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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs U.S. Petroleum Use, 1970-2010 Nearly 40% of the oil we use is imported, costing us roughly 300 billion annually. Increased domestic oil production from...

2

Reducing Energy Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy expense is becoming increasingly dominant in the operating costs of high-performance computing (HPC) systems. At the same time, electricity prices vary significantly at...

3

Prime movers reduce energy costs  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial plants have found that reciprocating engines used to power generator sets and chiller systems are effective in reducing energy costs as part of a load management strategy, while meeting other plant energy needs. As the trend towards high electric utility costs continues, familiarity with basic analyses used to determine the economic viability of engine-driven systems is essential. A basic method to determine the economic viability of genset or chiller systems is to review the supplying utility`s rate structure, determine approximate costs to install and operate an engine-driven system, and calculate a simple equipment payback period. If the initial analysis shows that significant savings are possible and a quick payback is likely, a thorough analysis should be conducted to analyze a plant`s actual electric load profile. A load profile analysis takes into consideration average loads, peak loads, and peak duration. A detailed study should cover myriad considerations, including local air quality regulations and permitting, space availability, auxiliary system components, and financing options. A basic analysis takes relatively little time and can rule out the need for a detailed study.

Swanson, J.E. [Caterpillar, Inc., Mossville, IL (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Seize Opportunities to Reduce Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specify for maximum energy savings Specify for maximum energy savings Windows must meet local energy code requirements. For even higher energy performance, consider ENERGY STAR windows, which are recommended for low-rise dwellings and are often suitable for mid-rise dwellings as well. For window and storm window options with superior performance in cold climates, check out the U.S. Department of Energy's highly insulating windows purchasing program (see next page). Seize Opportunities to Reduce Cost Government or utility incentives and financing may be available for energy efficiency in low-income housing. Check www.dsireusa.org for up-to-date information on incentive

5

How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rising energy costs have many businesses looking for creative ways to reduce their energy usage and lower the costs of energy delivered to their facilities. This paper explores innovative renewable and alternative energy technologies that can help customers control their supply-side costs of energy. Specific topics include distributive wind power generation and solid fuel boilers. It identities factors to consider in determining whether these technologies are economically viable for customers and stresses the importance of fully researching alternatives before committing to major equipment investments.

Swanson, G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Research & Development Competitive Awards Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. Past Incubator awardee, Innovalight, is creating high-efficiency, low-cost

7

Definition: Reduced Restoration Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Restoration Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Restoration Cost The functions that provide this benefit lead to fewer outages andor help restore power quicker...

8

Definition: Reduced Electricity Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Electricity Cost Functions that provide this benefit could help alter customer usage patterns (demand response with price...

9

Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing  

SciTech Connect

BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing pumping system efficiency by reducing pumping costs through optimum pipe sizing.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden  

SciTech Connect

Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Definition: Reduced Congestion Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Congestion Cost Transmission congestion is a phenomenon that occurs in electric power markets. It happens when scheduled market transactions (generation and load) result in power flow over a transmission element that exceeds the available capacity for that element. Since grid operators must ensure that physical overloads do not occur, they will dispatch generation so as to prevent them. The functions that provide this benefit provide lower cost energy, decrease loading on system elements, shift load to off-peak, or allow the grid operator to manage the flow of electricity around constrained interfaces (i.e. dynamic line capability or power flow control).[1] Related Terms power, transmission lines, load, element, electricity

13

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Non-Hardware Costs to Reducing Non-Hardware Costs to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Non-Hardware Costs Lowering Barriers Fostering Growth Reducing Non-Hardware Costs DOE supports efforts to dramatically reduce the non-hardware, balance of systems costs associated with solar energy systems. Representing as much as

14

Training reduces stuck pipe costs and incidents  

SciTech Connect

Properly administered initial and refresher stuck pipe training courses have dramatically reduced the cost and number of stuck pipe incidents for many companies worldwide. These training programs have improved operator and contractor crew awareness of stuck pipe risks and fostered a team commitment in averting such incidents. The success is evident in the achievements of the companies sponsoring such training. Preventing and minimizing stuck pipe is the most significant benefit of stuck pipe training, but crews also benefit from becoming more knowledgeable about the drilling program and equipment operation. The paper discusses stuck pipe costs, stuck pipe training, prevention of stuck pipes, well bore stability, geopressured formation, reactive formation, reactive formations, unconsolidated formations, mobile formations, fractured and faulted formations, differential sticking, 8 other causes of stuck pipe, and freeing stuck pipe.

Watson, B. (Global Marine Drilling Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Smith, R. (Randy Smith Drilling School, Lafayette, LA (United States))

1994-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

15

Reducing home heating and cooling costs  

SciTech Connect

This report is in response to a request from the House Committee on Energy and Commerce that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake a neutral, unbiased analysis of the cost, safety, and health and environmental effects of the three major heating fuels: heating oil, natural gas, and electricity. The Committee also asked EIA to examine the role of conservation in the choice of heating and cooling fuel. To accommodate a wide audience, EIA decided to respond to the Committee`s request in the context of a report on reducing home heating and cooling costs. Accordingly, this report discusses ways to weatherize the home, compares the features of the three major heating and cooling fuels, and comments on the types of heating and cooling systems on the market. The report also includes a worksheet and supporting tables that will help in the selection of a heating and/or cooling system.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and posted 2/10/2011 and posted 2/10/2011 *Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain $50,000 FONSI: uncertain Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain FONSI: uncertain Total Estimated Cost $70,000 Attachment: Memo, Moody to Marcinowski, III, SUBJECT: NEPA 2011 APS for DOE-SRS, Dated: Annual NEPA Planning Summary Environmental Assessments (EAs) Expected to be Initiated in the Next 12 Months Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Jan-11 Estimated Schedule (**NEPA Milestones) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) issued a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Industrial Stormwater General Permit (IGP) # SCR000000 November 12, with an effective date of January

17

Definition: Reduced Ancillary Service Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ancillary Service Cost Ancillary Service Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Ancillary Service Cost Ancillary services are necessary to ensure the reliable and efficient operation of the grid. The level of ancillary services required at any point in time is determined by the grid operator and/or energy market rules. Ancillary services, including spinning reserve and frequency regulation, could be reduced if generators could more closely follow load; peak load on the system was reduced; power factor, voltage, and VAR control were improved; or information available to grid operators were improved.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Related Terms ancillary service, frequency regulation, smart grid References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An in

18

Detecting leaks to reduce energy costs  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how analyzing boilerhouse data in its manufacturing plants and applying algorithmic techniques is helping an automobile manufacturer run its utility operations more efficiently. Ford Motor Co., based in Dearborn, Michigan, is realizing significant energy savings, reducing capital expenditures, and minimizing wastewater disposal costs by diagnosing and quantifying leaks in its compressed air, steam/condensate, and process water systems by applying algorithms developed by Cleveland-based CEC Consultants Inc. These algorithms make use of readily available--and often already installed--instruments, such as vortex shedding meters, chart recorders, and data loggers, to compare how much utility use is needed for assembly and manufacturing equipment with how much is being generated.

Valenti, M.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Definition: Reduced Meter Reading Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Meter Reading Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Meter Reading Cost Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) equipment eliminates the need to send someone to...

20

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Reducing the Costs of Manufacturing Flow...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and power generation. * Design and material cost reductions are a means to reducing battery costs. * Is it possible to accelerate the knowledge building that comes from...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Cleanup - Efficiency delivered more than 6 million in cost savings, 3 million in annual savings Treatment Resin...

22

Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Title, Location Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: 2010 LCLS Undulator 2 is envisioned to be a 0.2 - 2keV FEL x-ray source, capable of delivering x-rays to End Station A (ESA), located in the existing Research Yard at SLAC. It will also be configurable as a non- FEL hard x-ray source capable of delivering a chirped x-ray pulse for single-shot broad-spectrum measurements. The project would entail reconstruction of the electron beam transport to End Station A, construction and installation of a new undulator in the tunnel upstream of ESA and beam dump, and construction and installation of x-ray transport, optics, and diagnostics in ESA. It also includes the construction of an annex to End Station A , providing hutches for experiment stations.

23

Reducing Home Heating and Cooling Costs  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B1. Annual Cost of Oil Heat in Various Climates for a Range of Heating Oil Prices and System Efficiencies . . . . . 21 B2. Annual Cost of Gas Heat in...

24

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reynolds Logistics Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on AddThis.com... July 23, 2011 Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs F ind out how Reynolds Logistics uses electric vehicles to offset petroleum

25

EFFECT OF REDUCED U-235 PRICE ON FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effect of changes in natural uranium cost and in separative work charges on fuel cycle costs in nuclear power plants. Reactors considered were a Dresden-type boiling water reactor (BWR) and a Yankee- type pressurized water reactor (PWR), with net power ratings of 100, 300, and 500 Mwe. Fuel cycle costs were calculated for these reactors, using either enriched uranium or U/sup 235/-thorium as the fuel material. The price schedule for uranium was based on a feed material cost of /kg uranium as UF/sub 6/ and separative work costs of /kg uranium (Schedule B) and /kg uranium (Schedule C). The present AEC price schedule for enriched uranium was also used for purposes of a reference case. The results indicate that a reduction in present enriched uranium price to that given by Schedule B would reduce fuel cycle costs for the BWR plants by 0.4 to 0.5 mill/kwh for the enriched-uranium cycle, and 0.4 to 0.7 mill/kwh for the thorium cycle. Reductions in fuel cycle costs for the PWR plants were 0.5 to 0.7 and 0.4 to 0.75 mill/kwh, respectively, for the same situations. (auth)

Bennett, L.L.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar-powered electricity prices could soon approach those of power from coal or natural gas thanks to collaborative research with solar startup Ampulse Corporation at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Silicon wafers account for almost half the cost of today's solar photovoltaic panels, so reducing or eliminating wafer costs is essential to bringing prices down. Current crystalline silicon technology converts energy in a highly efficient manner; however, that technology is manufactured with processes that could stand some improvement. The industry needs a method that is less complex, creates less waste and uses less energy. First, half the refined silicon is lost as dust in the wafer-sawing process, driving module costs higher. Wafers are sawn off of large cylindrical ingots, or boules, of silicon. A typical 2-meter boule loses as many as 6,000 potential wafers during sawing. Second, the wafers produced are much thicker than necessary. To efficiently convert sunlight into electricity, the wafers need be only one-tenth the typical thickness. NREL, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Ampulse have partnered on an approach to eliminate this waste and dramatically lower the cost of the finished solar panels. By using a chemical vapor deposition process to grow the silicon on inexpensive foil, Ampulse is able to make the solar cells just thick enough to convert most of the solar energy into electricity. No more sawdust - and no more wasting refined silicon materials. NREL developed the technology to grow high-quality silicon and ORNL developed the metal foil that has the correct crystal structure to support that growth. Ampulse is installing a pilot manufacturing line in NREL's Process Development Integration Laboratory, where solar companies can work closely with lab scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to their technology development, as well as rapidly overcoming R and D challenges and risk. NREL's program is focused on transformative innovation in the domestic PV industry. With knowledge and expertise acquired from the PDIL pilot production line tools, Ampulse plans to design a full-scale production line to accommodate long rolls of metal foil. The Ampulse process 'goes straight from pure silicon-containing gas to high-quality crystal silicon film,' said Brent Nelson, the operational manager for the Process Development Integration Laboratory. 'The advantage is you can make the wafer just as thin as you need it - 10 microns or less.' Most of today's solar cells are made out of wafer crystalline silicon, though thin-film cells made of more exotic elements such as copper, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium and others are making a strong push into the market. The advantage of silicon is its abundance, because it is derived from sand. Silicon's disadvantage is that purifying it into wafers suitable for solar cells can be expensive and energy intensive. Manufacturers add carbon and heat to sand to produce metallurgical-grade silicon, which is useful in other industries, but not yet suitable for making solar cells. So this metallurgical-grade silicon is then converted to pure trichlorosilane (SiCl3) or silane (SiH4) gas. Typically, the purified gas is then converted to create a silicon feedstock at 1,000 degrees Celsius. This feedstock is melted at 1,414 C and recrystallized into crystal ingots that are finally sawed into wafers. The Ampulse method differs in that it eliminates the last two steps in the traditional process and works directly with the silane gas growing only the needed silicon right onto a foil substrate. A team of NREL scientists had developed a way to use a process called hot-wire chemical vapor deposition to thicken silicon wafers with near perfect crystal structure. Using a hot tungsten filament much like the one found in an incandescent light bulb, the silane gas molecules are broken apart and deposited onto the wafer using the chemical vapor deposition technique at about 700 C - a much lower temperature than needed to make the wafer. The hot filament dec

Scanlon, B.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Automatic monitoring helps reduce lighting costs  

SciTech Connect

A Benton, Arkansas utility is using a dimmable ballast system to curb high-intensity-discharge (HID) lighting costs. The system also incorpoates a monitoring control system. This control automatically maintains minimum illumination levels.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Actions You Can Take to Reduce Cooling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fact Sheet Actions You Can Take to Reduce Cooling Costs Cooling costs can be a substantial part of your facility's annual utility bill. A number of energy savings opportunities...

29

Definition: Reduced T&D Operations Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced T&D Operations Cost Automated or remote controlled operation of capacitor banks and feeder and line switches eliminates the...

30

New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater Treatment New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater Treatment March 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis RICHLAND, Wash. - A new resin EM, the Richland Operations Office, and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company are using in contaminated groundwater treatment is expected to increase efficiency and reduce costs in the operation of pump-and-treat facilities along the Columbia River at the Hanford site. The higher performance resin, SIR-700, is expected to reduce DOE's estimated operation and maintenance costs over the lifetime of the 100-DX Groundwater Treatment Facility by approximately $20 million. In comparison to this expected cost savings, the construction cost for the treatment

31

Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs May 3, 2013 - 12:50pm Addthis The Energy Department is helping Alaska Native communities reduce their energy costs by investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency upgrades. | Photo courtesy of Western Community Energy. The Energy Department is helping Alaska Native communities reduce their energy costs by investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency upgrades. | Photo courtesy of Western Community Energy. Tracey A. LeBeau Director, Office of Indian Energy Policy & Programs What are the key facts? It's not uncommon for families in Alaska Native communities to spend nearly half of their monthly income on energy costs. To help these communities make smart energy choices, the Energy

32

Streamlining blade production would reduce turbine costs  

SciTech Connect

Gas turbine technology's overall future will see continuing increases in both size and higher operating temperatures, each contributing to improved energy conversion efficiency and reduced comparative capital outlay. Manufacturing technology will become even more relevant as blades acquire more sophisticated cooling or adopt the use of exotic refractory material such as crystal fibers and ceramics or both. The trend towards rising temperatures will continue. The incentives are high when it is realized that for every 100/sup 0/C increase in firing temperature there is a gain of approximately 18 percent in machine output and 2.7 percent increase in thermal efficiency.

Graham-Bryce, A.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Cleanup -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Cleanup - Efficiency delivered more than $6 million in cost savings, $3 million in annual savings Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Cleanup - Efficiency delivered more than $6 million in cost savings, $3 million in annual savings June 4, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov (509) 376-4171 Dee Millikin, CHPRC Dee_Millikin@rl.gov (509) 376-1297 RICHLAND, Wash. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company is using a treatment material that has delivered more than $6 million in cost savings to date and is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiencies in treatment

34

Reducing energy use comes at a costReducing energy use comes at a cost ----the EU casethe EU case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

YOUR LOGO HERECGES Reducing energy use comes at a costReducing energy use comes at a costDeputy Director and Chief Economist Centre for Global Energy StudiesCentre for Global Energy Studies AthensAthens ---- 88thth May 2008May 2008 Nuclear Energy WorkshopNuclear Energy Workshop ---- National Research Centre

35

New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The new resin was installed at the 100-DX Groundwater Treatment Facility, where it operated over one year without a single resin change. The new resin was installed at the 100-DX Groundwater Treatment Facility, where it operated over one year without a single resin change. The new resin was installed at the 100-DX Groundwater Treatment Facility, where it operated over one year without a single resin change. An operator tests the resin at a 100K Area pump-andtreat system to determine how much hexavelent chromium contamination it has gathered from the groundwater. An operator tests the resin at a 100K Area pump-andtreat system to determine how much hexavelent chromium contamination it has gathered from the groundwater. ResinTech SIR-700 is being implemented at groundwater treatment systems along the Columbia River to increase efficiency and reduce costs. ResinTech SIR-700 is being implemented at groundwater treatment systems

36

Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries September 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov Electricvehicles8331019248.jpg Electric vehicles lined up in Cascade Locks. Credit: Oregon Department of Transportation A better battery-one that is cheap and safe, but packs a lot of power-could lead to an electric vehicle that performs better than today's gasoline-powered cars, and costs about the same or less to consumers. Such a vehicle would reduce the United States' reliance on foreign oil and lower energy costs for the average American, so one of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) goals is to fund research that will revolutionize the performance of next-generation batteries. In honor of DOE's supercomputing month, we are highlighting some of the

37

Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs July 23, 2010 - 3:24pm Addthis Judith Mondre meets with members of the Mondre Energy team. | Photo courtesy of Judith Mondre Judith Mondre meets with members of the Mondre Energy team. | Photo courtesy of Judith Mondre Maya Payne Smart Former Writer for Energy Empowers, EERE What are the key facts? 70 street lights and 25 traffic signals to be replaced via Recovery Act. Town expects 10 percent reduction in energy costs. Judith Mondre spent the past two months learning the ins and outs of Upper Darby Township, Pa.'s energy usage. She's analyzed energy bills, observed town facilities and interviewed staff to put together a plan to help the municipality reduce its total energy usage.

38

Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs July 23, 2010 - 3:24pm Addthis Judith Mondre meets with members of the Mondre Energy team. | Photo courtesy of Judith Mondre Judith Mondre meets with members of the Mondre Energy team. | Photo courtesy of Judith Mondre Maya Payne Smart Former Writer for Energy Empowers, EERE What are the key facts? 70 street lights and 25 traffic signals to be replaced via Recovery Act. Town expects 10 percent reduction in energy costs. Judith Mondre spent the past two months learning the ins and outs of Upper Darby Township, Pa.'s energy usage. She's analyzed energy bills, observed town facilities and interviewed staff to put together a plan to help the municipality reduce its total energy usage.

39

Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs August 1, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis In support of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy to develop clean, domestic energy sources, the Energy Department today announced a $4.5 million investment in two projects-led by Minnesota-based 3M and the Colorado School of Mines-to lower the cost, improve the durability, and increase the efficiency of next-generation fuel cell systems. This investment is a part of the Energy Department's commitment to maintain American leadership in innovative clean energy technologies, give American businesses more options to cut energy costs, and reduce our reliance on imported oil. "Fuel cell technologies have an important role to play in diversifying

40

Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases Market Potential of Biofuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

research has led to improvements in sugar yields and dramatically reduced ethanol production costs. The importance of this research was recognized in 2004 by an R&D 100...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or less to consumers. Such a vehicle would reduce the United States' reliance on foreign oil and lower energy costs for the average American, so one of the Department of Energy's...

42

Reducing 'Search Cost' and Risk in Energy-efficiency Investments...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This paper asserts that these programs have been successful because they reduce the two market barriers of high "search cost" and high perceived risks. Attachment Size PDF 770.7...

43

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Non-Hardware Costs Reducing Non-Hardware Costs DOE supports efforts to dramatically reduce the non-hardware, balance of systems costs associated with solar energy systems. Representing as much as 64% of the total installed system price, these "soft costs" include: Customer Acquisition Financing and Contracting Permitting, Interconnection, and Inspection Installation and Performance Operations and Maintenance. To meet SunShot goals, the industry must innovate new ways to automate and speed processes that make it easier for consumers, businesses, utilities, solar companies, and others to install solar projects. For example, novel software solutions now allow solar companies to design systems and provide accurate quotes using satellite images rather than conducting full site visits.

44

Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past June 7, 2012 - 2:48pm Addthis Franklin County Courthouse (Before) 1 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (Before) A court employee and news photographer survey the bomb damage in the Franklin County Courthouse's main courtroom in November 1969. Image: Courtesy of the Washington Missourian. Franklin County Courthouse (After) 2 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (After) The fully restored main courtroom includes the original 1930s paint colors and reproduction lighting. Image: Sallie Glaize Franklin County, MO Chris Galm Marketing & Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy People across the country are looking for ways to make homes and buildings

45

Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs March 1, 2010 - 4:34am Addthis Using SiGen's new cutting process, less material is wasted in creating solar products like this, a breakthrough that is expected to help make solar power more affordable. | Photo courtesy SiGen Using SiGen's new cutting process, less material is wasted in creating solar products like this, a breakthrough that is expected to help make solar power more affordable. | Photo courtesy SiGen Joshua DeLung Silicon Genesis is a San Jose, Calif., company that is advancing the field of solar energy by developing a process that will virtually eliminate all waste when cutting materials needed to implement solar technology.

46

Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past June 7, 2012 - 2:48pm Addthis Franklin County Courthouse (Before) 1 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (Before) A court employee and news photographer survey the bomb damage in the Franklin County Courthouse's main courtroom in November 1969. Image: Courtesy of the Washington Missourian. Franklin County Courthouse (After) 2 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (After) The fully restored main courtroom includes the original 1930s paint colors and reproduction lighting. Image: Sallie Glaize Franklin County, MO Chris Galm Marketing & Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy People across the country are looking for ways to make homes and buildings

47

Daylighting in schools: Energy costs reduced, student performance improved  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ordinarily, architectural-engineering firms are only indirectly concerned with psychological and physical benefits to the occupants of the buildings they design. However, a firm in North Carolina, Innovative Design, is not ordinary. Their use of daylighting in schools yields considerable economic benefits: energy costs reduced up to 64%, cooling and electrical equipment costs reduced, long-term mechanical and lighting equipment maintenance costs reduced. But equally impressive are the benefits of daylighting on student performance. Students in schools using daylighting have higher achievement scores in reading and math tests. Further, as shown in a related study, because of additional vitamin D received by students via daylighting, they will have less dental decay--and grow taller. In the two performance reports which follow, authors Nicklas and Bailey analyze specific win-win benefits of daylighting. Their findings are startling.

Nicklas, M.H.; Bailey, G.B. [Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation November 19, 2013 - 3:49pm Addthis A combination solid-state laser turret cutter and stamping machine cuts a thin steel plate that will be formed into lighting fixture housing. Wisconsin-based Eaton Corporation is developing a new manufacturing process that streamlines LED fixture designs. | Photo courtesy of Eaton Corporation A combination solid-state laser turret cutter and stamping machine cuts a thin steel plate that will be formed into lighting fixture housing. Wisconsin-based Eaton Corporation is developing a new manufacturing process that streamlines LED fixture designs. | Photo courtesy of Eaton Corporation A goniometer measures the photometric output distribution of an outdoor LED street light fixture. Researchers at Eaton are developing a new manufacturing process will enable LED chips to sit directly on heat sinks, improving heat transfer. | Photo courtesy of Eaton Corporation

49

Implementing Energy Efficiency in Wastewater to Reduce Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the industrial world creating a quality product at minimum cost is the goal. In this environment all expenses are scrutinized, when they are part of the manufacturing process. However, even at the most conscientious facility the wastewater system is often overlooked, just plain accepted as is. At many locations facility personnel are completely unaware of utility costs but more importantly they are not aware of their energy consumption. The Wisconsin Focus on Energy Industrial Program has surveyed and assessed many municipal and industrial wastewater systems across the state, identified opportunities to save energy and assisted in implementing energy efficiency modifications without adversely impacting the quality of the treatment system or the manufacturing process. In many instances not only did the energy efficiency modification result in reduced energy consumption and costs, it also reduced maintenance and down time while improving effluent quality. Most of the opportunities that were implemented were installed while the manufacturing operations remained in operation.

