resolution. In this project a prototype seafloor DCR system was developed and used to conduct a reconnaissance survey at a site of known hydrate occurrence in Mississippi Canyon Block 118. The resulting images of sub-bottom resistivities indicate that high-concentration hydrates at the site occur only in the upper 50 m, where deep-seated faults intersect the seafloor. Overall, there was evidence for much less hydrate at the site than previously thought based on available seismic and CSEM data alone.

  11. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, Kriste M; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  12. Determining energy relaxation length scales in two-dimensional electron gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billiald, Jordan; Backes, Dirk; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Narayan, Vijay; König, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    3 is obtained by substituting the Drude ex- pression ? = npe2?e/m for the electrical conductivity into Eq. 1. Here np is the 2D number density of charge car- riers in section p, ?e is the Drude elastic scattering time, m is the effective mass... -dimensional systems and nanostructures. These insights will be vital for practical design considerations of future nanoelectronic circuits. There currently exist well-established methods to probe the low-temperature (low-T ) electrical and ther- moelectric properties...

  13. The importance of spatial scale in determining illusions of orientation Jennifer Skillen a,*, David Whitaker a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottingham, University of

    or dark stripe. The cord as a whole, however, contains no net variation in luminance relative. These contain internal structure (known as `1st- order' structure) consisting of alternating dark and light

  14. Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal Article) |ContinuumPhotoactiveMixtures:

  15. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1997-04-15

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {<=}1% Cr and either {>=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

  16. Oxidation, carburization and/or sulfidation resistant iron aluminide alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2003-08-19

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or Zro.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B. .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  17. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  18. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  19. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material (HPCRM) Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C; Haslam, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D'Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2008-01-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional stainless steel and nickel-based materials, and are proving to have excellent wear properties, sufficient to warrant their use in earth excavation, drilling and tunnel boring applications. Large areas have been successfully coated with these materials, with thicknesses of approximately one centimeter. The observed corrosion resistance may enable applications of importance in industries such as: oil and gas production, refining, nuclear power generation, shipping, and others.

  20. Enhancement of thermal stability and water resistance in yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Cimang, E-mail: cimang@adam.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hyun Lee, Choong; Zhang, Wenfeng; Nishimura, Tomonori; Nagashio, Kosuke; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, CREST, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We have systematically investigated the material and electrical properties of yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2} (Y-GeO{sub 2}) on Germanium (Ge). A significant improvement of both thermal stability and water resistance were demonstrated by Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack, compared to that of pure GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack. The excellent electrical properties of Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stacks with low D{sub it} were presented as well as enhancement of dielectric constant in Y-GeO{sub 2} layer, which is beneficial for further equivalent oxide thickness scaling of Ge gate stack. The improvement of thermal stability and water resistance are discussed both in terms of the Gibbs free energy lowering and network modification of Y-GeO{sub 2}.

  1. SCALE DEPENDENCE OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Balogh, Andre; Goldstein, Melvyn L. E-mail: kandu@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: melvyn.l.goldstein@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    We determine the magnetic helicity, along with the magnetic energy, at high latitudes using data from the Ulysses mission. The data set spans the time period from 1993 to 1996. The basic assumption of the analysis is that the solar wind is homogeneous. Because the solar wind speed is high, we follow the approach first pioneered by Matthaeus et al. by which, under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, one can use Fourier transforms of the magnetic field time series to construct one-dimensional spectra of the magnetic energy and magnetic helicity under the assumption that the Taylor frozen-in-flow hypothesis is valid. That is a well-satisfied assumption for the data used in this study. The magnetic helicity derives from the skew-symmetric terms of the three-dimensional magnetic correlation tensor, while the symmetric terms of the tensor are used to determine the magnetic energy spectrum. Our results show a sign change of magnetic helicity at wavenumber k {approx} 2 AU{sup -1} (or frequency {nu} {approx} 2 {mu}Hz) at distances below 2.8 AU and at k {approx} 30 AU{sup -1} (or {nu} {approx} 25 {mu}Hz) at larger distances. At small scales the magnetic helicity is positive at northern heliographic latitudes and negative at southern latitudes. The positive magnetic helicity at small scales is argued to be the result of turbulent diffusion reversing the sign relative to what is seen at small scales at the solar surface. Furthermore, the magnetic helicity declines toward solar minimum in 1996. The magnetic helicity flux integrated separately over one hemisphere amounts to about 10{sup 45} Mx{sup 2} cycle{sup -1} at large scales and to a three times lower value at smaller scales.