Cantwell, J. C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

10 Strategic Steps to Reducing Your Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If your company is looking at energy management as part of its overall strategy to reduce costs and improve profits, it is not alone. While energy prices have increased at a shocking rate, so has interest in environmental responsibility. Progressive organizations are exploring ways to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gases. Some are even creating new positions for these issues, placing someone in charge of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The CSR's job is to help a company be more socially responsible and reduce harmful emissions. Energy management can accomplish both conservation and emission goals- plus, it lowers utility costs and strengthens your bottom line! In the past, reasonably priced energy made it difficult to justify new conservation projects. It was hard to meet the standard criteria of 2-3 years payback. However, natural gas prices have tripled in the last five years from $2 to over $6 per Dekatherm (Dth). Electric prices also have increased dramatically-by more than 100% in some parts of the country. These increased energy costs have made conservation projects more desirable. A natural gas improvement project that had a six-year payback five years ago may have less than a two-year payback today. New technologies also have helped drive down the payback of projects and opened up new areas for potential savings. The following paper looks at how the new market offers opportunities to reduce overall energy costs.

Swanson, G. A.; Haley, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Reducing the cost of top-drive installation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To equip an older jackup, the Offshore Mercury, with a completely workable and reliable top drive at minimum cost and without sacrificing performance, Sonat Offshore Drilling installed a power-swivel drilling system that did not require heightening or strengthening the derrick. An electronic crown protection system was installed to allow the driller use of all available reduced crown clearance, thereby increasing drilling safety by reducing the probability of accidentally running the traveling block into the crown. In addition, they modified the DC-DC drilling power equipment to create a completely functional and low-cost alternative to installing additional AC power-generating capacity and an SCR system. When planning a cost-effective top-drive installation on the Offshore Mercury, they recognized that the rig did not fit the average jackup profile: It has a DC-DC electric power drilling system and only a 140-ft (43-m) derrick, rather than the more common SCR system and 147-ft (45-m) derrick. From costs studies made up to the middle of 1991, they believed they could save a significant amount if it were possible to install and use a top drive in a 147-ft (45-m) or even a 140-ft (43-m) derrick without having to extend and strengthen the derrick. This paper reviews the design of this system and the effectiveness of its performance.

Hock, C.J. (Sonat Offshore Drilling Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% oncommissioning project costs and savings. Commissioning isproportional to total project cost. The nature of activities

Mills, Evan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Why Pressure Reducing Valves (PVR's) are costing you money  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Throughout many manufacturing facilities, colleges, commercial sites or industrial complexes, pressure reducing valves (PRV's) provide a cheap, reliable method to produce low pressure steam from a high pressure source in order to meet a process requirement or heating load. This simple method of expanding steam in a PRV creates no work and supplies the same heat content available in the high pressure steam at a more manageable low pressure. What if you could produce the same low pressure steam while saving hundreds of thousands of dollars on your electric bill and taking only a minimal hit in the available heat content? Why let steam down and get no benefit from it, when putting it through a low pressure steam turbine coupled to a generator would produce the heat you need for process with the byproduct of onsite electrical generation. This paper analyzes the costs, concerns and benefits of replacing a pressure reducing valve with a Steam Turbine Generator set including illustrations of what the marginal fuel increase would be in order to take advantage of the added benefits of clean, cheap and reliable onsite power production.

Downing, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE: PROSPECTS FOR REDUCING ITS COST  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh would make nuclear power competitive with conventional power in lowcost coal areas if capital and operating costs can be brought to within about 10 percent of those of coal-fired plants. Substantial decreases in fuel fabrication cost are anticipated by 1970: other costs in the fuel cycle are expccted to remain about the same as at present. Unit costs and irradiation levels that would be needed to give a fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh are believed to be attainable by 1970. (auth)

Albrecht, W.L.

1959-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

55

Optimal Incentive/Disincentive Determination Between Cost and Benefit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In an effort to motivate contractors to complete construction projects early on high-impact highway pavement construction projects, state transportation agencies (STAs) including TxDOT have often used incentive/disincentive (I/D) contracts. However, determining I/D rates is extremely difficult due largely to the lack of systematic methods for helping STAs determine effective I/D rates. The primary goal of this project is to develop a novel framework for determining the most realistic and economical I/D dollar amounts for high-impact highway improvement projects. To achieve its goal, this project proposes an integration analysis including project schedule and the lower and upper bounds of the I/D contract. The lower bound is the contractor’s additional cost of acceleration, and the upper is the total savings to road users and to the agency. The study data were gathered using Construction Analysis for Pavement Rehabilitation Strategies (CA4PRS) software. These data were then grouped by four different types of pavements, namely Joint Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP), Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP), Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), and Milling and Asphalt Concrete Overlay (MACO). With these data, a series of regression analyses were carried out to develop predictive models for the validation of time-cost tradeoff to determine I/D lower bound. Road user cost and agency cost savings were quantified using CA4PRS to develop lookup tables to determine I/D upper bound. Adjustment of contractors’ additional cost of acceleration with Level of Service (LOS) and total savings adjustment using Net Present Value (NPV) were incorporated in the research study to calculate point based estimates of I/D for lower and upper bound, respectively. Lastly, case studies on real world projects were conducted to evaluate robustness of the model. The research results reveal that the predictive models give appropriate results for the case studies in determining the I/D dollar amount for the lower and upper bound. This study will provide the research community with the first view and systematic estimation method that STAs can use to determine the most economical and realistic I/D dollar amount for a given project–an optimal value that allows the agency to stay within budget while effectively motivating contractors to complete projects ahead of schedule. It will also significantly reduce the agency’s expenses in the time and effort required for determining I/D dollar amounts.

Sharma, Piyush

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Improve Performance and Reduce Cost of Any Lithium-Ion Battery  

TM Microstructured components for high-performance lithium batteries www.porouspower.com Symmetrix™ - Improve Performance & Reduce Cost of Any ...

57

Reducing the Manufacturing Cost of Tubular SOFC Technology  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has made great strides in advancing tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology towards commercialization by the year 2001. In 1993, Westinghouse initiated a program to develop a `MWe Class` (1-3 MWe) pressurized SOFC (PSOFC) gas turbine (GT) combined cycle power system for distributed power applications because of its: (1) ultra high efficiency (approx. 63% net AC/LHV CH{sub 4}), (2) its compatibility with a factory packaged, minimum site work philosophy, and (3) its cost effectiveness. Since then two cost studies on this market entry product performed by consultants to the U.S. Department of Energy have confirmed Westinghouse cost studies that fully installed costs of under $1300/kWe can be achieved in the early commercialization years for such small PSOFC/GT power systems. The paper will present the results of these cost studies in the areas of cell manufacturing cost, PSOFC generator manufacturing cost, balance-of-plant (BOP) cost, and system installation cost. In addition, cost of electricity calculations will be presented.

George, R.A.; Bessette, N.F.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs February 19, 2009 - 1:39pm Addthis Water heating can account for a significant portion of your energy costs. Purchasing a new ENERGY STAR® water heater is just one way to save on your water heating bills. The Energy Savers Tips site lists other strategies you can use to cut your water heating costs. How do you reduce your water heating costs? E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Energy Savers Guide: Tips on Saving Money and Energy at Home How Do You Save on Lighting Costs? Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs

59

FUEL CELLS IN SHIPPING: HIGHER CAPITAL COSTS AND REDUCED FLEXIBILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The paper discusses some main economic characteristics of fuel cell power production technology applied to shipping. Whenever competitive fuel cell systems enter the market, they are likely to have higher capital costs and lower operating costs than systems based on traditional combustion technology. Implications of the difference are investigated with respect to investment flexibility by the use of a real options model of ship investment, lay-up and scrapping decisions under freight rate uncertainty. A higher capital share of total expected costs can represent a significant opportunity cost in uncertain markets. The paper highlights the significance of accounting properly for value of flexibility prior to investment in new technology.

Sigbjørn Sødal

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Reduce Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operating Costs with an Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project Energy costs are a school district's second highest expenditure after personnel. Public schools currently spend more than $8 billion per year for energy. School ener- gy expenditures rose, on average, 20 percent per year between 2000 and 2002-and the costs continue to rise. Natural gas prices alone increased 14 percent annually between 2003 and 2006. Improving a school's energy efficiency doesn't have to cost millions. In fact, schools can cut their energy expenses by 5 to 20 percent simply by efficiently managing and operating physical plants. This holds true regardless of the age of a school building. A smart O&M program can improve an existing school's energy performance An O&M program can be a simple initiative or a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cost-reduced Cable Delivery for the 21st Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the issue of cost-effective optical fibre cable delivery within current projections of fibre build. The implications are generally valid for fibre to the home (FTTH), but additional considerations will apply. The challenge lies in ...

A. J. Mayhew; D. J. Stockton

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

The Costs of Reducing Electricity Sector CO2 Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a high-level analysis of some of the critical challenges associated with cutting United States electricity-sector CO2 emissions and an order of magnitude feeling for what it will cost to meet emission-reduction targets now under consideration. Three basic strategies to limit emissions are illustrated to give readers a basic understanding of the tradeoff between CO2 reductions and additional cost inherent in several generation choices. Regional power market system simulations are then...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

63

Opportunities for reducing product costs in indirect liquefaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The MITRE indirect liquefaction simulation model for the advanced configuration that includes Shell gasification and slurry-phase F-T synthesis was downsized to coincide with the Bechtel/Amoco conceptual plant with a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per stream day. Then the kinetic parameters used by Bechtel/Amoco in the slurry F-T model were substituted in the model. This resulted in the same per pass conversion and in the same number of reactors as estimated in the Bechtel basecase. The total capital cost for this plant was estimated to be $2982 million using the MITRE model. This agrees well with the preliminary Bechtel/Amoco capital cost of $2961 million for the same size plant(3). Once the WM simulation of the basecase plant was shown to be in agreement with the Bechtel/Amoco case, the analysis of further potential cost reductions beyond the basecase could be investigated. This analysis only investigated the potential cost reductions that could result from improvements in the F-T area of the conceptual plant. This is the area that is impacted by the research and development underway in the indirect program. The cost impact of the following potential improvements were investigated using the MITRE simulation model: Doubling the baseline catalyst activity; doubling the catalyst loading; and doubling the superficial gas velocity.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; ElSawy, A. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Available Technologies: Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

65

Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost - Energy Innovation ...  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

66

O&M First! Actions You Can Take to Reduce Heating Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fact Sheet Actions You Can Take to Reduce Heating Costs Heating accounts for a significant energy load and usually presents a number of opportunities to improve performance and...

67

Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs 7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems November 15, 2011 - 4:52pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative, Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $7 million to reduce the non-hardware costs of residential and commercial solar energy installations. Made available through the SunShot Incubator Program, this funding will support the development of tools and approaches that reduce non-hardware, or "soft" costs, such as installation, permitting, interconnection, and inspection. These expenses can amount to up to half of the cost of residential systems. The Incubator will make the process of

68

Understanding and reducing energy and costs in industrial cooling systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial cooling remains one of the largest potential areas for electrical energy savings in industrial plants today. This is in spite of a relatively small amount of attention paid to it by energy auditors and rebate program designers. US DOE tool suites, for example, have long focused on combustion related systems and motor systems with a focus on pumps and compressors. A chilled water tool designed by UMass was available for some time but is no longer being supported by its designers or included in the government tool website. Even with the focus on motor systems, auditing programs like the DOE's Industrial Assessment Center program show dramatically less energy savings for electrical based systems than fossil fueled ones. This paper demonstrates the large amount of increased saving from a critical review of plant chilled water systems with both hardware and operational improvements. After showing several reasons why cooling systems are often ignored during plant energy surveys (their complexity, lack of data on operations etc.), three specific upgrades are considered which have become more reliable and cost effective in the recent past. These include chiller changeouts, right sizing of systems with load matching, and floating head pressures as a retrofit. Considerations of free cooling and improved cooling tower operations are shown as additional "big hitters”. It is made clear that with appropriate measurements and an understanding of the cooling system, significant savings can be obtained with reasonable paybacks and low risk.

Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Reducing the cost of quality (COQ) through increased product reliability and reduced process variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today, Dell, Inc. (Dell) spends millions of dollars each year to prevent product defects from reaching the end customer and to manage those product defects that have escaped to the end customer. The cost of the equipment, ...

Schiveley, Steven C. (Steven Charles), 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations June 1, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - As part of the Obama Administration's SunShot Initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels within the decade, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the availability of more than $27 million in new funding that will reduce the non-hardware costs of solar energy projects, a critical element in bringing down the overall costs of installed solar energy systems. The funding will support a $12.5 million challenge to encourage cities and counties to compete to streamline and digitize permitting processes, as

71

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, 27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations June 1, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - As part of the Obama Administration's SunShot Initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels within the decade, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the availability of more than $27 million in new funding that will reduce the non-hardware costs of solar energy projects, a critical element in bringing down the overall costs of installed solar energy systems. The funding will support a $12.5 million challenge to encourage cities and counties to compete to streamline and digitize permitting processes, as

72

Definition: Reduced T&D Equipment Maintenance Cost | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

T&D Equipment Maintenance Cost T&D Equipment Maintenance Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced T&D Equipment Maintenance Cost The cost of sending technicians into the field to check equipment condition is high. Moreover, to ensure that they maintain equipment sufficiently, and identify failure precursors, some utilities may conduct equipment testing and maintenance more often than is necessary. Online diagnosis and reporting of equipment condition would reduce or eliminate the need to send people out to check equipment resulting in a cost savings.[1] References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Reduced_T%26D_Equipment_Maintenance_Cost&oldid=417296"

73

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the third quarter of work performed under this agreement. Atmospheric testing was conducted as scheduled on June 5 through June 13, 2003. The test results were encouraging, however, the rate of carbon dissolution was below expectations. Additional atmospheric testing is scheduled for the first week of September 2003. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consists of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product stream. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream will be gasified. DOE and EnviRes will evaluate the results of this work to determine the feasibility and desirability of proceeding to Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, which is gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the seventh quarter of work performed under this agreement. We await approval from the Swedish pressure vessel board to allow us to proceed with the procurement of the vessel for super atmospheric testing. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consists of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream will be gasified. DOE and EnviRes will evaluate the results of this work to determine the feasibility and desirability of proceeding to Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, which is gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Title Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-45618 Year of Publication 2000 Authors Lekov, Alexander B., James D. Lutz, Xiaomin Liu, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, and James E. McMahon Document Number LBNL-45618 Date Published May 4 Abstract Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential water heater energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a water heater and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers are significant. At the efficiency level examined in this paper, 35% of households with electric water heaters experience LCC savings, with an average savings of $106, while 4% show LCC losses, with an average loss of $40 compared to a pre-standard LCC average of $2,565. The remainder of the population (61%) are largely unaffected.

76

NASA Ames Saves Energy and Reduces Project Costs with Non-Invasive Retrofit Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NASA Ames Saves Energy and Reduces Project Costs NASA Ames Saves Energy and Reduces Project Costs with Non-Invasive Retrofit Technologies The Wireless Pneumatic Thermostat Enables Energy Efficiency Strategies, Ongoing Commissioning and Improved Operational Control Harry Sim CEO Cypress Envirosystems harry.sim@cypressenvirosystems.com www.cypressenvirosystems.com NASA Ames Reduced Project Cost by Over 80% with Non-Invasive Retrofit Technologies * Legacy Pneumatic Thermostats  Waste energy  High maintenance costs  Uncomfortable occupants  No visibility * Project Scope  14 buildings  1,370 pneumatic thermostats  Integration with campus BAS  Diagnostics for ongoing commissioning * Traditional DDC Retrofit  Cost over $4.1 million  Asbestos exposure/abatement  Occupants significantly disrupted

77

A New User-Friendly Model to Reduce Cost for Headwater Benefits Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Headwater benefits at a downstream hydropower project are energy gains that are derived from the installation of upstream reservoirs. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is required by law to assess charges of such energy gains to downstream owners of non-federal hydropower projects. The high costs of determining headwater benefits prohibit the use of a complicated model in basins where the magnitude of the benefits is expected to be small. This paper presents a new user-friendly computer model, EFDAM (Enhanced Flow Duration Analysis Method), that not only improves the accuracy of the standard flow duration method but also reduces costs for determining headwater benefits. The EFDAM model includes a MS Windows-based interface module to provide tools for automating input data file preparation, linking and executing of a generic program, editing/viewing of input/output files, and application guidance. The EDFAM was applied to various river basins. An example was given to illustrate the main features of EFDAM application for creating input files and assessing headwater benefits at the Tulloch Hydropower Plant on the Stanislaus River Basin, California.

Bao, Y.S.; Cover, C.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Sale, M.J.; Sarma, V.

1999-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

78

Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, ...

Pettit R. G.; Wang J. J.; Toh C.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants Revision 1, January 31, 2012 DOENETL-20121550 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work...

80

Reduce Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

School Project Reduce Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project EnergySmart Schools fact sheet on how school operations and maintenance (O&M) personnel can play a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases the Market Potential of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol prices depend heavily on the cost of the cellulase enzymes used to break down the biomass into fermentable sugars. To reduce these costs, NREL partnered with two leading enzyme companies, Novozymes and Genencor, to engineer new cellulase enzymes that are exceptionally good at breaking down cellulose. Genencor is now part of DuPont Industrial Biosciences.

Not Available

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Nissan and Centro partner to reduce energy cost 20% through improved metering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centro Inc. Nissan Centro Inc. Nissan 321 Hill Avenue 983 Nissan Drive Nashville, TN 37210 Smyrna, TN 37167 Business: Flow Control Distributor & Representative Business: Automobile Manufacturing Brad Davis Chris Goddard Territory Manager Environmental Engineer Phone: 615-255-2220 Phone: 615-459-1633 Email: bdavis@centromemphis.com Email: chris.goddard@nissan-usa.com Nissan and Centro partner to reduce energy cost 20% through improved metering Project Scope Nissan wanted to precisely measure consumption by department in their Smyrna facility. For low pressure natural gas applications, Nissan sought a simple, reliable metering device with no moving parts. Centro determined that the Aaliant Target Flow meter and the Fox Thermal Mass Flow meter would meet

83

Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers December 21, 2011 - 12:49pm Addthis As part of the Obama Administration's commitment to reduce America's dependence on oil through advanced vehicle technologies, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced awards totaling nearly $7 million in research and development funding that will help to reduce the current costs of electric vehicle chargers by 50 percent over the next three years. With support from the Energy Department, manufacturers in California, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania will work to improve the development and design of charging equipment. This research will promote "smart"

84

Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers December 21, 2011 - 12:49pm Addthis As part of the Obama Administration's commitment to reduce America's dependence on oil through advanced vehicle technologies, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced awards totaling nearly $7 million in research and development funding that will help to reduce the current costs of electric vehicle chargers by 50 percent over the next three years. With support from the Energy Department, manufacturers in California, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania will work to improve the development and design of charging equipment. This research will promote "smart"

85

Minnesota Company 3M Awarded $3 Million by Energy Department to Reduce Cost  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minnesota Company 3M Awarded $3 Million by Energy Department to Minnesota Company 3M Awarded $3 Million by Energy Department to Reduce Cost of Advanced Fuel Cells Minnesota Company 3M Awarded $3 Million by Energy Department to Reduce Cost of Advanced Fuel Cells March 29, 2012 - 4:20pm Addthis In support of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above approach to American energy, the Energy Department today announced the investment of $3 million to 3M Company in St. Paul, Minnesota, to lower the cost of advanced fuel cell systems by developing cost-effective, durable, and highly efficient fuel cell components. The 3-year project will focus on boosting the performance of fuel cell systems for vehicles and stationary applications while driving down costs. These investments are a part of the Department's commitment to U.S. leadership in innovative fuel cell

86

Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Reducing Operations and Maintenance Costs of Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses opportunities for utilities to reduce fire protection operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. A number of these opportunities have been implemented by some utilities and can be implemented now by others. Other opportunities can be implemented in the short term with some additional development. These other opportunities are amenable to cooperative projects with costs shared by multiple utilities. There is also a group of opportunities that are probably best developed on an industry w...

1997-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

88

Reducing the Cost of Energy from Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Parabolic trough solar technology is the most proven and lowest cost large-scale solar power technology available today, primarily because of the nine large commercial-scale solar power plants that are operating in the California Mojave Desert. However, no new plants have been built during the past ten years because the cost of power from these plants is more expensive than power from conventional fossil fuel power plants. This paper reviews the current cost of energy and the potential for reducing the cost of energy from parabolic trough solar power plant technology based on the latest technological advancements and projected improvements from industry and sponsored R&D. The paper also looks at the impact of project financing and incentives on the cost of energy.

Price, H.; Kearney, D.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Award-winning alloys could reduce costs for chemical and petrochemical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Award-winning alloys could reduce costs for chemical and petrochemical Award-winning alloys could reduce costs for chemical and petrochemical industries Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Highlights Bookmark and Share Award-winning alloys could reduce costs for chemical and petrochemical industries This macrophotograph compares commercial nickel-based Alloy 600 (top) and Argonne's new alloy after 5,700 hours of exposure to the same metal-dusting environment at 593°C

90

Diagnostics-while drilling: Reducing the cost of geothermal-produced electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this document is to estimate the potential impact of proposed new Diagnostics-While-Drilling technology on the cost of electricity (COE) produced with geothermal energy. A cost model that predicts the COE was developed and exercised over the range of conditions found for geothermal plants in flashed-steam, binary, and enhanced-reservoir (e.g., Hot Dry Rock) applications. The calculations were repeated assuming that DWD technology is available to reduce well costs and improve well productivity. The results indicate that DWD technology would reduce the geothermal COE by 2--31%, depending on well depth, well productivity, and the type of geothermal reservoir. For instance, for a typical 50-MW, flashed-steam geothermal power plant employing 3-MW wells, 6,000-ft deep, the model predicts an electricity cost of 4.9 cents/kwh. With the DWD technology envisioned, the electricity cost could be reduced by nearly 20%, to less than 4 cents/kwh. Such a reduction in the cost of electricity would give geothermal power a competitive edge over other types of power at many locations across the US and around the world. It is thus believed that DWD technology could significantly expand the role of geothermal energy in providing efficient, environment-friendly electric generating capacity.

PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,DAVID A.

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

91

Reducing Energy Costs And Minimizing Capital Requirements: Case Studies of Thermal Energy Storage (TES)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large cooling systems typically represent substantial capital investments and incur high operating energy costs. Cooling loads tend to peak during times of year and times of day when high ambient temperatures create a maximum demand for power, and thus during those times when power has its highest cost or value. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) provides a means of de-coupling the generation of cooling from the provision of cooling to the peak cooling loads. In this manner, peak power demand is reduced, time-of day energy costs can be minimized, and real-time variations in power value can be used to the advantage of the energy consumer.

Andrepont, J. S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Reducing the Costs of Manufacturing Flow Batteries - Dhruv Bhatnagar, SNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Costs of Manufacturing Flow Batteries the Costs of Manufacturing Flow Batteries Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND No. 2011-XXXXP Next Steps 1. Continued outreach with other with other manufacturers 2. Characterization of the flow battery manufacturing process and determination of process issues 3. Evaluation of the fuel cell, other battery and other industry manufacturing process to address issues identified 4. Coordination with PNNL flow battery component cost

93

Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

Camillo A. DiNunzio Framatome ANP DE& S; Dr. Abhinav Gupta Assistant Professor NCSU; Dr. Michael Golay Professor MIT Dr. Vincent Luk Sandia National Laboratories; Rich Turk Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems; Charles Morrow, Sandia National Laboratories; Geum-Taek Jin, Korea Power Engineering Company Inc.

2002-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Styrofoam cups are one of many Styrofoam cups are one of many products made from styrene monomer. Exelus Inc. (Livingston, NJ), established in 2000, develops and licenses "Cleaner-by- Design" chemical technologies to produce a vast array of products and materials used in consumer goods, transportation, and food processing. Currently, the company's principal process technologies are: ExSact - a refining technology that overcomes the environmental concerns, safety hazards and rising costs associated with conventional liquid acid technologies ExSyM - energy efficient, low cost SM production technology BTG - efficient, cost-effective conversion of biomass to clean, high-octane, gasoline-compatible fuel http://www.exelusinc.com/ New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces

96

On-Site Diesel Generation- How You Can Reduce Your Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interruptible power rates, Utility special rate negotiations, and the emergence of a spot electrical power market all can lead to lower industrial energy costs. The installation of low cost on-site diesel powered generation, or the proposed intention to install, provides the means for obtaining lower purchased power costs. The functionality of a standby power system and its inherent value in the coming free market purchase of electrical energy are added benefits. Project feasibility, conceptual design, on-site generation facility requirements, interconnection requirements, and operation and maintenance costs will be examined. Installation costs in the range of $350 to $400 per KW and operating costs of approximately $0.06 to $0.07 per kWhr compared to purchased power rates determine the feasibility of an on-site generation system. In some cases avoided demand charges offer an opportunity for savings such that special rates are not needed for a feasible project. Depending on the manufacturer, low capital cost diesel generators are available in 1000 to 2000 KW blocks. Capacity requirements determine the number of engines required. Large capacity installations are somewhat restricted by voltage and current ratings. Some variants for multiple engine generator installations will yield greater reliability or lower costs depending on objectives. Specific requirements for basic building blocks of an on-site generation system will be examined as well as an example of a 5,500 KW installation. IEA provides an alternative to installing and operating an on-site generation system. IEA owns and operates diesel standby generation systems for customers, with responsibility for all maintenance and operation as well as associated costs. This allows customers to focus on core business, not the generation of electrical energy.

Charles, D.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Offshore Wind Energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Currently, installation, operation, and maintenance (IO&M) costs contribute approximately 30% to the LCOE of offshore wind plants. To reduce LCOE while ensuring safety, this paper identifies principal cost drivers associated with IO&M and quantifies their impacts on LCOE. The paper identifies technology improvement opportunities and provides a basis for evaluating innovative engineering and scientific concepts developed subsequently to the study. Through the completion of a case study, an optimum IO&M strategy for a hypothetical offshore wind project is identified.

Maples, B.; Saur, G.; Hand, M.; van de Pieterman, R.; Obdam, T.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO[sub 2] emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20[percent] reduction from 1988 levels, and 50[percent] reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of [dollar sign]32, [dollar sign]113, [dollar sign]161, and [dollar sign]517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively [dollar sign]40, [dollar sign]178, [dollar sign]253, and [dollar sign]848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were [dollar sign]32, [dollar sign]55, [dollar sign]59, and [dollar sign]135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50[percent] or 20[percent] relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth.

Edmonds, J.; Barns, D.W.; McDonald, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Wireless Smart Sensor Development Update: Applying Technology to Reduce Fire Watch Costs and to Improve Coverage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smart Sensor product development for the use of fire watch improvement has been initiated by EPRI for the purposes of understanding the current state and/or industry available systems for electronically supporting the performance of existing work activities and/or providing for performance enhancement through cost effective monitoring and automation capabilities. The use of wireless technologies will allow a greater ease of deployment, reduced response time, and increased efficiency for fire watch equipm...

2004-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

100

Strategic trade policy, cost uncertainty and FDI determinants.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The focus of my dissertation is in two areas: the relationship between optimal trade policy and demand / cost variances when the timing of investment… (more)

Guo, Yan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Labor costs may be reduced . . . Research yields size-controlling rootstocks for peach production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Doyle David Ramming Production costs in peaches are highlyby UC and USDA. production costs could be substantiallyDRAFT T he annual production costs for peaches grown in

DeJong, Theodore M.; Johnson, R. Scott; Doyle, James F.; Ramming, David

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates in

Mills, Evan

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

103

Cost-Effective Determination of Biomass from Aerial Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an ongoing collaborative research program between the Computer Science and the Forestry and Wildlife Management Departments at the University of Massachusetts to develop cost-effective methodologies for monitoring biomass and other ...

Howard J. Schultz; Dana Slaymaker; Chris Holmes; Frank Stolle; Allen R. Hanson; Edward M. Riseman; M. Delaney; M. Powell

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Estimating the potential of controlled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging to reduce operational and capacity expansion costs for electric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating the potential of controlled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging to reduce quantify the benefits of controlled charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Costs are determined expansion Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Controlled charging Wind power integration a b s t r a c

McGaughey, Alan

105

A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transport due to primary energy usage (from electricity andFor this analysis, the energy usage for liquefaction (11tent. Reducing the energy usage for hydrogen distribution

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For this analysis, the energy usage for liquefaction (11sum of the rate of energy usage of the various components ofcontent. Reducing the energy usage for hydrogen distribution

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Thermal energy storage for space cooling. Technology for reducing on-peak electricity demand and cost  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off-peak hours when electricity rates are lower. In addition, some system configurations may result in lower first costs and/or lower operating costs. Cool storage systems of one type or another could potentially be cost-effectively applied in most buildings with a space cooling system. A survey of approximately 25 manufacturers providing cool storage systems or components identified several thousand current installations, but less than 1% of these were at Federal facilities. With the Federal sector representing nearly 4% of commercial building floor space and 5% of commercial building energy use, Federal utilization would appear to be lagging. Although current applications are relatively few, the estimated potential annual savings from using cool storage in the Federal sector is $50 million. There are many different types of cool storage systems representing different combinations of storage media, charging mechanisms, and discharging mechanisms. The basic media options are water, ice, and eutectic salts. Ice systems can be further broken down into ice harvesting, ice-on-coil, ice slurry, and encapsulated ice options. Ice-on-coil systems may be internal melt or external melt and may be charged and discharged with refrigerant or a single-phase coolant (typically a water/glycol mixture). Independent of the technology choice, cool storage systems can be designed to provide full storage or partial storage, with load-leveling and demand-limiting options for partial storage. Finally, storage systems can be operated on a chiller-priority or storage priority basis whenever the cooling load is less than the design conditions. The first section describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. The next three sections define the savings potential in the Federal sector, present application advice, and describe the performance experience of specific Federal users. A step-by-step methodology illustrating how to evaluate cool storage options is presented next, followed by a case study of a GSA building using cool storage. Latter sections list manufacturers, selected Federal users, and reference materials. Finally, the appendixes give Federal life-cycle costing procedures and results for a case study.

None

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

payback time versus building size Project costs and energyPayback time (commissioning cost/annual energy savings) lessenergy payback time of 41 years, while the proper allocation of costs and

Mills, Evan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Reducing emissions from the electricity sector: the costs and benefits nationwide and for the Empire State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using four models, this study looks at EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as originally proposed, which differs in only small ways from the final rule issued in March 2005, coupled with several approaches to reducing emissions of mercury including one that differs in only small ways from the final rule also issued in March 2005. This study analyzes what costs and benefits each would incur to New York State and to the nation at large. Benefits to the nation and to New York State significantly outweigh the costs associated with reductions in SO{sub 2}, NOx and mercury, and all policies show dramatic net benefits. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications for the cost of the regulation and for emission levels for SO{sub 2} and NOx and where those emissions are located. Contrary to EPA's findings, CAIR as originally proposed by itself would not keep summer emissions of NOx from electricity generators in the SIP region below the current SIP seasonal NOx cap. In the final CAIR, EPA added a seasonal NOx cap to address seasonal ozone problems. The CAIR with the seasonal NOx cap produces higher net benefits. The effect of the different policies on the mix of fuels used to supply electricity is fairly modest under scenarios similar to the EPA's final rules. A maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach, compared to a trading approach as the way to achieve tighter mercury targets (beyond EPA's proposal), would preserve the role of coal in electricity generation. The evaluation of scenarios with tighter mercury emission controls shows that the net benefits of a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach exceed the net benefits of a cap and trade approach. 39 refs., 10 figs., 30 figs., 5 apps.

Karen Palmer; Dallas Butraw; Jhih-Shyang Shih

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

GAO-05-897 Department of Energy: Additional Opportunities Exist for Reducing Laboratory Contractors' Support Costs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Subcommittee on Energy Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives September 2005 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Additional Opportunities Exist for Reducing Laboratory Contractors' Support Costs GAO-05-897 What GAO Found United States Government Accountability Office Why GAO Did This Study Highlights Accountability Integrity Reliability www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-897. To view the full product, including the scope and methodology, click on the link above. For more information, contact Jim Wells at (202) 512-3841 or wellsj@gao.gov. Highlights of GAO-05-897, a report to the Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives September 2005 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Additional Opportunities Exist for

112

Industrial Approaches to Reducing Energy Costs in a Restructuring Electric Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric restructuring, currently proposed in California and being reviewed elsewhere, can produce many opportunities for large companies to reduce their electricity costs. As the electricity market changes, electric utilities and other potential suppliers are likely to develop a portfolio of options and creative pricing to attract customers in a competitive market. In attempting to be "energy neutral," i.e., to be indifferent to energy costs in one state or utility service area versus another, many companies are looking at a corporate approach to energy procurement, similar to the procurement of other products. Industrial customers may be looking for regional or even national energy suppliers for their facilities. Electric utilities, in an attempt to be competitive and retain customers, will likely work to be this regional or national energy supplier. The expectation will be that these suppliers can offer competitive pricing and a portfolio of options from which to choose. These options may resemble those that have developed in the natural gas market as a result of restructuring in the fuels industry.

Lowe, E. T.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Energy Tips: Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Senior care resources Small business resources State and local government resources Energy Tips: Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant energy tips cover page This...

114

Forest Products: Georgia-Pacific's Insulation Upgrade Leads to Reduced Fuel Costs and Increased Process Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This Steam Challenge Case Study looks at how the company, by insulating steam lines and replacing steam traps, was able to reduce fuel costs, increase process efficiency, and improve plant safety.

Ericksen, E.

1999-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

115

Options for Reducing Environmental-Related Utility Costs Associated With Dielectric Fluids Employed in Cables and Transformers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report represents results of a literature review and technical workshop on environmental management of dielectric fluids, with emphasis on those properties that strongly influence transport, fate, impacts, and costs of a dielectric fluid release into the environment. From this basis, options are presented for new or modified dielectric fluids that could reduce environmental impacts and lower management costs.

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

116

Determining the Cost of Cycling and Varied Load Operations: Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many reasons—heightened wholesale electricity competition under deregulation, new market rules, growing capacity due to additions of new gas-fired capacity, environmental pressures on coal units—the power industry must operate power plants differently. In particular, many generating units that formerly ran around the clock must adjust operations to cycle or to follow load (demand). This report describes a new methodology for estimating the long-term wear and tear costs that inevitably acc...

2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

117

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

118

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

119

Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

Kraft, E.H.

2002-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

120

Reducing Electricity Cost Through Virtual Machine Placement in High Performance Computing Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the data centers' energy consumptions, energy prices, and peak power prices, it becomes clear that we can two components: (1) the cost of energy consumed (energy price: $ per KWh), and (2) the cost. Unfortunately, these works did not consider energy prices, peak power costs, or any cooling issues

Bianchini, Ricardo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Reducing the Environmental Footprint and Economic Costs of Automotive Manufacturing through an Alternative Energy Supply  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MANUFACTURING THROUGH AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SUPPLY Chris Y.Footprint, Alternative Energy, Cost of Ownership ABSTRACTmanufacturing is to use alternative energies to partially

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

Gawlik, Keith

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

123

VMFlow: leveraging VM mobility to reduce network power costs in data centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Networking costs play an important role in the overall costs of a modern data center. Network power, for example, has been estimated at 10-20% of the overall data center power consumption. Traditional power saving techniques in data centers focus on ... Keywords: VM placement, energy and power management, green networking, networking aspects in cloud services

Vijay Mann; Avinash Kumar; Partha Dutta; Shivkumar Kalyanaraman

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Obama Administration's SunShot Initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels within the decade, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today...

125

Reducing the Environmental Footprint and Economic Costs of Automotive Manufacturing through an Alternative Energy Supply  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

environmental savings from solar PV falls in the middle ofCO 2 saving through use of solar PV, wind, and fuel cell2 savings. The cost of solar PV falls in the middle of these

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Case Study: Georgia-Pacific Reduces Outside Fuel Costs and Increases Process Efficiency with Insulation Upgrade Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Georgia-Pacific plywood plant located in Madison, Georgia recently decided to insulate their steam lines for energy conservation, improved process efficiency and personnel protection. The goal of the project was to eliminate dependency on purchased fuel. Georgia-Pacific realized immediate and significant results and reduced fuel cost by about one third over a one year period.

Jackson, D.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

MARK-OPT: A Concurrency Control Protocol for Parallel B-Tree Structures to Reduce the Cost of SMOs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a new concurrency control protocol for parallel B-tree structures capable reducing the cost of structure-modification-operation (SMO) compared to the conventional protocols such as ARIES/IM and INC-OPT. We call this protocol ... Keywords: B-tree, concurrency control, index, latch, parallel DB

Tomohiro Yoshihara; Dai Kobayashi; Haruo Yokota

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens in Harris County by a abating chemical plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

The work examines the engineering reasonableness and the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens n ambient air by abating emissions of organic chemicals in waste gas streams from chemical plants in Harris County, Texas, which contains the large chemical manufacturing complex in the Houston ship channel areas. The work also examined the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure through changing the way vent streams are released to the atmosphere. The achievable exposure reductions are estimated by use of 1980 census data and of ambient concentration estimates. The ambient concentration estimates are calculated using the Texas Climatological Model Version 2 (TCM-2) and publicly available emissions inventory collected by the Texas Air Control Board. The TCM-2 is based on the steady state Gaussian plume hypothesis, Briggs plume rise formations, Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficient approximations, and first order pollutant decay. The cost estimates rely on published studies and on the waste gas stream parameters of the chemical plant vents. The cost effectiveness results are compared with the cost effectiveness of controls typically applied to new sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are controlled because of their contribution to ozone air pollution, not because of the carcinogenicity of their emissions.

Price, J.H. Jr.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The cost of reducing utility S02 emissions : not as low as you might think  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A common assertion in public policy discussions is that the cost of achieving the SO2 emissions reductions under the acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act ("Title IV") has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV ...

Smith, Anne E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost  

SciTech Connect

A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. A robust suite of relatively inexpensive tools is commercially available to measure these variables. Traditional plume/contaminant variables are various measures of contaminant concentration including traditional analysis of chemicals in groundwater samples. An innovative long term monitoring strategy has been developed for acidic or caustic groundwater plumes contaminated with metals and/or radionuclides. Not only should the proposed strategy be more effective at early identification of potential risks, this strategy should be significantly more cost effective because measurement of controlling boundary conditions and master variables is relatively simple. These variables also directly reflect the evolution of the plume through time, so that the monitoring strategy can be modified as the plume 'ages'. This transformational long-term monitoring paradigm will generate significant cost savings to DOE, other federal agencies and industry and will provide improved performance and leading indicators of environmental management performance.

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

131

Energy Conservation Fund: Helping Corporations Develop Energy Conservation Strategies and Reduce Utility Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy conservation projects can save companies significant money over time and often pay for themselves very quickly. This is especially true with the dramatic increase in energy costs over the past few years. Yet convincing corporate decision makers of their value is challenging, since most plants with limited capital tend to direct resources toward projects that increase production rather than toward those that save energy. The irony is that production projects may not realize savings if markets change, while conservation improvements usually change a plant's infrastructure in ways that ensure continued savings. Establishing a business unit or department focused on energy cost reduction and investing its profits in an Energy Conservation Fund (ECF) is part of a total energy approach that helps corporations identify projects, dedicate funds and implement changes. It makes conservation improvement projects more attractive on the front end, so companies can enjoy the long-term benefits.

Swanson, G. A.; Houston, W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Tower Systems to develop the Wind Tower Systems to develop the Space Frame tower, a new concept for wind turbine towers. Instead of a solid steel tube, the Space Frame tower consists of a highly optimized design of five custom-shaped legs and interlaced steel struts. With this design, Space Frame towers can support turbines at greater heights, yet weigh and cost less than traditional steel tube towers. Wind Tower Systems LLC (now

133

A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

Hadder, G.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

Gawlik, Keith

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

135

Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

Cerio, Frank

2013-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

136

Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Availability and Reduce Total Installed Cost in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Availability and Reduce Total Installed Cost in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants Background Gasification provides the means to turn coal and other carbonaceous solid, liquid and gaseous feedstocks as diverse as refinery residues, biomass, and black liquor into synthesis gas and valuable byproducts that can be used to produce low-emissions power, clean-burning fuels and a wide range of commercial products to support

137

Public release of optimization of metallization scheme for thin emitter wrap-through solar cells for higher efficiency, reduced precious metal costs, and reduced stress.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Back-contact crystalline-silicon photovoltaic solar cells and modules offer a number of advantages, including the elimination of grid shadowing losses, reduced cost through use of thinner silicon substrates, simpler module assembly, and improved aesthetics. While the existing edge tab method for interconnecting and stringing edge-connected back contact cells is acceptably straightforward and reliable, there are further gains to be exploited when you have both contact polarities on one side of the cell. In this work, we produce 'busbarless' emitter wrap-through solar cells that use 41% of the gridline silver (Ag) metallization mass compared to the edge tab design. Further, series resistance power losses are reduced by extraction of current from more places on the cell rear, leading to a fill factor improvement of about 6% (relative) on the module level. Series resistance and current-generation losses associated with large rear bondpads and busbars are eliminated. Use of thin silicon (Si) wafers is enabled because of the reduced Ag metallization mass and by interconnection with conductive adhesives leading to reduced bow. The busbarless cell design interconnected with conductive adhesives passes typical International Electrotechnical Commission damp heat and thermal cycling test.

Ruby, Douglas Scott; Murphy, Brian (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Meakin, David (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Jason (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Hacke, Peter (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Determining the Cost of Producing Ethanol from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mature corn-to-ethanol industry has many similarities to the emerging lignocellulose-to-ethanol industry. It is certainly possible that some of the early practitioners of this new technology will be the current corn ethanol producers. In order to begin to explore synergies between the two industries, a joint project between two agencies responsible for aiding these technologies in the Federal government was established. This joint project of the USDA-ARS and DOE/NREL looked at the two processes on a similar process design and engineering basis, and will eventually explore ways to combine them. This report describes the comparison of the processes, each producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol. This paper attempts to compare the two processes as mature technologies, which requires assuming that the technology improvements needed to make the lignocellulosic process commercializable are achieved, and enough plants have been built to make the design well-understood. Ass umptions about yield and design improvements possible from continued research were made for the emerging lignocellulose process. In order to compare the lignocellulose-to-ethanol process costs with the commercial corn-to-ethanol costs, it was assumed that the lignocellulose plant was an Nth generation plant, built after the industry had been sufficiently established to eliminate first-of-a-kind costs. This places the lignocellulose plant costs on a similar level with the current, established corn ethanol industry, whose costs are well known. The resulting costs of producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol from each process were determined. The figure below shows the production cost breakdown for each process. The largest cost contributor in the corn starch process is the feedstock; for the lignocellulosic process it is the capital cost, which is represented by depreciation cost on an annual basis.

McAloon, A.; Taylor, F.; Yee, W.; Ibsen, K.; Wooley, R.

2000-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

139

Role of gas and steam turbines to reduce industrial plant energy costs  

SciTech Connect

Data are given to help industry select the economic fuel and economic mix of steam and gas turbines for energy-conservation measures and costs. Utilities and industrials can no longer rely on a firm supply of natural gas to fuel their boilers and turbines. The effect various liquid fuels have on gas turbine maintenance and availability is summarized. Process heat requirements per unit of power, process steam pressure, and the type of fuel will be factors in evaluating the proper mix of steam and gas turbines. The plant requirements for heat, and the availability of a reliable source of electric power will influence the amount of power (hp and kW) that can be economically generated by the industrial. (auth)

Wilson, W.B.; Hefner, W.J.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Wind Turbine Control Design to Reduce Capital Costs: 7 January 2009 - 31 August 2009  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report first discusses and identifies which wind turbine components can benefit from advanced control algorithms and also presents results from a preliminary loads case analysis using a baseline controller. Next, it describes the design, implementation, and simulation-based testing of an advanced controller to reduce loads on those components. The case-by-case loads analysis and advanced controller design will help guide future control research.

Darrow, P. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Test plan : reducing soft costs of rooftop solar installations attributed to structural considerations.  

SciTech Connect

This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

Dwyer, Stephen F.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

143

Integrated Chiller System Reduce Building Operation and Maintenance Costs in Cold Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although water-cooled chillers are more energy efficient than air-cooled chillers, a majority of chilled water systems use air-cooled chillers. In cold weather climates, air-cooled chillers are capable of functioning in low ambient temperatures with few operational concerns, where as water-cooled chiller systems must be equipped to prevent cooling tower freezing. The integrated chiller system attempts to take advantage of each chiller's strengths and eliminate any cold weather operational concerns. An integrated chiller system includes a cooling tower and air-cooled condenser. During the summer, both the cooling tower and air condenser can be operated. In cold weather, the cooling tower is drained and the air condenser is used to dissipate the heat of the cooling system. The integrated chiller system eliminates the water storage tank and frequent charging and discharging of the cooling tower system. It reduces the size of the mechanical room and simplifies the operation of the system. The integrated chiller system is most suitable in climates where the mechanical cooling is required on a short-term basis during cold weather periods. This paper presents the system configuration, system design, optimal control, and energy impact. An example is used to demonstrate the design concepts of the integrated chiller systems.

Sheets, N.; Liu, M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Literature review : reducing soft costs of rooftop solar installations attributed to structural considerations.  