  2. Identification of DNA marker for root-knot nematode resistance gene and characterization of disease resistance gene candidates in cotton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Limei

    2000-01-01

    , bacteria, viruses and nematodes, in cotton, resistance gene candidates were cloned by PCR using a pair of degenerate primers designed from the conserved sequences of disease resistance genes cloned from a variety of plant taxa. From a 96-clone sample, 23...

  3. On a solution to the problem of the poor cyclic fatigue resistance of bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-01-09

    The recent development of metallic glass-matrix composites represents a particular milestone in engineering materials for structural applications owing to their remarkable combinations of strength and toughness. However, metallic glasses are highly susceptible to cyclic fatigue damage and previous attempts to solve this problem have been largely disappointing. Here we propose and demonstrate a microstructural design strategy to overcome this limitation by matching the microstructural length scales (of the second phase) to mechanical crack-length scales. Specifically, semi-solid processing is used to optimize the volume fraction, morphology, and size of second phase dendrites to confine any initial deformation (shear banding) to the glassy regions separating dendrite arms having length scales of {approx} 2 {micro}m, i.e., to less than the critical crack size for failure. Confinement of the damage to such interdendritic regions results in enhancement of fatigue lifetimes and increases the fatigue limit by an order of magnitude making these 'designed' composites as resistant to fatigue damage as high-strength steels and aluminum alloys. These design strategies can be universally applied to any other metallic glass systems.

  4. Bacteria Induced Split Anergy in NK Cells Drive Maturation, Differentiation and Resistance of Healthy and Transformed Stem Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bui, Vickie Tam Doan

    2014-01-01

    of probiotic bacteria in maturation and resistance of Oralwithout probiotic bacteria induced resistance of OSCSCs, MIAof probiotic bacteria in maturation and resistance of Oral

  5. MefA-mediated macrolide resistance in group A Streptococci : the search for efflux pump inhibitors from marine natural products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turkson, Nicole Yamoah

    2007-01-01

    to combat drug resistance in bacteria. Journal of Molecularet al. Macrolide resistance of common bacteria isolated frommultidrug resistance efflux pumps in bacteria. Clinical

  6. Holographic Superconductors with Lifshitz Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. J. Brynjolfsson; U. H. Danielsson; L. Thorlacius; T. Zingg

    2010-03-27

    Black holes in asymptotically Lifshitz spacetime provide a window onto finite temperature effects in strongly coupled Lifshitz models. We add a Maxwell gauge field and charged matter to a recently proposed gravity dual of 2+1 dimensional Lifshitz theory. This gives rise to charged black holes with scalar hair, which correspond to the superconducting phase of holographic superconductors with z > 1 Lifshitz scaling. Along the way we analyze the global geometry of static, asymptotically Lifshitz black holes at arbitrary critical exponent z > 1. In all known exact solutions there is a null curvature singularity in the black hole region, and, by a general argument, the same applies to generic Lifshitz black holes.