SciTech Connect

Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

Dwyer, Stephen F.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Developing a Mechanistic Understanding of Lamellar Hydroxide Mineral Carbonation Reaction Processes to Reduce CO2 Mineral Sequestration Process Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanistic Understanding of Lamellar Hydroxide Mechanistic Understanding of Lamellar Hydroxide Mineral Carbonation Reaction Processes to Reduce CO 2 Mineral Sequestration Process Cost Michael J. McKelvy (mckelvy@asu.edu; 480-965-4535), Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya (chizmesh@asu.edu; 480-965-6072), Hamdallah Bearat (Hamdallah.Bearat@asu.edu; 480-965-2624), Renu Sharma (Renu.Sharma@asu.edu; 480-965-4541), and Ray W. Carpenter (carpenter@asu.edu; 480-965-4549) Center for Solid State Science and Science and Engineering of Materials PhD Program, P.O. Box 871704, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 USA ABSTRACT The potential environmental effects of increasing atmospheric CO 2 levels are of major worldwide concern. One alternative for managing CO 2 emissions is carbon sequestration: the capture and secure confinement of CO

146

Upgrade of Compressed Air Control System Reduces Energy Costs at Michelin Tire Plant. Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Project Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This case study highlights the upgraded compressed air system at a Michelin tire manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The controls upgrade project enabled multiple compressor operation without blow-off, and significantly reduced energy costs.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Rich

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships  

SciTech Connect

As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

A MODEL FOR DETERMINING DIPOLE, QUADRUPOLE, AND COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNET COSTS.  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important considerations in designing large accelerators is cost. This paper describes a model for estimating accelerator magnet costs, including their dependences on length, radius, and field. The reasoning behind the cost model is explained, and the parameters of the model are chosen so as to correctly give the costs of a few selected magnets. A comparison is made with earlier formulae. Estimates are also given for other costs linearly dependent on length, and for 200 MHz superconducting RF.

PALMER, R.B.; BERG,S.J.

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

151

Energy Assessment Training Reduces Energy Costs for the U.S. Coast Guard Sector Guam: Success Stories (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Coast Guard Sector Guam experiences considerable energy cost and use savings after implementing training from NREL's energy assessment training.

Not Available

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Low Wind Speed Technology Phase II: Reducing Cost of Energy Through Rotor Aerodynamics Control; Global Energy Concepts, LLC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes a subcontract with Global Energy Concepts to evaluate a wide range of wind turbine configurations and their impact on overall cost of energy (COE).

Not Available

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Energy Assessment Training Reduces Energy Costs for the U.S. Coast Guard Sector Guam: Success Stories (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Coast Guard Sector Guam experiences considerable energy cost and use savings after implementing training from NREL's energy assessment training.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Cost of stockouts in the microprocessor business and its impact in determining the optimal service level/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to develop optimal inventory policies, it is essential to know the consequences of stockouts and the costs related to each kind of stockout; at Intel, however, such costs have not yet been quantified. The primary ...

Sonnet, Maria Claudia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

REACH: Reduced Emissions and Advanced Combustion Hardware: A Low-Cost, Retrofit Approach to Reducing Stack Emissions and Enhancing t he Performance of Oil-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improved oil combustion technology, based upon optimization of oil atomizer and flame stabilizer design, has been developed for retrofit to oil-fired utility boilers. This technology is referred to as Reduced Emissions and Advanced Combustion Hardware, or REACH. REACH is commercially available for retrofit to oil-fired boilers to simultaneously reduce NOx, PM, and opacity, as well as provide operational and performance benefits.

1995-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

156

Does Competition Reduce Costs? Assessing the Impact of Regulatory Restructuring on U.S. Electric Generation Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 3 One exception is Hiebert (2002), who uses stochastic frontier production functions to estimate generation plant efficiency over 1988-1997. One set of independent variables he includes is indicators for regulatory orders or legislative enactment... to customers. Joskow (1974) and Hendricks (1975) demonstrate that frictions in cost-of-service regulation, particularly those arising from regulatory lag (time between price- resetting hearings), may provide some incentives at the margin for cost...

Markiewicz, Karl; Rose, Nancy L; Wolfram, Catherine

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

157

Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499  

SciTech Connect

Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

Smith, K.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure online 22 October 2012 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Charging infrastructure Battery size a b for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks

McGaughey, Alan

159

Update of Hydrogen from Biomass -- Determination of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Milestone report summarizing the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via (1) gasification/reforming of the resulting syngas and (2) fast pyrolysis/reforming of the resulting bio-oil. Hydrogen has the potential to be a clean alternative to the fossil fuels currently used in the transportation sector. This is especially true if the hydrogen is manufactured from renewable resources, primarily sunlight, wind, and biomass. Analyses have been conducted to assess the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via two thermochemical processes: (1) gasification followed by reforming of the syngas, and (2) fast pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil. This study was conducted to update previous analyses of these processes in order to include recent experimental advances and any changes in direction from previous analyses. The systems examined were gasification in the Battelle/FERCO low pressure indirectly-heated gasifier followed by steam reforming, gasification in the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) high pressure direct-fired gasifier followed by steam reforming, and pyrolysis followed by coproduct separation and steam reforming. In each process, water-gas shift is used to convert the reformed gas into hydrogen, and pressure swing adsorption is used to purify the product. The delivered cost of hydrogen, as well as the plant gate hydrogen selling price, were determined. All analyses included Latin Hypercube sampling to obtain a detailed sensitivity analysis.

Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Amos, W. A.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Reducing "Search Cost" and Risk in Energy-efficiency Investments: Two Success Stories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Search Cost" and Risk "Search Cost" and Risk in Energy-efficiency Investments: Two Success Stories Philip E. Coleman, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Washington, D.C. ABSTRACT This paper focuses on two compelling arguments made in the literature regarding the efficiency gap: first, that consumers face significant transaction costs related to searching for and analyzing information on prospective energy-saving investments; and second, that even well-informed consumers still rationally perceive substantial risks -higher risks than with most financial investments - in making these purchases. Two case studies of efforts to promote governmental energy-efficiency investment are presented. One is a volume-purchase of LED traffic lights by the city of Philadelphia, and the other an information

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Energy Efficiency and Least-Cost Planning: The Best Way to Save Money and Reduce Energy Use in Hawaii  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

If the 500 MW geothermal project on the Big Island of Hawaii is developed as planned, the Wao Kele O Puna rain forest will be severely damaged or destroyed. If this happens the State will lose one of its most precious resources. It would be tragic for this to happen, since on a least-cost basis, the geothermal project does not make economic sense. Improving energy efficiency in the commercial and residential sectors of Hawaii can save about 500 MW of power at a cost of $700 million.

Mowris, Robert J.

1990-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

162

Naval Reserve Force : cost and benefit analysis of reducing the number of Naval Surface Reserve Force operating budget holders ; .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Quadrennial Defense Review 1997 recommended reductions of civilian and military personnel associated with infrastructure. The Naval Reserve Force is aggressively pursuing options to reduce… (more)

Young, Eric Coy

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Novel System for Recalcitrance Screening Will Reduce Biofuels Production Costs, The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This new system will allow researchers to much more rapidly screen large numbers of samples This new system will allow researchers to much more rapidly screen large numbers of samples and identify the most promising biomass feedstocks for higher efficiency and lower cost bio- fuels conversion processes. NREL will be screening thousands of variants of different biomass feedstocks to link genetic traits with environmental factors that can enhance biomass conver- sion efficiencies. Identifying the genes controlling the anatomical, chemical, and morphologi- cal features of biomass is essential to develop the next generation of low-cost, easily convert- ible biomass feedstocks. To identify superior performing biomass feedstocks using approaches that account for natural diversity and randomness, researchers must measure the cell wall chemistry and recalcitrance

164

Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is $6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school facilities managers and business officials, describes how schools can become more energy efficient.

Energy Smart Schools Team

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

165

Low cost MCFC anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.

Erickson, D.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

"Penn State will take every step possible to reduce emissions without unduly increasing our costs. In light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

petroleum consumption by reducing our overall service fleet, converting our diesel vehicles to use bio-diesel Development · New Wind Energy Leader Award Community Energy · EPA, DOE and Center for Resource Solutions 2002

Lee, Dongwon

167

Prospects for hydrogen production by water electrolysis to be competitive with conventional methods. [Areas of research to reduce capital costs and approach 100 percent energy efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

With the impending unavailability of oil and natural gas, hydrogen will be produced on a large scale in the United States (1) from coal, or (2) by water electrolysis using electricity derived from nuclear or solar energy. In many parts of the world which lack fossil fuels, the latter will be the only possible method. The cost of purification of hydrogen produced from fossil fuels will increase its cost to about the same level as that of electrolytic hydrogen. When hydrogen is required in relatively small quantities too, the electrolytic method is advantageous. To minimize the cost of hydrogen produced by water electrolysis, it is necessary to reduce capital costs and approach 100 percent energy efficiencies. Areas of research, which will be necessary to achieve these goals are: (1) maximization of surface areas of electrodes; (2) use of thin electrolyte layers; (3) increase of operating temperature in alkaline water electrolysis cells to about 120-150/sup 0/C; (4) selection and evaluation of separator materials; (5) electrocatalysis of the hydrogen and oxygen electrode reaction; (6) mixed oxides as oxygen electrodes; and (7) photoelectrochemical effects. The progress made to date and proposed studies on these topics are briefly dealt with in this paper. The General Electric Solid Polymer Water Electrolyzer and Teledyne Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells, both operating at about 120-150/sup 0/C, look mostpromising in achieving the goals of low capital cost and high energy efficiency. (auth)

Srinivasan, S.; Salzano, F.J.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Title: Electrical Power Generation from Produced Water: Field Demonstration of Ways to Reduce Operating Costs of Small Producers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Electrical Power Generation from Produced Water: Field Demonstration of Ways to Reduce produced water to create "green" electricity usable on site or for transmission off site . The goal the environmental impact by creating green electricity using produced water and no additional fossil fuel. Approach

169

Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.

K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

CX-003783: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003783: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-Cost Packaged 330 Kilowatt (Electrical) Combined Heat and Power System with Reduced...

171

CX-006988: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-006988: Categorical Exclusion Determination Use of Ultraviolet or Electron Beam Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Cost to Manufacture Lithium-Ion...

172

CX-009430: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-009430: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cascaded Micro Inverter Photovoltaic System for Reduced Costs CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 10112012...

173

Determining educational adequacy in Michigan| An adequacy study utilizing the exemplary schools costing-out model.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The Michigan legislature determines the annual pupil foundation allowance based on available revenues and not on research. As a result of the school reform… (more)

Ochalek, Marianne K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Determining suitable funding for p-12 education in Kansas: superintendents’ opinions and selected cost simulations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to determine what school leaders believe is a suitable funding level for Kansas school districts and to simulate the… (more)

Clark, Rustin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Constellation Proposal for an Automated Determination of the RPM Gross Cost of New Entry (CONE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constellation offers the following outline for reforming the annual development of Gross CONE in an automated fashion. The purpose of the proposal is to derive CONE in a manner that reasonably approximates the contemporaneous cost to build a Reference Resource in the auction year, via rules that are easily understood, reasonably accurate, transparent, and replicable. In summary, our proposal features an initial benchmark gross CONE for the 2012?13 Delivery Year that will be adjusted based on an the Handy Whitman Index prior to subsequent annual Base Residual Auctions. Periodically, the prevailing cost to build the reference resource will be comprehensively studied by a third party expert. If the study varies from the index?adjusted CONE by more than a predetermined amount, then the study value shall be set as the CONE for the next BRA and shall be the new benchmark. The gross CONE would subsequently be adjusted to account for expected energy and ancillary services revenues as currently set forth in the OATT.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Constellation Proposal for an Automated Determination of the RPM Gross Cost of New Entry (CONE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constellation offers the following outline for reforming the annual development of Gross CONE in an automated fashion. The purpose of the proposal is to derive CONE in a manner that reasonably approximates the contemporaneous cost to build a Reference Resource in the auction year, via rules that are easily understood, reasonably accurate, transparent, and replicable. In summary, our proposal features an initial benchmark gross CONE for the 2012-13 Delivery Year that will be adjusted based on an the Handy Whitman Index prior to subsequent annual Base Residual Auctions. Periodically, the prevailing cost to build the reference resource will be comprehensively studied by a third party expert. If the study varies from the index-adjusted CONE by more than a predetermined amount, then the study value shall be set as the CONE for the next BRA and shall be the new benchmark. The gross CONE would subsequently be adjusted to account for expected energy and ancillary services revenues as currently set forth in the OATT.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Determining Wind Turbine Gearbox Model Complexity Using Measurement Validation and Cost Comparison: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has conducted extensive field and dynamometer test campaigns on two heavily instrumented wind turbine gearboxes. In this paper, data from the planetary stage is used to evaluate the accuracy and computation time of numerical models of the gearbox. First, planet-bearing load and motion data is analyzed to characterize planetary stage behavior in different environments and to derive requirements for gearbox models and life calculations. Second, a set of models are constructed that represent different levels of fidelity. Simulations of the test conditions are compared to the test data and the computational cost of the models are compared. The test data suggests that the planet-bearing life calculations should be made separately for each bearing on a row due to unequal load distribution. It also shows that tilting of the gear axes is related to planet load share. The modeling study concluded that fully flexible models were needed to predict planet-bearing loading in some cases, although less complex models were able to achieve good correlation in the field-loading case. Significant differences in planet load share were found in simulation and were dependent on the scope of the model and the bearing stiffness model used.

LaCava, W.; Xing, Y.; Guo, Y.; Moan, T.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

ALTERNATE POWER AND ENERGY STORAGE/REUSE FOR DRILLING RIGS: REDUCED COST AND LOWER EMISSIONS PROVIDE LOWER FOOTPRINT FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel engines operating the rig pose the problems of low efficiency and large amount of emissions. In addition the rig power requirements vary a lot with time and ongoing operation. Therefore it is in the best interest of operators to research on alternate drilling energy sources which can make entire drilling process economic and environmentally friendly. One of the major ways to reduce the footprint of drilling operations is to provide more efficient power sources for drilling operations. There are various sources of alternate energy storage/reuse. A quantitative comparison of physical size and economics shows that rigs powered by the electrical grid can provide lower cost operations, emit fewer emissions, are quieter, and have a smaller surface footprint than conventional diesel powered drilling. This thesis describes a study to evaluate the feasibility of adopting technology to reduce the size of the power generating equipment on drilling rigs and to provide ?peak shaving? energy through the new energy generating and energy storage devices such as flywheels. An energy audit was conducted on a new generation light weight Huisman LOC 250 rig drilling in South Texas to gather comprehensive time stamped drilling data. A study of emissions while drilling operation was also conducted during the audit. The data was analyzed using MATLAB and compared to a theoretical energy audit. The study showed that it is possible to remove peaks of rig power requirement by a flywheel kinetic energy recovery and storage (KERS) system and that linking to the electrical grid would supply sufficient power to operate the rig normally. Both the link to the grid and the KERS system would fit within a standard ISO container. A cost benefit analysis of the containerized system to transfer grid power to a rig, coupled with the KERS indicated that such a design had the potential to save more than $10,000 per week of drilling operations with significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, and smaller size well pad.

Verma, Ankit

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : How does one determine their potential for reducing U.S. oil dependence?  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself include (1) kWh battery storage capability; (2) kWh/km depletion rate of the vehicle (3) liters/km use of gasoline (4) average daily kilometers driven (5) annual share of trips exceeding the battery depletion distance (6) driving cycle(s) (7) charger location [i.e. on-board or off-board] (8) charging rate. Each of these factors is actually a variable, and many interact. Off the vehicle, considerations include (a) primary overnight charging spot [garage, carport, parking garage or lot, on street], (b) availability of primary and secondary charging locations [i.e. dwellings, workplaces, stores, etc] (c) time of day electric rates (d) seasonal electric rates (e) types of streets and highways typically traversed during most probable trips depleting battery charge [i.e. city, suburban, rural and high vs. low density]; (f) cumulative trips per day from charger origin (g) top speeds and peak acceleration rates required to make usual trips. Taking into account PHEV design trade-off possibilities (kW vs. kWh of battery, in particular), this paper attempts to extract useful information relating to these topics from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), and the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS). Costs per kWh of PHEVs capable of charge depleting (CD) all-electric range (CDE, or AER) vs. those CD in 'blended' mode (CDB) are examined. Lifetime fuel savings of alternative PHEV operating/utilization strategies are compared to battery cost estimates.

Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Duoba, M.; Alexander, M.; Energy Systems; EPRI

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy usage and energy cost over time using net presentlower energy costs substantially. (5) Real-Time Monitoring:costs: demand = $10 per kW per month (all 12 months of the year); energy consumption = 7 per kWh (all times

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

Eugene A. Fritzler

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Production Cost Optimization Assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The benefits of improved thermal performance of coal-fired power plants continue to grow, as the costs of fuel rise and the prospect of a carbon dioxide cap and trade program looms on the horizon. This report summarizes the efforts to date of utilities committed to reducing their heat rate by 1.0% in the Production Cost Optimization (PCO) Project. The process includes benchmarking of plant thermal performance using existing plant data and a site-specific performance appraisal. The appraisal determines po...

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

185

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

utilities use more electricity for distribution (48 millionthe most electricity for distribution. For the utilitiesUse Treatment electricity cost Distribution electricity use

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Process design and costing of bioethanol technology: A tool for determining the status and direction of research and development  

SciTech Connect

Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the US Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. The authors use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help them understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on their latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Their analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Glassner, D.; Sheehan, J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots ({approx}100 {micro}m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with {rho}r {approx} 2 g/cm{sup 2} for a small demo/pilot plant producing {approx}40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with {rho}r {approx} 10 g/cm{sup 2} producing {approx}1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q {approx} 26) ion sources for short ({approx}5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of {approx}10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles close-in to the target (built-in as part of each target); (4) beam space charge-neutralization during both drift compression and final focus to target. Except for (1) and (2), these critical issues may be explored on existing heavy-ion storage ring accelerator facilities.

Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies  

SciTech Connect

Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport.

Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY An ENERGY STAR Resource Guidedrinking water supply industry to reduce energy consumptionenergy is used in the public drinking water supply industry.

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

High Power SiC Modules for HEVs and PHEVs Abstract--With efforts to reduce the cost, size, and thermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and electric machinery (APEEM) activity is to develop technology towards achieving overall electric propulsion of these components. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) cost targets for the APEEM as established by DOE for PHEVs. Research in eliminating the low temperature loop and using the engine coolant for the APEEM shows

Tolbert, Leon M.

191

A new database of residential building measures and estimated costs helps the U.S. building industry determine the most  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new database of residential building measures and estimated costs helps the U.S. building at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed the National Residential Efficiency Measures with using various measures to improve the efficiency of residential buildings. This database offers

192

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPA’s Teaming Up to Save Energy (U.S. EPA, 2005), which isStates Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Energy Efficiencyinstalled: $25,000 US Reduced energy use by 10%, equal to

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

CX-005781: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-005781: Categorical Exclusion Determination Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Power Plants CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 0506...

194

Using Cable Suspended Submersible Pumps to Reduce Production Costs to Increase Ultimate Recovery in the Red Mountain Field of the San Juan Basin Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells, installing cable suspended submersible pumps ( Phase I ) and operating the oil field for approximately one year ( Phase II ). Upon the completion of Phases I and II ( Budget Period I ), Enerdyne LLC commenced work on Phase III which required additional drilling in an attempt to improve field economics ( Budget Period II ). The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for the two Budget Periods, of the Agreement, was $1,205,008.00 as detailed in Phase I, II & III Authorization for Expenditures (AFE). This report describes tasks performed and results experienced by Enerdyne LLC during the three phases of the cooperative agreement.

Don L. Hanosh

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Highly Insulating Windows - Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Cost The following is an estimate of the cost effective incremental cost of highly-insulating windows (U-factor=0.20 Btu/hr-ft2-F) compared to regular ENERGY STAR windows (U-factor 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F). Energy savings from lower U-factors were simulated with RESFEN over an assumed useful window life of 25 years. To determine the maximum incremental cost at which highly-insulating windows would still be cost-effective, we used a formula used by many utility companies to calculate the cost of saved energy from energy efficiency programs, based on the programs' cost and savings. We turned this formula around so that the cost of saved energy equals the present energy prices in the studied locations, whereas the program cost (the incremental cost of the windows) is the dependent variable. By entering 5%

196

Low-cost inertial measurement unit.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

Deyle, Travis Jay

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Cost Study for Large Wind Turbine Blades  

SciTech Connect

The cost study for large wind turbine blades reviewed three blades of 30 meters, 50 meters, and 70 meters in length. Blade extreme wind design loads were estimated in accordance with IEC Class I recommendations. Structural analyses of three blade sizes were performed at representative spanwise stations assuming a stressed shell design approach and E-glass/vinylester laminate. A bill of materials was prepared for each of the three blade sizes using the laminate requirements prepared during the structural analysis effort. The labor requirements were prepared for twelve major manufacturing tasks. TPI Composites developed a conceptual design of the manufacturing facility for each of the three blade sizes, which was used for determining the cost of labor and overhead (capital equipment and facilities). Each of the three potential manufacturing facilities was sized to provide a constant annual rated power production (MW per year) of the blades it produced. The cost of the production tooling and overland transportation was also estimated. The results indicate that as blades get larger, materials become a greater proportion of total cost, while the percentage of labor cost is decreased. Transportation costs decreased as a percentage of total cost. The study also suggests that blade cost reduction efforts should focus on reducing material cost and lowering manufacturing labor, because cost reductions in those areas will have the strongest impact on overall blade cost.

ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation CTS 21st Annual Transportation Research Conference costs #12;Potential Applications · Roadway Project Feasibility Studies ­ Identified potential roadway infrastructure improvement ­ Documentation of estimated project costs ­ Determine property assessments

Minnesota, University of

199

Reducing Building Operational Cost through Environmental Effectiveness...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

O'Donnell Date: August 26, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The introduction of EU directives 200291EC and 200387EC both prompt a reduction in energy consumption from...

200

CX-010440: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Reduced Cost Bond Layers for Multi-Layer ThermalEnvironmental Barrier Coatings CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06212013 Location(s):...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

CX-010441: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Reduced Cost Bond Layers for Multi-Layer ThermalEnvironmental Barrier Coatings CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06202013 Location(s):...

202

Overview and Low Cost Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... The major reason that there is not more widespread use of titanium and its alloys is the high cost. Developments in reducing the cost of titanium ...

203

Reduces electric energy consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

implementation of the assessment recommendations is estimated to be $843,000 with a total implementation cost. Manufacturing at the facility includes both casting and extrusion processes. Process equipment, air compressors productivity. As a result, facility production costs can be reduced and profits can be increased. August 2001

204

RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Cost reduction possibilities for a heavy-ion accelerator for inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect

A design was produced for a single module in a cost-optimized accelerator appropriate for a commercial heavy-ion power plant. The goal of the study was to determine if the cost of the accelerator module could be reduced through design options, selection of materials, and manufacturing techniques. Independent cost estimates were obtained for the three main components of the module, and cost reductions of 20% from the cost calculated by the heavy-ion accelerator design/cost-minimization computer code LIACEP were identified. 3 refs., 23 figs.

Thayer, G.R.; Sims, J.R.; Henke, M.D.; Harris, D.B.; Dudziak, D.J.; Phillips, N.R.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces Greenhouse...

207

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Using decision analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of intermediate risk prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: The specific aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of a 70-year-old with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods: A Markov model was designed with the following states; posttreatment, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and death. Transition probabilities from one state to another were calculated from rates derived from the literature for IMRT and 3D-CRT. Utility values for each health state were obtained from preliminary studies of preferences conducted at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The analysis took a payer's perspective. Expected mean costs, cost-effectiveness scatterplots, and cost acceptability curves were calculated with commercially available software. Results: The expected mean cost of patients undergoing IMRT was $47,931 with a survival of 6.27 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The expected mean cost of patients having 3D-CRT was $21,865 with a survival of 5.62 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness comparing IMRT with CRT was $40,101/QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis revealed a 55.1% probability of IMRT being cost-effective at a $50,000/QALY willingness to pay. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was found to be cost-effective, however, at the upper limits of acceptability. The results, however, are dependent on the assumptions of improved biochemical disease-free survival with fewer patients undergoing subsequent salvage therapy and improved quality of life after the treatment. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, decision analysis can help inform physicians and health policy experts on the cost-effectiveness of emerging technologies.

Konski, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: andre.konski@fccc.edu; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [Department of Population Sciences, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Feigenberg, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kulkarni, Sachin M.S. [Department of Population Sciences, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Beck, J. Robert [Department of Information and Science Technologies, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

SYSPLAN. Load Leveling Battery System Costs  

SciTech Connect

SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer`s monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer`s peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer`s side of the meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer`s load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.

Hostick, C.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

210

Methods | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methods Methods Disclaimer The data gathered here are for informational purposes only. Inclusion of a report in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a single discount rate in order to compare technology costs only. About the Cost Database For emerging energy technologies, a variety of cost and performance numbers are cited in presentations and reports for present-day characteristics and potential improvements. Amid a variety of sources and methods for these data, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's technology development programs determine estimates for use in program planning. The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

211

Electricity Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs journal International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy volume year month chapter...

212

Costs to build Fermilab in 1984 dollars  

SciTech Connect

It is of current interest to examine the costs incurred to date to build Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and to determine what those costs are when stated in FY 1984 constant dollars. The appended tables are in support of this exercise and are based on all costs for Equipment items (reduced by obsolescence) and all Plant Projects which have been appropriated through FY 1984. Also included are non-plant costs which are required to complete the Energy Saver, Tevatron I and II projects (i.e., Equipment and R and D in support of Construction). This study makes the assumption that all funding through FY 1984 will have been costed by the end of FY 1986. Those costs incurred in FY 1985 and FY 1986 have been deflated to FY 1984 dollars. See Appendix A for the DOE inflation factors used in the conversion to FY 1984 dollars. The costs are identified in three categories. The Accelerator Facilities include all accelerator components, the buildings which enclose them and utilities which support them. The Experimental Facilities include all beam lines, enclosures, utilities and experimental equipment which are usable in current experimental programs. The Support Facilities include lab and office space, shops, assembly facilities, roads, grounds and the utilities which do not specifically support the Accelerator or Experimental Facilities, etc.

Jordan, N.G.; Livdahl, P.V.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Long-run marginal costs lower than average costs  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this article is that the long-run marginal costs of electricity are not always greater than the present average costs, as is often assumed. As long as short-run costs decrease with new plant additions, the long-run marginal cost is less than long-run average cost. When average costs increase with new additions, long-run marginal costs are greater than long-run average costs. The long-run marginal costs of a particular utility may be less than, equal to, or greater than its long-run average costs - even with inflation present. The way to determine which condition holds for a given utility is to estimate costs under various combinations of assumptions: probable load growth, zero load growth, and load growth greater than expected; and changes in load factor with attendant costs. Utilities that can demonstrate long-run marginal costs lower than long-run average costs should be encouraged to build plant and increase load, for the resulting productivity gains and slowing of inflation. Utilities that face long-run marginal costs greater than long-run average costs should discourage growth in sales through any available means.

Hunter, S.R.

1980-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Pros, cons of techniques used to calculate oil, gas finding costs  

SciTech Connect

A major problem facing the U.S. petroleum industry is the higher average finding costs that now exist within the U.S. compared with the average finding costs outside the U.S. It has been argued that federal lands and offshore areas need to be open for drilling in order to reduce average finding costs in the U.S. This article analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of conventional techniques for determining finding costs. Our goal is a finding costs measure that is a reliable indicator of future profitability.

Gaddis, D.; Brock, H.; Boynton, C. (Inst. of Petroleum Accounting, Denton, TX (US))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12;· Marginal Cost: ­ Change in total cost ­ Any production process involves fixed and variable costs. As production increases/expands, fixed costs are unchanged, so

Boisvert, Jeff

217

SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Heliostat Development Cost Heliostat Development HiTek logo Photo of a machine with two round discs connected by intertwined chains. A staged-chain drive unit eliminates destructive coupling loads from severe wind conditions and greatly reduces cumulative fatigue damage. HiTek Services, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is conducting fundamental parametric analyses of the optimum heliostat size and developing a novel low-cost heliostat design. Approach There are four tasks under this award: Develop a means to determine the optimum size range of the heliostat, in terms of the applied forces and moments, manufacturing learning curve effects, O&M, and optical efficiency. The outcome of this task will be a spreadsheet analysis tool for parametrically determining heliostat costs that are appropriately allocated into categories with inputs for a specific design.

218

Determining cost and treatment effective soil and plant combinations in bioretention cells for storm water management in the Piedmont Region of Georgia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Six bioretention cells at the Rockdale Career Academy in Conyers, GA were studied in order to determine which set of cells, the control (40% topsoil,… (more)

Tanner, Hillary Smith

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Realistic costs of carbon capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Look beyond first cost With energy efficiency, you get what2008. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Savingincreasing energy efficiency, companies can reduce costs and

Kermeli, Katerina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.  

SciTech Connect

Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to reduce the cell winding material cost to <$10/kW, in order to allow >$10/kW for the cell and battery manufacturing costs, as well as profit for the industrial manufacturer. The material cost information is obtained directly from the industrial material suppliers, based on supplying the material quantities necessary to support an introductory market of 100,000 HEV batteries/year. Using its battery design model, ANL provides the material suppliers with estimates of the material quantities needed to meet this market, for both 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries. Also, ANL has funded a few volume-production material cost analyses, with industrial material suppliers, to obtain needed cost information. In a related project, ANL evaluates and develops low-cost advanced materials for use in high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries. [This work is the subject of one or more separate papers at this conference.] Cell chemistries are developed from the most promising low-cost materials. The performance characteristics of test cells that employ these cell chemistries are used as input to the cost model. Batteries, employing these cell chemistries, are designed to meet the FreedomCAR power, energy, weight, and volume requirements. The cost model then provides a battery-level material cost and material cost breakdown for each battery design. Two of these advanced cell chemistries show promise for significantly reducing the battery-level material costs (see Table 1), as well as enhancing calendar life and inherent safety. It is projected that these two advanced cell chemistries (A and B) could reduce the battery-level material costs by an estimated 24% and 43%, respectively. An additional cost advantage is realized with advanced chemistry B, due to the high rate capability of the 3-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel cathode. This means that a greater percentage of the total Ah capacity of the cell is usable and cells with reduced Ah capacity can be used. This allows for a reduction in the quantity of the anode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector materials needed f

Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality of steam is often taken for granted, even overlooked at times. When the recent global recession challenged companies to remain profitable as a first priority, the result was that maintenance budgets were cut and long term cost reduction initiatives for steam systems set aside due to more pressing issues. One of the regrettable results of such actions is that knowledgeable personnel are re-assigned, retired, or released when necessary steam system cost reduction programs are eliminated. When the time arrives to refocus on long term cost reduction by improving the steam system, some programs may have to start from the beginning and a clear path forward may not be evident. New personnel are often tasked with steam improvements when the programs restart, and they may experience difficulty in determining the true key factors that can help reduce system cost. The urgency for lowering long term fuel use and reducing the cost of producing steam is near for each plant. Population growth and resultant global demand are inevitable, so the global economy will expand, production will increase, more fossil fuel energy will be needed, and that fuel will become scarce and more costly. Although fuel prices are low now, energy costs can be expected to trend significantly upward as global production and demand increase. Now is the time for plants to make certain that they can deliver high quality steam to process equipment at lowest system cost. There are three stages to help optimize plant steam for best performance at a low system cost; Phase 1: Manage the condensate discharge locations (where the steam traps & valves are located), Phase 2: Optimize steam-using equipment, and Phase 3: Optimize the entire steam system. This presentation will focus primarily on management of the condensate discharge locations (CDLs) and show sites how to use readily available data to more efficiently achieve goals; but will also provide insight into how the three stages interact to reduce system cost and improve process performance.

Risko, J. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408) costs apply to those items that are consumed in production process and are roughly proportional to level in cash flow analysis and in the decision to use the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12

Boisvert, Jeff

225

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define program characteristics In a technical baseline description document, identify the program's

226

A. Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility Determining the cost of a facility as complex as the neutrino source presented here is a very difficult task within the short time period...

227

Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Case study that...

228

Heliostat cost reduction study.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Reduce Stress!  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stress! Stress! x Take a break every hour. Do some relaxation or stretching exercises or talk with someone about topics unrelated to work. Give your body and mind a rest. x Massage your hands and forearms several times a day with a vitamin E lotion. The massage will improve circulation and break up adhesions. Since you can't touch a keyboard until the lotion is absorbed, it also enforces a good break. x Massage the muscles in your neck working your way down from the skull to the shoulders, applying more force to the larger muscles as you go down. x Periodically evaluate your environment for ways to reduce stress. Try to keep your desk uncluttered so you can always find things. Make sure programs are set up correctly on the computer, and see if you can use a macro program to reduce

230

Production Cost Optimization Project 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Production Cost Optimization project assists participating members in implementing or enhancing heat rate optimization programs to reduce production costs through sustainable performance improvements. This Technical Update summarizes the status of the project and presents results for five (5) sites that have completed initial and follow-up assessments. A PCO assessment consists of benchmarking plant thermal performance using historical plant data along with an on-site performance appraisal to id...

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

231

PAFC Cost Challenges  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ...

232

WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit fromutilize an iterative projection process involving historicalto determine whether projections of future costs are

Wiser, Ryan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author`s previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B {+-} $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author`s engineering judgment.

DeMuth, S.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Minimum Changeover Cost Arborescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

having minimum changeover cost, a cost that we now describe. ... We define the changeover cost at j, denoted by d(j), as the sum of the costs at j paid for each of  ...

235

Integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) authorized studies on alternative systems for treating contact-handled DOE mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW). The on-going Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems` (ITTS) and the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems` (INTS) studies satisfy this request. EM-50 further authorized supporting studies including this technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis. This analysis identifies areas where technology development could have the greatest impact on total life cycle system costs. These areas are determined by evaluating the sensitivity of system life cycle costs relative to changes in life cycle component or phase costs, subsystem costs, contingency allowance, facility capacity, operating life, and disposal costs. For all treatment systems, the most cost sensitive life cycle phase is the operations and maintenance phase and the most cost sensitive subsystem is the receiving and inspection/preparation subsystem. These conclusions were unchanged when the sensitivity analysis was repeated on a present value basis. Opportunity exists for technology development to reduce waste receiving and inspection/preparation costs by effectively minimizing labor costs, the major cost driver, within the maintenance and operations phase of the life cycle.

Harvego, L.A.; Schafer, J.J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

237

Improved supplier selection and cost management for globalized automotive production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For many manufacturing and automotive companies, traditional sourcing decisions rely on total landed cost models to determine the cheapest supplier. Total landed cost models calculate the cost to purchase a part plus all ...

Franken, Joseph P., II (Joseph Philip)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The costs of environmental regulation in a concentrated industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The typical cost analysis of an environmental regulation consists of an engineering estimate of the compliance costs. In industries where fixed costs are an important determinant of market structure this static analysis ...

Ryan, Stephen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Conservation Cost-Effectiveness Determination Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with significant non-electricity benefits include clotheswashers and dishwashers with water, sewer, and detergent

240

Heat exchanger Exergoeconomic lifecycle cost optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering lifecycle cost analysis during the design phase of thermal systems gives the design effort more worth. Furthermore thermodynamic exergetic optimization is proven to be useful method for determining the most lifecycle cost optimal design of ... Keywords: entropy generation, exergy destruction, heat exchanger, operating cost, optimization, thermodynamics

Liaquat Ali Khan; Ali El-Ghalban

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Update of Hydrogen from Biomass-Determination of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Operated for the U.S. Dep. of Energy by Midwest Research Institute  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis was to assess the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via two thermochemical processes: 1) gasification followed by reforming of the syngas, and 2) fast pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil. In each process, water-gas shift is used to convert the reformed gas into hydrogen, and pressure swing adsorption is used to purify the product. This study was conducted to incorporate recent experimental advances and any changes in direction from previous analyses. The systems examined are based on the Battelle/FERCO low pressure indirectly-heated biomass gasifier, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) high pressure direct-fired gasifier, and fluidized bed pyrolysis followed by coproduct separation. The pyrolysis case assumes a bio-oil feed which is shipped from remote locations to the hydrogen production plant. The delivered cost of hydrogen, as well as the plant gate hydrogen selling price, were determined using both a cash flow spreadsheet and Crystal Ball ® risk assessment software. This software is able to predict the sensitivity of the hydrogen selling price to changes in various analysis parameters, and determines which of the parameters contribute the greatest uncertainty to the results. All of the parameters are varied at once, giving a combined uncertainty of hydrogen selling price. Several cases were run for each of the biomass conversion technologies at varying plant sizes and internal

Pamela L. Spath; Janice M. Lane; Margaret K. Mann; Wade A. Amos

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Electrolyzer Capital Cost Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study is being performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy and Xcel Energy's Wind-to-Hydrogen Project (Wind2H2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The general aim of the project is to identify areas for improving the production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources. These areas include both technical development and cost analysis of systems that convert renewable energy to hydrogen via water electrolysis. Increased efficiency and reduced cost will bring about greater market penetration for hydrogen production and application. There are different issues for isolated versus grid-connected systems, however, and these issues must be considered. The manner in which hydrogen production is integrated in the larger energy system will determine its cost feasibility and energy efficiency.

Saur, G.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Electrolyzer Capital Cost Study  

SciTech Connect

This study is being performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy and Xcel Energy's Wind-to-Hydrogen Project (Wind2H2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The general aim of the project is to identify areas for improving the production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources. These areas include both technical development and cost analysis of systems that convert renewable energy to hydrogen via water electrolysis. Increased efficiency and reduced cost will bring about greater market penetration for hydrogen production and application. There are different issues for isolated versus grid-connected systems, however, and these issues must be considered. The manner in which hydrogen production is integrated in the larger energy system will determine its cost feasibility and energy efficiency.

Saur, G.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

CX-010757: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the New England Solar Cost-Reduction Partnership which seeks to reduce soft costs for rooftop solar photovoltaics by implementing identified best practices across five states....

247

Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities) and 37 percent complex (medical buildings and power plants). Allowing for the influence of one large facility which received less-extensive treatment due to previous work, thorough audits were obtained for an average cost of $0.050/SF. Large medical buildings (greater than about 170,000 square feet) were audited for $0.050/SF or less, and program costs for survey audits of 17.2 million square feet were $0.0028/SF. The effect on audit costs of complexity of recommended modifications, amount of savings determined, amount of implementation costs, building size, and building complexity are discussed. Primary effects on audit costs are size and complexity of buildings. Program guidelines limited consideration of projects with greater than a four year payback.

Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Cost Study Manual  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

28, 2012 28, 2012 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a percent of payroll exceeds the comparator group by more than five percent. For example, if per capita benefit costs for the comparator group are $10,000 and the benefit costs as a percent of payroll for the comparator group are 20%, the threshold for the contractor's benefits as a

249

Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

factors add 20 percent to liquefaction plant total installed cost 6 Distribution Pipeline Costs Collected historical Oil & Gas Journal data, and surveyed for current urban and...

250

REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE  

SciTech Connect

A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Reducing Power Production Costs by Utilizing Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke. It is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance, and is generally less reactive than coal. Therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the comb...

2000-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

252

Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooperative, which covers over 50 Interior and Western Alaska villages, has installed wind-diesel hybrid systems in nine villages -- supporting its goal to offset 25 percent of...

253

SunShot Initiative: Reducing System Design and Engineering Costs...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip to Content U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative Search Search Help SunShot Initiative HOME ABOUT KEY ACTIVITIES PROJECTS FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIES INFORMATION RESOURCES...

254

Reducing Costs in Aircraft: The Metals Affordability Initiative ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Martin, R. "Affordable Metal Technologies For Military Aircraft. ... Ruhman, D., L. Pionke, and R. Martin, "Missiles and Space Systems with a Material Difference.

255

REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash collection efficiency.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the fourth quarter of work performed under this agreement. A second round of atmospheric testing was conducted as scheduled on September 2 through September 4, 2003. The test results demonstrated a much-improved rate of carbon dissolution with gas yields close to expectations. Additional atmospheric testing to demonstrate a commercially feasible feed and oxygen injection method is scheduled for the week of December 8, 2003.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2003-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Reducing the risk, complexity and cost of coiled tubing drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drilling vertical well extensions with coiled tubing, particularly in the underbalanced state, exploits the inherent strengths of coiled tubing including: The ability to enter slim holes against a live well head; The use of small equipment that is fast to rig up and down; and The ability to trip quickly and maintain a steady pressure downhole with continuous circulation. Coiled tubing has successfully been used to deepen hundreds of wells, yet this application has only received sporadic attention. There are some very important technical considerations when drilling non-directionally with coiled tubing that must be addressed to ensure a commercially successful job. A recent vertical drilling job carried out in Western Australia illustrates the critical engineering aspects of an underbalanced, non-directional, coiled tubing drilling job. This job was completed for Arc Energy in April 1999 and produced a well that stabilized at 1.1 MMcfd, where three other wells drilled conventionally into these zones had shown only trace amounts of hydrocarbon.

Portman, L. [BJ Services, Houston, TX (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Reducing the quantum communication cost of quantum secret sharing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a construction for perfect quantum secret sharing (QSS) schemes based on imperfect "ramp" secret sharing combined with classical encryption, in which the individual parties' shares are split into quantum and classical components, allowing the former to be of lower dimension than the secret itself. We show that such schemes can be performed with smaller quantum components and lower overall quantum communication than required for existing methods. Finally, we demonstrate that one may further combine both imperfect quantum and imperfect classical secret sharing to produce an overall perfect QSS scheme; we construct examples of such schemes and prove that they have the smallest quantum and classical share components possible for their access structures.

Fortescue, Ben

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Reducing the quantum communication cost of quantum secret sharing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a new construction for perfect quantum secret sharing (QSS) schemes based on imperfect "ramp" secret sharing combined with classical encryption, in which the individual parties' shares are split into quantum and classical components, allowing the former to be of lower dimension than the secret itself. We show that such schemes can be performed with smaller quantum components and lower overall quantum communication than required for existing methods. We further demonstrate that one may combine both imperfect quantum and imperfect classical secret sharing to produce an overall perfect QSS scheme, and that examples of such scheme (which we construct) can have the smallest quantum and classical share components possible for their access structures, something provably not achievable using perfect underlying schemes. Our construction has significant potential for being adapted to other QSS schemes based on stabiliser codes.

Ben Fortescue; Gilad Gour

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

260

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations. This report describes activities for the ninth quarter of work performed under this agreement. The design of the vessel for pressure testing has been completed. The design will be finalized and purchased in the next quarter.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the seventh quarter of work performed under this agreement. We await approval from the Swedish pressure vessel board to allow us to proceed with the procurement of the vessel for super atmospheric testing.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the seventh quarter of work performed under this agreement. We successfully completed atmospheric testing in the previous quarter. We await approval from the Swedish pressure vessel board to allow us to proceed with the procurement of the vessel for super atmospheric testing.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the fifth quarter of work performed under this agreement. A third round of atmospheric testing was conducted as scheduled on December 9 through December 12, 2003. The test results demonstrated a much-improved rate of carbon dissolution with gas yields close to thermodynamic equilibrium at nearly doubled feed rates of September testing and a commercially viable feed and oxygen injection technique. Additional super-atmospheric testing to perform the last task in the MEFOS experimental program is scheduled for the week of August 2004.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the sixth quarter of work performed under this agreement. MEFOS conducted a third round of atmospheric testing as scheduled on December 9 through December 12, 2003. We reported experimental activities of this testing last quarter. We report process calculations and results this quarter. The test results demonstrated a much-improved rate of carbon dissolution with gas yields close to thermodynamic equilibrium at nearly doubled feed rates of September testing and a commercially viable feed and oxygen injection technique. Additional super-atmospheric testing to perform the last task in the MEFOS experimental program is scheduled for the last quarter of 2004.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Managing Constructibility Reviews to Reduce Highway Project Durations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- creases costs. Research confirms that schedule compression has led to increases in project cost CII 1989 in project cost provided certain tech- niques are applied during project development and especially dur- ing to have the highest potential to reduce project duration without increasing total project cost. Project

Ford, David N.

266

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unless gas prices rise or battery costs drop faster thanPolicies to improve battery costs and lifetimes, to decreaseeven costs are far lower than hybrid or PHEV battery prices,

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

The Rising Cost of Electricity Generation  

SciTech Connect

Through most of its history, the electric industry has experienced a stable or declining cost structure. Recently, the economic fundamentals have shifted and generating costs are now rising and driving up prices at a time when the industry faces new challenges to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. New plant investment faces the most difficult economic environment in decades.

Tobey Winters

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

The rising cost of electricity generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through most of its history, the electric industry has experienced a stable or declining cost structure. Recently, the economic fundamentals have shifted and generating costs are now rising and driving up prices at a time when the industry faces new challenges to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. New plant investment faces the most difficult economic environment in decades. (author)

Winters, Tobey

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries Energy consumption is equal to 3-8 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce...

270

Stock prices and the cost of environmental regulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent environmental regulations have used market incentives to reduce compliance costs and improve efficiency. In most cases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selects an emissions cap using the predicted costs ...

Linn, Joshua

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hide data for this chart (-)Show data for this chart (+) Loading data... Transparent Cost Database Generation Showing: Historical Projections Year Published: Release mouse to...

272

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating...

273

Early Station Costs Questionnaire  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Early Station Costs Questionnaire Early Station Costs Questionnaire Marc Melaina Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center Market Readiness Workshop February 16-17th, 2011 Washington, DC Questionnaire Goals * The Early Station Costs questionnaire provides an anonymous mechanism for organizations with direct experience with hydrogen station costs to provide feedback on current costs, near-term costs, economies of scale, and R&D priorities. * This feedback serves the hydrogen community and government agencies by increasing awareness of the status of refueling infrastructure costs National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Questions for Market Readiness Workshop Attendees * Are these questions the right ones to be asking?

274

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost, Durable Seal Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * Technical Approach * Timeline * Team Roles * Budget * Q&A 2 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Project Objective Develop advanced, low cost, durable seal materials and sealing techniques amenable to high volume manufacture of PEM cell stacks. DOE Targets/Goals/Objectives Project Goal Durability Transportation: 5,000 hr Stationary: 40,000 hr Durability Improve mechanical and chemical stability to achieve 40,000 hr of useful operating life. Low Cost Low Cost A material cost equivalent to or less than the cost of silicones in common use. 3 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL

275

OOTW COST TOOLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Pollution prevention cost savings potential  

SciTech Connect

The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

Celeste, J.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Information erasure without an energy cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Landauer argued that the process of erasing the information stored in a memory device incurs an energy cost in the form of a minimum amount of mechanical work. We find, however, that this energy cost can be reduced to zero by paying a cost in angular momentum or any other conserved quantity. Erasing the memory of Maxwell's demon in this way implies that work can be extracted from a single thermal reservoir at a cost of angular momentum and an increase in total entropy. The implications of this for the second law of thermodynamics are assessed.