  7. Time Scales in Spectator Fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Schwarz; for the ALADIN collaboration

    2000-09-07

    Proton-proton correlations and correlations of p-alpha, d-alpha, and t-alpha from spectator decays following Au + Au collisions at 1000 AMeV have been measured with an highly efficient detector hodoscope. The constructed correlation functions indicate a moderate expansion and low breakup densities similar to assumptions made in statistical multifragmentation models. In agreement with a volume breakup rather short time scales were deduced employing directional cuts in proton-proton correlations. PACS numbers: 25.70.Pq, 21.65.+f, 25.70.Mn

  8. Translation efficiency is determined by both codon bias and folding energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruppin, Eytan

    Translation efficiency is determined by both codon bias and folding energy Tamir Tullera,b,1 studies have suggested that codon bias is the most important determinant of translation efficiency a genome-scale study aiming at dissecting the determi- nants of translation efficiency

  9. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, D. P. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Finn, J. M. [Applied Mathematics and Plasma Physics, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite ? and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for ??=?0 and the marginal stability values ?{sub rp,rw}?resistive plasma, resistive wall; resistive plasma, ideal wall; ideal plasma, resistive wall; and ideal plasma, ideal wall) are computed for both models. The main results are: (a) imaginary gain with normal sensors or plasma rotation stabilizes below ?{sub rp,iw} because rotation suppresses the diffusion of flux from the plasma out through the wall and, more surprisingly, (b) rotation or imaginary gain with normal sensors destabilizes above ?{sub rp,iw} because it prevents the feedback flux from entering the plasma through the resistive wall to form a virtual wall. A method of using complex gain G{sub i} to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with ??>??{sub rp,iw} is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below ?{sub rp,iw}.

  10. A Resistance-Integral Natural-Coordinate Method for Diffusive Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2010-01-01

    31–39 (1855) A Resistance-Integral Natural-Coordinate Method010-9561-4 A Resistance-Integral Natural-Coordinate Methodto as a Resistance-Integral Natural-Coordinate Method (

  11. Characterization of Beta-lactam Resistance in the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qureshi, Nadia Naeem

    2010-01-01

    action and resistance in gram-negative bacteria. Journal ofResistance Typically used in the treatment of anaerobic bacteria andconfer resistance to ?-lactams in other bacteria (Jonge et

  12. Self-Medication and Antibiotic Resistance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandell, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    bacteria, there exists a “spontaneous frequency of resistance”resistance among most of the common pathogenic bacteria atResistance to antibiotics is emerging most rapidly among the bacteria

  13. Genotypic diversity and antimicrobial resistance in asymptomatic Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    Genotypic diversity and antimicrobial resistance in asymptomatic Salmonella enterica serotype-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 represents a challenge the genetic diversity and the diversity in antimicrobial resistance associated with asymptomatic Salmonella

  14. Proton Decay and the Planck Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    LBNL- 56556 PROTON DECAY AND THE PLANCK SCALE DANIEL T.ph/0410035v1 2 Oct 2004 PROTON DECAY AND THE PLANCK SCALE ?without grand uni?cation, proton decay can be a powerful

  15. Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xiaoming

    Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands Tianyin Xu, Yang Chen, Lei Jiao, Ben-server architecture has not scaled with user demands, lead- ing to server overload and significant impairment

  16. Scale in object and process ontologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitsma, Femke; Bittner, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Scale is of great importance to the analysis of real world phenomena, be they enduring objects or perduring processes. This paper presents a new perspective on the concept of scale by considering it within two complementary ...

  17. RANDOM COEFFICIENT H MODE CONFINEMENT SCALINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;nement time for most other machines, we are e#11;ectively penalising ASDEX. This small penalty may device scalings are more uniform and closer to standard L mode con#12;nement scaling. To model

  18. PathScale Compliers at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-800-66-NERSC, option 3 or 510-486-8611 Home For Users Software Compilers PathScale PathScale Compilers (Fortran, C, C++) Availability The Pathscale...

  19. Scale Invariant Metrics of Volumetric Datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raskar, Ramesh

    Nature reveals itself in similar structures of different scales. A child and an adult share similar organs yet dramatically differ in size. Comparing the two is a challenging task to a computerized approach as scale and ...

  20. CX-010689: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Generic CX Determination for Financial Assistance Awards CX(s) Applied: Unknown Date: 07/17/2013 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): Chicago Office