Joan A. Vaccaro; Stephen M. Barnett

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

278

Aerogel commercialization: Technology, markets and costs  

SciTech Connect

Commercialization of aerogels has been slow due to several factors including cost and manufacturability issues. The technology itself is well enough developed as a result of work over the past decade by an international-community of researchers. Several extensive substantial markets appear to exist for aerogels as thermal and sound insulators, if production costs can keep prices in line with competing established materials. The authors discuss here the elements which they have identified as key cost drivers, and they give a prognosis for the evolution of the technology leading to reduced cost aerogel production.

Carlson, G.; Lewis, D.; McKinley, K.; Richardson, J.; Tillotson, T.

1994-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

279

Costs of electronuclear fuel production  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposes to study the electronuclear fuel producer (EFP) as a means of producing fissile fuel to generate electricity. The main advantage of the EFP is that it may reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by breeding /sup 233/U from thorium, thereby avoiding plutonium separation. A report on the costs of electronuclear fuel production based upon two designs considered by LASL is presented. The findings indicate that the EFP design variations considered are not likely to result in electricity generation costs as low as the uranium fuel cycle used in the US today. At current estimates of annual fuel output (500 kg /sup 233/U per EFP), the costs of electricity generation using fuel produced by the EFP are more than three times higher than generating costs using the traditional fuel cycle. Sensitivity analysis indicates that electronuclear fuel production would become cost competitive with the traditional uranium fuel cycle when U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (yellowcake) prices approach $1000 per pound.

Flaim, T.; Loose, V.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Operations Cost Allocation Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms OCP Cost Allocation Spreadsheets OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation - Questions and Answers - September 19 - 20, 2011 Additional Questions and Answers Customer Comments/Questions and Answers: Arizona Municipal Power Users Association Arizona Power Authority Central Arizona Project Colorado River Commission Colorado River Energy Distributors Association City of Gilbert, AZ Irrigation and Electrical Districts Association of Arizona Town of Marana, AZ City of Mesa, AZ Town of Wickenburg, AZ Western's Final Decision Regarding the Long-Term Cost Allocation Methodology for Operations Staff Costs

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Minimum Cost Arborescences ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze the cost allocation problem when a group of agents or nodes have to be connected to a source, and where the cost matrix describing the cost of connecting each pair of agents is not necessarily symmetric, thus extending the well-studied problem of minimum cost spanning tree games, where the costs are assumed to be symmetric. The focus is on rules which satisfy axioms representing incentive and fairness properties. We show that while some results are similar, there are also significant differences between the frameworks corresponding to symmetric and asymmetric cost matrices.

Bhaskar Dutta; Debasis Mishra; We Thank Daniel Granot; Anirban Kar; Herve Moulin For Comments

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Cost-Effective Enzyme for Producing Biofuels from Cellulosic ...  

Potential to be produced in-house: The enzyme could potentially be produced in house by biorefineries, reducing one of the cost impediments to cellulosic biofuels.

284

New pipeline project could lower natural gas transportation costs ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... natural gas transportation costs to New York City could be reduced with the expansion of the existing Texas Eastern Transmission pipeline from Linden, New ...

285

The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991  

SciTech Connect

The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991  

SciTech Connect

The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel`s ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ``more competitive`` world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader`s judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy`s potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy`s inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US`s primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

CLASAdministratorJobAid CostSharing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

per square foot from FPM. Pro-rate by percentage of time that the office is used for the project x;CLASAdministratorJobAid CostSharing Preparedby:M.Kuznia8/1/11 Page2 Use of an office: determine square footageCLASAdministratorJobAid CostSharing Preparedby:M.Kuznia8/1/11 Page1 I. Definitions A. Cost

Baskaran, Mark

288

Evaluating Utility Costs from Cogeneration Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the method of calculation of incremental costs of steam, condensate, feedwater and electricity produced by the industrial cogeneration plant. (This method can also be applied to other energy production plants.) It also shows how to evaluate the energy consumption by the process facility using the costs determined by the method. The paper gives practical examples of calculation of the incremental costs of various utilities and emphasizes the importance of the calculation accuracy.

Polsky, M. P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

New tools to cut labor costs  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute is developing new techniques that will reduce the labor costs of building and maintaining power-distribution systems. The new tools include a cable plow for underground cables, concrete cutters, an underground borer, tree growth retardants, and other devices which reduce labor requirements and cause less environmental disruption. 2 references. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Kendrew, T.; Rodenbaugh, T.; Steiner, R.; Tackaberry, R.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce Steel Production Costs ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler constructed and installed with...

291

Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell ...  

Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs. August 1, 2013. In support of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy to develop ...

292

NREL: News - NREL Releases New Roadmap to Reducing Solar PV ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

113 NREL Releases New Roadmap to Reducing Solar PV "Soft Costs" by 2020 September 25, 2013 The Energy Department's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently issued...

293

50 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2012 Coordinated Energy Cost Management of Distributed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the electricity market price and have no influence on determining the price. #12;RAO et al.: COORDINATED ENERGY50 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2012 Coordinated Energy Cost Management centers (IDCs) has been skyrocketing. While most existing research focuses on reducing electric energy

294

Cost and Reliability Improvement for CIGS-Based PV on Flexible Substrate: Annual Technical Report, 24 May 2006 - 25 September 2007  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Global Solar Energy has enhanced module reliability, reduced cost and improved performance of its CIGS deposition process, and reduced cost of materials and processes for contacts.

Weideman, S.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

296

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

297

Documents: Cost Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Search Documents: Search PDF Documents View a list of all documents Cost Analysis PDF Icon Summary of the Cost Analysis Report for the Long-term Management of Depleted UF6...

298

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Presented by: J.M. Hieb, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company CHPRC1204-04 Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Everyone is trying to stretch a...

299

Cost Estimation Recommendations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...D.P. Hoult and C.L. Meador, Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

300

CX-003008: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Categorical Exclusion Determination 8: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003008: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency Street Light Retrofits CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 07/12/2010 Location(s): Chelsea, Massachusetts Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. LED (light-emitting diode) Bulb Streetlight Replacement Program: Chelsea will replace the light bulbs in 60 street lights on nine different streets with energy efficient LED bulbs. This project will reduce electricity costs at these lights by 60 percent and reduce maintenance costs by 70 percent due to the longer life of the bulbs and corresponding reduced need to change them. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-003008.pdf More Documents & Publications

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Tubing-conveyed perforating cuts costs, boosts production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new Attaka Field development program was started in November 1984 with the objective of reversing the field's declining production. The Intermediate and Deep sands were the reservoirs of interest since their abundance and large areal extent account for a large volume of oil and gas. Many factors contributed to the success of this program, particularly tubing conveyed perforating, (TCP) which has reduced completion time, formation damage and maximized well production. This article discusses the determination of proper underbalance, operational aspects of tubing conveyed perforating, cost comparisons between TCP and wireline methods and a comparison of skin factors resulting from underbalanced perforating and overbalanced perforating.

Sukmadjaja, T.; Shewchenko, D.; Ajam, S.O.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered.

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers,Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

304

O&M First! Actions You Can Take Now to Save Water and Reduce...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fact Sheet Actions You Can Take Now to Save Water and Reduce Costs Water costs can be a significant cost at federal sites, especially with rising rates across the country. As...

305

Load management strategies for electric utilities: a production cost simulation  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the development and application of a simulation model for analyzing strategies for managing the residential loads of electric utilities. The basic components of the model are (1) a production-cost model, which simulates daily operation of an electric power system; (2) a load model, which disaggregates system loads into appliance loads and other loads; and (3) a comparison model, which compares the production costs and energy consumption needed to meet a particular load profile to the corresponding costs and energy consumption required for another load profile. The profiles in each pair define alternative ways of meeting the same demand. A method for disaggregating load profiles into appliance components is discussed and several alternative strategies for residential load management for a typical northeastern electric utility are formulated. The method is based on an analysis of the composition of electric loads for a number of classes of residential customers in the model utility system. The effect of alternative load management strategies on the entire residential loadcurve is determined by predicting the effects of these strategies on the specific appliance components of the loadcurve. The results of using the model to analyze alternative strategies for residential load management suggest that load management strategies in the residential sector, if adopted by utilities whose operating and load characteristics are similar to those of the system modeled here, must take into account a wide variety of appliances to achieve significant changes in the total load profile. Moreover, the results also suggest that it is not easy to reduce costs significantly through new strategies for managing residential loads only and that, to be worthwhile, cost-reducing strategies will have to encompass many kinds of appliances.

Blair, P.D.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

A multiple secretary problem with switch costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we utilize probabilistic reasoning and simulation methods to determine the optimal selection rule for the secretary problem with switch costs, in which a known number of applicants appear sequentially in a ...

Ding, Jiachuan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

BestPractices Steam tip sheet regarding ways to assess steam system efficiency. To determine the effective cost of steam, use a combined heat and power simulation model that includes all the significant effects.

Papar, R. [U.S. Department of Energy (US)

2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

308

A methodology to assess cost implications of automotive customization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on determining the cost of customization for different components or groups of components of a car. It offers a methodology to estimate the manufacturing cost of a complex system such as a car. This ...

Fournier, Laëtitia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Multi-Area Power System Reliability and Production Costing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-area power system operation can reduce costs without jeopardizing service reliability, but the interconnection of systems requires new means for estimating costs and reliability. This report describes methods for evaluating production costs and power system reliability in multi-area power systems.

1990-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

310

NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Commercial equipment cost database  

SciTech Connect

This report, prepared for DOE, Office of Codes and Standards, as part of the Commercial Equipment Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, specifically addresses the equipment cost estimates used to evaluate the economic impacts of revised standards. A database including commercial equipment list prices and estimated contractor costs was developed, and through statistical modeling, estimated contractor costs are related to equipment parameters including performance. These models are then used to evaluate cost estimates developed by the ASHRAE 90.1 Standing Standards Project Committee, which is in the process of developing a revised ASHRAE 90.1 standard. The database will also be used to support further evaluation of the manufacturer and consumer impacts of standards. Cost estimates developed from the database will serve as inputs to economic modeling tools, which will be used to estimate these impacts. Preliminary results suggest that list pricing is a suitable measure from which to estimate contractor costs for commercial equipment. Models developed from these cost estimates accurately predict estimated costs. The models also confirm the expected relationships between equipment characteristics and cost. Cost models were developed for gas-fired and electric water heaters, gas-fired packaged boilers, and warm air furnaces for indoor installation. Because of industry concerns about the use of the data, information was not available for the other categories of EPAct-covered equipment. These concerns must be addressed to extend the analysis to all EPAct equipment categories.

Freeman, S.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A. Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility Determining the cost of a facility as complex as the neutrino source presented here is a very difficult task within the short time period of six months. Three factors contribute to the uncertainty significantly: 1. The number of subsystems in the facility, which are described throughout the report, is comparatively large. All of the subsystems contribute a considerable amount of complexity and cost that have to be addressed by specific expertise in order to find a technical solution and a reasonable cost estimate. The variety of technologies is large and many of them have to be pushed to the edge or beyond and therefore has to be addressed with an appropriate R&D program. Cost savings from mass production will not be

314

Integrated Ice Storage/Sprinkler HVAC System Sharply Cuts Energy Costs and Air-Distribution First Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated ice thermal storage/sprinkler HVAC systems developed and applied by the author in several commercial applications shift a major portion of electric utility demand to cheaper off-peak hours, while also reducing significantly the first cost of distribution ductwork. Savings of up to 80% in primary duct and air handler costs (compared to a traditional all-air HVAC system) partially offset the first cost of ice storage equipment, which in turn permits a 50% reduction in utility energy costs for air conditioning in some facilities. The basic ice storage/sprinkler HVAC system is described as well as optional subsystems, such as cogeneration, that are cost-effective under certain conditions. The system's design parameters, psychrometric process, and thermodynamic characteristics are presented and two installations are described, a 223,000-sq ft shopping center and a 150,000-sq ft, two-story retail store. Reductions in the size and first cost of primary air-handling equipment and ductwork are achieved by distributing a small quantity (0.1 to 0.2 cfm/sq ft) of very dry, 40°F primary air. All dehumidification is handled by the ice-chilled primary air, which is distributed in variable, volume, determined by the space dehumidification requirement, to fan-coil induction terminal units. The primary air is mixed with fan-induced room air in the terminals prior to distribution to the space at a constant volume. The fan-induction terminals contain cooling coils connected to the integrated sprinkler system, which circulates chilled water from the central plant through the coils when additional sensible cooling is required. This chilled water is at a thermodynamically efficient elevated temperature (58-68°F), since it handles sensible cooling load only.

Meckler, G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

What solar heating costs  

SciTech Connect

Few people know why solar energy systems cost what they do. Designers and installers know what whole packages cost, but rarely how much goes to piping, how much for labor and how much for the collectors. Yet one stands a better chance of controlling costs if one can compare where the money is going against where it should be going. A detailed Tennessee Valley Authority study of large solar projects shows how much each component contributes to the total bill.

Adams, J.A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Cost analysis guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

Strait, R.S.

1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

317

CAES Updated Cost Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems (CAES) for bulk energy storage applications have been receiving renewed interest. Increased penetration of large quantities of intermittent wind generation are requiring utilities to re-examine the cost and value of CAES systems. New second generation CAES cycles have been identified which offer the potential for lower capital and operating costs. This project was undertaken to update and summarize the capital and operating costs and performance features of second ge...

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

318

Seismic Performance Assessment and Probabilistic Repair Cost Analysis of Precast Concrete Cladding Systems for Multistory Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Costs (2009). The cost per square foot was determined fromcost for basement levels is given at $36.40 per square foot

Hunt, Jeffrey Patrick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Target Cost Management Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

Okano, Hiroshi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Cost Affordable Titanium IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Enhancing the Cost Effectiveness of High Performance Titanium Alloy Component Production by Powder Metallurgy · Evolution of Texture in ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cost Effective Single Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

three relevant technologies, namely casting, alloy development and orientation measurement, developed by Rolls-Royce to enable the cost effective production.

322

Sharing Supermodular Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents. ..... Mixed integer programming formulations for production planning and scheduling prob- lems.

323

Petroleum well costs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This is the first academic study of well costs and drilling times for Australia?s petroleum producing basins, both onshore and offshore. I analyse a substantial… (more)

Leamon, Gregory Robert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

COST REVIEW and ESTIMATING  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Programming Guide. OMB Circular A-94, Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs, dated October 29, 1992 Page | 41 APPENDIX A ICRICE...

325

The Cost of Debt ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimate firm-specific marginal cost of debt functions for a large panel of companies between 1980 and 2007. The marginal cost curves are identified by exogenous variation in the marginal tax benefits of debt. The location of a given company’s cost of debt function varies with characteristics such as asset collateral, size, book-to-market, asset tangibility, cash flows, and whether the firm pays dividends. By integrating the area between benefit and cost functions we estimate that the equilibrium net benefit of debt is 3.5 % of asset value, resulting from an estimated gross benefit of debt of 10.4 % of asset value and an estimated cost of debt of 6.9%. We find that the cost of being overlevered is asymmetrically higher than the cost of being underlevered and that expected default costs constitute approximately half of the total ex ante cost of debt. We thank Rick Green (the Acting Editor), and an anonymous referee, Heitor Almeida, Ravi Bansal,

Jules H. Van Binsbergen; John R. Graham; Jie Yang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

327

Reducing the Federal Energy Bill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Reducing the Federal Energy Bill Berkeley Lab's Work with the Federal Energy Management Program It costs billions of dollars and uses more energy than any other entity in the United States. What is it? Answer: the Federal government. In fiscal year 1995, the Federal government spent $8 billion on a net energy consumption of 1.15 quadrillion BTUs. While that may be a lot of energy in absolute terms, the numbers have been improving for years. Compared with fiscal year 1985, the 1995 energy-use figure is down by 22.5%, and the costs are down $2.5 billion. The decline is explained in part by the activities of FEMP (the Federal Energy Management Program) and the efforts of energy-efficiency experts at national laboratories, such as those at Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy

328

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions June 29, 2012 - 12:19pm Addthis Judy McLemore from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant led efforts to reduce the DOE’s vehicle fleet by 20 percent, improving sustainability and saving money. Under her leadership, greenhouse gas emissions associated with business travel were reduced by 63 percent and travel costs were reduced by greater than 60 percent. Judy McLemore from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant led efforts to reduce the DOE's vehicle fleet by 20 percent, improving sustainability and saving money. Under her leadership, greenhouse gas emissions associated with business travel were reduced by 63 percent and travel costs were

329

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions June 29, 2012 - 12:19pm Addthis Judy McLemore from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant led efforts to reduce the DOE’s vehicle fleet by 20 percent, improving sustainability and saving money. Under her leadership, greenhouse gas emissions associated with business travel were reduced by 63 percent and travel costs were reduced by greater than 60 percent. Judy McLemore from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant led efforts to reduce the DOE's vehicle fleet by 20 percent, improving sustainability and saving money. Under her leadership, greenhouse gas emissions associated with business travel were reduced by 63 percent and travel costs were

330

Influence of Project Type and Procurement Method on Rework Costs in Building Construction Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: While it is widely recognized that additional costs due to rework can have an adverse effect on project performance, limited empirical research has been done to investigate the influencing factors. The research presented in this paper aims to determine the influence of different project types and procurement methods on rework costs in construction projects. Using a questionnaire survey, rework costs were obtained from 161 Australian construction projects. The direct and indirect consequences of rework are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that, contrary to expectation, rework costs do not differ relative to project type or procurement method. In addition, it was found rework contributed to 52 % of a project’s cost growth and that 26 % of the variance in cost growth was attributable to changes due to direct rework. To reduce rework costs and therefore improve project performance, it is posited that construction organizations begin to consider and measure them, so that an understanding of their magnitude can be captured, root causes identified, and effective prevention strategies implemented.

Peter E. D. Love

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Analysis of refiners' total barrel costs and revenues from the sale of petroleum products, 1976 to 1979  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the Economic Regulatory Administration has evaluated refiners' costs and revenues from the sale of major petroleum products from July 1976 through December 1979. This report represents a continuing effort to assess No. 2 heating oil prices and margins in that it updates prior middle distillate studies through March 1980. The analysis examines selling prices and costs associated with each major petroleum product category and a combination of petroleum products (total barrel) from a sample of nine refiners. The total barrel approach was adopted to reduce distortions caused by varying methods of allocation of costs among regulated and unregulated products by refiners. This report determines the extent to which increased costs were recovered on controlled products and whether refiners obtained greater cost recoupment on decontrolled products than would have been allowed under continued controls. The principal methods of measurement used to evaluate product pricing levels for the nine refiners surveyed were cost recoupment (Chapter III), gross margins (Chapter IV), and net margins (Chapter V). Gross margins were derived by subtracting average crude oil costs from average product selling prices for individual product categories and the total barrel. Net margins were derived by subtracting average crude oil costs as well as average marketing, manufacturing, and purchased product costs from average selling prices for individual product categories and the total barrel.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Definition: Reduced Sustained Outages | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Outages Outages Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Sustained Outages A sustained outage is one lasting >5 minutes, excluding major outages and wide-scale outages. The monetary benefit of reducing sustained outages is based on the value of service (VOS) of each customer class. The VOS parameter represents the total cost of a power outage per MWh. This cost includes the value of unserved energy, lost productivity, collateral damage, administrative costs, the value of penalties and performance-based rates. Functions that lead to this benefit can reduce the likelihood that there will be an outage, allow the system to be reconfigured on the fly to help restore service to as many customers as possible, enable a quicker response in the restoration effort, or mitigate the impact of an outage

333

Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain  

SciTech Connect

Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain�������¢����������������s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

334

Simple cost model for EV traction motors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

Cuenca, R.M.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

CX-003976: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

76: Categorical Exclusion Determination 76: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003976: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of a High-Concentration Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.1 Date: 09/20/2010 Location(s): Arvada, Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Department of Energy is proposing to provide federal funding to SkyFuel to develop and demonstrate an advanced low-cost Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) solar collector, using higher-concentration, higher-temperature parabolic trough technology, with the ultimate goal of reducing the cost of baseload utility-scale solar power generation. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-003976.pdf More Documents & Publications

336

CX-004135: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

35: Categorical Exclusion Determination 35: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004135: Categorical Exclusion Determination Reducing Cost and Weight of Wind Turbine Blades Using Engineered Core CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 09/14/2010 Location(s): Miamisburg, Ohio Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy As more wind turbines are being built, supply of core materials (balsa and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) foam) is experiencing extreme demand pressure. WebCore has proven that TYCOR exceeds balsa and PVC in performance at a lower cost, and the Phase III program addresses the final technical and manufacturing hurdles preventing full commercialization. Wind turbine blade suppliers need cost-effective advanced composite materials to meet the growing challenges of larger blades and higher volumes. As global demand

337

CX-004019: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Categorical Exclusion Determination 9: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004019: Categorical Exclusion Determination A Low-Cost Modular Optical Voltage Sensor for Power Transmission Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 09/17/2010 Location(s): Seminole, Florida Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy A low-cost modular optical voltage sensor has been designed for deployment on power lines over the full range of distribution and transmission voltages. The sensor is comprised of modular sections that are produced in high volume using advanced manufacturing techniques to dramatically reduce the cost as compared to conventional equipment. During Phase III, FieldMetrics, Inc. proposes to finalize the mechanical package, fabricate and test field-ready hardware, and complete full dielectric type testing of

338

Cost-Affordable Titanium III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Production and Thermomechanical Consolidation of Titanium Alloy Powders · Cost Affordable Developments in Titanium Technology and ...

339

Software Cost Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort required to develop a software system. Many estimation models have been proposed over the last 30 years. This paper provides a general overview of software cost estimation methods including the recent advances in the field. As a number of these models rely on a software size estimate as input, we first provide an overview of common size metrics. We then highlight the cost estimation models that have been proposed and used successfully. Models may be classified into 2 major categories: algorithmic and non-algorithmic. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. A key factor in selecting a cost estimation model is the accuracy of its estimates. Unfortunately, despite the large body of experience with estimation models, the accuracy of these models is not satisfactory. The paper includes comment on the performance of the estimation models and description of several newer approaches to cost estimation.

Hareton Leung Zhang; Zhang Fan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Transmission line capital costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:25am Addthis After determining the best greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction strategies using renewable energy, a Federal agency should estimate the cost of implementing them in a building or buildings. There are several cost factors that need to be considered when developing a renewable energy project. Capital costs, fixed and variable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs and in the case of biomass and waste-to-energy projects, fuel costs all contribute to the total cost of operating a renewable energy system. The levelized system cost takes into account these

342

Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Pricklypear  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simple directions help you determine the density of pricklypear on your land, and then estimate the cost of controlling these plants with the pad or stem spray method.

Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

CX-009914: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

914: Categorical Exclusion Determination 914: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009914: Categorical Exclusion Determination Plug & Play Solar Photovoltaic for American Homes CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 01/28/2013 Location(s): Massachusetts, Vermont Offices(s): Golden Field Office The U.S. Department of Energy is proposing to provide federal funding to the Fraunhofer USA Inc., Center for Sustainable Energy Systems to research, develop and design ways to reduce the installed cost of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by developing a residential "Plug and Play" solar PV System. The proposed system would set up quickly and connect to the power grid easily, while still meeting building and electrical codes, thus reducing installation time and costs. Funding would be used to research,

344

Lookin g for data personnel costs, indirect costs, equipment costs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Negotiating Group Question/Answer Sessions November 19, 2009 Q: What happens now? A: The negotiation process starts tomorrow [November 20, 2009], when DOE will be sending the Awardees an e-mail with information about which website to go to for clarification and direction, information from the Office of Civil Rights, and answers to some of the questions that came up in the meeting. DOE will be gathering information about the questions concerning cyber requirements, metrics, and reporting requirements and will be getting back to the awardees about those issues the week after Thanksgiving. We have done a review of the budgets, and emails will be sent giving opportunities to address any issues. We will also re-review technical and cost proposals.

345

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 1:13pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 4 Once a Federal agency identifies the various strategic opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for vehicles and mobile equipment, it is necessary to evaluate the associated costs of adopting each strategy. The costs to reduce GHG emissions can vary greatly from cost-free behavior modification to the high-cost of purchasing zero-emission battery electric vehicles and associated fueling infrastructure. This section provides an overview of the costs and savings to consider when planning for mobile source emissions reductions, including efforts to: Reduce vehicle miles traveled

346

CX-010739: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

39: Categorical Exclusion Determination 39: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-010739: Categorical Exclusion Determination Golden State Solar Impact CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08/15/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): Golden Field Office The California Center for Sustainable Energy as part of its Golden State Solar Impact project would use DOE and cost share funding, as part of the Rooftop Solar Challenge II Cooperative Agreement, to leverage the knowledge, experience and relationships developed by California participants in Phase I Rooftop Solar Challenge to eliminate market barriers and reduce the soft costs related to the deployment of solar energy at the local government level. CX-010739.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-010757: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-010743: Categorical Exclusion Determination

347

Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

Bill Major

1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

348

Construction Cost Analysis : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.  

SciTech Connect

The Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) is designed to demonstrate new residential building techniques and product innovations which advance the stage-of-the-art in constructing energy-efficient electrically heated residences. A secondary purpose is to obtain documented cost and energy savings data from which to make accurate assessments of the cost-effectiveness of various conservation innovations. The project solicits participation of regional homebuilders by offering them financial incentives for constructing homes to the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) and including at least one innovation.'' The innovations are determined by BPA and the States prior to construction and represent construction techniques or energy saving products that might reduce the cost of building MCS homes, or expand the options available to builders in achieving MCS levels of energy efficiency in homes. Besides covering some of the additional risk for employing the innovation, the incentive payment guarantees that builders will provide certain amounts of information regarding the cost and acceptability of building the homes. In addition, an incentive is paid to homeowners for their participation in data collection efforts following construction. Several one-time'' tests were performed on the houses and homeowners were required to report energy consumption and temperature data on a weekly basis for approximately 18 months. BPA and the States compile the information obtained from the builders and homeowners. Access to this data is provided for the purpose of analyzing the cost and performance of the RCDP homes, as well as understanding the value of the various innovations that are tested. 25 tabs., 4 figs.

Barnett, Cole; Thor, Philip W.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Avoiding Distribution System Upgrade Costs Using Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PNNL, in cooperation with three utilities, developed a database and methodology to analyze and characterize the avoided costs of Distributed Generation (DG) deployment as an alternative to traditional distribution system investment. After applying a number of screening criteria to the initial set of 307 cases, eighteen were selected for detailed analysis. Alternative DG investment scenarios were developed for these cases to permit capital, operation, maintenance, and fuel costs to be identified and incorporated into the analysis. The “customer-owned” backup power generator option was also investigated. The results of the analysis of the 18 cases show that none yielded cost savings under the alternative DG scenarios. However, the DG alternative systems were configured using very restrictive assumptions concerning reliability, peak rating, engine types and acceptable fuel. In particular it was assumed that the DG alternative in each case must meet the reliability required of conventional distribution systems (99.91% reliability). The analysis was further constrained by a requirement that each substation meet the demands placed upon it by a one in three weather occurrence. To determine if, by relaxing these requirements, the DG alternative might be more viable, one project was re-examined. The 99.91% reliability factor was still assumed for normal operating conditions but redundancy required to maintain reliability was relaxed for the relatively few hours every three years where extreme weather caused load to exceed present substation capacity. This resulted in the deferment of capital investment until later years and reduced the number of engines required for the project. The cost of both the conventional and DG alternative also dropped because the centralized power generation, variable O&M, and DG fuels costs were calculated based on present load requirements in combination with long-term forecasts of load growth, as opposed to load requirements plus a buffer based on predictions of extraordinary weather conditions. Application of the relaxed set of assumptions reduced the total cost of the DG alternative by roughly 57 percent from $7.0 million to $3.0 million. The reduction, however, did not change the overall result of the analysis, as the cost of the conventional distribution system upgrade alternative remained lower at $1.7 million. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a system of backup generators to defer investment in distribution system infrastructure. Rather than expanding substation capacity at substations experiencing slow load growth rates, PNNL considered a scenario where diesel generators were installed on location at customers participating in a program designed to offer additional power security and reliability to the customer and connection to the grid. The backup generators, in turn, could be used to meet peak demand for a limited number of hours each year, thus deferring distribution system investment. Data from an existing program at one of the three participating utilities was used to quantify the costs associated with the backup generator scenario. The results of the “customer owned” backup power generator analysis showed that in all cases the nominal cost of the DG scenario is more than the nominal cost of the base-case conventional distribution system upgrade scenario. However, in two of the cases the total present value costs of the alternative backup generator scenarios were between 15 and 22% less than those for the conventional scenarios. Overall, the results of the study offer considerable encouragement that the use of DG systems can defer conventional distribution system upgrades under the right conditions and when the DG configurations are intelligently designed. Using existing customer-owned DG to defer distribution system upgrades appears to be an immediate commercially-viable opportunity.

Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; DeSteese, John G.; Speer, Gregory A.

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

350

The Social Costs to the U.S. of Monopolization of the World Oil Market, 1972-1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the U.S. over the period 1972-1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the U.S. and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972-1991 period to a hypothetical ''more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing U.S. oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US. oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing the economic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC Cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972-1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$ ($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

Greene, D.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

cost | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cost cost Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

353

Vehicle Cost Calculator  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

354

COSTS OF NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

The discussion on the costs of nuclear power from stationary plants, designed primarily for the generation of electricity. deals with those plants in operation, being built, or being designed for construction at an early date. An attempt is made to consider the power costs on the basis of consistent definitions and assumptions for the various nuclear plants and for comparable fossil-fuel plants. Information on several new power reactor projects is included. (auth)

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

Walker, A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

Walker, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Effect of longer combination vehicles on the total logistic costs of truckload shippers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research described in this paper was to examine the effects of using longer and heavier tractor-trailer combinations from the standpoint of the individual firm or shipper rather than from the viewpoint of the motor carrier. The objective was to determine the effect of longer combination vehicles (LCVS) not only on shippers freight costs but on their inventory and other logistical costs as well. A sample of companies in selected industries provided data on their principal products, traffic flows, and logistics costs in a mail survey. These data were entered into a computer program called the Freight Transportation Analyzer (FTA) which calculated the component logistics costs associated with shipping by single trailers and by two alternative types of double trailer LCVS. A major finding of the study was that, given sufficient flows of a company`s product in a traffic lane, LCVs would in most cases greatly reduce the total logistics cost of firms that currently ship in single trailer truckload quantities. Annual lane volume, lane distance, and annual lane ton-mileage appeared to be good indicators of whether or not shipping by LCVs would benefit a company, whereas product value had surprisingly little influence on the cost-effectiveness of LCVS. An even better indicator was the ratio of current annual freight costs to current annual inventory carrying costs for a firm`s single trailer truckload shipments. Given the current trend toward maintaining small inventories and shipping in small quantities, it is not clear to what extent shippers will abandon single trailer transport to take advantage of the potential reduction in total logistics cost afforded by LCVS.

Middendorf, D.P.; Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jacoby, J. [Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Coyle, J.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1994-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

358

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Title, Location, Document Number Estimated Cost Description  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1/23/2013 1/23/2013 Transmittal to State: TBD EA Approval: TBD FONSI: TBD EA Determination Date: Transmittal to State: EA Approval: FONSI: EA Determination Date: Transmittal to State: EA Approval: FONSI: EA Determination Date: Transmittal to State: EA Approval: FONSI: EA Determination Date: Transmittal to State: EA Approval: FONSI: Total Estimated Cost $0 Office of Legacy Management Jan-13 Annual NEPA Planning Summary Evaluation of Proposed Grazing on the Maybell and Maybell West UMTRCA sites, Colorado TBD DOE is seeking reuse of the lands associated with the Maybell and Maybell West UMTRCA disposal sites in Moffat County, in northwestern Colorado. Potential impacts from grazing would be evaluated in this EA. The schedule and costs have yet to be determined since EA determination was recently made.

360

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Low Cost, High Performance, 50-year Electrode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an extremely durable, highly active, conductive, and inexpensive electrode for flow batteries. Flow batteries offer one of the most exciting opportunities for affordable grid storage, however electrodes are costly and are the single largest cost component in a well integrated design. Grid storage can yield numerous benefits in utility and customer- owned applications:  renewable firming  peak load reduction  load shifting  capital deferral  frequency regulation By incorporating volume production practices from the chlorine, filter media, and electroplating industries, Primus Power will effectively reduce electrode costs to exceed GRIDS cost targets while providing the durability essential for widespread grid-scale adoption.

363

Estimating demolition cost of plutonium buildings for dummies  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Rocky Flats Field Office of the US Department of Energy is to decommission the entire plant. In an effort to improve the basis and the accuracy of the future decommissioning cost, Rocky Flats has developed a powerful but easy-to-use tool to determine budget cost estimates to characterize, decontaminate, and demolish all its buildings. The parametric cost-estimating tool is called the Facilities Disposition Cost Model (FDCM).

Tower, S.E.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Unconventional Staging Package Selection Leads to Cost Savings  

SciTech Connect

In late 2010, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Secretary of Energy, Daniel Poneman, directed that an analysis be conducted on the U-233 steel-clad, Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) fuel plates that were stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), focusing on cost savings and any potential DOE programmatic needs for the special nuclear material (SNM). The NA-162 Nuclear Criticality Safety Program requested retention of these fuel plates for use in experiments at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). A Secretarial Initiative challenged ORNL to make the first shipment to the NNSS by the end of the 2011 calendar year, and this effort became known as the U-233 Project Accelerated Shipping Campaign. To meet the Secretarial Initiative, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), the NNSS Management and Operations contractor, was asked to facilitate the receipt and staging of the U-233 fuel plates in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF). Because there were insufficient staging containers available for the fuel plates, NSTec conducted an analysis of alternatives. The project required a staging method that would reduce the staging footprint while addressing nuclear criticality safety and radiation exposure concerns. To accommodate an intermediate staging method of approximately five years, the NSTec project team determined that a unique and unconventional staging package, the AT-400R, was available to meet the project requirements. By using the AT-400R containers, NSTec was able to realize a cost savings of approximately $10K per container, a total cost savings of nearly $450K.

,

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

Path specialization: reducing phased execution overheads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As garbage collected languages become widely used, the quest for reducing collection overheads becomes essential. In this paper, we propose a compiler optimization called path specialization that shrinks the cost of memory barriers for a wide ... Keywords: c#, garbage collection, memory management, read barriers, write barriers

Filip Pizlo; Erez Petrank; Bjarne Steensgaard

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Vehicle Investment and Operating Costs and Savings for Greenhouse Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Investment and Operating Costs and Savings for Greenhouse Vehicle Investment and Operating Costs and Savings for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Vehicle Investment and Operating Costs and Savings for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies October 7, 2013 - 1:17pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 4 To help estimate costs of implementing greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies for vehicles, the table below provides the initial investment, operating costs, and operating savings for each strategy. Table 1. Types and Ranges of Initial Investment Requirements and Annual Operating Costs and Savings. Strategies Initial Investment Operating Costs Operating Savings Consolidate trips Time to research & coordinate routes None Eliminate fleet vehicle trips; reduce cost & time (fuel, maintenance, etc) associated with fleet vehicle use. Could result in decreasing inventory & need for vehicles leading to long-term savings

367

Expert judgement in cost estimating: Modelling the reasoning process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Expert Judgement (EJ) is used extensively during the generation of cost estimates. Cost estimators have to make numerous assumptions and judgements about what they think a new product will cost. However, the use of EJ is often frowned upon, not well accepted or understood by non-cost estimators within a concurrent engineering environment. Computerised cost models, in many ways, have reduced the need for EJ but by no means have they, or can they, replace it. The cost estimates produced from both algorithmic and non-algorithmic cost models can be widely inaccurate; and, as the work of this paper highlights, require extensive use of judgement in order to produce a meaningful result. Very little research tackles the issues of capturing and integrating EJ and rationale into the cost estimating process. Therefore, this

Christopher Rush; Rajkumar Roy

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Evidence of cost growth under cost-plus and fixed-price contracting  

SciTech Connect

As defined by the US Department of Energy (DOE), privatization refers to a shifting of responsibilities for the completion of projects from a cost-plus Management and Operations (M and O) contract, to incentive-based contracts with the private sector. DOE`s new vision is to arrange cleanup work around incentives-based contracts, which are won via competitive bidding. Competition in awarding cleanup contracts can make use of market incentives to lower project costs and reduce slippage time. Fixed-price contracts encourage contractors to minimize schedule delays and cost overruns once the scope of a project has been negotiated. Conversely, cost-plus contracting offers weak incentives for contractors to select cost-minimizing production and management approaches. Because privatization explicitly allocates more risk to the contractor, it forces the government to better define its goals and methods. This study summarizes actual cost experiences with government contracts performed under cost-plus and fixed-price incentive structures at all levels of government. The first section provides some background on the problem of making contractor activity more cost-efficient. Following this are sections on the measurement of performance and the costs of projects, limitations on measurement, and findings of similar studies. The study concludes with appendices discussing the details of the performance measurement methodology and the project data sets used in the study.

Scott, M.J.; Paananaen, O.H.; Redgate, T.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Jaksch, J.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Optimizing Candidate Check Costs for Bitmap Indices  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we propose a new strategy for optimizing the placement of bin boundaries to minimize the cost of query evaluation using bitmap indices with binning. For attributes with a large number of distinct values, often the most efficient index scheme is a bitmap index with binning. However, this type of index may not be able to fully resolve some user queries. To fully resolve these queries, one has to access parts of the original data to check whether certain candidate records actually satisfy the specified conditions. We call this procedure the candidate check, which usually dominates the total query processing time. Given a set of user queries, we seek to minimize the total time required to answer the queries by optimally placing the bin boundaries. We show that our dynamic programming based algorithm can efficiently determine the bin boundaries. We verify our analysis with some real user queries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For queries that require significant amount of time to perform candidate check, using our optimal bin boundaries reduces the candidate check time by a factor of 2 and the total query processing time by 40 percent.

Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

2005-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

370

FY 1995 cost savings report  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue. Budgets remain on the decline, even while the expectations increase. Yet we are confident in our ability to keep our commitments and goals by identifying new efficiencies in the Hanford cleanup program. We will also pursue new contracting arrangements that will allow us to foster greater competition and use more commercial practices while maintaining our commitment to the safety and health of the public, our workers, and the environment.

Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

371

CX-005385: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005385: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost High Concentration Photovoltaic Power Systems for Utility Power Generation -Sandia...

372

CX-002285: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-002285: Categorical Exclusion Determination Manufacturing of Low Cost, Durable Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Rapid Conditioning CX(s) Applied: B3.6, A9...

373

CX-006909: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006909: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-Cost Manufacturing of High-Capacity Prismatic Lithium-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes CX(s) Applied:...

374

CX-007567: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007567: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost of Energy Reduction for Offshore Tension Leg Platform (TLP) Wind Turbine Systems Through...

375

CX-007919: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007919: Categorical Exclusion Determination System-Cost-Optimized Smart Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment for Residential Application CX(s)...

376

CX-009340: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009340: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost-Effective Treatment of Produced Water Using Co-Produced Energy Sources Phase II: Field...

377

CX-009170: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009170: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost Arc-Fault Detection and Protection for Photovoltaic Systems-Tigo Energy, Inc. CX(s)...

378

CX-003680: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003680: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-Cost, High-Energy-Savings, Solid State Dynamic Windows (Lab Scale Tasks) CX(s) Applied:...

379

CX-003197: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003197: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost High Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation CX(s) Applied:...

380

CX-000364: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000364: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-Cost United States Manufacturing of Power Electronics for Electric Drive Vehicles CX(s)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

CX-004130: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004130: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost Real Time Monitoring System for Overhead Transmission - Multi Utility Multi Conductor...

382

CX-009338: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009338: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost-Effective Treatment of Produced Water Using Co-Produced Energy Sources Phase II: Field...

383

CX-006147: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006147: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost Effective Point Concentrator Dish for CSP Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 0713...

384

CX-007920: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007920: Categorical Exclusion Determination System-Cost-Optimized Smart Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment for Residential Application CX(s)...

385

CX-009339: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009339: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost-Effective Treatment of Produced Water Using Co-Produced Energy Sources Phase II: Field...

386

CX-006157: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006157: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost Effective Point Concentrator Dish for CSP Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 0713...

387

CX-003198: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-003198: Categorical Exclusion Determination High Efficiency Low Cost Solar Cells (HELSOLAR) CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08042010 Location(s): California...

388

CX-008670: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008670: Categorical Exclusion Determination ITN Energy Systems - Low-cost Electrochromic Film on Plastic for Net-zero Energy Building...

389

CX-009891: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009891: Categorical Exclusion Determination ITN Energy Systems - Low-cost Electrochromic Film on Plastic for Net-Zero Energy Building...

390

CX-000900: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-000900: Categorical Exclusion Determination An Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Cost for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power in the...

391

CX-008449: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008449: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost Flexible Production System for Remote Ultra Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Field...

392

CX-003125: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-003125: Categorical Exclusion Determination Codexis, Inc. - Low-Cost Biocatalyst for Acceleration of Energy Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture Solvents...

393

CX-008451: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008451: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost Flexible Production System for Remote Ultra Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Field...

394

CX-008453: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008453: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost Flexible Production System for Remote Ultra Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Field...

395

CX-009476: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-009476: Categorical Exclusion Determination Significant Cost Improvement of Lithium-Ion Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 10092012 Location(s):...

396

CX-006513: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-006513: Categorical Exclusion Determination Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 08162011...

397

CX-011122: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-011122: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Biomass Feedstock Supply Chain for Lower Cost, Higher Quality Feedstock Delivery CX(s)...

398

CX-003563: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-003563: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Insulation for High-Performance, Cost-Effective Wall, Roof and Foundation Systems CX(s)...

399

Engineering and cost analysis of a dry cooling system augmented with a thermal storage pond  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An engineering and cost study of the capacitive thermal storage pond added to a state-of-the-art dry cooling system is described. The purpose of the study was to assess the potential for reducing the cost of all-dry cooling for thermal electric power plants using a dry cooling system that includes a thermal storage pond. Using the modified BNW-I computer code, the effect of varying significant design parameters was investigated. The parametric study included studying the effects of varying turbine type, pond size, replacement energy costing, capacity penalty methodology, pond location with respect to the dry cooling tower, design temperature, and site location (meteorology). Incremental power production costs for dry cooling (i.e., the portion of the cost of bus-bar electricity from the plant which is attributable to the cost of building and operating the heat rejection system) with a thermal storage pond system were determined for meteorologies of both Wyodak, Wyoming and Phoenix, Arizona. For Wyodak the incremental cost of dry cooling with a thermal storage pond was 2.81 mills/kWh as compared to 2.55 mills/kWh for a system without a thermal storage pond. For Phoenix the incremental cost of dry cooling with a thermal storage pond was 3.66 mills/kWh as compared to 4.31 mills/kWh for a system without a thermal storage pond. If the use of a modified conventional turbine with the dry-cooled system is stipulated in order to stay with proven technology for large turbines, then results of this study show that in extremely hot climates the thermal storage pond can reduce the cost of dry cooling. If no cost penalty is assigned to high back pressure turbines and it can be used, then the thermal storage pond has no advantage in hot climates. However, collateral use of the pond for makeup or emergency cooling water storage may decreae the cost. (LCL)

Drost, M.K.; Allemann, R.T.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

An Experiment to Improve Cost Estimation and Project Tracking for Software and Systems Integration Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Experiment to Improve Cost Estimation and Project Tracking for Software and Systems Integration to improve cost estimation and project tracking. 1. Introduction In order to remain competitive, ICL (as well for integration projects, to reduce time to market and to reduce costs without detriment to the quality

Henderson, Peter

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which needs to be 44% or better along with relatively high wind speeds. Along with low production costs, however, delivery and storage costs will also factor into the final cost...

402

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plant Cycling Costs Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-55433 July 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Prepared under Subcontract No. NFT-1-11325-01

403

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

404

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

405

Techniques for Reducing High Risk Contracting Approaches  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reducing High Reducing High Risk Contracting Approaches Topics for Discussion Presidential Direction March 4, 2009 * Focus on transparency * Increase competition - It is the policy of the Federal Government that executive agencies shall not engage in noncompetitive contracts except in those circumstances where their use can be fully justified and where appropriate safeguards have been put in place to protect the taxpayer. * Improve competitive environment for the life of multiple award contracts * Reduce risk of cost growth/overcharging * Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Guidance to improve Government Acquisition , 29 July 2009 (implements President's direction) Why the Emphasis? * Reports by agency Inspectors General, the

406

CX-001528: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Categorical Exclusion Determination 8: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001528: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gale Center of History and Culture Lighting and Mechanical Retrofit CX(s) Applied: B2.2, B1.4, B5.1 Date: 04/16/2010 Location(s): South Jordan, Utah Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. Lighting retrofits/heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)/control project will initiate eligible energy efficiency activities that will result in substantial reduction in energy use and cost, deliver immediate sustainable reductions in carbon dioxide emissions while reducing maintenance costs and reliability. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-001528.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-000308: Categorical Exclusion Determination

407

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

SciTech Connect

Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

408

CX-005924: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

924: Categorical Exclusion Determination 924: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005924: Categorical Exclusion Determination Light Emitting Diode Lighting CX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 Date: 05/13/2011 Location(s): Dover, Delaware Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Replacement of 71 high pressure sodium (HPS) lights, with 71 light emitting diode (LED) lights - LED lights provide savings of up to - 30% on electricity (over HPS). In addition, LED lights will reduce maintenance costs, have a longer service life, provide manageability of illumination levels, and focus light specifically where needed, reducing light pollution. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-005924.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-001765: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003723: Categorical Exclusion Determination

409

Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Savings to  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Savings to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Savings to Reduce Greenhouse Gases October 7, 2013 - 11:06am Addthis For evaluating greenhouse gas reduction strategies and estimating costs, the following information resources can help Federal agencies estimate energy and cost savings potential by building type. When deciding what resource to use for developing energy- and cost-savings estimates, a program should consider items detailed in Table 1. Table 1.Resources for Estimating Energy Savings Resource Items to consider Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides Based on representative building models of commercial buildings. Guidance available for a limited number of building types using the most common technologies.

410

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Michigan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

November 7, 2012 November 7, 2012 CX-009432: Categorical Exclusion Determination Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building Integrated Photovoltaics CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.15 Date: 11/07/2012 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): Golden Field Office October 18, 2012 CX-009467: Categorical Exclusion Determination Recovery Act - Clean Energy Coalition Michigan Green Fleets CX(s) Applied: B5.23 Date: 10/18/2012 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory September 28, 2012 CX-009326: Categorical Exclusion Determination Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - Subtask 1.7 CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 09/28/2012 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory September 25, 2012 CX-009334: Categorical Exclusion Determination

411

Electrolytic Methods as a Cost and Energy Effective Alternative of Harvesting Algae for Biofuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Process variables of electrolytic technology to reduce the energy consumption of harvesting Nonnocloropsis salina were investigated including electro-coagulation, electro-floatation, and electro-flocculation. Electro-coagulation and electro-flocculation showed significant cost savings, however electro-floatation did not. The objectives were to determine the effects of electrode material, pH adjustment and electro-polymer addition for electro-coagulation and determine the performance characteristics for electro-coagulation and electro-flocculation. Both treatments proved to be competitive with the energy consumption of a centrifuge. The best electrolytic treatments were electro-coagulation with aluminum and nickel electrodes. Energy requirements at optimum conditions were 239 and 344 kWh/ton. The best treatment combination using electro-flocculation was 432 kWh/ton with no electrode consumption, which could lead to potential cost savings.

Morrison, Taylor 1986-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Template Template Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D Kate Hudon National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kate.hudon@nrel.gov 303-275-3190 April 3, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: The major market barrier for solar water heaters (SWHs) is installed cost. This project addresses this barrier by working with an industry research partner to evaluate innovative solutions that reduce the installed cost of a SWH by

413

AvAilAble for licensing Higher-performance, more cost-effective batteries for PHEVs and HEVs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AvAilAble for licensing Higher-performance, more cost-effective batteries for PHEVs and HEVs. Benefits Higher-performance, more cost-effective batteries for PHEVs and HEVs. Reduced costs by lowering cost is easier, faster, and more cost-effective. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries

Kemner, Ken

414

Service Provider Competition: Delay Cost Structure, Segmentation, and Cost Advantage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We model competition between two providers who serve delay-sensitive customers. We compare a generalized delay cost structure, where a customer's delay cost depends on her service valuation, with the traditional additive delay cost structure, where the ... Keywords: delay cost structure, service competition, value-based market segmentation

Maxim Afanasyev; Haim Mendelson

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Discrete Event Model Development of Pilot Plant Scale Microalgae Facilities: An Analysis of Productivity and Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

America's reliance on foreign oil has raised economic and national security issues, and in turn the U.S. has been active in reducing its dependence on foreign oil to mitigate these issues. Also, the U.S. Navy has been instrumental in driving bio-fuel research and production by setting an ambitious goal to purchase 336M gallons of bio-fuel by 2020. The production of microalgae biomass is a promising field which may be able to meet these demands. The utilization of microalgae for the production of bio-fuel requires the implementation of efficient culturing processes to maximize production and reduce costs. Therefore, three discrete rate event simulation models were developed to analyze different scaling scenarios and determine total costs associated with each scenario. Three scaling scenarios were identified by this analysis and included a stepwise, volume batching and intense culturing process. A base case and potential best case were considered in which the culturing duration, lipid content and lipid induction period were adjusted. A what-if analysis was conducted which identified and reduced capital and operational costs contributing greatly to total costs. An NPV analysis was performed for each scenario to identify the risk associated with future cash flows. The research findings indicate that the intense culturing scaling scenario yielded the greatest model throughput and least total cost for both the base case and potential best case. However, this increased productivity and cost reduction were not significantly greater than the productivity generated by the stepwise scaling scenario, suggesting that the implementation of flat plate bio-reactors in the intense culturing process may be non-advantageous given the increased operational costs of these devices. The volume batching scenario yielded the greatest total cost L^-1 of microalgae bio-oil for both, indicating an inefficient process. The scaling scenarios of the base case and potential best case yielded negative NPV's while the stepwise and intense culturing scenarios of the what-if analysis generated positive NPV's. The base case is based on current technological advances, biological limitations and costs of microalgae production therefore, a negative NPV suggests that utilizing microalgae for bio-fuel production is not an economically feasible project at this time.

Stepp, Justin Wayne

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Research on Chronological Cost Simulation of Demand-Side Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many electric power utilities use Direct Load Control (DLC) to reduce operational costs and peak capacity requirements. This report proposes a very effective and unique method for DLC dispatch.

1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

417

Identifying cost reduction and performance improvement opportunities through simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During difficult economic times, companies have few positive cost reducing options that simultaneously improve operational performance. This paper addresses how Deloitte Consulting partnered with Simio LLC to model multiple process improvement opportunities ...

J. Ethan Brown; David Sturrock

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Field analysis: getting useful and low-cost interprocedural information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new limited form of interprocedural analysis called field analysis that can be used by a compiler to reduce the costs of modern language features such as object-oriented programming, automatic memory management, and run-time ...

Sanjay Ghemawat; Keith H. Randall; Daniel J. Scales

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Multidisciplinary structural design and optimization for performance, cost, and flexibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reducing cost and improving performance are two key factors in structural design. In the aerospace and automotive industries, this is particularly true with respect to design criteria such as strength, stiffness, mass, ...

Nadir, William David, 1979-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Portable top drive cuts horizontal drilling costs  

SciTech Connect

Economic analysis of a seven-well, long-reach horizontal drilling program into an unconsolidated, heavy-oil-bearing reservoir in Winter field near the Alberta/Saskatchewan border in Canada reveals that -- in the right application -- renting a portable top drive drilling system can reduce total drilling costs. Use of the portable top drive combined with other cost-saving measures enabled Saskoil, one of Canada`s larger independents, to drill more cheaply, on a cost-per-meter basis, in 1993 than in 1992. This was despite significant rental rates for drilling rigs and directional drilling services caused by increased demand in Western Canada. Total cost savings of 10% on wells that would otherwise cost in the (C) $500,000 range are believed realistic. Based on this year`s performance, Saskoil recommends top drive for the company`s future horizontal wells in this area. This article describes the operator`s horizontal well program, advantages of top drive in that program and how it was installed and applied. Estimated time savings for six wells, plus other ways top drive can cut costs and improve operations are discussed.

Jackson, B. [Saskoil, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yager, D. [Tesco Drilling Tech., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

CX-007471: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ventilation, and AC upgrades at various state owned facilities to reduce energy consumption and annual utility costs. CX-007471.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-001954:...

422

CX-007459: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

12202011 Location(s): California, Michigan, Wisconsin, Oregon Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory Reduce manufactured cost of large format Li-ion cells by 50%...

423

CX-005730: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

30: Categorical Exclusion Determination 30: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005730: Categorical Exclusion Determination State Energy Program Sinton Independent School District Wind Energy Project- Phase II CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 04/21/2011 Location(s): San Patricio County, Texas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Sinton Independent School District (ISO), San Patricio County, Texas proposes to install a 100 kilowatt wind turbine (Northern Power 100) on the campus of their high school to reduce operations costs, increase energy efficiency, reduce reliance on imported energy, improve reliability, and reduce environmental impacts of energy production. The turbine would be installed on a 121-foot tall tubular steel tower, have a rotor diameter of 69 feet, and a total height of about 156 feet.

424

Estimating decommissioning costs: The 1994 YNPS decommissioning cost study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Early this year, Yankee Atomic Electric Company began developing a revised decommissioning cost estimate for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) to provide a basis for detailed decommissioning planning and to reflect slow progress in siting low-level waste (LLW) and spent-nuclear-fuel disposal facilities. The revision also reflects the need to change from a cost estimate that focuses on overall costs to a cost estimate that is sufficiently detailed to implement decommissioning and identify the final cost of decommissioning.

Szymczak, W.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

Percent of 2010 Luminaire Cost LED Luminaire Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LEDs promise to change the world, and few doubt that they will, but a key limiter to more rapid adoption is the cost of the LED themselves. The cost breakdown of LED luminaires vary, but it is safe to put the cost of the LED at around 25% to 40 % of the total luminaire cost. It is projected to remain a significant cost of the total luminaire for many years.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Chargers Energy Department Awards Nearly 7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers December 21, 2011 - 12:49pm Addthis As part of the...

428

Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

announced up to 7 million to reduce the non-hardware costs of residential and commercial solar energy installations. Made available through the SunShot Incubator Program, this...

429

Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Practices andDetermining the Real Cost: Why Renewable Power is More Cost-than Previously Believed. ” Renewable Energy World, 6 (2).

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

431

Computerized Energy and Treatment Cost Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A computer program has been developed that quickly calculates blowdown heat loss as a function of makeup water, boiler water chemistry, and blowdown recovery equipment. By inputting water analysis, basic system parameters, and type of fuel, the cost of heat loss in the blowdown can be quickly and accurately determined. Present operating systems can quickly be evaluated as to potential cost savings on the addition of a blowdown flash tank and/or a recovery heat exchanger. Proposed systems can be engineered from the start with an eye to decreasing energy loss and saving money. In addition, the proper internal treatment is recommended along with appropriate products. Cost of energy lost in the blowdown is calculated based on different levels of blowdown heat recovery. Accurate calculations are readily available to make more intelligent decisions on the purchase of recovery equipment, rather than depending on very tedious, potentially inaccurate determinations by long hand.

Trace, W. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Minimizing I/O Costs of Multi-Dimensional Queries with BitmapIndices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bitmap indices have been widely used in scientific applications and commercial systems for processing complex,multi-dimensional queries where traditional tree-based indices would not work efficiently. A common approach for reducing the size of a bitmap index for high cardinality attributes is to group ranges of values of an attribute into bins and then build a bitmap for each bin rather than a bitmap for each value of the attribute. Binning reduces storage costs,however, results of queries based on bins often require additional filtering for discarding it false positives, i.e., records in the result that do not satisfy the query constraints. This additional filtering,also known as ''candidate checking,'' requires access to the base data on disk and involves significant I/O costs. This paper studies strategies for minimizing the I/O costs for ''candidate checking'' for multi-dimensional queries. This is done by determining the number of bins allocated for each dimension and then placing bin boundaries in optimal locations. Our algorithms use knowledge of data distribution and query workload. We derive several analytical results concerning optimal bin allocation for a probabilistic query model. Our experimental evaluation with real life data shows an average I/O cost improvement of at least a factor of 10 for multi-dimensional queries on datasets from two different applications. Our experiments also indicate that the speedup increases with the number of query dimensions.

Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost and the marginal fuel savings (assuming a base case of ten cents per kWhper kWh, which would bring it in line with the break-even costcost per mile: electricity vs. gasoline PRICE OF ELECTRICITY ($/kWh)

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Reducing waste, Photoby stcvcchan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I ' I I t Reducing waste, Photoby stcvcchan AMs President Mike Lee (left to right), Point Grey M U recycling given high priority on campus By GAVIN WILSON UBC is taking stepsto reduce waste and encourageGellatly,Vice-President,Administration and Finance,to develop and recommend university policies on waste recycling. Another task force has submitted

Farrell, Anthony P.

435

The role of R and D in geothermal drilling cost reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The role that drilling technology development can play in reducing the cost of geothermal power is examined. Factors contributing to the relatively high cost of geothermal drilling are discussed, and potential technology improvements that could reduce those costs are identified. Projects under way at Sandia National Laboratories to address these technology needs are summarized, and estimates are made of the potential drilling cost savings resulting from these projects.

Glowka, D.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geothermal Research Dept.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Cost of Offshore Wind Energy Charlene Nalubega  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost of Offshore Wind Energy water as well as on land based wind farms. The specific offshore wind energy case under consideration kilowatt Hour will be determined. Wind Energy has been around for a very long time. It started as out

Mountziaris, T. J.

437

A continuous distribution approach for production costing  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a new approach to approximate the equivalent load duration curve (ELDC) and evaluate the production cost by using a multi-parameter distribution is presented. The parameters of this distribution can be determined from the hourly load and generating unit data. A new more efficient algorithm for determining the parameters is also introduced. The results obtained from the proposed, the Grame-Charlier and the recursive method are reported for several cases to compared the efficiency and accuracy.

Singh, C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Kim, J.O. (Cheon-An National Coll., Chung-Nam (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

costs | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7 7 Varnish cache server costs Dataset Summary Description This dataset represents a historical repository of all the numerical data from the smartgrid.gov website condensed into spreadsheets to enable analysis of the data. Below are a couple of things worth noting: Source Smartgrid.gov Date Released March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Date Updated March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Keywords AMI costs distribution smart grid transmission Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 4Q12 (xlsx, 112.1 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 3Q12 (xlsx, 107.9 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 2Q12 (xlsx, 111.9 KiB)

439

Geothermal probabilistic cost study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrators Concentrators California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Award Number:0595-1612 | April 18, 2013 | Ganapathi * Mirror module development has been approached with the goal of being applicable to all types of CSP systems * Several heliostat design options being considered to address driving requirements: * Facets that are compliant to winds > 35 mph * Deep structures for optimizing structural efficiency * Pointing accuracy achieved with mechanism design * Simple precision components * Easy on-site assembly with pre-fab components * Structural foam properties and strengthening trades being conducted to reduce overall costs with FEM models Goal: Typical costs for a concentrator (heliostat or parabolic dish) can range between 40-50% of the total costs. To meet SunShot

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used in industry. However, smaller previously unfeasible applications can now be cost effective due to the packaged system approach which has become available in recent years. The availability of this equipment in a packaged system form makes it feasible to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between $200 and $800 per kW of capacity. Simple system paybacks between one and three years are common.

Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Cost analysis methodology: Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project. PVMaT is a five-year project to support the translation of research and development in PV technology into the marketplace. PVMaT, conceived as a DOE/industry partnership, seeks to advanced PV manufacturing technologies, reduce PV module production costs, increase module performance, and expand US commercial production capacities. Under PVMaT, manufacturers will propose specific manufacturing process improvements that may contribute to the goals of the project, which is to lessen the cost, thus hastening entry into the larger scale, grid-connected applications. Phase 1 of the PVMaT project is to identify obstacles and problems associated with manufacturing processes. This report describes the cost analysis methodology required under Phase 1 that will allow subcontractors to be ranked and evaluated during Phase 2.

Whisnant, R.A. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

InterTechnology Corporation report of solar energy systems installation costs for selected commercial buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a study in which the primary objective was to determine actual costs associated with the installation of solar collector and thermal energy storage subsystems in specific non-residential building applications are presented. A secondary objective of the study was to assemble details of existing solar collector and storage subsystem installations, including caveats concerning cost estimating, logistics and installation practices. The study began with the development of an exhaustive listing and compilation of basic data and contacts for non-residential applications of solar heating and cooling of buildings. Both existing projects and those under construction were surveyed. Survey summary sheets for each project encountered are provided as a separate appendix. Subsequently, the rationale used to select the projects studied in-depth is presented. The results of each of the detailed studies are then provided along with survey summary sheets for each of the projects studied. Installation cost data are summarized and the significance of the differences and similarities between the reported projects is discussed. After evaluating the data obtained from the detailed studies, methods for reducing installation labor costs are postulated based on the experience of the study. Some of the methods include modularization of collectors, preplumbing and preinsulating, and collector placement procedures. Methods of cost reduction and a summary discussion of prominent problems encountered in the projects are considered.(WHK)

None

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Review of Conservation Costs and Benefits: Five Years of Experience under the Northwest Power Act  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1980, Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Public Law 96-501). In the Act, Congress mandated that conservation (i.e., improvements in energy efficiency that result in reduced consumptions) be treated as a resource and that all resources be evaluated against uniform criteria to determine the lowest cost mix of resources to meet the Northwest’s energy needs. Since the passage of the Act, the total regional expenditure on conservation by the federal Bonneville Power Administration, public utilities, and investor-owned utilities has been approximately $800 million to $900 million. This includes research and development elements of the program. This paper describes the costs and benefits of conservation programs implemented in the Pacific Northwest and some of the lessons learned to date. The analysis indicates that conservation programs that were run to acquire energy have achieved savings at levelized costs ranging between 1.9 and 2.9 cents per kilowatt hours. Research, development and pilot projects have produced savings at costs that range from less than .10 cents to 8.9 cents per kilowatt hour. Based on the results described in this paper, the Northwest Power Planning Council has concluded that conservation is indeed a resource that the Pacific Northwest can rely on to help meet future needs for electricity. The Council also concluded the region will be able secure conservation measure and resources at a cost lower than it would otherwise have to pay for additional generating resources.

Sheets, E.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

CX-003082: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Security Administration (NNSA), proposes to demolish Buildings 11-10 and 11-30 at the Pantex Plant. The overall objectives are to reduce Plant maintenance costs and reduce the...

446

Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. Memo regarding Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Technical Standards, Newsletter-June 1999 Build...

447

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways -costs are compared with cost estimates of similar stationsHydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

SunShot Initiative: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transformational Approach to Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics on Digg

449

CX-002874: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Categorical Exclusion Determination 4: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002874: Categorical Exclusion Determination Game Farm Park Energy Efficient Replacement Lighting Project CX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 Date: 06/30/2010 Location(s): Auburn, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. Substantial Improvement of Field Lighting Energy Efficiency at City of Auburn Game Farm Park. Objectives are to reduce energy consumption and electrical utility costs for field lighting through replacement of existing lighting with a reduced number of poles and fixtures that are approximately 40 percent more efficient. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-002874.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-002873: Categorical Exclusion Determination

450

CX-004836: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

836: Categorical Exclusion Determination 836: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004836: Categorical Exclusion Determination Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 12/16/2010 Location(s): Lynnwood, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office Sound & Sea Technology, Incorporated (SST), in Lynnwood, Washington, is proposing to use Department of Energy funding to study wave energy device anchoring and mooring techniques applicable for the full range of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies. SST would develop a remotely controlled grouting procedure suitable for deepwater anchor installations to securely and cost-effectively anchor ocean energy devices to seabed's, while reducing the capital and installation costs of MHK systems.

451

CX-005444: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

44: Categorical Exclusion Determination 44: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005444: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant: Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Incremental Cost Recovery CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 03/22/2011 Location(s): Fairfax County, Virginia Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The County of Fairfax proposes to use $238,540 of Department of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant funds to support a Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) project. Funds will be used to cover the incremental difference in cost between standard fleet vehicles and HEV's when purchasing new fleet vehicles for use by the County. The utilization of HEV's will decrease greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and reduce volumes of fossil fuel consumption.

452

CX-008767: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination 7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008767: Categorical Exclusion Determination Infrastructure Demolition, Replacement, and Related Activities at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B1.7, B1.15, B1.23, B1.24, B1.26, B1.36, B3.1, B4.7 Date: 05/31/2012 Location(s): Missouri Offices(s): Legacy Management The United States Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to demolish portions of the Weldon Spring administration building to reduce excess building footprint and maintenance costs associated with the building. DOE also proposes to demolish a small shed and replace the site's wastewater treatment system with a new, more cost effective subsurface discharge-to-drainfield system. NEPA Checklist 03-12 Infrastructure Demolition at Weldon Spring, Missouri

453

CX-002560: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

60: Categorical Exclusion Determination 60: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002560: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency Retrofits CX(s) Applied: B2.2, B2.5, A1, B5.1 Date: 05/18/2010 Location(s): Covina, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Discussions with the City's electricity provider, Southern California Edison (SCE), San Gabriel Valley Council of Government (COG) member cities, and City staff revealed that increasing the efficiency of existing buildings represents one of the best opportunities for immediate and cost-effective reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Covina. In order to improve the performance of existing buildings and facilities, lower the City's energy costs, and reduce GHG emissions, the City plans to retrofit numerous facilities. Specifically,

454

CX-003203: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Categorical Exclusion Determination 3: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003203: Categorical Exclusion Determination Photovoltaic Power Electronics Research Initiative (PERI) for Developing Low Cost, Ultra Compact, Three Phase Micro Inverters or "AC Bricks" CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/04/2010 Location(s): Florida Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The University of Central Florida proposes to use federal funds to research and develop a low cost, ultra compact, three phase micro inverters to carry 300 watts of power through the use of photovoltaic's. The goal of this project is to reduce the amount of large panel solar arrays required to carry equal amount of electrical energy. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-003203.pdf More Documents & Publications

455

CX-004144: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

44: Categorical Exclusion Determination 44: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004144: Categorical Exclusion Determination Large Scale Testing, Demonstration and Commercialization of Nanoparticle-based Fuel Cell Coolant CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 09/14/2010 Location(s): Whitehall, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Large scale commercialization of fuel cells depends on their cost, durability, weight and size. Dynalene?s nanotechnology-based coolant fluid has shown significant promise to address all these issues by reducing operating cost, weight and size of a fuel cell and improving durability. In Phase III of the project, Dynalene proposes to commercialize the coolant by performing long-term (5000 hour) testing in-house as well as in subcontractor facilities under freeze-thaw conditions, and then provide the

456

Pennsylvania life cycle costing manual  

SciTech Connect

Until the 1970s, it was commonplace for institutions and governments to purchase equipment based on lowest initial (first) costs. Recurring costs such as operational, maintenance, and energy costs often were not considered in the purchase decision. If an agency wanted to buy something, it published specifications and requested bids from several manufacturers. Often, the lowest bidder who met the specifications won the job, with no consideration given to the economic life of the equipment or yearly recurring costs such as energy and maintenance costs. The practice of purchasing based on lowest initial costs probably did not make good economic sense prior to 1970, and it certainly does not make good sense now. The wise person will consider all costs and benefits associated with a purchase, both initial and post-purchase, in order to make procurement decisions that are valid for the life of the equipment. This describes a method of financial analysis that considers all pertinent costs: life cycle costing (LCC).

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

458

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

459

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Tennessee | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

September 22, 2011 September 22, 2011 CX-006988: Categorical Exclusion Determination Use of Ultraviolet or Electron Beam Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Cost to Manufacture Lithium-Ion Batteries CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/22/2011 Location(s): Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Tennessee Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy September 21, 2011 CX-006844: Categorical Exclusion Determination Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative Ground Source Heat Pump CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.1 Date: 09/21/2011 Location(s): Tennessee Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office September 19, 2011 CX-007056: Categorical Exclusion Determination Interstate Electrification Improvement CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 09/19/2011 Location(s): California, Iowa, Maine, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New

460

Innovative Nanocoatings Unlock the Potential for Major Energy and Cost  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nanocoatings Unlock the Potential for Major Energy and Nanocoatings Unlock the Potential for Major Energy and Cost Savings for Airline Industry Innovative Nanocoatings Unlock the Potential for Major Energy and Cost Savings for Airline Industry July 17, 2012 - 3:33pm Addthis Erosion-resistant nanocoatings are making gas turbine engines more efficient, reducing cost and saving fuel. Erosion-resistant nanocoatings are making gas turbine engines more efficient, reducing cost and saving fuel. Bob Gemmer Technology Manager, Research and Development for the Advanced Manufacturing Office What does this mean for me? WIth help from DOE, one company has developed a nanocoating that has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of aircrafts and save the airline industry hundreds of millions of dollars in fuel costs annually.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination reduced cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Integration of Variable Generation and Cost-Causation (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Variable renewable energy generation sources, such as wind and solar energy, provide benefits such as reduced environmental impact, zero fuel consumption, and low and stable costs. Advances in both technologies can reduce capital costs and provide significant control capabilities. However, their variability and uncertainty - which change with weather conditions, time of day, and season - can cause an increase in power system operating costs compared to a fully controllable power plant. Although a number of studies have assessed integration costs, calculating them correctly is challenging because it is difficult to accurately develop a baseline scenario without variable generation that properly accounts for the energy value. It is also difficult to appropriately allocate costs given the complex, nonlinear interactions between resources and loads.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a multiple train coal-fueled IGCC powerplant, also based on the Subtaks 1.3 cases. The Subtask 1.6 four gasification train plant has a thermal efficiency of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine,