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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

CX-000207: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

NaSi (Sodium Silicide) and Na-SG (Sodium Silica Gell) Powder Hydrogen Fuel CellsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 11/23/2009Location(s): New YorkOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

2

determines the number of sodium spikes fired per event by individual cells (Maruta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

determines the number of sodium spikes fired per event by individual cells (Maruta et al., 2007; Mathy et al., 2009) and may thereby mediate the direction and speed of learning in Purkinje cells (Mathy, apparently even down to the level of electrical synapses of the infe- rior olive (Lefler et al., 2014; Mathy

Oertner, Thomas

3

Pressure-induced structural transformations of the Zintl phase sodium silicide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high-pressure behaviour of NaSi has been studied using Raman spectroscopy and angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction to observe the onset of structural phase transformations and potential oligomerisation into anionic Si nanoclusters with extended dimensionality. Our studies reveal a first structural transformation occurring at 8-10 GPa, followed by irreversible amorphisation above 15 GPa, suggesting the formation of Si-Si bonds with oxidation of the Si{sup -} species and reduction of Na{sup +} to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations to assist in the analysis of the structural behaviour of NaSi at high pressure. - Abstract: The high-pressure behaviour of NaSi has been studied using Raman spectroscopy and angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Our studies reveal a first structural transformation occurring at 8-10 GPa, followed by irreversible amorphisation, suggesting the formation of Si-Si bonds with oxidation of the Si{sup -} species and reduction of Na{sup +} to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations to assist in the analysis of the structural behaviour of NaSi at high pressure. Display Omitted

Cabrera, Raul Quesada; Salamat, Ashkan; Barkalov, Oleg I. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Leynaud, Olivier [Department of Crystallography, Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Hutchins, Peter; Daisenberger, Dominik [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Machon, Denis [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, France-Univ. Lyon 1, Laboratoire PMCN, CNRS, UMR 5586, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sella, Andrea; Lewis, Dewi W. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); McMillan, Paul F., E-mail: p.f.mcmillan@ucl.ac.u [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

Jacobson, Victor Levon

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

ID-69 Sodium drain experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes experiments to determine the sodium retention and drainage from the two key areas of an ID-69. This information is then used as the initiation point for guidelines of how to proceed with washing an ID-69 in the IEM Cell Sodium Removal System.

Johnston, D.C.

1996-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

6

Submersible sodium pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

7

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Acid/Base Recovery From Sodium Sulfate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

escalating In price due to the Imbalance In market demand. Chlorine and caustic are produced together by the electrolysis 01 sodium chloride brine solutions. Every ECU (electrochemical unit) 01 chlorine resu~s In the production 01 one ECU 01 caustic soda... cell also produces an acid product that is contaminated with unreacted sullate. The voltage 01 a three compartment is higher, however, and the process system Is more complex. Process System Current density and efficiency determines the amount 01...

Niksa, M. J.

9

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Sodium loop framework structural analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

Nguyen, P.M.

1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

11

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Federal - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -...

13

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project...

14

Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

Huh, Kang Yul

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

16

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

17

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

18

CX-008185: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

replacing existing high-pressure sodium lights with more energy-efficient, light-emitting diode lights. U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination Form...

19

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Abstract: Sodium ion (Na+) batteries...

20

anticoagulant sodium citrate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pressure-velocity boundary ... Huh, Kang Yul 1982-01-01 38 Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

23

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

2002-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

24

Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project This...

25

TOXICOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CONSEQUENCES FROM SODIUM-WATER REACTION IN CELL CONTAINING THE SECONDARY SODIUM TANK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis will show the consequences should the solid sodium in the Secondary Sodium Tank react with a presumed layer of water in the cell. The Peer Review Checklist is attached.

MARUSICH RM

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

26

A layered sodium titanate as promising anode material for sodium ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium ion batteries have recently received great attention for large-scale energy applications because of the abundance and low cost of sodium source. Although some cathode materials with desirable electrochemical properties ...

Wu, Di, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

28

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sodium dodecyl Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Latexes Summary: 1 Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl...

29

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System (Syrris) June 2013 #12;Introduction to the system · The Atlas Sodium system consists of an Atlas base equipped with a 400ºC hotplate, a stacking dry bath systemL) for automated addition and/or removal of solution. · The system is computer controlled by the Atlas software

Subramanian, Venkat

30

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

31

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

32

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

Hammel, C.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

SciTech Connect: Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed...

34

A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

Costes, D. [Consultant (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Radial power flattening in sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to improve a new design for a uranium startup sodium cooled fast reactor which was proposed at MIT, this thesis evaluated radial power flattening by varying the fuel volume fraction at a fixed U-235 enrichment of ...

Krentz-Wee, Rebecca (Rebecca Elizabeth)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Sodium Alanate Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Preparation and characterization of sodium alanate (NaAlH4) based hydrogen storage materials are described in this book. The effect of the NaAlH4 particle size, particularly in (more)

Bald, C.P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Interaction Between Trace Metals, Sodium and Sorbents in Combustion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

Wendt, O.L.; Davis, S.

1997-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

43

Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

44

Bonding in Sodium Chloride Nanotubes: A New Analysis via Madelung Constants and Cohesive Energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Bonding in Sodium Chloride Nanotubes: A New Analysis via Madelung Constants and Cohesive Energies is introduced which employs a linear relationship between nanotube cohesive energies determined via Density between ionic and cohesive bonding energies indicate that, as the nanotubes become longer, ionic bonding

Hanusa, Christopher

45

In sodium tests of ultrasonic transducers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the in-service inspection and for the continuous surveillance of sodium cooled reactors (SFR). These techniques need the development and the qualification of immersed ultrasonic transducers, and materials. This paper presents some developments performed by CEA (DTN and LIST) and AREVA (NDE Solutions), and some results. (authors)

Lhuillier, C.; Descombin, O.; Baque, F. [CEA, DTN, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Marchand, B. [CEA, LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saillant, J. F. [AREVA/NDE Solutions, 4 rue Thomas Dumorey, 71109 Chalon sur Saone Cedex (France); Augem, J. M. [EDF, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Two-dimensional computational modeling of sodium boiling in simulated LMFBR fuel-pin bundles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive sodium boiling tests have been carried out in two simulated LMFBR fuel pin bundles in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Experimental results from a 19-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 6A) have been previously reported, and experimental results from a 61-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 9) will be reported soon. The results discussed here are from the 19-pin bundle. Preliminary analysis has shown that the computational methods used and conclusions reached are equally valid for the 61-pin bundle, as well as the 19-pin in-reactor Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-1 experiment. The main result of THORS sodium boiling experimentation is that boiling behavior is determined by two-dimensional effects, i.e., the rates of mass, momentum and energy transfer in the direction perpendicular to the axes of the fuel pins.

Dearing, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation.

Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Gypsum and Polyacrylamide Soil Amendments Used With High Sodium Wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using wastewater for irrigation of crops represents an attractive alternative to disposal. Typically, municipal wastewaters are high in sodium, and the resulting high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) alters the soil structure making it more impermeable...

Gardiner, Duane

49

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and dissolve into sodium. The method enables addition of dissolved carbon (without carb

Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

51

Recent Sodium Technology Development for the Decommissioning of the Rapsodie and Superphenix Reactors and the Management of Sodium Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has recently developed and/or conducted experiments on several processes in support of the decommissioning of two French liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), Rapsodie and Superphenix, as well as on the treatment of CEA sodium wastes. CEA has demonstrated that it is possible to define appropriate and efficient processes to meet the different situations encountered in decommissioning LMFRs. Mechanical techniques derived from standard technologies have been successfully applied to fast reactor decommissioning to complete primary vessel draining from sodium. In addition, specific chemical processes have been developed to deal safely with metallic sodium reactivity. Sodium-contaminated equipment has been successfully cleaned by reacting sodium with water mist in an atmosphere with carbon dioxide to form inert sodium carbonate. Bulk sodium has been successfully converted into aqueous caustic soda by injection of liquid-metallic sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. Several processes were also defined to deal with specific sodium wastes. In all cases the principle is based on a sodium/water chemical reaction where the released hydrogen and heat are controlled. With the development of a wide variety of processes, all steps in the decommissioning of LMFRs are assumed to be now properly mastered.

Rodriguez, G.; Gastaldi, O.; Baque, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

53

The electrochemical analysis of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate in solutions containing oilfield impurities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

molecules, and above the CMC they diffuse to the drop as micelles. An alternate explanation for this behavior concerns the surface- active properties of nitrated SOBS. It is very likely that adsorption of nitrated SDBS onto the mercury surface takes... of concentration determinat1on would help fill this need. Four different determination methods were investigated using either the rotating-disc electrode or the dropping-mercury electrode. Direct limiting current measurements of the concentration of sodium...

Becker, Michael Carl

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode. A method is provided for producing same.

Doeff, Marca M. (Hayward, CA); Ma, Yanping (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Sodium cobalt bronze batteries and a method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state secondary battery utilizing a low cost, environmentally sound, sodium cobalt bronze electrode is described. A method is provided for producing same. 11 figs.

Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

58

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Idaho Site Obtains Patent for Nuclear Reactor Sodium Cleanup Treatment March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis CWI engineers Jeff Jones, David Tolman, right, and Kirk Dooley...

59

Efficacy of soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendments for the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of soluble sodium tripolyphosphate amendments for the in-situ immobilisation of uranium."Environmental Chemistry 4:293-300. Authors: DM Wellman EM Pierce MM Valenta...

60

aqueous sodium sulfate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

viscosity, 771, for PDMDAAC fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light Dubin, Paul D. 32 Structure and Dynamics in Aqueous...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart for the myocardium at rest and during stress. We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac by 1 ml/kg/h continuous infusion for 24 hours. The control group received only a 3 ml/kg bolus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component Francois Leblanc a,*, R 2010 Accepted 27 April 2010 Available online 5 May 2010 Keywords: Mercury, Atmosphere Aeronomy a b s t r a c t Our understanding of Mercury's sodium exosphere has improved considerably in the last 5

Johnson, Robert E.

64

Low temperature sodium-beta battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

65

Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na{sub 2}O in dry air condition and liquid Na{sub 2}O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling.

Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira [O-arai Engineering Center (Japan)

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Calcium and sodium bentonite for hydraulic containment applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydraulic conductivity of calcium and sodium bentonites was investigated for sand-bentonite mixtures, a thin bentonite layer simulating a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and bentonite-cement mixtures simulating backfill for a vertical cutoff wall. The permeant liquids were tap water and distilled water containing 0.25 M calcium chloride. In general, the hydraulic performance of calcium bentonite was not significantly better than the performance of sodium bentonite for either the clay-amended sand or the GCL application, and was substantially worse than the performance of sodium bentonite in the bentonite-cement mixture. A drained angle of internal friction of 21{degree} was measured for calcium bentonite, compared to 10{degree} for sodium bentonite. Except for a larger drained shear strength, no advantage of calcium bentonite over sodium bentonite could be identified from the results of this study.

Gleason, M.H. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Columbia, MD (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Eykholt, G.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

J. A. (Bart) Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate sodium lactate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sodium-high lactate infusion'. Of course, it is easy to demonstrate that high lactate infusion... . Also, sodium-lactate infusion in humans ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre...

70

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fast sodium Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sodium in the PFBR). The same initiating events occurring in both thermal and fast reactors could produce... specifications of demonstration fast reactors.* Thermal Sodium void...

71

Experimental investigations on sodium plugging in narrow flow channels.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments was performed to investigate the potential for plugging of narrow flow channels of sodium by impurities (e.g., oxides). In the first phase of the experiments, clean sodium was circulated through the test sections simulating flow channels in a compact diffusion-bonded heat exchanger such as a printed circuit heat exchanger. The primary objective was to see if small channels whose cross sections are semicircles of 2, 4, and 6 mm in diameter are usable in liquid sodium applications where sodium purity is carefully controlled. It was concluded that the 2-mm channels, the smallest of the three, could be used in clean sodium systems at temperatures even as low as 100 to 110 C without plugging. In the second phase, sodium oxide was added to the loop, and the oxygen concentration in the liquid sodium was controlled by means of varying the cold-trap temperature. Intentional plugging was induced by creating a cold spot in the test sections, and the subsequent plugging behavior was observed. It was found that plugging in the 2-mm test section was initiated by lowering the cold spot temperature below the cold-trap temperature by 10 to 30 C. Unplugging of the plugged channels was accomplished by heating the affected test section.

Momozaki, Y.; Cho, D. H.; Sienicki, J. J.; Moisseytsev, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Loop simulation capability for sodium-cooled systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A one-dimensional loop simulation capability has been implemented in the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, THERMIT-4E. This code had been used to simulate and investigate flow in test sections of experimental sodium loops ...

Adekugbe, Oluwole A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

aged sodium borophosphate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ultraviolet flux will produce a similar variation in the column of neutral sodium for a fixed mass flux and density. However, if the cold gas is in pressure equilibrium with a hot...

77

aqueous sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 58 Systematic...

78

Reactor protection system design alternatives for sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historically, unprotected transients have been viewed as design basis events that can significantly challenge sodium-cooled fast reactors. The perceived potential consequences of a severe unprotected transient in a ...

DeWitte, Jacob D. (Jacob Dominic)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Probabilistic transient analysis of fuel choices for sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the implications of using a risk-informed licensing framework to inform the design of Sodium Fast Reactors. NUREG-1860, more commonly known as the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF), is a risk-informed ...

Denman, Matthew R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

Suo-Anttila, A.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applicatio...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

B Schwenzer, J Xiao, Z Nie, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu.2012."Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications."Nano Letters 12(7):37833787....

82

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Sodium Chloride.--In order to test the recovery of added salt, several molasses feeds were selected, weighed out, and varying amounts of salt added, in the form of a N/10 solution of sodium chloride. The salt was added hy a different person from... ............................... . . Preliminary ~vork on laboratory methocls ........ . . ............................... Laboratory method adopted.. ............................. Tests of the laboratory niethod. ................... Application of the methold to feed mixtures...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard [IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France; Denning, Richard [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Ohno, Shuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan; Zeyen, Roland [Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Classification : Original Article VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS POTENTIATE THE INVASIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- gated sodium channels in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Functional voltage-gated sodium channels cancerous cell lines H23, H460 and Calu-1 possess functional sodium channels while normal and weakly metastatic cell lines do not. While all the cell lines expressed mRNA for numerous sodium channel isoforms

Boyer, Edmond

85

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Isotope loss from exhaled moisture and correlation of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance to body fluid compartments measured by intravenous deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution in dogs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for this route of isotope loss was necessary. Sodium bromide concentrations at 90 minutes and 180 minutes were tested for statistical equivalency to determine if NaBr had equilibrated by 90 minutes. Finally, impedance measured with electrodes separated by 2...

Witten, Tiffani Tipton

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Numerical Methodology to Evaluate Fast Reactor Sodium Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study, a numerical methodology for sodium combustion has been developed for the safety evaluation of a liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor. The methodology includes a fast-running zone model computer program for safety evaluation, a field model program for multidimensional thermal hydraulics, and a chemical reaction analysis program based on chemical equilibrium theory. Two recently performed experiments have been analyzed using the computer programs, and the numerical results are in good agreement with the experiments. Although sodium combustion is a complex phenomenon, use of these computer programs gives better understanding of the coupled thermal hydraulics and chemical reaction.

Yamaguchi, Akira; Takata, Takashi; Okano, Yasushi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan)

2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

The magnesium nutrition of cotton as influenced by sodium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1964 Major Subject. Plant Physic logy THE MAGNESIUM NUTRITION OF COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM A Thesis By MERVYN M. THENABADU Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi. e Nun Head of Department Member Mem, er Member Member... REVIEW OF LITERATURE (a) Sodium as a plant nutrient (b) I'he role of magnesium in plant nutrition MATERIALS AND METHODS RESUL:S DISCUSSION 13 21 24 (a) The effect of treatments on grcwth and reproduction (b) The effect of treatments on the ccr...

Thenabadu, Mervyn Wellesly

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodiumaluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup ?}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Gantefr, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

90

FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 100 calcium while rations 3 and4contained 3.85 p. 100 calcium. Sodium bicarbonate was added at a level. The duodenum was entered at the top of the loop and the electrode tip immersed its full length down the posterior side of the loop. The #12;mid-intestinal reading was taken with the incision at approximately

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/SLC4A7/NBCn1 pulled down syntrophin c2 and con- versely GST/syntrophin c2 pulled down NBCn1. Moreover normally moves Na+ and HCO3 ? into cells and protects intracel- lular pH (pHi) from falling below normal

Hall, Randy A

93

Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester. Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

95

Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

96

Immobilization of sodium nitrate waste with polymers: Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of solidification systems for sodium nitrate waste. Sodium nitrate waste was solidified in the polymers polyethylene, polyester-styrene (PES), and water-extendible polyester-styrene (WEP). Evaluations were made of the properties of waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate by leaching immersion in water, measuring compressive strengths and by the EPA Extraction Procedure. Results of the leaching test are presented as cumulative fraction leached (CFL), incremental leaching rate, and average leaching indices (LI). For waste forms containing 30 to 70 wt% sodium nitrate, the CFL ranged from 9.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 7.3 x 10/sup -1/ and the LI from 11 to 7.8. After ninety days immersion in water, the compressive strengths ranged from 720 psi to 2550 psi. The nitrate releases from these samples using the EPA Extraction Procedure were below 500 ppM. The nitrate releases from PES waste forms were similar to those from polyethylene waste forms at the same waste loadings. The compressive yield strengths, measured after ninety-day immersion in water, ranged between 2070 and 7710 psi. In the case of WEP waste forms, only 30 wt% loaded samples passed the immersion test. 23 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Compatibility Assessment of Advanced Stainless Steels in Sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Type 316L stainless steel capsules containing commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS (austenitic, 14Cr-16Ni), NF-616 (ferritic/martensitic, 9Cr-2W-0.5Mo), or 316L (austenitic, 17Cr-10Ni-2Mo) stainless steel were exposed at 600 or 700 C for 100 and 400 h as a screening test for compatibility. Using weight change, tensile testing, and metallographic analysis, HT-UPS and 316L were found to be largely immune to changes resulting from sodium exposure, but NF-616 was found susceptible to substantial decarburization at 700 C. Subsequently, two thermal convection loops (TCLs) constructed of 316L and loaded with commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS and 316L were operated for 2000 h each one between 500 and 650 C, the other between 565 and 725 C at a flow rate of about 1.5 cm/s. Changes in specimen appearance, weight, and tensile properties were observed to be very minor in all cases, and there was no metallographic evidence of microstructure changes, composition gradients, or mass transfer resulting from prolonged exposure in a TCL. Thus, it appears that HT-UPS and 316L stainless steels are similarly compatible with commercially pure sodium under these exposure conditions.

Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Applicability of RELAP5-3D for Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of a Sodium-Cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Actinide Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is envisioned as a sodium-cooled, fast reactor that will burn the actinides generated in light water reactors to reduce nuclear waste and ease proliferation concerns. The RELAP5-3D computer code is being considered as the thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the ABTR. An evaluation was performed to determine the applicability of RELAP5-3D for the analysis of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The applicability evaluation consisted of several steps, including identifying the important transients and phenomena expected in the ABTR, identifying the models and correlations that affect the codes calculation of the important phenomena, and evaluating the applicability of the important models and correlations for calculating the important phenomena expected in the ABTR. The applicability evaluation identified code improvements and additional models needed to simulate the ABTR. The accuracy of the calculated thermodynamic and transport properties for sodium was also evaluated.

C. B. Davis

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF-355. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR

Weston, Ken

100

apical sodium-chloride cotransporter: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

g magnesium chloride, 3.24 g magnesium sulfate bromide, 34 mg strontium chloride, 22 mg boric acid, 4 mg sodium silicate, 2.4 mg sodium fluoride, 1.6 mg Bae, Jin-Woo 302 The...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

1983-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

102

Go No-Go Recommendation for Sodium Borohydride for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Independent review panel recommendation for go/no go decision on use of hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen storage.

103

Transport parameter determination and modeling of sodium and strontium plumes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

finite-element method to model a case of chromium contamination with some success. Bobcrtson, '1974~ used au iterative, alternating- direction. inrplicit finite-difference scheme to solve the groundwater flow equation and a. nrodified method... the location of the INEL and generalized groundwater flow lines of the Snake River Plain aquifer [from Barraclough et al. , 1981). . 12 3. Map showing the major facilities and surface water features at the INEL [from Robertson et al. , 1974]. 4. Volcanic...

Londergan, John Thomas

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Neutronic Assessment of Transmutation Target Compositions in Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Geometries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sodium fast reactor is under consideration for consuming the transuranic waste in the spent nuclear fuel generated by light water reactors. This work is concerned with specialized target assemblies for an oxide-fueled sodium fast reactor that are designed exclusively for burning the americium and higher mass actinide component of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The associated gamma and neutron radioactivity, as well as thermal heat, associated with decay of these actinides may significantly complicate fuel handling and fabrication of recycled fast reactor fuel. The objective of using targets is to isolate in a smaller number of assemblies these concentrations of higher actinides, thus reducing the volume of fuel having more rigorous handling requirements or a more complicated fabrication process. This is in contrast to homogeneous recycle where all recycled actinides are distributed among all fuel assemblies. Several heterogeneous core geometries were evaluated to determine the fewest target assemblies required to burn these actinides without violating a set of established fuel performance criteria. The DIF3D/REBUS code from Argonne National Laboratory was used to perform the core physics and accompanying fuel cycle calculations in support of this work. Using the REBUS code, each core design was evaluated at the equilibrium cycle condition.

Samuel E. Bays; Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Michael A. Pope; Benoit Forget; Mehdi Asgari

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultracold Molecules from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb from Ultracold Atoms: Interactions in Sodium and Lithium Gas by Caleb A Christensen Submitted of Philosophy Abstract The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23

106

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block) structures, using sodium silicate as the silica source and amphiphilic block copolymers as the structure of mesoporous silica material using nonionic surfac- tant and sodium silicate in the pH range 3­10.5. However

Kim, Ji Man

107

Clinch River breeder reactor sodium fire protection system design and development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To assure the protection of the public and plant equipment, improbable accidents were hypothesized to form the basis for the design of safety systems. One such accident is the postulated failure of the Intermediate Heat Transfer System (IHTS) piping within the Steam Generator Building (SGB), resulting in a large-scale sodium fire. This paper discusses the design and development of plant features to reduce the consequences of the accident to acceptable levels. Additional design solutions were made to mitigate the sodium spray contribution to the accident scenario. Sodium spill tests demonstrated that large sodium leaks can be safely controlled in a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant.

Foster, K.W.; Boasso, C.J.; Kaushal, N.N.

1984-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

108

Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as bath in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

109

Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Sodium boiling dryout correlation for LMFBR fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain postulated accident conditions for a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), such as the failure of the shutdown heat removal system (SHRS), sodium boiling and clad dryout might occur in the fuel assemblies. It is important to predict the time from boiling inception to dryout, since sustained clad dryout will result in core damage. In this paper a dryout correlation is presented. This correlation is based on 21 boiling tests which resulted in dryout from the THORS BUNDLE 6A, a 19-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly and from the THORS Bundle 9, a 61-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly. All these tests were performed as follows: for each specified bundle power, an initial steady-state high sodium flow was established, for which sodium boiling did not occur in the bundle. The temperature at the outlet of the test section was approx. 700/sup 0/C. Then, using a programmable pump control system, the flow was reduced to a low value and boiling occurred.

Carbajo, J.J.; Rose, S.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

FLOWSHEET EVALUATION FOR THE DISSOLVING AND NEUTRALIZATION OF SODIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT USED NUCLEAR FUEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report includes the literature review, hydrogen off-gas calculations, and hydrogen generation tests to determine that H-Canyon can safely dissolve the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE; thorium fuel), Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR; aluminum alloy fuel), and Denmark Reactor (DR-3; silicide fuel, aluminum alloy fuel, and aluminum oxide fuel) assemblies in the L-Bundles with respect to the hydrogen levels in the projected peak off-gas rates. This is provided that the number of L-Bundles charged to the dissolver is controlled. Examination of SRE dissolution for potential issues has aided in predicting the optimal batching scenario. The calculations detailed in this report demonstrate that the FNR, SRE, and DR-3 used nuclear fuel (UNF) are bounded by MURR UNF and may be charged using the controls outlined for MURR dissolution in a prior report.

Daniel, W. E.; Hansen, E. K.; Shehee, T. C.

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

113

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Interactions between trace metals, sodium and sorbents in combustion. Quarterly report No. 3, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

Wendt, J.O.L.

1995-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

116

Interactions between trace metals, sodium and sorbents in combustion. Quarterly report No. 4, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

Wendt, J.O.L.; Davis, S.

1995-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Practical features of illumination with high pressure sodium lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of concerns raised about the health effects of high pressure sodium lamps (HPS) are discussed. The notion of a ''natural'' human photic environment based on sunlight is disputed. Humans are better adapted to the ''greenish'' spectral composition of forest light than to direct sunlight. It is ironic that the artificial light source which has received the most disapproval, cool white flourescent lamp, has a spectral composition similar to that of forest light. HPS is also available in a full range of colors. Some successful examples of HPS--from North Division High School, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to museum exhibits at National Geographic in Washington--are listed.

Corth, R.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Dynamic stability experiments in sodium-heated steam generators. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seventy-two dynamic stability tests were performed in the sodium-heated boiling-water test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. A full-scale LMFBR steam generator tube was employed as the test section operating over the water parameter ranges of 6.9 to 15.9 MPa pressure and 170 to 800 kg/m/sup 2/.s mass flux. The stability thresholds from the test compared well to the predictions of a modified version of a correlation equation recently published by other investigators. Typical experimental data and the modified correlation equation are presented.

France, D.M.; Roy, R.; Carlson, R.D.; Chiang, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Nanofriction on Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Brushes in Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigated the frictional properties of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) brushes in water by frictional force microscopy (FFM). Polyelectrolyte brushes were prepared on silicon wafers by the grafting-to method. The brushes considerably reduce the frictional force and coefficient of kinetic friction compared to hydrodynamic lubrication on a smooth Si wafer. Frictional force is independent of sliding speed, but is lower for lower degrees of NaPSS polymerization. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the polymer chains in a brush are stretched strongly away from the substrate. These results suggest that polymer chains point support the FFM probe tip in water and reduced contact area and friction.

Takuya Fujima; Eitaro Futakuchi; Fumihiro Kino

2014-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

120

Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications. |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite CulturalDepartment ofat Home |EMSL Sodium Ion Insertion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Crystallization of Sodium Phosphate Dodecahydrate and Re-Crystallization to Natrophosphate in Simulated Hanford Nuclear Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear waste at the Hanford site near Richland, WA, has large concentrations of phosphate in the form of the phosphate ion, sodium phosphate dodecahydrate (Na3PO4.12H2O.(1/4)NaOH) and natrophosphate (Na7F(PO4)3.19H2O). Sodium phosphate dodecahydrate can form a gel and natrophosphate can crystallize large particles, complicating the processing of slurries of both salts. The gel is regarded as more problematic, so natrophosphate has historically been crystallized to prevent phosphate gelling. This study determined that natrophosphate crystals can grow to large size in short time periods (a few weeks), time periods relevant to short process shutdowns. Solutions of NaOH and NaAl(OH)4 were blended at different ratios with stock solutions containing NaOH, NaF, and Na3PO4 at 50 C. The mixtures were allowed to cool to 22 C, and the crystal growth was monitored by Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) for 17 days. Four of the six blends investigated gelled rapidly due to Na3PO4.12H2O.(1/4)NaOH precipitation. The gel slowly dissipated over time as the solids recrystallized into natrophosphate. In one case, the natrophosphate reached sizes of greater than 1000 microns in diameter in just 4 days. This rapid gelling and crystallization kinetics is important to engineers trying to manage nuclear wastes high in phosphates. Hanford tank farm engineers are developing sampling plans to support temperature and process control strategies for preventing the formation of solid phosphates. They are also developing methods of suspending large natrophosphate crystals.

Reynolds, J. G.

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

122

ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS: SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE AND ORGANOTIN HYDRIDES.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane (more)

McLafferty, Jason

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting sodium hypochlorite Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop Summary: equipment, vehicles Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) 200-500 ppm Nets, boots, clothing. Surfaces must be clean... hypochlorite solution.Note: Bleach is 5.25%...

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline sodium borohydride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aardahl, PNNL) The most critical hurdle for the use of sodium ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure...

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum sodium chloride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

agents Water Acetyl chloride, alkaline and alkaline... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium ... Source: Hall, Sharon J. - School of Life Sciences, Arizona...

126

REACTIONS OF SODIUM PEROXIDE WITH COMPONENTS OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) calcined at >900 C resists dissolution in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3})-potassium fluoride (KF) solutions, a common method for their dissolution. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an alternate method for large samples of PuO{sub 2}-bearing materials using sodium peroxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fusion as a pretreatment. The products of the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} have been reported in the literature. As part of the SRNL development effort, additional data about the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} were required. Also needed were data concerning the reaction of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} with other components that may be present in the feed materials. Sodium peroxide was reacted with aluminum metal (Al), beryllium metal (Be), graphite, potassium chloride (KCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The paper reports and discusses the reaction products of these and related compounds with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

Pierce, R.; Missimer, D.; Crowder, M.

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

127

Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper, it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result, it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part, an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled, metal fuel, 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature, pressure drop, linear heat rate, and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding, fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CANDLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

Takaki, Naoyuki; Namekawa, Azuma; Yoda, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokai University, Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); AISA, Fuchu, Ishioka, Ibaraki 315-0013 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

129

TRUEX partitioning studies applied to ICPP sodium-bearing waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located in southeast Idaho at the USDOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, formerly reprocessed highly enriched spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The HLW raffinates from the combined PUREX/REDOX type uranium recovery process were converted to solid oxides (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. Liquid effluents from the calcination process were combined with liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW) generated primarily in conjunction with decontamination activities. Due to the high sodium content in the SBW, this secondary waste stream is not directly amenable to solidification via calcination. Currently, approximately 1.5 millon gallons of liquid SBW are stored at the ICPP in large tanks. Several treatment options for the SBW are currently being considered, including the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process developed by Horwitz and co-workers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in preparation for the final disposition of SBW. Herein described are experimental results of radionuclide tracer studies with simulated SBW using the TRUEX process solvent.

Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Law, J.D.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O. [AREVA (France); Dalle, F. [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M. [Electricite de France - EDF (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

132

4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures Strong Corrosives ­ Strong Bases (SB) Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) PrintOH Form: pellets Color: white Melting point/freezing point: 318 °C (604 °F

Cohen, Ronald C.

133

Sequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is critically important in the translocation of death receptor to the cell surface. Moreover, sodium arsenite and further down-regulates cFLIP levels in melanoma cells. We have evaluated the effects of sequentialSequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL

134

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of Salmonella inhibitory effect in the recovery media. Keywords : Salmonella typhimurium, Sodium chloride, Heat treatment, but they also generate damaged cells. The ability of heated cells to survive depends on the recovery conditions

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

135

Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina David A. Litton March 1998; accepted 21 October 1998) Sodium silicate intergranular films (IGF) in contact. The results were compared to previous simulations of calcium silicate and sol-gel silica IGF's in contact

Garofalini, Stephen H.

136

Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Art (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Lambert, John (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Hayes, Steven (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL); Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting. Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Idaho Falls, ID); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, and activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950`s and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the 105-DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF was initially used only for engineering-scale alkali metal reaction studies. In addition, the Fusion Safety Support Studies program sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium lead compounds. The facility has also been used to store and treat alkali metal waste, therefore the LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610. This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

Anil Virkar

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The development of a realistic source term for sodium-cooled fast reactors : assessment of current status and future needs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) continue to be proposed and designed throughout the United States and the world. Although the number of SFRs actually operating has declined substantially since the 1980s, a significant interest in advancing these types of reactor systems remains. Of the many issues associated with the development and deployment of SFRs, one of high regulatory importance is the source term to be used in the siting of the reactor. A substantial amount of modeling and experimental work has been performed over the past four decades on accident analysis, sodium coolant behavior, and radionuclide release for SFRs. The objective of this report is to aid in determining the gaps and issues related to the development of a realistic, mechanistically derived source term for SFRs. This report will allow the reader to become familiar with the severe accident source term concept and gain a broad understanding of the current status of the models and experimental work. Further, this report will allow insight into future work, in terms of both model development and experimental validation, which is necessary in order to develop a realistic source term for SFRs.

LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Phillips, Jesse; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Middleton, Bobby D.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS/IPSL, Verrie`res-Le-Buisson, France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury's sodium exosphere: Magnetospheric ion recycling F. Leblanc Service d'Ae´ronomie du CNRS December 2003. [1] A three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere was used in the surface concentration of sodium along Mercury's motion around the Sun [Leblanc and Johnson, 2003]. Four

Johnson, Robert E.

144

Analysis and methodology for measuring oxygen concentration in liquid sodium with a plugging meter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen concentration in liquid sodium is a critical measurement in assessing the potential for corrosion damage in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). There has been little recent work on sodium reactors and oxygen detection. Thus, the technical expertise dealing with oxygen measurements within sodium is no longer readily available in the U.S. Two methods of oxygen detection that have been investigated are the plugging meter and the galvanic cell. One of the overall goals of the Univ. of Wisconsin's sodium research program is to develop an affordable, reliable galvanic cell oxygen sensor. Accordingly, attention must first be dedicated to a well-known standard known as a plugging meter. Therefore, a sodium loop has been constructed on campus in effort to develop the plugging meter technique and gain experience working with liquid metal. The loop contains both a galvanic cell test section and a plugging meter test section. Consistent plugging results have been achieved below 20 [wppm], and a detailed process for achieving effective plugging has been developed. This paper will focus both on an accurate methodology to obtain oxygen concentrations from a plugging meter, and on how to easily control the oxygen concentration of sodium in a test loop. Details of the design, materials, manufacturing, and operation will be presented. Data interpretation will also be discussed, since a modern discussion of plugging data interpretation does not currently exist. (authors)

Nollet, B. K.; Hvasta, M.; Anderson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Membrane formation by preferential solvation of ions in mixture of water, 3-methylpyridine, and sodium tetraphenylborate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure and dynamics of a ternary system composed of deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O), 3-methylpyridine (3MP), and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh{sub 4}) are investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron spin echo (NSE) techniques. In the SANS experiments, a structural phase transition is confirmed between a disordered-phase and an ordered-lamellar-phase upon variation of the composition and/or temperature of the mixture. The characteristic lengths of the structures is on the sub-micrometer scale. A dispersion relation of the structure is measured through NSE experiments, which shows that the relaxation rate follows a cubic relation with momentum transfer. This implies that the dynamics of the system are determined predominantly by membrane fluctuations. The present results indicate that 3MP-rich domains are microscopically separated from bulk water in the presence of NaBPh{sub 4}, and that the layers behave as membranes. These results are interpreted that preferential solvation of salt in each solvent induces a microphase separation between the solvents, and the periodic structure of 3MP-rich domains is stabilized by the long-range electrostatic interaction arising from Na{sup +} ions in D{sub 2}O-rich domains.

Sadakane, Koichiro, E-mail: sadakane@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-Higashi 1-1-1, Kusatsu 525-8577 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-Higashi 1-1-1, Kusatsu 525-8577 (Japan); Nagao, Michihiro [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States) [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States); Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408-1398 (United States); Endo, Hitoshi; Seto, Hideki [KENS and CMRC, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)] [KENS and CMRC, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

146

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

A 100 MWe advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor core concept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Advanced sodium-cooled Fast Reactor core concept (AFR-100) was developed targeting a small electrical grid to be transportable to the plant site and operable for a long time without frequent refueling. The reactor power rating was strategically decided to be 100 MWe, and the core barrel diameter was limited to 3.0 m for transportability. The design parameters were determined by relaxing the peak fast fluence limit and bulk coolant outlet temperature to beyond irradiation experience assuming that advanced cladding and structural materials developed under US-DOE programs would be available when the AFR-100 is deployed. With a de-rated power density and U-Zr binary metallic fuel, the AFR-100 can maintain criticality for 30 years without refueling. The average discharge burnup of 101 MWd/kg is comparable to conventional design values, but the peak discharge fast fluence of {approx}6x10{sup 23} neutrons/cm{sup 2} is beyond the current irradiation experiences with HT-9 cladding. The evaluated reactivity coefficients provide sufficient negative feedbacks and the reactivity control systems provide sufficient shutdown margins. The integral reactivity parameters obtained from quasi-static reactivity balance analysis indicate that the AFR-100 meets the sufficient conditions for acceptable asymptotic core outlet temperature following postulated unprotected accidents. Additionally, the AFR-100 has sufficient thermal margins by grouping the fuel assemblies into eight orifice zones. (authors)

Kim, T. K.; Grandy, C.; Hill, R. N. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

Rashad, A.M., E-mail: alaarashad@yahoo.com [Housing and Building National Research Center, HBRC, 87 El-Tahrir St., Dokki, Giza 11511, P.O. Box: 1770, Cairo (Egypt); Bai, Y., E-mail: y.bai@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Basheer, P.A.M. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

The corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B in sulfur and sodium polysulfides at 623 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was completed to determine the corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B, a nickel-based alloy with high molybdenum content, in sulfur and sodium polysulfides (Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/,Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 5/) at 623 K. In sulfur, molybdenum corrodes very slowly, with a parabolic rate constant of 3.6 x 10/sup -9/ cm s/sup -1/2/. Hastelloy B shows no measurable corrosion after 100h of exposure to sulfur. The corrosion reaction of molybdenum in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ is characterized by the formation of a protective film that effectively eliminates further corrosion after the first 100h of exposure. Hastelloy B, however, corrodes rapidly in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/, with corrosion rates approaching those of pure nickel under the same conditions. After the first 4h of exposure, the kinetics for the corrosion of Hastelloy B in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ follows a linear rate law. The scale morphology has multiple spalled layers of NiS/sub 2/, with some crystallites of NiS/sub 2/ appearing on the leading face of the scale and between the individual scale layers. This spalling causes smaller coupons of the Hastelloy B to corrode faster than larger coupons.

Brown, A.P.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43 (Malaysia)

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

151

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Offices (NE-ID) and State of Idahos top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Interactions between trace metals, sodium and sorbents in combustion. Quarterly report No. 5, October 1, 1995--December 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures,which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined. The research is divided into the following five tasks: (1) combustor modifications; (2) screening experiments; (3) mechanisms; (4) applications and (5) mathematical modelling. Accomplishments for this past quarter are briefly described for tasks 1 and 2.

Wendt, J.O.L.; Davis, S.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Application of GRS method to evaluation of uncertainties of calculation parameters of perspective sodium-cooled fast reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of recent studies have been devoted to the estimation of errors of reactor calculation parameters by the GRS (Generation Random Sampled) method. This method is based on direct sampling input data resulting in formation of random sets of input parameters which are used for multiple calculations. Once these calculations are performed, statistical processing of the calculation results is carried out to determine the mean value and the variance of each calculation parameter of interest. In our study this method is used for estimation of errors of calculation parameters (K{sub eff}, power density, dose rate) of a perspective sodium-cooled fast reactor. Neutron transport calculations were performed by the nodal diffusion code TRIGEX and Monte Carlo code MMK. (authors)

Peregudov, A.; Andrianova, O.; Raskach, K.; Tsibulya, A. [Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk 244033, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T. [Ai-Farabi Kazakh National University, Chemical Faculty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Galkin, A. [KATEP Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Bachilova, N. [NIISTROMPROEKT Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Blynskiy, A. [Nuclear Technology Safety Centre, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Maev, V. [MAEK-Kazatomprom Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Wells, D. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Herrick, A. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Caithness (United Kingdom); Michelbacher, J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental and analytical program has been carried out in order to better understand the cause and effect of flow oscillations in boiling sodium systems. These oscillations have been noted in previous experiments with ...

Levin, Alan Edward

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS evaluates thepotential environmental impacts of the proposed electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne...

157

Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

An Evaluation of the Annular Fuel and Bottle-Shaped Fuel Concepts for Sodium Fast Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two innovative fuel concepts, the internally and externally cooled annular fuel and the bottle-shaped fuel, were investigated with the goal of increasing the power density and reduce the pressure drop in the sodium-cooled ...

Memmott, Matthew

159

Ultracold molecules from ultracold atoms : interactions in sodium and lithium gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thesis presents results from experiments in which ultracold Sodium-6 and Lithium-23 atomic gases were studied near a Feshbach resonance at high magnetic fields. The enhanced interactions between atoms in the presence ...

Christensen, Caleb A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

The Beta-Neutrino Correlation in Sodium-21 and Other Nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RIA?INTproc?abetanu THE BETA-NEUTRINO CORRELATION IN SODIUM-electrons shaken off in beta decay. High detection ef?ciencyTOF template spectra for beta decays to 21 Ne + , are shown

Vetter, Paul A.; Abo-Shaeer, Jamil; Freedman, Stuart J.; Maruyama, Reina

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Application of the Technology Neutral Framework to Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG-1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

Johnson, Brian C.

162

Applying risk informed methodologies to improve the economics of sodium-cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to support the increasing demand for clean sustainable electricity production and for nuclear waste management, the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is being developed. The main drawback has been its high capital ...

Nitta, Christopher C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Population strategies to decrease sodium intake : a global cost-effectiveness analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excessive sodium consumption is both prevalent and very costly in many countries around the world. Recent research has found that more than 90% of the world's adult population live in countries with mean intakes exceeding ...

Webb, Michael William, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Application of the technology neutral framework to sodium cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) are considered as a novel example to exercise the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF) proposed in NUREG- 1860. One reason for considering SFRs is that they have historically had a licensing ...

Johnson, Brian C. (Brian Carl)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260 deg. C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260 deg. C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

166

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of innovative fuel configurations for the sodium fast reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The sodium fast reactor (SFR) is currently being reconsidered as an instrument for actinide management throughout the world, thanks in part to international programs such as the Generation-IV and especially the Global ...

Memmott, Matthew J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Tools for supercritical carbon dioxide cycle analysis and the cycle's applicability to sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-C0?) Recompression cycle are two technologies that have the potential to impact the power generation landscape of the future. In order for their ...

Ludington, Alexander R. (Alexander Rockwell)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual ineel sodium-bearing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: actual ineel sodium-bearing Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 RAC Report No. 4-CDC-Task Order 1-1999-Final FINAL REPORT Summary: Dose Reconstruction Study at the INEEL Centers for...

169

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

Sparks, Donald L.

170

The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the sublimation of H2O to bulk ice. A 1-dimensional model of sodium chemistry was then employed to show and particles; cloud physics and chemistry; middle atmosphere ± composition and chemistry) Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

171

Growth and bone development in weanling quarter horses fed diets supplemented with sodium zeolite-A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT IN WEANLING QUARTER HORSES FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM ZEOLITE-A A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUZANNE FREY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Nutrition GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT IN WEANLING QUARTER HORSES FED DIETS SUPPLER WITH SODIUM ZEOLITE-A A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUZPZPK FREY Approved as to style and content by...

Frey, Kimberly Suzanne

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Sodium and potassium levels in the serum of acutely irradiated and non-irradiated rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject: Zoology SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head...

Shepherd, David Preston

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Evolution of Sodium Technology R and D Actions Supporting French Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the evolution of sodium technology research and development in parallel to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) developments in France and provides information concerning operating plants and existing projects. This paper also discusses how supporting research has adapted to the decline in FBR activities since the decommissioning of Superphenix, while capitalizing on knowledge acquired over more than four decades to be passed down to future generations.

Rodriguez, G.; Baque, F.; Astegiano, J.C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L. [RSE - Nuclear and Industrial Plant Safety Team, Power Generation System Dept., via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Dept., via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N. [Universita di Pisa-Facolta d'Ingegneria DIMNP-Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Dep., Largo L. Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

The tolerance of two varieties of cotton to relatively high levels of sodium and magnesium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE TO'ERANCE OF TNO VARIETIES OF COTTON TO RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF SODIUM AND MAGNESIUM A Tnesis by Msnhar C. Parekh Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...) (Nember) (Nemb ) August 1969 ABSTRACT The Tolerance of Two Varieties of Cotton to Relatively High Levels of Sodium and Magnesium. (August 1969) Masher C. Parekh, B. S. , Gujarat University, Directed by: Dr. H. E. Joham An experiment was conducted...

Parekh, Manhar C

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

176

Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar?driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

Todd M. Francis, Paul R. Lichty, Christopher Perkins, Melinda Tucker, Peter B. Kreider, Hans H. Funke, Allan Lewandowski, and Alan W. Weimer

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

177

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

178

An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280C and 240C. At 280C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

180

CX-008727: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facility Tank System Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure CX(s) Applied: B6.1 Date: 06/27/2012 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): Idaho Operations Office

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Bchi, Switzerland) with 115C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

Moreira, B. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Passador, F. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Pessan, L. A., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Federal University of So Carlos (Brazil)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Sodium bicarbonate and Alkaten as buffers in beef cattle diets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. PROCEDURE FOR INDIGESTIBLE ACID DETERGENT FIBER ( IAOF ) DETERMINATION. 84 LIST OF FIGURES Figure l. Time vs. rumen pH in the 90% concentrate diet. 2. Time vs. rumen pH in the 50% concentrate diet. 3. Time vs. duodena1 pH in the 90% concentrate diet 4... steers fed two levels of concentrate. 2. To determine the effect of NaHCO 3 and Alkaten on the site and extent of nutr 1ent digestibility and to exam1ne the relationship of pH and digestibility. 3. To determ1ne the effect of buffers on intake, feed...

Boerner, Benedict Joseph

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

186

Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benot; Baronian, Vahan [CEA LIST, Centre de Saclay F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

187

GIF sodium fast reactor project R and D on safety and operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 'Safety and Operation' project is started in 2009 within the framework of Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) research and development program. In the safety area, the project involves R and D activities on phenomenological model development and experimental programs, conceptual studies in support of the design of safety provisions, preliminary assessment of safety systems, framework and methods for analysis of safety architecture. In the operation area, the project involves R and D activities on fast reactors safety tests and analysis of reactor operations, feedback from decommissioning, in-service inspection technique development, under-sodium viewing and sodium chemistry. This paper presents a summary of such activities and the main achievements. (authors)

Vasile, A.; Sofu, T.; Jeong, H. Y.; Sakai, T. [CEA DEN Cadarache, DER, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Design and development of a high-temperature sodium compatibility testing facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of advanced alloys within sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) has been identified as a means of increasing plant efficiency and reducing construction costs. In particular, alloys such as NF-616, NF-709 and HT-UPS are promising because they exhibit greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. However, almost nothing is known about the sodium compatibility of these new alloys. Therefore, research taking place at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison is focused on studying the effects of sodium corrosion on these materials under prototypic SFR operating conditions (600 [ deg. C], V Na=10 [m/s], C 0{approx} 1 [wppm]). This paper focuses on the design and construction of the testing facility with an emphasis on moving magnet pumps (MMPs). Corrosion data from a preliminary 500 [hr] natural convection test will also be presented. (authors)

Hvasta, M. G.; Nolet, B. K.; Anderson, M. H. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison - ERB 841, WI 53705 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

190

Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel''. In addition to information concerning the background, purpose and need for the proposed action, and the National Environmental Policy Act process, this summary describes the characteristics of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, the proposed treatment methods, the proposed facilities, the alternatives considered, and the environmental consequences of these alternatives. A glossary is included at the end to assist the reader with some of the technical terms used in this document.

N /A

1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

191

Galvanic corrosion of structural aluminum coupled with mild steel in a dilute sodium dichromate electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GALVANIC COP?'SION OF STRUCTURAL ALI'I'lINUl'I COUPLED WITH MILD STEEL IN A OILLrl'E SODIUM DICHPOliATE FLECTROLY'I E A Tl. esi, ROBERT FRANKLIN FORD, JR. Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of Texas AEM University in Partia1 fuifiilment.... Approved as to style and content by: + ~J Co-Chairman of Commii:t C Co-Chair n of Committe~e Member+ I Head of D=p rtm t) Januar; IDIO ABSTRACT Calvanic Corrosion of Structural Aluminum Coup'led with Mild Steel in a Dilute Sodium Dichromate...

Ford, Robert Franklin

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

193

Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P. [DEN/DTN/STPA/LIET, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

196

Determination of dispersivities and reactionkinetics of selected basalts of columbia river plateau using an inverse analytical solution technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the determination of transport parameters by modeling sodium transport in the Priest Rapids and Roza flow tops of the Wanapum formation, and Rocky Coulee and Umtanum flow tops of the Grande Ronde formation, within the Cold Creek Syncline of the Hanford Nuclear Waste...

Fahlquist, Lisa Armstrong

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

197

Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors and the Pyro-Process: Conversion of Nuclear Waste into a Fuel Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors and the Pyro-Process: Conversion of Nuclear Waste into a Fuel Source. Belanger Chair, Department of Physics #12;2 Abstract A review of the sodium cooled fast reactor........................................................................................23 1.3.5 Reactor Startup

Belanger, David P.

198

Structure and hydrogen dynamics of pure and Ti-doped sodium alanate Jorge iguez,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and hydrogen dynamics of pure and Ti-doped sodium alanate Jorge iguez,1,2 T. Yildirim,1, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA (Received 2 June 2004; published 3 August 2004) We have studied the structure, energetics, and dynamics of pure and Ti-doped sodium alanate NaAlH4 , focusing on the possibility

Yildirim, Taner

199

The feasibility of meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for sodium and potassium: a cross-national comparison study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and meat/poultry mixed dishes, are among the most important sources of dietary sodium in the US.31 32 Processed foods, including breads, cereals and grains contribute a majority of sodium in the United Kingdom, and France as well.12 33 It is important...

Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.; Maillot, Matthieu; Mendoza, Alfonso; Monsivais, Pablo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Nature and distribution of iron sites in a sodium silicate glass investigated by neutron diffraction and EPSR simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Nature and distribution of iron sites in a sodium silicate glass investigated by neutron distributed in the silicate network and shares corner with silicate tetrahedra. The existence of a majority, such as the increase of the elastic modulus of sodium silicate glasses with increasing Fe-concentration. Our data

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Sodium shortage as a constraint on the carbon cycle in an inland tropical rainforest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium shortage as a constraint on the carbon cycle in an inland tropical rainforest Michael- composition of pure cellulose by up to 50%, compared with stream water alone. These effects emerged after 134). We provide experimental evidence that Na shortage slows the carbon cycle. Because 80% of global

Kaspari, Mike

202

Advanced Materials for Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status, Challenges and Perspectives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a ?"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300~350C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

204

Deficiencies of sodium and iodine in grazing sheep in northern China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deficiencies of sodium and iodine in grazing sheep in northern China DG Masters JR Lindsay SX Yu DX of Traditional Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Xiaoxihu, Lanzhou, Gansu, China An examination of the mineral status of grazing sheep at 3 sites in northern China has provided evidence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received] Noctilucent clouds, tiny cold electrically charged ice grains located at about 85 km altitude, exhibit by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating

Bellan, Paul M.

206

indirect study, coal was oxidatively de-graded with sodium dichromate and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cleaning Technology (Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J., 1981). 10. Z. Hussain, E. Umbach, D. Aindirect study, coal was oxidatively de- graded with sodium dichromate and the esterified products- vestigators concluded (17, p. 380) that "thiophene derivatives must be indige- nous to coal." The direct XANES

Howat, Ian M.

207

Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of the Zintl Phase Sodium Silicide Ral Quesada Cabreraa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and reduction of Na+ to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations and germanides belong to the family of Zintl phases, in which polyanionic species, formed of the tetrelide atoms counterbalance the electropositive metal cations [1-3]. These compounds are interesting because the Si and Ge

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Sodium in 7-Pin LMFBR Bundle Under Hypothetical Accident Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the frame of safety analysis of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) under hypothetical Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) conditions two-phase flow of sodium is simulated in a 7-pin bundle, with hexagonal lattice. Molecular dynamics, with the application of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and a macroscopic model describing rewetting sequences due to the flow of a sodium liquid film along the pin surfaces, are applied to simulate the coolant in the bundle. The pin surfaces and the inner surface of the hexagonal canning are treated in the Monte Carlo simulation as diffusively reflecting surfaces. Collisions of sodium molecules are computed with the 'hard-sphere' model. With respect to previous work the following improvements of the computational code were made: i) The full bundle is simulated, thus allowing for asymmetries, like a skewed power distribution, to be accounted for; ii) A pin model calculates detailed temperature distributions in the pins, so that temperature boundary conditions are computed and not imposed; iii) Post processing visualisation of computed results was developed. An out of pile sodium boiling experiment run at the Nuclear Research Center of Karlsruhe, Germany, is simulated and conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the methodology in computer codes dedicated to breeder reactors safety analysis. (authors)

Bottoni, Maurizio [University of Ferrara, Physics Department, Via Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Bottoni, Claudio; Scanu, John [University of Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti, 43 - 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Increased late sodium current in myocytes from a canine heart failure model and from failing human heart Carmen R. Valdivia, William W. Chu, Jielin Pu 1 , Jason D. Foell, Robert A December 2004 Abstract Electrophysiological remodeling of ion channels in heart failure causes action

Kamp, Tim

210

Mechanism and kinetics of a sodium-driven bacterial flagellar motor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanism and kinetics of a sodium-driven bacterial flagellar motor Chien-Jung Loa,b , Yoshiyuki potential difference. It consists of an 50-nm rotor and up to 10 independent stators anchored to the cell of electrical and chemical potential. All 25 torque­speed curves had the same concave-down shape as fully

Berry, Richard

211

Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy and utility applications, such as pump hydro, compressed air, y-wheel and electrochemicalRoom-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan attention particularly in large- scale electric energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart

Wang, Wei Hua

212

Evaluation of a sodium/Hastelloy-X heat pipe for wing leading edge cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers assembly of a sodium heat pipe, testing to verify performance during start-up and under steady-state conditions with stagnation point heat loads to about 80 W/cm{sup 2}, performance analysis and evaluation. Evaluation of this leading edge cooling concept is offered and recommendations for further research discussed.

Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Glass, D.E. [Analytical Services and Materials, Hampton, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion The corrosion of Ag contaminated with NaCl particles in gaseous environments containing humidity and ozone analyzed using a coulometric reduction technique. The atmospheric corrosion of Ag was greatly accelerated

214

Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Sodium and Calcium Current-Mediated Pacemaker Neurons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Sodium and Calcium Current-Mediated Pacemaker Neurons and Respiratory excitability, which is inconsistent with a pacemaker-essential mechanism of respiratory rhythmogenesis evaluate here in the mamma- lian respiratory network. The cellular mechanisms that underlie respiratory

Del Negro, Christopher A.

216

Effect of lasalocid sodium on rumen fermentation and digestion in sheep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of lasalocid sodium on rumen fermentation and digestion in sheep P. THIVEND, J.-P. JOUANY Laboratoire de la Digestion des Ruminants, 1. N. R. A., Theix, 63122 Ceyrat France. Summary. Four adult sheep had taken place in the rumen bacterial population (table 3). Overall digestive utilization of organic

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

217

Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-frequency generation. The demonstrated conversion efficiency is 3.2% W-1 cm-1 . This compact solid-state light source applications involving the high- resolution sodium spectrum, including laser remote sensing, biology, communications, display technology [1], and Bose­Einstein condensation [2]. A narrow- band solid-state source

218

Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be seen in the field. Based on model results, shallow groundwater will be rapidly and highly impactedModeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration device. Introduction Urbanization has increased the amount of impervious surfaces, leading to an increase

Clark, Shirley E.

219

CX-004179: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

on nitric acid solutions as a function of the addition of the following salts: Aluminum nitrate, Lead nitrate, Cesium nitrate, Sodium nitrate and Potassium nitrate. The VLE...

220

CX-010033: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

saturated solution of sodium sulfate submitted in a request to ECA via Scavenger Wastewater Checklist. CX-010033.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-010032: Categorical...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

CX-004807: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

345 high pressure sodium and mercury street lights with 345 energy efficient light-emitting diode streetlights. By replacing these lights, the Town's savings per year for...

222

CX-002633: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Indians of Oregon proposes to replace high pressure sodium streetlights with light-emitting diode streetlights in Canyonville, Oregon, at the Creekside Development. DOCUMENT(S)...

223

CX-002665: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

solar system versus streetlight feasibility study, and 3) purchase and install light-emitting diode streetlights to replace existing high pressure sodium streetlights. DOCUMENT(S)...

224

CX-000110: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

replace existing public lighting using sodium vapor lamp technology with LED (light-emitting diode) technology. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-000110.pdf More Documents &...

225

CX-004799: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

470 high pressure sodium and mercury street lights with 470 energy efficient light-emitting diode streetlights. Through this project the Town is projected to save approximately...

226

CX-007524: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Grant Program. 1) Convert high-pressure sodium, cobra head street lights to light emitting diode lights, and replace lights in Central Park; 2) conduct audits on city...

227

Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE is responsible for the safe and efficient management of its sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. This fuel contains metallic sodium, a highly reactive material; metallic uranium, which is also reactive; and in some cases, highly enriched uranium. The presence of reactive materials could complicate the process of qualifying and licensing DOE's sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel inventory for disposal in a geologic repository. Currently, more than 98 percent of this inventory is located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), near Idaho Falls, Idaho. In addition, in a 1995 agreement with the State of Idaho, DOE committed to remove all spent nuclear fuel from Idaho by 2035. This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with the treatment and management of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel in one or more facilities located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) at INEEL and either the F-Canyon or Building 105-L at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE has identified and assessed six proposed action alternatives in this EIS. These are: (1) electrometallurgical treatment of all fuel at ANL-W, (2) direct disposal of blanket fuel in high-integrity cans with the sodium removed at ANL-W, (3) plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) processing of blanket fuel at SRS, (4) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at ANL-W, (5) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at SRS, and (6) melt and dilute processing of all fuel at ANL-W. In addition, Alternatives 2 through 5 include the electrometallurgical treatment of driver fuel at ANL-W. Under the No Action Alternative, the EIS evaluates both the continued storage of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel until the development of a new treatment technology or direct disposal without treatment. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of spent nuclear fuel treatment facilities. Analyses indicate little difference in the environmental impacts among alternatives. DOE has identified electrometallurgical treatment as its Preferred Alternative for the treatment and management of all sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, except for the Fermi-1 blanket fuel. The No Action Alternative is preferred for the Fermi-1 blanket spent nuclear fuel.

N /A

2000-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

228

Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cements self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Water Content and Buildup of Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/ Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) and Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/ Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Studied by an in Situ Combination of a Quartz Crystal Micr  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT: The buildup of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs), fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly, was followed in situ by the combination of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and spectroscopic ellipsometry in a single device. PEMs composed of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) polyelectrolyte pairs and of poly-(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and PSS were built up to 17 layers. The combination of ellipsometry andQCM-D allowed simultaneous determination of the acousticmass, which comprises both the mass of the polymer and solvent, and the optical mass which corresponds to the polymer mass alone. From these parameters, the hydration of the PEMwas calculated layer by layer. The linearly growing PAH/ PSS PEMs showed a constant absolute content of water throughout the assembly, while the relative contribution of water to the PEM mass content approached zero, when grown in 0.5 M NaCl. Rinses with water between polyelectrolyte deposition steps resulted in a hydration of approximately 40%. The supralinearly growing PDADMAC/PSS PEMs exhibited a remarkable dependence of the hydration on the polyelectrolyte that was deposited last. Implications for the mechanism of assembly of the PEMs are discussed.

Jagoba J. Iturri Ramos; Stefan Stahl; Ralf P. Richter; Sergio E. Moya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organics present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.

Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

2014-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

231

Sodium alterations in isolated rat heart during cardioplegic arrest  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triple-quantum-filtered (TQF) Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) without chemical shift reagent is used to investigate Na derangement in isolated crystalloid perfused rat hearts during St. Thomas cardioplegic (CP) arrest. The extracellular Na contribution to the NMR TQF signal of a rat heart is found to be 73 {+-} 5%, as determined by wash-out experiments at different moments of ischemia and reperfusion. With the use of this contribution factor, the estimated intracellular Na ([Na{sup +}]{sub i}) TQF signal is 222 {+-} 13% of preischemic level after 40 min of CP arrest and 30 min of reperfusion, and the heart rate pressure product recovery is 71 {+-} 8%. These parameters are significantly better than for stop-flow ischemia: 340 {+-} 20% and 6 {+-} 3%, respectively. At 37{degrees}C, the initial delay of 15 min in [Na{sup +}]{sub i} growth occurs during CP arrest along with reduced growth later ({approximately}4.0%/min) in comparison with stop-flow ischemia ({approximately}6.7%/min). The hypothermia (21{degrees}C, 40 min) for the stop-flow ischemia and CP dramatically decreases the [Na{sup +}]{sub i} gain with the highest heart recovery for CP ({approximately}100%). These studies confirm the enhanced sensitivity of TQF NMR to [Na{sup +}]{sub i} and demonstrate the potential of NMR without chemical shift reagent to monitor [Na{sup +}]{sub i} derangements. 48 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Schepkin, V.D.; Choy, I.O.; Budinger, T.F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Assimilation and respiration of radioactive ethylene glycol, in the presence of high sodium chloride concentrations, by a sodium chloride requiring bacterium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the contents distilled over into 5 ml of a 2X boric acid solution containing 3 ml of a O. l%%d ethanolic solution of methyl red and 5. 7 ml of a 0. 1X ethanolic 29 solution of brom cresol green. The samples were titrated, with 0. 1N HC1 using a... limits. Sodium requirement Effect of pH on growth Utilization of carbon sources. Respiration studies. Quantitation of ethylene glycol carbon Disappearance of. glucose and ammonia-nitrogen from cultures of Bacterium T-52. Possible pathways...

Gonzalez, Carlos Francisco

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150C. The cells can even operate at 95C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Thermo-physical and structural studies of sodium zinc borovanadate glasses in the region of high concentration of modifier oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Highly modified sodium zinc borovanadate glasses. ? Structural model for borovanadate glasses. ? Network forming tendency of ZnO in borovanadate glasses. ? Fragility can be limited to NBO concentration in borovanadate glasses. -- Abstract: This paper reports investigation of Na{sub 2}O and ZnO modified borovanadate glasses in the highly modified regime of compositions. These glasses have been prepared by microwave route. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible, infrared (IR), Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopies have been used to characterize the speciation in the glasses. Together with the variation of properties such as molar volume and glass transition temperatures, spectroscopic data indicate that at high levels of modification, ZnO tends to behave like network former. It is proposed that the observed variation of all the properties can be reasonably well understood with a structural model. The model considers that the modification and speciation in glasses are strongly determined by the hierarchy of group electronegativities. Further, it is proposed that the width of the transitions of glasses obtained under same condition reflects the fragility of the glasses. An empirical expression has been suggested to quantify fragility on the basis of width of the transition regions.

Chethana, B.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)] [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Reddy, C. Narayana [Maharani's Science College for Women, Bangalore 560 001 (India)] [Maharani's Science College for Women, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Rao, K.J., E-mail: kalyajrao@yahoo.co.in [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Research and Development FY-2002 Status Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2002, immobilization-related research included of grout formulation development for sodium-bearing waste, absorption of the waste on silica gel, and off-gas system mercury collection and breakthrough using activated carbon. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout at 70 weight percent and onto silica gel at 74 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 11 weight percent mercury in sulfur-impregnated activated carbon was achieved with 99.8% off-gas mercury removal efficiency.

Herbst, Alan Keith; Deldebbio, John Anthony; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Olson, Lonnie Gene; Scholes, Bradley Adams

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Sodium/sulfur battery engineering for stationary energy storage. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of modular systems to distribute power using batteries to store off-peak energy and a state of the art power inverter is envisioned to offer important national benefits. A 4-year, cost- shared contract was performed to design and develop a modular, 300kVA/300-kWh system for utility and customer applications. Called Nas-P{sub AC}, this system uses advanced sodium/sulfur batteries and requires only about 20% of the space of a lead-acid-based system with a smaller energy content. Ten, 300-VDC, 40-kWh sodium/sulfur battery packs are accommodated behind a power conversion system envelope with integrated digital control. The resulting design facilities transportation, site selection, and deployment because the system is quiet and non-polluting, and can be located in proximity to the load. This report contains a detailed description of the design and supporting hardware development performed under this contract.

Koenig, A.; Rasmussen, J. [Silent Power, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Two-dimensional modeling of sodium boiling in a simulated LMFBR loss-of-flow test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Loss-of-flow (LOF) accidents are of major importance in LMFBR safety. Tests have been performed to simulate the simultaneous failure of all primary pumps and reactor shutdown systems in a 37-pin electrically heated test bundle installed in the KNS sodium boiling loop at the Institute of Reactor Development, Karlsruhe. The tests simulated LOF conditions of the German prototype LMFBR, the SNR 300. The main objectives of these tests were to characterize the transient boiling development to cladding dryout and to provide data for validation of sodium boiling codes. One particular LOF test, designated L22, at full power was selected as a benchmark exercise for comparison of several codes at the Eleventh Meeting of the Liquid Metal Boiling Working Group (LMBWG) held in Grenoble, France, in October 1984. In this paper, the results of the calculations performed at ORNL with the two-dimensional (2-D) boiling code THORAX are presented.

Rose, S.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Development of a neutronics calculation method for designing commercial type Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the R and D project to improve the modeling accuracy for the design of fast breeder reactors the authors are developing a neutronics calculation method for designing a large commercial type sodium- cooled fast reactor. The calculation method is established by taking into account the special features of the reactor such as the use of annular fuel pellet, inner duct tube in large fuel assemblies, large core. The Verification and Validation, and Uncertainty Qualification (V and V and UQ) of the calculation method is being performed by using measured data from the prototype FBR Monju. The results of this project will be used in the design and analysis of the commercial type demonstration FBR, known as the Japanese Sodium fast Reactor (JSFR). (authors)

Takeda, T.; Shimazu, Y.; Hibi, K.; Fujimura, K. [Research Inst. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Fukui, 1cho-me 2gaiku 4, Kanawa-cho, Tsuruga-shi, Fukui 914-0055 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Two dimensional, two fluid model for sodium boiling in LMFBR fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two dimensional numerical model for the simulation of sodium boiling transient was developed using the two fluid set of conservation equations. A semiimplicit numerical differencing scheme capable of handling the problems associated with the ill-posedness implied by the complex characteristic roots of the two fluid problems was used, which took advantage of the dumping effect of the exchange terms. Of particular interest in the development of the model was the identification of the numerical problems caused by the strong disparity between the axial and radial dimensions of fuel assemblies. A solution to this problem was found which uses the particular geometry of fuel assemblies to accelerate the convergence of the iterative technique used in the model. Three sodium boiling experiments were simulated with the model, with good agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions.

Granziera, M.R.; Kazimi, M.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development.

Nilsson, Mats F, E-mail: Mats.Nilsson@farmbio.uu.se [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Skld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma [AstraZeneca R and D Sdertlje (Sweden); Cebers, Gvido [AstraZeneca R and D, iMed, 141 Portland Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee [AstraZeneca R and D Sdertlje (Sweden); Webster, William S [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney (Australia)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The influence of dikegulac sodium on growth of Syngonium podophyllum 'White Butterfly'  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Floriculture THE INFLUENCE OF DIKEGULAC SODIUM ON GROWTH OF SYNGONIUM PODOPHYLLUM 'WHITE BUTTERFLY' A Thesis by WILLIAM MICHAEL WOMACK Approved as to style and content by: f~ J~ Yin... and concentrations of dikegulac Shoot dry weight of Syngonium podophyJ1um 'White Butterfly' treated with various application methods and concentrations of dikegulac, Plant height, shoot length, internode length, leaf number, and average petiole length...

Womack, William Michael

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Boiling behavior of sodium-potassium alloy in a bench-scale solar receiver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 1989-90, a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver include (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Since this first demonstration, design of a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that will bring the concept closer to commercialization has begun. For long life, the new receiver uses Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, it has a refined shape and somewhat larger dimensions. To eliminate the need for trace heating, the receiver will boil the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78 instead of sodium. To reduce manufacturing costs, it will use one of a number of alternatives to EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it will contain a small amount of inert gas. Before the new receiver design could be finalized, bench-scale tests of some of the proposed changes were necessary. A series of bench-scale pool boilers were built from Haynes Alloy 230 and filled with NaK-78. Various boiling-stabilizer candidates were incorporated into them, including laser-drilled cavities and a number of different sintered-powder-metal coatings. These bench-scale pool boilers have been operated at temperatures up to 750{degree}C, heated by quartz lamps with incident radiant fluxes up to 95 W/cm{sup 2}. The effects of various orientations and added gases have been studied. results of these studies are presented. 15 refs.

Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Under-sodium viewing technology for improvement of fast-reactor safeguards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current safeguards approach for fast reactors relies exclusively on maintenance of continuity of knowledge to track the movement of fuel assemblies through these facilities. The remote handling of fuel assemblies, the visual opacity of the liquid metal coolant. and the chemical reactivity of sodium all combine and result in significant limitations on the available options to verify fuel assembly identification numbers or the integrity of these assemblies. These limitations also serve to frustrate attempts to restore the continuity-of-knowledge in instances where the information is under a variety of scenarios. The technology of ultrasonic under-sodium viewing offers new options to the safeguards community for recovering continuity-of-knowledge and applying more traditional item accountancy to fast reactor facilities. We have performed a literature review to investigate the development of under-sodium viewing technologies. In this paper we will summarize our findings and report the state of development of this technology and we will present possible applications to the fast reactor system to improve the existing safeguards approach at these reactors and in future fast reactors.

Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gerhart, Jeremy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Intermediate-scale tests of sodium interactions with calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two intermediate-scale tests were performed to compare the behavior of calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes when attacked by molten sodium. The tests were performed as part of an interlaboratory comparison between Sandia National Laboratories and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratories. Results of the tests at Sandia National Laboratories are reported here. The results show that both concretes exhibit similar exothermic reactions with molten sodium. The large difference in reaction vigor suggested by thermodynamic considerations of CO/sub 2/ release from calcite and dolomite was not realized. Penetration rates of 1.4 to 1.7 mm/min were observed for short periods of time with reaction zone temperatures in excess of 800/sup 0/C during the energetic attack. The penetration was not uniform over the entire sodium-concrete contact area. Rapid attack may be localized due to inhomogeneities in the concrete. The chemical reaction zone is less then one cm thick for the calcite concrete but is about seven cm thick for the dolomite concrete.

Randich, E.; Acton, R.U.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

Nicholas R. Soelberg

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Integrated fuel performance and thermal-hydraulic sub-channel models for analysis of sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) show promise as an effective way to produce clean safe nuclear power while properly managing the fuel cycle. Accurate computer modeling is an important step in the design and eventual licensing ...

Fricano, Joseph William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Modelling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic and oxide fuels for sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A robust and reliable code to model the irradiation behavior of metal and oxide fuels in sodium cooled fast reactors is developed. Modeling capability was enhanced by adopting a non-empirical mechanistic approach to the ...

Karahan, Aydin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A four-equation two-phase flow model for sodium boiling simulation of LMFBR fuel assemblies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A three-dimensional numerical model for the simulation of sodium boiling transients has been developed. The model uses mixture mass and energy equations, while employing a separate momentum equation for each phase. Thermal ...

Schor, Andrei L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Mechanical relaxation behavior of polyurethanes reinforced with the in situ-generated sodium silica-polyphosphate nanophase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Further exploration of hybrid organic/inorganic composites (polyurethane based with inorganic material sodium silica polyphosphate) properties with mechanical relaxometer gives ability to analyze microstructure of such materials in terms of chain reptation tubes filler's fractal aggregates and stress amplification.

V. O. Dupanov; S. M. Ponomarenko

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

250

Development of models for the two-dimensional, two-fluid code for sodium boiling NATOF-2D  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several features were incorporated into NATOF-2D, a twodimensional, two fluid code developed at M.I.T. for the purpose of analysis of sodium boiling transients under LMFBR conditions. They include improved interfacial mass, ...

Zielinski, R. G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

EMPOWERING DIGITAL SELF DETERMINATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Communication and Digital Media 2. Data Context and Digital Personas 3. Personal Data: Use, ReuseEMPOWERING DIGITAL SELF DETERMINATION Symposium Summary Stanford University, Summer 2012 #12;#12;EMPOWERING DIGITAL SELF DETERMINATION Symposium, Stanford University, CA Summer, 2012 210 Panama Street

Das, Rhiju

252

Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences. A method by which fluorescence in situ hybridization can be made strand specific is described. Cell cultures are grown in a medium containing a halogenated nucleotide. The analog is partially incorporated in one DNA strand of each chromatid. This substitution takes place in opposite strands of the two sister chromatids. After staining with the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33258, cells are exposed to long-wavelength ultraviolet light which results in numerous strand nicks. These nicks enable the substituted strand to be denatured and solubilized by heat, treatment with high or low pH aqueous solutions, or by immersing the strands in 2.times.SSC (0.3M NaCl+0.03M sodium citrate), to name three procedures. It is unnecessary to enzymatically digest the strands using Exo III or another exonuclease in order to excise and solubilize nucleotides starting at the sites of the nicks. The denaturing/solubilizing process removes most of the substituted strand while leaving the prereplication strand largely intact. Hybridization of a single-stranded probe of a tandem repeat arranged in a head-to-tail orientation will result in hybridization only to the chromatid with the complementary strand present.

Goodwin, Edwin H. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H/sub 2/O and/or CO/sub 2/ by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO/sub 2/), titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) and sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

Bamberger, C.E.

1980-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

254

Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO.sub.2), titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) and sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Evaluation of lithium as a toxicant and the modifying effect of sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Routine compliance tests conducted for a groundwater treatment facility at the Y-12 Plant on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), TN, showed that the effluent was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae. An evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that increased toxicity coincided with increased concentrations of lithium. Lithium is a light, strong metal that is used in DOE operations, including fusion weapons and fission reactors. Little has been published about lithium toxicity. Toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia using lithium chloride and lithium tetraborate. Dilute mineral water (DMW) or the receiving stream water (East Fork Poplar Creek) was used as the dilution water in the toxicity evaluation. A concentration of 1 mg Li/L in DMW reduced the survival of both test species; 0.5 mg Li/L in DMW reduced C. dubia reproduction and minnow growth. Sodium appears to influence the toxicity of Li; the metal was six times more toxic in the low-sodium DMW than in stream water containing 30 mg Na/L. Tests with LiCl in combination with NaCl and NA{sub 2}SO{sub 4} demonstrated that the presence of sodium reduced the toxicity of Li to C. dubia. In laboratory tests with a snail (Elimia clavaeformis) common on the ORR, the feeding rate declined in 0.15 mg Li/L. Because Li has also been demonstrated to be toxic to several plant species, tests with LiCi were also conducted using buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca saliva). The EC{sub 50} for seed growth after 8 d incubation was 37.5 mg Li/L. These findings are significant because of widespread industrial use and potential accumulation of Li in soils.

Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; O`Reilly, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Probing the Failure Mechanism of SnO2 Nanowires for Sodium-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-lithium metals such as sodium have attracted wide attention as a potential charge carrying ion for rechargeable batteries, performing the same role as lithium in lithium- ion batteries. As sodium and lithium have the same +1 charge, it is assumed that what has been learnt about the operation of lithium ion batteries can be transferred directly to sodium batteries. Using in-situ TEM, in combination with DFT calculations, we probed the structural and chemical evolution of SnO2 nanowire anodes in Na-ion batteries and compared them quantitatively with results from Li-ion batteries [Science 330 (2010) 1515]. Upon Na insertion into SnO2, a displacement reaction occurs, leading to the formation of amorphous NaxSn nanoparticles covered by crystalline Na2O shell. With further Na insertion, the NaxSn core crystallized into Na15Sn4 (x=3.75). Upon extraction of Na (desodiation), the NaxSn core transforms to Sn nanoparticles. Associated with a volume shrinkage, nanopores appear and metallic Sn particles are confined in hollow shells of Na2O, mimicking a peapod structure. These pores greatly increase electrical impedance, therefore naturally accounting for the poor cyclability of SnO2. DFT calculations indicate that Na+ diffuses 30 times slower than Li+ in SnO2, in agreement with in-situ TEM measurement. Insertion of Na can chemo-mechanically soften the reaction product to greater extent than in lithiation. Therefore, in contrast to the lithiation of SnO2, no dislocation plasticity was seen ahead of the sodiation front. This direct comparison of the results from Na and Li highlights the critical role of ionic size and electronic structure of different ionic species on the charge/discharge rate and failure mechanisms in these batteries.

Gu, Meng; Kushima, Akihiro; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Li, Ju; Wang, Chong M.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

257

SWAAM-LT: The long-term, sodium/water reaction analysis method computer code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SWAAM-LT Code, developed for analysis of long-term effects of sodium/water reactions, is discussed. The theoretical formulation of the code is described, including the introduction of system matrices for ease of computer programming as a general system code. Also, some typical results of the code predictions for available large scale tests are presented. Test data for the steam generator design with the cover-gas feature and without the cover-gas feature are available and analyzed. The capabilities and limitations of the code are then discussed in light of the comparison between the code prediction and the test data.

Shin, Y.W.; Chung, H.H.; Wiedermann, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tanabe, H. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

Barnes, Charles Marshall

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Pre-Decisional Sodium Bearing Waste Technology Development Roadmap FY-01 Update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an update to the Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) Technology Development Roadmap generated a year ago. It outlines progress made to date and near-term plans for the technology development work necessary to support processing SBW. In addition, it serves as a transition document to the Risk Management Plan (RMP) required by the Project per DOE Order 413.3, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Technical uncertainties have been identified as design basis elements (DBEs) and captured in a technical baseline database. As the risks are discovered, assessed, and mitigated, the status of the DBEs in the database will be updated and tracked to closure.

Mc Dannel, Gary Eidson

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Tracers for monitoring the activity of sodium/glucose cotransporters in health and disease  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiolabeled tracers for sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), their synthesis, and their use are provided. The tracers are methyl or ethyl pyranosides having an equatorial hydroxyl group at carbon-2 and a C 1 preferred conformation, radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124I, or free hexoses radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124. Also provided are in vivo and in vitro techniques for using these and other tracers as analytical and diagnostic tools to study glucose transport, in health and disease, and to evaluate therapeutic interventions.

Wright, Ernest M; Barrio, Jorge R; Hirayama, Bruce A; Kepe, Vladimir

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This current report is a summary of information obtained in the "Information Capture" task of the U.S. DOE-funded "Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project." The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Paul

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

262

Adhesion of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant monolayers with TiO2 (rutile and anatase) surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surfactants are widely used as templates to control the nucleation and growth of nanostructured metal oxides such as titania. To gain insight into the origin of surfactant-titania interactions responsible for polymorph and orientation selection, we simulate the self-assembly of an anionic surfactant monolayer on various low-index titania surfaces and for a range of densities. We characterize the binding in each case and compute the adhesion energies, finding anatase (100) and rutile (110) to be the strongest-binding surfaces. The sodium counterions in the monolayer are found to dominate the adhesion. It is also observed that the assembly is directed predominantly by surface-monolayer electrostatic complementarity.

Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

263

CX-011350: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) used nuclear fuel (UNF) by blending with High AluminumLow Uranium (HALU) UNF in H-Canyon. The flowsheet will include the number of SRE...

264

CX-011495: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) used nuclear fuel (UNF) by blending with High AluminumLow Uranium (HALU) UNF in H-Canyon. CX-011495.pdf More Documents & Publications...

265

CX-003913: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with building energy audits, and 8) replace high pressure sodium lighting with light-emitting diode lights in parking garage. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-003913.pdf More...

266

CX-001975: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

will be used to fund the conversion of their existing sodium streetlights to light-emitting diode (LED) streetlights for the City of Chula Vista. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR...

267

CX-004800: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

funding to replace 740 high-pressure sodium and mercury streetlights with 740 light-emitting diode streetlights. The city operates and maintains a total of 2,074 streetlights, so...

268

Thermal analysis for fuel handling system for sodium cooled reactor considering minor actinide-bearing metal fuel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) is one of the components of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) used to close the fuel cycle. ABR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor that is used to consume transuranic elements resulting from the reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. ABR-1000 [1000 MW(thermal)] is a fast reactor concept created at Argonne National Laboratory to be used as a reference concept for various future trade-offs. ABR-1000 meets the GNEP goals although it uses what is considered base sodium fast reactor technology for its systems and components. One of the considerations of any fast reactor plant concept is the ability to perform fuel-handling operations with new and spent fast reactor fuel. The transmutation fuel proposed as the ABR fuel has a very little experience base, and thus, this paper investigates a fuel-handling concept and potential issues of handling fast reactor fuel containing minor actinides. In this study, two thermal analyses supporting a conceptual design study on the ABR-1000 fuel-handling system were carried out. One analysis investigated passive dry spent fuel storage, and the other analysis investigated a fresh fuel shipping cask. Passive dry storage can be made suitable for the ABR-1000 spent fuel storage with sodium-bonded metal fuel. The thermal analysis shows that spent fast reactor fuel with a decay heat of 2 kW or less can be stored passively in a helium atmosphere. The 2-kW value seems to be a reasonable and practical level, and a combination of reasonably-sized in-sodium storage followed by passive dry storage could be a candidate for spent fuel storage for the next-generation sodium-cooled reactor with sodium-bonded metal fuel. Requirements for the shipping casks for minor actinide-bearing fuel with a high decay heat level are also discussed in this paper. The shipping cask for fresh sodium-cooled-reactor fuel should be a dry type to reduce the reaction between residual moisture on fresh fuel and the sodium coolant. The cladding temperature requirement is maintained below the creep temperature limit to avoid any damage before core installation. The thermal analysis shows that a helium gas-filled cask can accommodate ABR-1000 fresh minor actinide-bearing fuel with 700-W decay heat. The above analysis results revealed the overall requirement for minor actinide-bearing metal fuel handling. The information is thought to be helpful in the design of the ABR-1000 and future sodium-cooled-reactor fuel-handling system.

Chikazawa, Y.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understanding of the correlation of uncertainties is required for $\\theta_{13}$ experiments. Precise determination of reactor neutrino flux will also improve the sensitivity of the non-proliferation monitoring and future reactor experiments. We will discuss the flux calculation and recent progresses.

Jun Cao

2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

270

Synthesis and radiosensitization properties of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cancer cells which are large in size are resistant towards radiation therapy due to the presence of large amount of anti-oxidative enzymes and hypoxic cancer cells. Thus radiosensitizer agents have been developed to enhance the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy by increasing the sensitivity of these cancer cells towards radiation. This study is conducted to investigate the radiosensitization properties of radiosensitizer complex containing hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate. Combination with sodium hyaluronate may decrease reactivity of hydrogen peroxide but maintain the oxygen concentration needed for radiosensitizing effect. HepG2 cancer cells are cultured as the mean of test subject. Cancer cell samples which are targeted and not targeted with these radiosensitizers are irradiated with 2Gy single fractionated dose. Results obtained shows that the cancer cells which are not targeted with radiosensitizers has a cell viability of 98.800.37% after a time interval of 48 hours and has even repopulated over 100% after a 72 hour time interval. This shows that the cancer cells are resistant towards radiation. However, when the cancer cells are targeted with radiosensitizers prior to irradiation, there is a reduction of cell viability by 25.5010.81% and 10.305.10% at time intervals of 48 and 72 hours respectively. This indicates that through the use of these radiosensitizers, cancer cells are more sensitive towards radiation.

Rosli, Nur Ratasha Alia Md.; Mohamed, Faizal; Heng, Cheong Kai; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Ahmad, Ainee Fatimah; Mohamad, Hur Munawar Kabir [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

271

Enhancement of the inherent self-protection of the fast sodium reactor cores with oxide fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the development and research into the generation IV fast sodium reactors, great attention is paid to the enhancement of the core inherent self-protection characteristics. One of the problems dealt here is connected with the reduction of the reactivity margin so that the control rods running should not result in the core overheating and melting. In this paper we consider the possibilities of improving the core of BN-1200 with oxide fuel by a known method of introducing an axial fertile layer into the core. But unlike earlier studies this paper looks at the possibility of using such a layer not only for improving breeding, but also for reducing sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE). This proposed improvement of the BN-1200 core does not solve the problem of strong interference in control and protection system (CPS) rods of BN-1200, but they reduce significantly the reactivity margin for burn-up compensation. This helps compensate all the reactivity balances in the improved core configurations without violating constraints on SVRE value.

Eliseev, V.A.; Malisheva, I.V.; Matveev, V.I.; Egorov, A.V.; Maslov, P.A. [SSC RF - IPPE, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Selecting the suitable dopants: electronic structures of transition metal and rare earth doped thermoelectric sodium cobaltate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineered Na0.75CoO2 is considered a prime candidate to achieve high efficiency thermoelectric systems to regenerate electricity from waste heat. In this work, three elements with outmost electronic configurations, (1) an open d shell (Ni), (2) a closed d shell (Zn), and (3) an half fill f shell (Eu) with a maximum unpaired electrons, were selected to outline the dopants' effects on electronic and crystallographic structures of Na0.75CoO2. Systematic ab initio density functional calculations showed that the formation energy of these dopants was found to be lowest when residing on sodium layer and ranked as -1.1 eV, 0.44 eV and 3.44 eV for Eu, Ni and Zn respectively. Furthermore Ni was also found to be stable when substituting Co ion. As these results show great harmony with existing experimental data, they provide new insights into the fundamental principle of dopant selection for manipulating the physical properties in the development of high performance sodium cobaltate based thermoelectric materials.

Assadi, M H N; Yu, A B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Inhibition of phospholipase A/sub 2/ from human plasma by sodium bisulfite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anti-oxidant sodium bisulfite has been shown to inhibit acid active(lysosomal), non-Ca/sup + +/-dependent phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/), and to interact reversibly with unsaturated fatty acids, altering their chromatographic mobility. The authors examined the effect of bisulfite on neutral active, Ca/sup + +/-dependent PLA/sub 2/ from human plasma. Using (1-/sup 14/C)oleate-labelled autoclaved E. coli as substrate, PLA/sub 2/ activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by bisulfite. Maximal inhibition occurred at 100..mu..M bisulfite. Preincubation of plasma for 0-30 minutes with bisulfite resulted in a time-dependent increase in PLA/sub 2/ inhibition. Preincubation of substrate with bisulfite had no such effect. When the plasma PLA/sub 2/ was purified 25-fold by SP-Sephadex chromatography it was no longer inhibited by bisulfite. The SP-Sephadex wash through fraction, which contained greater than 95% of the applied protein but not PLA/sub 2/ activity, did not inhibit the purified enzyme. When incubated with bisulfite however, the SP-wash through fraction produced dose-dependent inhibition of the purified enzyme. These results indicate that sodium bisulfite inhibits human plasma PLA/sub 2/, in vitro, indirectly by interaction with a factor(s) present in plasma and suggests that anti-oxidants may similarly influence expression of extracellular PLA/sub 2/ in vivo.

Wiggins, C.W.; Franson, R.C.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

275

Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pentecost, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Further Investigations of the Effect of Replacing Lithium by Sodium on Lithium Silicate Scintillating Glass Efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ce3+ doped lithium (6Li) silicate glasses are thermal neutron detectors. Prior work showed that when sodium (Na) is substituted for Li the scintillation efficiency, under beta particle stimulation, increased and then decreased as the sodium (Na) content was increased [1]. When all the 6Li was replaced by Na no scintillation was observed. Raman spectra, acquired using a visible excitation source provided no evidence of anomalous behavior. SEM microscopy did show some phase separation, but there was no obvious correlation with the scintillation efficiency. We have reexamined these glass samples using deep UV Raman excitation which reduces fluorescence interference. The newly acquired spectra show evidence of phase separation in the glasses. Specifically we see a peak at 800 cm-1 Raman shift which can be assigned to a vitreous silica moiety that results from phase separation. There is a strong correlation between this peak's area, the scintillation efficiency, and the Na content. The observed trend suggests that phase separation enhances scintillation and addition of Na reduces the amount of phase separation. We also see evidence of at least two defect structures that can be tentatively assigned to a three-membered ring structure and an oxygen vacancy. The latter is fairly strongly correlated with enhanced scintillation efficiency.

Bliss, Mary; Aker, Pamela M.; Windisch, Charles F.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety Implications of Advanced Technology Power Conversion and Design Innovations and Simplifications: Investigations of supercritical CO{sub 2} gas turbine Brayton cycles coupled to the sodium-cooled reactors and innovative concepts for sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers were performed to discover new designs for high efficiency electricity production. The objective of the analyses was to characterize the design and safety performance of equipment needed to implement the new power cycle. The project included considerations of heat transfer and power conversion systems arrangements and evaluations of systems performance. Task 4--Post Accident Heat Removal and In-Vessel Retention: Test plans were developed to evaluate (1) freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in subassembly geometry, (2) retention of metallic fuel core melt debris within reactor vessel structures, and (3) consequences of intermixing of high pressure CO{sub 2} and sodium. The objective of the test plan development was to provide planning for measurements of data needed to characterize the consequences of very low probability accident sequences unique to metallic fuel and CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycles. The project produced three test plans ready for execution.

Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

278

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors/Advanced Burner Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An optimized supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle power converter has been developed for the 100 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) eliminating the potential for sodium-water reactions and achieving a small power converter and turbine generator building. Cycle and plant efficiencies of 39.1 and 38.3 %, respectively, are calculated for the ABTR core outlet temperature of 510 deg. C. The ABTR S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle will incorporate Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger{sup TM} units in the Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers, high and low temperature recuperators, and cooler. A new sodium test facility is being completed to investigate the potential for transient plugging of narrow sodium channels typical of a Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger under postulated off-normal or accident conditions. (authors)

Sienicki, James J.; Moisseytsev, Anton; Cho, Dae H.; Momozaki, Yoichi; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Haglund, Robert C.; Reed, Claude B.; Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Gender determination in populus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are there differences in the regulation and/or activity of SOS1 in plants differing in their adaptation to salinity?

Schumaker, Karen S [Professor] [Professor

2013-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Sodium pumps adapt spike bursting to stimulus Sara Arganda1,2,4, Raul Guantes1,3,4 & Gonzalo G de Polavieja1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodium pumps adapt spike bursting to stimulus statistics Sara Arganda1,2,4, Rau´l Guantes1,3,4 & Gonzalo G de Polavieja1,2 Pump activity is a homeostatic mechanism that maintains ionic gradients. Here we examined whether the slow reduction in excitability induced by sodium-pump activity that has been seen

Guantes, Raúl

282

Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical information to Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel that is required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and nvironmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL considers simulation to have an important role in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program. This project involves a joint Technical Task Plan (TTP ID77WT31, Subtask C) between SRS and INEEL. The work scope of simulation is different at the two sites. This document addresses only the treatment of SBW at INEEL. The simulation model(s) is to be built by SRS for INEEL in FY-2001.

Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Thermal Response of the Hybrid Loop-Pool Design for Sodium Cooled Faster Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative hybrid loop-pool design for the sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been recently proposed with the primary objective of achieving cost reduction and safety enhancement. With the hybrid loop-pool design, closed primary loops are immersed in a secondary buffer tank. This design takes advantage of features from conventional both pool and loop designs to further improve economics and safety. This paper will briefly introduce the hybrid loop-pool design concept and present the calculated thermal responses for unproctected (without reactor scram) loss of forced circulation (ULOF) transients using RELAP5-3D. The analyses examine both the inherent reactivity shutdown capability and decay heat removal performance by passive safety systems.

Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Davis, Cliff

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Two-dimensional modeling of sodium boiling transients in simulated LMFBR fuel bundles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-dimensional code for analysis of sodium boiling in LMFBR fuel assemblies has been developed at ORNL. This code, THORAX, has been used to analyze tests in 19- and 61-pin electrically-heated, simulated LMFBR fuel assemblies in the THORS facility. THORAX has simulated well the transient growth of the two-dimensional boiling region and the resulting static flow instability leading to dryout. Extrapolation of results to a full size fuel pin bundle shows that two-dimensional effects are reduced but still significant. The code will be extended to include a loop model in support of forthcoming tests in the THORS-SHRS Assembly 1 loop, which will include two parallel 19-pin simulated driver bundles.

Rose, S.D.; Dearing, J.F; Carbajo, J.J.; Levin, A.E.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack.

Copuroglu, O. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of CiTG, Micromechanics Laboratory (MICROLAB) (Netherlands)]. E-mail: o.copuroglu@citg.tudelft.nl; Fraaij, A.L.A. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of CiTG, Materials Science and Sustainable Construction (Netherlands); Bijen, J.M.J.M. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of CiTG, Materials Science and Sustainable Construction (Netherlands)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Malignant hyperthermia-like reaction in a family with a sodium channel mutation at residue 1306  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is an autosomal dominant, hypermetabolic disorder, triggered by potent inhalational anesthetics. We have previously suggeste the skeletal muscle sodium channel {alpha}-subunit (SCN4A) as a gene candidate to explain some forms of MHS. To evaluate this gene for mutations that might lead to a MHS-like episode, we amplified genomic DNA by PCR and used SSCP to screen each exon. We studied multiple MHS families which may be linked to this gene. The proband and a sibling from one of these families suspected of having MHS experienced trismus and body rigidity after induction of anesthesia. The caffiene and halothane contracture test proved diagnostic in these individuals and EMG studies suggested a form of myotomia. A mutation co-segregating with the myotonia/MHS phenotype was found in the region of exon 22.

Vita, G.M.; Jedlicka, A.E.; Levitt, R.C. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Energy savings with solid-state ballasted high-pressure sodium lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of three types of solid-state ballasts used to operate high-pressure sodium lamps is discussed. Each type of solid-state ballast has been designed to operate an HPS lamp of a different wattage (150, 200, and 400 watts). The performance of these ballasts compared to standard core-coil ballasts operating the same HPS lamps shows that system efficiency improves as much as 17%. The solid-state ballasted HPS system also demonstrates excellent regulation with respect to input voltage and output power. These new ballasts can dim the HPS lamps and reduce flicker from more than 60% to less than 3%. Refitting street lighting with these new HPS systims provides an attractive return on initial capital investment.

Verderber, R.R.; Morse, O.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Sensitivity Analysis of Reprocessing Cooling Times on Light Water Reactor and Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of variations of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fast reactor reprocessing cooling time on a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) assuming a single-tier fuel cycle scenario. The results from this study show the effects of different cooling times on the SFRs transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) and transuranic fuel enrichment. Also, the decay heat, gamma heat and neutron emission of the SFRs fresh fuel charge were evaluated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale SFR design was selected as the baseline in this study. Both metal and oxide CR=0.50 SFR designs are investigated.

R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

R and D program for core instrumentation improvements devoted for French sodium fast reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the framework of French R and D studies for Generation IV reactors and more specifically for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR); the CEA, EDF and AREVA have launched a joint coordinated research programme. This paper deals with the R and D sets out to achieve better inspection, maintenance, availability and decommissioning. In particular the instrumentation requirements for core monitoring and detection in the case of accidental events. Requirements mainly involve diversifying the means of protection and improving instrumentation performance in terms of responsiveness and sensitivity. Operation feedback from the Phenix and Superphenix prototype reactors and studies, carried out within the scope of the EFR projects, has been used to define the needs for instrumentation enhancement. (authors)

Jeannot, J. P.; Rodriguez, G.; Jammes, C.; Bernardin, B.; Portier, J. L.; Jadot, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, 13108 (France); Maire, S.; Verrier, D. [Advanced Projects and Decommissioning Div. Plant Sector AREVA NP - NEPL-FT, Lyon, 69000 (France); Loisy, F. [EDF - EDF R and D STEP Dept., 6 Quai Watier, Chatou, 78401 (France); Prele, G. [EDF, Generation/Nuclear Engineering, Basic Design Dept., Villeurbanne, 69628 (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganitesA potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300?K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5?Jkg{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} was observed near 300?K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300?K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300?K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62?K at 280?K.

Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Omari, I. A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Suresh, K. G. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

291

The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

Hill, J. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Manning, M. [Formerly AEA Technology, Building 220, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Chambers, A. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Swanton, S.W. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Tetrodotoxin binding sites in human heart and human brain sodium channels. Final report, 28 June 1991-27 June 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) are potent and lethal threats to exposed soldiers. The development of an antidote or site-specific antibodies for low affinity TTX/STX cardiac sodium channels and high affinity TTX/STX brain and peripheral nerve sodium channels requires a data base not only of the primary structure of the toxin receptor site(s) but also insight into the secondary structures of these site(s). Five goals or tasks were attempted and the first three were completed. Full-length human cardiac and brain sodium channel cDNAs have been cloned and expressed as functional proteins in Xenopus oocytes. Silent restriction sites have been introduced around the pore or P-region of the Na+ channel repeats. Site-directed mutagenesis has identified critical residues in the pore from the primary structure involved in sensitivity to TTX and STX and other pore properties. Chemical modification of cysteine mutants of these initial residues by methanethiosulfonate compounds produces an expanded data base of the secondary structure of the toxins` receptors. Specific peptides which mimic these receptors will be made to compete with the natural receptor for the toxins. We have successfully cloned the cDNAs for both human heart and brain sodium channels and expressed functional proteins. The initial chemical modification data suggests file receptor sites for TTX/STX are not interchangeable and are not the same site.

Brown, A.M.; Hartmann, H.A.

1994-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

294

F POWER MEASUREMENT FOR GENERATION IV SODIUM FAST R. COULON, S. NORMAND, M. MICHEL, L. BARBOT, T. DOMENECH,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.F-84500 Bollène, France. ABSTRACT The Phénix nuclear power plant has been a French Sodium Fast Reactor. Drift between the measured ex-core neutron flux and the instant released thermal power (fission rate the research of power tagging agents. Then, simulation study has been done to evaluate measurability using high

Boyer, Edmond

295

Stable aqueous dispersions of graphitic nanoplatelets via the reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide in the presence of poly(sodium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stable aqueous dispersions of graphitic nanoplatelets via the reduction of exfoliated graphite be prepared via an exfoliation/in-situ reduction of graphite oxide in the presence of poly(sodium 4 prepare graphite nanoplatelets via the chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide nanoplatelets

296

Physiological responses to training and racing in two year-old Quarter Horses fed Sodium Zeolite A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Table 82A Page Packed cell volume ('/0) at recovery 10 minutes in two- year-old Quarter Horses fed varying amounts of Sodium Zeolite A Table 83A. Packed cell volume (/o) at recovery 20 minutes in two- year-old Quarter Horses fed varying amounts...

Reynolds, Judith Amy Lundgren

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Reduces Cell Surface Expression of the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Reduces Cell Surface Expression of the Epithelial Sodium levels and reduced apical surface expression of ENaC in CCD cells, down-regulating amiloride- sensitive Channel (ENaC) in Cultured Collecting Duct Cells* Received for publication,May 14, 2007, and in revised

Weisz, Ora A.

298

Inhibition of Sodium/Proton Exchange by a Rab-GTPase-activating Protein Regulates Endosomal Traffic in Yeast*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhibition of Sodium/Proton Exchange by a Rab-GTPase-activating Protein Regulates Endosomal Traffic- boxypeptidase Y to the cell surface. We conclude that Gyp6 is a negative regulator of Nhx1-dependent traffick and down- stream events in the PVC to Golgi pathway. Our findings provide a possible molecular link between

Rao, Rajini

299

Small angle neutron scattering study of deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate micellization in dilute poly((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small angle neutron scattering study of deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate micellization in dilute 2010 Keywords: Poly((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) Micelle Small angle neutron scattering a b angle neutron scattering. We found three transitions of the poly ((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate

Kofinas, Peter

300

Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt-binding macrobicycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt or potassium chloride as a contact ion-pair, is shown to effect- ively transport either salt across vesicle membranes. Sig- nificant transport is observed even when the transporter : phospholipid ratio is as low as 1

Smith, Bradley D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Influence of misonidazole on the radiation response of murine tumors of different size: possible artifacts caused by pentobarbital sodium anesthesia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiosensitivity of a transplantable murine adenocarcinoma decreased with increasing tumor volume. In unanesthetized mice this phenomenon (based on the effect of the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole), in the range of volumes studied, can largely be explained by the appearance of hypoxic cells in the tumor during growth. The use of pentobarbital sodium during irradiation is confiremd to be a disturbing factor, as it may increase the hypoxic cell fraction in the tumors. No evidence was found for a direct radiochemical protection because of pentobarbital sodium. The radioprotective effect of the anesthetic could only be demonstrated in conditions where there is already a fraction of hypoxic cells; no influence of the anesthesia was found in small tumors in which the fraction of hypoxic cells was relatively small. This may account for the previously conflicting data on the influence of pentobarbital sodium anesthesia. The vascularization of larger tumors is apparently inferior to smaller tumors and this has important repercussions in the case of anesthesia. Changes in blood flow induced by pentobarbital sodium in larger tumors cause an insufficient oxygenation and hence acute hypoxia.

Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.; van der Schueren, E.; van den Hoeven, H.; Breur, K.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and HID (high-intensity discharge) lamps and all other mercury containing labeled for shipment to a recycling plant for mercury, glass and aluminum recovery. The beneficial re

Baker, Chris I.

303

Investigation of alternative layouts for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analyses of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle performance have largely settled on the recompression supercritical cycle (or Feher cycle) incorporating a flow split between the main compressor downstream of heat rejection, a recompressing compressor providing direct compression without heat rejection, and high and low temperature recuperators to raise the effectiveness of recuperation and the cycle efficiency. Alternative cycle layouts have been previously examined by Angelino (Politecnico, Milan), by MIT (Dostal, Hejzlar, and Driscoll), and possibly others but not for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) operating at relatively low core outlet temperature. Thus, the present authors could not be sure that the recompression cycle is an optimal arrangement for application to the SFR. To ensure that an advantageous alternative layout has not been overlooked, several alternative cycle layouts have been investigated for a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle coupled to the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) SFR preconceptual design having a 510 C core outlet temperature and a 470 C turbine inlet temperature to determine if they provide any benefit in cycle performance (e.g., enhanced cycle efficiency). No such benefits were identified, consistent with the previous examinations, such that attention was devoted to optimizing the recompression supercritical cycle. The effects of optimizing the cycle minimum temperature and pressure are investigated including minimum temperatures and/or pressures below the critical values. It is found that improvements in the cycle efficiency of 1% or greater relative to previous analyses which arbitrarily fixed the minimum temperature and pressure can be realized through an optimal choice of the combination of the minimum cycle temperature and pressure (e.g., for a fixed minimum temperature there is an optimal minimum pressure). However, this leads to a requirement for a larger cooler for heat rejection which may impact the tradeoff between efficiency and capital cost. In addition, for minimum temperatures below the critical temperature, a lower heat sink temperature is required the availability of which is dependent upon the climate at the specific plant site.

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Ultratrace determination of curium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of a method for detection of curium at near single atom levels is being undertaken as a part of the Advanced Concepts Project at Argonne National Laboratory with funding from the US Department of Energy, Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation. Ultratrace determination of curium, with the ability to quantify the fraction that is curium-242, provides a signature method of detecting clandestine reprocessing of recently irradiated uranium targets. Curium initially present in any of a variety of materials such as air filters, solid or liquid process waste, soil, flora, or fauna can be recovered via current chemical separations processing techniques. Using the ultratrace method being developed, such recovered curium will be quantified with thousand-fold higher sensitivity than the best currently available method which is alpha counting. This high sensitivity arises because, on average, a given trivalent curium (Cm{sup 3+}) ion can emit a very large number of fluorescence photons before alpha decay occurs.

Beitz, J.V.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Progress reports for Gen IV sodium fast reactor activities FY 2007.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An important goal of the US DOE Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) program is to develop the technology necessary to increase safety margins in future fast reactor systems. Although no decision has been made yet about who will build the next demonstration fast reactor, it seems likely that the construction team will include a combination of international companies, and the safety design philosophy for the reactor will reflect a consensus of the participating countries. A significant amount of experience in the design and safety analysis of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) using oxide fuel has been developed in both Japan and France during last few decades. In the US, the traditional approach to reactor safety is based on the principle of defense-in-depth, which is usually expressed in physical terms as multiple barriers to release of radioactive material (e.g. cladding, reactor vessel, containment building), but it is understood that the 'barriers' may consist of active systems or even procedures. As implemented in a reactor design, defense-in-depth is classed in levels of safety. Level 1 includes measures to specify and build a reliable design with significant safety margins that will perform according to the intentions of the designers. Level 2 consists of additional design measures, usually active systems, to protect against unlikely accidental events that may occur during the life of the plant. Level 3 design measures are intended to protect the public in the event of an extremely unlikely accident not foreseen to occur during the plant's life. All of the design measures that make up the first three levels of safety are within the design basis of the plant. Beyond Level 3, and beyond the normal design basis, there are accidents that are not expected to occur in a whole generation of plants, and it is in this class that severe accidents, i.e. accidents involving core melting, are included. Beyond design basis measures to address severe accidents are usually identified as being for prevention of progression into severe accident conditions (prevention of core melting) or for mitigation of severe accident consequences (mitigation of the impact of core melting to protect public health and safety). Because design measures for severe accident prevention and mitigation are beyond the normal design basis, established regulatory guidelines and codes do not provide explicit identification of the design performance requirements for severe accident accommodation. The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key issues of R&D plans for the Gen IV systems in general, and for the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) in particular. Despite the lack of an unambiguous definition of safety approach applicable for severe accidents, there is an emerging consensus on the need for their consideration for the design. The US SFR program and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in particular have actively studied the potential scenarios and consequences of Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDA) for SFRs with oxide fuel during the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) programs in the 70s and 80s. Later, the focus of the US SFR safety R&D activities shifted to the prevention of all HCDAs through passive safety features of the SFRs with metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program, and the study of severe accident consequences was de-emphasized. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the current SFR safety approach and the role of severe accidents in Japan and France, in preparation for an expected and more active collaboration in this area between the US, Japan, and France.

Cahalan, J. E.; Tentner, A. M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

307

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

Sobhani, Azam [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

310

On the Criticality Safety of Transuranic Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Transport Casks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work addresses the neutronic performance and criticality safety issues of transport casks for fuel pertaining to low conversion ratio sodium cooled fast reactors, conventionally known as Advanced Burner Reactors. The criticality of a one, three, seven and 19-assembly cask capacity is presented. Both dry helium and flooded water filled casks are considered. No credit for fuel burnup or fission products was assumed. As many as possible of the conservatisms used in licensing light water reactor universal transport casks were incorporated into this SFR cask criticality design and analysis. It was found that at 7-assemblies or more, adding moderator to the SFR cask increases criticality margin. Also, removal of MAs from the fuel increases criticality margin of dry casks and takes a slight amount of margin away for wet casks. Assuming credit for borated fuel tube liners, this design analysis suggests that as many as 19 assemblies can be loaded in a cask if limited purely by criticality safety. If no credit for boron is assumed, the cask could possibly hold seven assemblies if low conversion ratio fast reactor grade fuel and not breeder reactor grade fuel is assumed. The analysis showed that there is a need for new cask designs for fast reactors spent fuel transportation. There is a potential of modifying existing transportation cask design as the starting point for fast reactor spent fuel transportation.

Samuel Bays; Ayodeji Alajo

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Effects of phosphorus on corrosion resistance of electroless nickel in 50% sodium hydroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nickel (Ni) and electroless nickel (EN) coatings are used extensively in caustic soda (NaOH) service. The corrosion resistance of an EN coating is dependent upon phosphorus (P) content, but not in the trend expected. High-phosphorus EN (HPEN) coatings have poorer corrosion resistance in hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) than low-phosphorus (LPEN) and medium-phosphorus (MPEN) coatings, which have a corrosion resistance comparable to Ni. The purpose of this work was to quantify the effect of P in EN coatings on their corrosion resistance in 50% NaOH at room temperature (RT). Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the corrosion processes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize coating surfaces. Very low corrosion rates ([<=] [mu]m/y) were measured for all coatings. It was proposed that the detrimental effect of P in EN coatings exposed to a concentrated NaOH environment was a result of the higher solubility of nickel phosphate (Ni[sub 3][PO[sub 4

Zeller, R.L. III (Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States)); Salvati, L. (Abbott Labs., Abbott Park, IL (United States))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Status of advanced fuel candidates for Sodium Fast Reactor within the Generation IV International Forum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main challenge for fuels for future Sodium Fast Reactor systems is the development and qualification of a nuclear fuel sub-assembly which meets the Generation IV International Forum goals. The Advanced Fuel project investigates high burn-up minor actinide bearing fuels as well as claddings and wrappers to withstand high neutron doses and temperatures. The R&D outcome of national and collaborative programs has been collected and shared between the AF project members in order to review the capability of sub-assembly material and fuel candidates, to identify the issues and select the viable options. Based on historical experience and knowledge, both oxide and metal fuels emerge as primary options to meet the performance and the reliability goals of Generation IV SFR systems. There is a significant positive experience on carbide fuels but major issues remain to be overcome: strong in-pile swelling, atmosphere required for fabrication as well as Pu and Am losses. The irradiation performance database for nitride fuels is limited with longer term R&D activities still required. The promising core material candidates are Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) and Oxide Dispersed Strengthened (ODS) steels.

F. Delage; J. Carmack; C. B. Lee; T. Mizuno; M. Pelletier; J. Somers

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The case for endurance testing of sodium-heated steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is generally believed that a nuclear power comeback before the end of the century will be through the vehicle of the light water reactor (LWR). The newer designs, with their important technical and economic advances, should attract wide interest and result in commercial success for the manufacturers and their utility customers. To develop the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), approximately $30 billion has been spent worldwide, a third of which has been spent in the US. As a result of this considerable investment, most of the technical obstacles to deployment of the LMFBR have been removed with a few exceptions, one of which is the long-term performance of sodium-heated steam generators. Of the difficulties that have beset the current vintage of nuclear power plants, the performance of steam generators in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was the most egregious. There was very little development testing and no model testing of PWR steam generators. Development occurred in the plants themselves resulting in many outages and more than $5 billion in lost revenue and replacement power costs. As a result, the electric utility industry is certain to exercise caution regarding acquisition of the LMFBR and will demand strong objective evidence of steam generator reliability. Only long-term endurance testing of prototypic models under prototypic conditions will satisfy this demand.

Onesto, A.T.; Zweig, H.R.; Gibbs, D.C. (Energy Technology Engineering Center, Canoga Park, CA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Sodium bromide electron-extraction layers for polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inexpensive and non-toxic sodium bromide (NaBr) was introduced into polymer solar cells (PSCs) as the cathode buffer layer (CBL) and the electron extraction characteristics of the NaBr CBL were investigated in detail. The PSCs based on NaBr CBL with different thicknesses (i.e., 0?nm, 0.5?nm, 1?nm, and 1.5?nm) were prepared and studied. The optimal thickness of NaBr was 1?nm according to the photovoltaic data of PSCs. The open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC with 1?nm NaBr were evaluated to be 0.58?V, 7.36?mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.63, and 2.70%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference device with the commonly used LiF. The optimized photovoltaic performance of PSC with 1?nm NaBr was ascribed to the improved electron transport and extraction capability of 1?nm NaBr in PSCs. In addition, the NaBr CBL could prevent the diffusion of oxygen and water vapor into the active layer and prolong the lifetime of the devices to some extent. Therefore, NaBr layer could be considered as a promising non-toxic CBL for PSCs in future.

Gao, Zhi; Qu, Bo, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); New Display Device and System Integration Collaborative Innovation Center of the West Coast of the Taiwan Strait, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Lipei [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

315

Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Comparative analysis of thorium and uranium fuel for transuranic recycle in a sodium cooled Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present paper compares the reactor physics and transmutation performance of sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (FRs) for TRansUranic (TRU) burning with thorium (Th) or uranium (U) as fertile materials. The 1000 MWt Toshiba-Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) conceptual core has been used as benchmark for the comparison. Both burner and breakeven configurations sustained or started with a TRU supply, and assuming full actinide homogeneous recycle strategy, have been developed. State-of-the-art core physics tools have been employed to establish fuel inventory and reactor physics performances for equilibrium and transition cycles. Results show that Th fosters large improvements in the reactivity coefficients associated with coolant expansion and voiding, which enhances safety margins and, for a burner design, can be traded for maximizing the TRU burning rate. A trade-off of Th compared to U is the significantly larger fuel inventory required to achieve a breakeven design, which entails additional blankets at the detriment of core compactness as well as fuel manufacturing and separation requirements. The gamma field generated by the progeny of U-232 in the U bred from Th challenges fuel handling and manufacturing, but in case of full recycle, the high contents of Am and Cm in the transmutation fuel impose remote fuel operations regardless of the presence of U-232.

C. Fiorina; N. E. Stauff; F. Franceschini; M. T. Wenner; A. Stanculescu; T. K. Kim; A. Cammi; M. E. Ricotti; R. N. Hill; T. A. Taiwo; M. Salvatores

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Development of models for the sodium version of the two-phase three-dimensional thermal hydraulics code THERMIT. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several different models and correlations were developed and incorporated in the sodium version of THERMIT, a thermal-hydraulics code written at MIT for the purpose of analyzing transients under LMFBR conditions. This includes: a mechanism for the inclusion of radial heat conduction in the sodium coolant as well as radial heat loss to the structure surrounding the test section. The fuel rod conduction scheme was modified to allow for more flexibility in modelling the gas plenum regions and fuel restructuring. The formulas for mass and momentum exchange between the liquid and vapor phases were improved. The single phase and two phase friction factors were replaced by correlations more appropriate to LMFBR assembly geometry.

Wilson, G.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Technical Review Report for the Justification for Shipment of Sodium-Bonded Carbide Fuel Pins in the T-3 Cask  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the review of the Fluor Submittal (hereafter, the Submittal), prepared by Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRPT) of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), at the request of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office, for the shipment of unirradiated and irradiated sodium-bonded carbide fuel pins. The sodium-bonded carbide fuel pins are currently stored at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) awaiting shipment to Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Normally, modified contents are included into the next revision of the SARP. However, the contents, identified to be shipped from FFTF to Idaho National Laboratory, are a one-way shipment of 18 irradiated fuel pins and 7 unirradiated fuel pins, where the irradiated and unirradiated fuel pins are shipped separately, and can be authorized with a letter amendment to the existing Certificate of Compliance (CoC).

West, M; DiSabatino, A

2008-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

320

A Reliable Steam Generator That Will Allow the Elimination of the Secondary Sodium Circuit in an LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A particular weakness of the commercial liquid-metal fast breeder reactor is the design of the steam generator (SG). Any small leak in the SG allows the hot sodium (Na) to come into contact with the water/steam, and this results in a violent reaction and SG damage. A secondary circuit is normally used to prevent such reactions causing damage to the reactor core and primary vessel.NNC Ltd. has developed a copper (Cu)-bonded SG system, the objective of which is to provide three separate solid boundaries (two steel and one Cu) between the primary sodium coolant and the water/steam and hence eliminate the possibility of contact between Na and water/steam. The design uses a hot isostatic pressure method of construction to bond all three barriers to aid heat transfer. This highly reliable system allows the elimination of the secondary circuit, greatly reducing the cost of the reactor system and increasing availability.

Sherwood, D.V.; Chikazawa, Y

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Design, fabrication, and testing of a sodium evaporator for the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development and testing of a compact heat-pipe heat exchanger kW(e) designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases. The liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine, where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15 kW(t) of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760 C. Four of these prototype units were eventually used to power a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this report.

Rawlinson, K.S.; Adkins, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

An investigation of the physical and numerical foundations of two-fluid representation of sodium boiling with applications to LMFBR experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work involves the development of physical models for the constitutive relations of a two-fuid, three-dimensional sodium boiling code, THERMIT-6S. The code is equipped with a fluid conduction model, a fuel pin model, ...

No, Hee Cheon

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, ...

Polat, Baris E.

324

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research conducted under the auspices of the USDOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 10,000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Quite simply, if the radioactive matter and bulk inorganic chemicals could be separated into separate streams, large cost savings would accrue, because the latter stream is much cheaper to dispose of. In principle, one could remove the radionuclides from the waste, leaving behind the bulk of the waste; or one could remove certain bulk chemicals from the waste, leaving behind the radionuclides. The preponderance of effort over the past two decades has focused on the former approach, which produces a high-level stream for vitrification and a low-activity stream for either vitrification (Hanford) or grout (Savannah River). At Hanford, a particular concern arises in that vitrification of a large volume of low-activity waste will be unacceptably expensive. To make matters worse, a projected future deficit of tank space may necessitate construction of expensive new tanks. These problems have raised questions as to whether a solution could be devised based on separation of sodium from the waste, resulting in the reduction of the total volume of waste that must be vitrified.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Marchand, Alan P.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research conducted under the auspices of the USDOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid- liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Disposal of high- level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 10,000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals.1 Quite simply, if the radioactive matter and bulk inorganic chemicals could be separated into separate streams, large cost savings would accrue, because the latter stream is much cheaper to dispose of. In principle, one could remove the radionuclides from the waste, leaving behind the bulk of the waste; or one could remove certain bulk chemicals from the waste, leaving behind a mixture of radionuclides and minor inorganic salts. The preponderance of effort over the past two decades has focused on the former approach, which produces a high- level stream for vitrification and a low-activity stream for either vitrification (Hanford) or grout (Savannah River). At Hanford, a particular concern arises in that vitrification of a large volume of low-activity waste will be unacceptably expensive. To make matters worse, a projected future deficit of tank space may necessitate construction of expensive new tanks. These problems have raised questions as to whether a solution could be devised based on separation of sodium from the waste, resulting in the reduction of the total volume of waste that must be vitrified.

Moyer, Bruce A; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Marchand, Alan P.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the experienced user-base and the experimental validation base was decaying away quickly.

Carbajo, Juan (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache %3CU%2B2013%3E CEA, France)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Probing the Failure Mechanism of SnO{sub 2} Nanowires for Sodium-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonlithium metals such as sodium have attracted wide attention as a potential charge carrying ion for rechargeable batteries. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations, we probed the structural and chemical evolution of SnO{sub 2} nanowire anodes in Na-ion batteries and compared them quantitatively with results from Li-ion batteries (Huang, J. Y.; et al. Science 2010, 330, 1515-1520). Upon Na insertion into SnO{sub 2}, a displacement reaction occurs, leading to the formation of amorphous Na{sub x}Sn nanoparticles dispersed in Na{sub 2}O matrix. With further Na insertion, the Na{sub x}Sn crystallized into Na{sub 15}Sn{sub 4} (x = 3.75). Upon extraction of Na (desodiation), the Na{sub x}Sn transforms to Sn nanoparticles. Associated with the dealloying, pores are found to form, leading to a structure of Sn particles confined in a hollow matrix of Na{sub 2}O. These pores greatly increase electrical impedance, therefore accounting for the poor cyclability of SnO{sub 2}. DFT calculations indicate that Na{sup +} diffuses 30 times slower than Li{sup +} in SnO{sub 2}, in agreement with in situ TEM measurement. Insertion of Na can chemomechanically soften the reaction product to a greater extent than in lithiation. Therefore, in contrast to the lithiation of SnO{sub 2} significantly less dislocation plasticity was seen ahead of the sodiation front. This direct comparison of the results from Na and Li highlights the critical role of ionic size and electronic structure of different ionic species on the charge/discharge rate and failure mechanisms in these batteries.

Gu, Meng; Kushima, Akihiro; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D; Li, Ju; Wang, Chongmin

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

329

Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing.

Takaki, Naoyuki; Sagawa, Yu; Umino, Akitake [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC). A diminished concentration at 10% of MA, reduces the size of the external storage and the cooling time of the assemblies becomes compatible with the management of the irradiated fuel. Even with a low allowable power for the washing device, the economic impact on the capital cost is less than 2.5%. (authors)

Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F. [Alternative Energy and Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, DEN, F - 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E. [Alternative Energy and Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, DEN DTN, F - 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Chabert, C. [Alternative Energy and Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, DEN, F - 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

Ohi, J.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Investigation of the physical and numerical foundations of two-fluid representation of sodium boiling with applications to LMFBR experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work involves the development of physical models for the constitutive relations of a two-fluid, three-dimensional sodium boiling code, THERMIT-6S. The code is equipped with a fluid conduction model, a fuel pin model, and a subassembly wall model suitable for stimulating LMFBR transient events. Mathematically rigorous derivations of time-volume averaged conservation equations are used to establish the differential equations of THERMIT-6S. These equations are then discretized in a manner identical to the original THERMIT code. A virtual mass term is incorporated in THERMIT-6S to solve the ill-posed problem. Based on a simplified flow regime, namely cocurrent annular flow, constitutive relations for two-phase flow of sodium are derived. The wall heat transfer coefficient is based on momentum-heat transfer analogy and a logarithmic law for liquid film velocity distribution. A broad literature review is given for two-phase friction factors. It is concluded that entrainment can account for some of the discrepancies in the literature. Mass and energy exchanges are modelled by generalization of the turbulent flux concept. Interfacial drag coefficients are derived for annular flows with entrainment. Code assessment is performed by simulating three experiments for low flow-high power accidents and one experiment for low flow/low power accidents in the LMFBR. While the numerical results for pre-dryout are in good agreement with the data, those for post-dryout reveal the need for improvement of the physical models. The benefits of two-dimensional non-equilibrium representation of sodium boiling are studied.

No, H.C.; Kazimi, M.S.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Thermal response evaluation of austenitic stainless steels due to random sodium temperature fluctuations using BEMSET and DINUS-3 codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The BEMSET code was developed for the thermal striping evaluation and was designed to deal with linear elastic strain mechanics in various reactor geometries. Then a combined thermal striping analysis was carried out for the flow guide tube of a Japanese prototype LMFBR using the BEMSET code and a thermohydraulics direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3. Calculational results simulated characteristics of the thermal striping phenomena reported in the past studies. An applicability of the combined method to the thermal striping analysis was assessed based on the discussions and the method can replace conventional experimental approaches using large scale sodium experiments in LMFBR designs.

Muramatsu, Toshiharu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., O-arai, Ibaraki (Japan). O-arai Engineering Center

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Analysis of long-term flows resulting from large-scale sodium-water reactions in an LMFBR secondary system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leaks in LMFBR steam generators cannot entirely be prevented; thus the steam generators and the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) of an LMFBR must be designed to withstand the effects of the leaks. A large-scale leak which might result from a sudden break of a steam generator tube, and the resulting sodium-water reaction (SWR) can generate large pressure pulses that propagate through the IHTS and exert large forces on the piping supports. This paper discusses computer programs for analyzing long-term flow and thermal effects in an LMFBR secondary system resulting from large-scale steam generator leaks, and the status of the development of the codes.

Shin, Y.W.; Chung, H.; Choi, U.S.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate Direct Intralesional Sclerotherapy of Venous Malformations of the Vulva and Vagina: Report of Five Cases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report five cases of female patients affected by symptomatic focal external genital venous malformations treated with percutaneous direct intralesional injection of sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS). All patients were referred because of discomfort and pain when sexual intercourse was attempted. Direct sclerotherapy with 3% STS was performed on a day-hospital basis with the patient under local anesthesia. Complete resolution of the symptoms was achieved in all cases. No major adverse effects were reported. Direct intralesional sclerotherapy with STS may be considered a safe and effective method for the treatment of female external genital malformation without the necessity of general anesthesia for pain control.

Krokidis, Miltiadis, E-mail: mkrokidis@hotmail.com [Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Venetucci, Pietro [University Hospital 'Federico II', Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Hatzidakis, Adam [Medical School of Crete (Greece); Iaccarino, Vittorio [University Hospital 'Federico II', Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (Italy)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Evaluation of Homogeneous Options: Effects of Minor Actinide Exclusion from Single and Double Tier Recycle in Sodium Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Systems Analysis Campaign under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has requested the fuel cycle analysis group at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to analyze and provide isotopic data for four scenarios in which different strategies for Minor Actinides (MA) management are investigated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) design was selected as the baseline in this scenario study. Two transuranic (TRU) conversion ratios, defined as the ratio of the amount of TRU produced over the TRU destroyed in the reactor core, along with different fuel-types were investigated.

R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Method of determining glass durability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Method of determining glass durability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

Determining Cropland Share Rental Arrangements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many crop producers rely heavily on rented land in their farming operations. With this publication, they can learn more about determining crop shares and the principles of crop share leases....

Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Kastens, Terry L.; Outlaw, Joe

1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

CX-010776: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Primary Coolant Leak Rate Determination System Equipment Replacement CX(s) Applied: B2.2 Date: 07/24/2013 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): Nuclear Energy

342

National Mining Association Experimental Determination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Mining Association Experimental Determination of Radon Fluxes over Water #12;Introduction research funded by the National Mining Association (NMA) regarding radon fluxes from water surfaces surfaces at uranium recovery operations are insignificant and approximate background soil fluxes for most

343

Workers' Compensation Costs Rising Across the Nation | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

the stock market was booming. The full NASI report is available from the academy's Web site at www.nasi.org. Story link: http:www.occupationalhazards.comfullstory.php?WID7397...

344

Gender determination of avian embryo  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

Daum, Keith A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Atkinson, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

CX-011104: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-011104: Categorical Exclusion Determination Coupled Thermo-Mechanical and Photo-Chemical Degradation Mechanisms that Determine the Reliability and...

346

An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.56}Mn{sub 0.44}O{sub 2})

Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B., E-mail: bo@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and iNANO, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory results of a comprehensive, regulatory performance test program, utilizing an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using a 53 millimeter, Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of type three, air blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, containing about 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium and strontium was utilized. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, forty, fifty and sixty wt % salt. Performance test results include the ninety day ANS 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP Toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented also include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy. Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements.

Mattus, A.J.; Kaczmarsky, M.M.

1986-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Recovery Act - Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aquion Energy received a $5.179 million cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy??s Smart Grid Demonstration Program ?? Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies (Program Area 2.5) of FOA DE-FOE-0000036. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate Aquion??s low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium ion energy storage device. The centerpiece of the technology is a novel hybrid energy storage chemistry that has been proven in a laboratory environment. The objective was to translate these groundbreaking results from the small-batch, small-cell test environment to the pilot scale to enable significant numbers of multiple ampere-hour cells to be manufactured and assembled into test batteries. Aquion developed a proof of concept demonstration unit that showed similar performance and major cost improvement over existing technologies. Beyond minimizing cell and system cost, Aquion built a technology that is safe, environmentally benign and durable over many thousands of cycles as used in a variety of grid support roles. As outlined in the Program documents, the original goals of the project were to demonstrate a unit that: 1. Has a projected capital cost of less than $250/kWh at the pack level 2. A deep discharge cycle life of > 10,000 cycles 3. A volumetric energy density of >20 kWh/m3 4. Projected calendar life of over 10 years 5. A device that contains no hazardous materials and retains best in class safety characteristics. Through the course of this project Aquion developed its aqueous electrolyte electrochemical energy storage device to the point where large demonstration units (> 10 kWh) were able to function in grid-supporting functions detailed by their collaborators. Aquion??s final deliverable was an ~15 kWh system that has the ability to perform medium to long duration (> 2 hours) charge and discharge functions approaching 95% DC-DC efficiency. The system has functioned, and continues to function as predicted with no indication that it will not tolerate well beyond 10 calendar years and 10,000 cycles. It has been in continuous operation for more than 1 year with 1,000 cycles (of varying depth of discharge, including 100% depth of discharge) and no identifiable degradation to the system. The final thick electrode cell structure has shown an energy density of 25 kWh/m3 at a five hour (or greater) discharge time. The primary chemistry has remained non-toxic, containing no acids or other corrosive chemicals, and the battery units have passed numerous safety tests, including flame resistance testing. These tests have verified the claim that the device is safe to use and contains no hazardous materials. Current projections show costs at the pack level to offer best in class value and are competitive with lead-acid batteries, factoring in LCOE.

Wiley, Ted; Whitacre, Jay; Eshoo, Michael; Noland, James; Campbell, Williams; Spears, Christopher

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

replacing existing high-pressure sodium lights with more energy-efficient, light-emitting diode lights. Conditions: None Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: B1.32, B5.1 *-For...

350

Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

RAPID DETERMINATION OF RA-226 IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for emergency response or routine sample analyses. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device or Improvised Nuclear Device event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. {sup 226}Ra (T1/2 = 1,620 years) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha-emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The new method to determine {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for solid samples, calcium carbonate precipitation to preconcentrate Ra, and rapid column separation steps to remove interferences. The column separation process uses cation exchange resin to remove large amounts of calcium, Sr Resin to remove barium and Ln Resin as a final purification step to remove {sup 225}Ac and potential interferences. The purified {sup 226}Ra sample test sources are prepared using barium sulfate microprecipitation in the presence of isopropanol for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed good chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples can be performed in less than 16 h for vegetation, concrete, brick, soil, and air filter samples with excellent quality for emergency or routine analyses. The sample preparation work takes less than 6 h. {sup 225}Ra (T1/2 = 14.9 day) tracer is used and the {sup 225}Ra progeny {sup 217}At is used to determine chemical yield via alpha spectrometry. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory radium particles are effectively digested. The preconcentration and column separation steps can also be applied to aqueous samples with good results.

Maxwell, S.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

353

CX-001473: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-001473: Categorical Exclusion Determination Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development Date: 04022010 Location(s): Grand Forks, North...

354

CX-011250: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-011250: Categorical Exclusion Determination Transforming Photovoltaic Installations Toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions CX(s) Applied:...

355

CX-000771: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000771: Categorical Exclusion Determination New York Revised Narrative Information Worksheet for Energy Efficiency Program for...

356

CX-006275: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006275: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Audit; Efficiency Improvements; and Renewable Energy Installations; Township of...

357

CX-001459: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001459: Categorical Exclusion Determination Air Quality VIII: An International Conference on Carbon Management, Mercury, Trace Elements,...

358

CX-004791: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004791: Categorical Exclusion Determination Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project? Automated Intake Cleaning Equipment and Materials...

359

CX-001276: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-001276: Categorical Exclusion Determination Install Photovoltaic Roof System, Energy Efficiency Retrofits, Building Audits, and Hire a Committee...

360

CX-012136: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-012136: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of Carbon...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CX-011016: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-011016: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of Carbon...

362

CX-011013: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-011013: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of Carbon...

363

CX-011017: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-011017: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of Carbon...

364

CX-001714: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-001714: Categorical Exclusion Determination Vehicle Test Location at Bone Yard; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Tracking Number...

365

CX-005153: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-005153: Categorical Exclusion Determination United States-China Advanced Coal Technologies Consortium - West Virginia University Research Corporation...

366

CX-006226: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006226: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Oklahoma Municipal...

367

CX-000621: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000621: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Alternative Fuel...

368

CX-003353: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003353: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Oklahoma Municipal...

369

CX-001996: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001996: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program (SEP) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) - Washita...

370

CX-004060: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004060: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Oklahoma Municipal...

371

CX-001998: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001998: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program (SEP) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) - Shawnee...

372

CX-004730: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004730: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Oklahoma Municipal...

373

CX-001096: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001096: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Office Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant National...

374

CX-007573: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007573: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Oklahoma Municipal...

375

CX-003498: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003498: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Newman Memorial...

376

CX-005432: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005432: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Oklahoma Municipal...

377

CX-000619: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000619: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Metropolitan Tulsa...

378

CX-006227: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006227: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Oklahoma Municipal...

379

CX-008602: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008602: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma State Energy Program- Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Large Systems Request AO...

380

CX-007412: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007412: Categorical Exclusion Determination OKLAHOMA State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Oklahoma Municipal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

CX-009009: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009009: Categorical Exclusion Determination "Oklahoma State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Oklahoma Municipal...

382

CX-010176: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-010176: Categorical Exclusion Determination Radiation Heat Transfer and Turbulent Fluctuations in Internal Combustion Engines - Toward...

383

CX-010175: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-010175: Categorical Exclusion Determination Radiation Heat Transfer and Turbulent Fluctuations in Internal Combustion Engines - Toward...

384

CX-001608: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-001608: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant City of Jacksonville: 6) Metropolitan Government Clean Transportation...

385

CX-000669: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

69: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000669: Categorical Exclusion Determination Illinois Energy Conservation Plan for State Facilities - Capital Development Board Projects...

386

CX-001074: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-001074: Categorical Exclusion Determination Chicago, Illinois American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

387

CX-000670: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

70: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000670: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant State of Illinois Categorical Exclusion...

388

CX-004469: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

9: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004469: Categorical Exclusion Determination Forest County Potawatomi Community - Community Renewable Energy Deployment - Solar Hot Water...

389

CX-002686: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

686: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002686: Categorical Exclusion Determination Forest County Potawatomi Community- Community Renewable Energy Deployment - Centralized...

390

CX-001110: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001110: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for Engineered Geothermal Systems Applications from...

391

CX-005022: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-005022: Categorical Exclusion Determination Small Wind Turbine Regional Test Center, Canyon Texas; National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tracking...

392

CX-003523: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-003523: Categorical Exclusion Determination Small Wind Turbine Regional Test Center Kansas State University; National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

393

CX-001424: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-001424: Categorical Exclusion Determination Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Modeling of Enhanced Geothermal System Reservoirs - Continuum through...

394

CX-002132: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002132: Categorical Exclusion Determination Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below...

395

CX-000616: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-000616: Categorical Exclusion Determination Enhanced Wind Resource Assessment at Naval Station Newport; National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

396

CX-008582: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-008582: Categorical Exclusion Determination Bay Area Photovoltaics Consortium, Photovoltaic (PV) Manufacturing Initiative - Core Subawards CX(s)...

397

CX-001915: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

15: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001915: Categorical Exclusion Determination Green Vision Community Energy Program and Evergreen Municipal Energy Efficiency Program-...

398

CX-003975: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003975: Categorical Exclusion Determination State Energy Program - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Green Jobs Training Program -...

399

CX-011555: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-011555: Categorical Exclusion Determination Managing Zirconium Chemistry and Phase Compatibility in Combined Process Separations for Minor Actinide...

400

CX-009310: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009310: Categorical Exclusion Determination Optimization of Reservoir Storage Capacity in Different Depositional Environments (Rock...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

CX-009311: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009311: Categorical Exclusion Determination Optimization of Reservoir Storage Capacity in Different Depositional Environments (Champaign)...

402

CX-005490: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-005490: Categorical Exclusion Determination Thermal Analysis of Radioactive Materials by Thermagravimetric Analysis, Differential Scanning...

403

CX-011320: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-011320: Categorical Exclusion Determination Continuous Regional Methane Emissions Estimates in Northern Pennsylvania Gas Field Using Atmospheric Inversions...

404

CX-011319: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-011319: Categorical Exclusion Determination Continuous Regional Methane Emissions Estimates in Northern Pennsylvania Gas Field Using Atmospheric Inversions...

405

CX-007854: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-007854: Categorical Exclusion Determination Streamlining Solar Standards & Processes: The Southern California Rooftop Solar Challenge CX(s)...

406

CX-004643: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004643: Categorical Exclusion Determination Colorado State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Renewable Ready Grant -...

407

CX-004707: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004707: Categorical Exclusion Determination Colorado State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Commercial Buildings -...

408

CX-006872: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006872: Categorical Exclusion Determination Colorado State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Renewable Energy...

409

CX-009383: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009383: Categorical Exclusion Determination Hybrid Rotor Compression for Multiphase and Liquids-Rich Wellhead Production Applications...

410

CX-005745: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005745: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost High Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation? University of...

411

CX-005385: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005385: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost High Concentration Photovoltaic Power Systems for Utility Power Generation -Sandia...

412

CX-002611: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-002611: Categorical Exclusion Determination Modeling Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir to Evaluate...

413

CX-000462: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-000462: Categorical Exclusion Determination Modeling Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir to Evaluate...

414

CX-002609: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-002609: Categorical Exclusion Determination Modeling Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir to Evaluate...

415

CX-002612: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-002612: Categorical Exclusion Determination Modeling Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir to Evaluate...

416

Investigation of the influence of. cap alpha. irradiation on the valence states of the actinides. IX. Behavior of curium, americium, and plutonium in solutions of sodium perchlorate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It was shown that during prolong intense ..cap alpha.. irradiation of concentrated weakly acid solutions of sodium perchlorate, containing curium(III), americium(III), and plutonium(IV), two types of precipitates are formed: amorphous and crystalline. It was established that in this case there is a substantial decrease in the acidity of the solution. It was found that the crystalline precipitate represents sodium chloride, while the amorphous precipitate consists of hydroxides of the actinides. In the amorphous precipitate neptunium is in the hexavalent state and americium in the tri- and pentavalent states.

Frolov, A.A.; Kornilov, A.S.; Vasil'ev, V.Ya.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Post-test analysis of dryout test 7B' of the W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility Experiment with the SABRE-2P code. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An understanding of conditions that may cause sodium boiling and boiling propagation that may lead to dryout and fuel failure is crucial in liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor safety. In this study, the SABRE-2P subchannel analysis code has been used to analyze the ultimate transient of the in-core W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment. This code has a 3-D simple nondynamic boiling model which is able to predict the flow instability which caused dryout. In other analyses dryout has been predicted for out-of-core test bundles and so this study provides additional confirmation of the model.

Rose, S.D.; Dearing, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Determining solar abundances using helioseismology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent downward revision of solar photospheric abundances of Oxygen and other heavy elements has resulted in serious discrepancies between solar models and solar structure as determined through helioseismology. In this work we investigate the possibility of determining the solar heavy-element abundance without reference to spectroscopy by using helioseismic data. Using the dimensionless sound-speed derivative in the solar convection zone, we find that the heavy element abundance, Z, of 0.0172 +/- 0.002, which is closer to the older, higher value of the abundances.

H. M. Antia; Sarbani Basu

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

419

RAPID FUSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES IN LARGE RICE SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new rapid fusion method for the determination of plutonium in large rice samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used to determine very low levels of plutonium isotopes in rice. The recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid, reliable radiochemical analyses for radionuclides in environmental and food samples. Public concern regarding foods, particularly foods such as rice in Japan, highlights the need for analytical techniques that will allow very large sample aliquots of rice to be used for analysis so that very low levels of plutonium isotopes may be detected. The new method to determine plutonium isotopes in large rice samples utilizes a furnace ashing step, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with TEVA Resin? cartridges. The method can be applied to rice sample aliquots as large as 5 kg. Plutonium isotopes can be determined using alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory plutonium particles are effectively digested. The MDA for a 5 kg rice sample using alpha spectrometry is 7E-5 mBq g{sup -1}. The method can easily be adapted for use by ICP-MS to allow detection of plutonium isotopic ratios.

Maxwell, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

CX-008738: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Determination of Microstructure and Chemical State Changes in Ion-Irradiated Fuels and Structural Components with a High Kinetic Energy Electron Detector Illinois Institute of Technology CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/22/2012 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): Idaho Operations Office

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Physical and functional links between anion exchanger-1 and sodium pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that determine kAE1s membrane trafficking, retention and recycling. Given the importance of the last 11 residues of kAE1 for both (1 binding and normal membrane residency of kAE1 in kidney epithelial cells, we would have liked directly to test the hypothesis... , indicating a requirement for (1 for kAE1 membrane destination and/or retention. In addition, overexpression of plasma membrane-located kAE1 in both MDCK and LLC-PK1 cells, led to much higher levels of (1 on the cell surface compared to cells without kAE1...

Su, Ya; Al-Lamki, Rafia S.; Blake-Palmer, Katherine G.; Best, Alison; Golder, Zoe J.; Zhou, Aiwu; Karet Frankl, Fiona E.

2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

422

ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

423

[alpha]-Decay damage effects in curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-free high-level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A polyphase titanate ceramic incorporating sodium-free simulated high-level nuclear waste was doped with 0.91 wt% of [sup 224]Cm to accelerate the effects of long-term self-irradiation arising from [alpha] decays. The ceramic included three main constituent minerals: hollandite, perovskite, and zirconolite, with some minor phases. Although hollandite showed the broadening of its X-ray diffraction lines and small lattice parameter changes during damage in growth, the unit cell was substantially unaltered. Perovskite and zirconolite, which are the primary hosts of curium, showed 2.7% and 2.6% expansions, respectively, of their unit cell volumes after a dose of 12 [times] 10[sup 17] [alpha] decays[center dot]g[sup [minus]1]. Volume swelling due to damage in growth caused an exponential (almost linear) decrease in density, which reached 1.7% after a dose of 12.4 [times] 10[sup 17] [alpha] decays[center dot]g[sup [minus]1]. Leach tests on samples that had incurred doses of 2.0 [times] 10[sup 17] and 4.5 [times] 10[sup 17] [alpha] decays[center dot]g[sup [minus]1] showed that the rates of dissolution of cesium and barium were similar to analogous leach rates from the equivalent cold ceramic, while strontium and calcium leach rates were 2--15 times higher. Although the cerium, molybdenum, strontium, and calcium leach rates in the present material were similar to those in the curium-doped sodium-bearing titanate ceramic reported previously, the cesium leach rate was 3--8 times lower.

Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichiro; Tsuboi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Togashi, Yoshihiro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)); Stewart, M.W.A.; Vance, E.R.; Hart, K.P.; Ball, C.J. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales (Australia). Lucas Heights Research Labs.); White, T.J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Suppression of fine-structure splitting and oscillator strength of sodium D-line in a Debye plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate theoretically the influence of static plasma screening on relativistic spin-orbit interaction-induced fine-structure splitting of the D-line doublet arising from the transitions 3p{sub 1/2}3s{sub 1/2} and 3p{sub 3/2}3s{sub 1/2} of the valence electron of a sodium atom embedded in a model plasma environment. The many-electron atomic problem is formulated first as an effective one-electron problem in which the interaction between the optically active valence electron and the atomic ion core is represented by an accurate parametric model potential including core-polarization correction, and then the plasma effect on the atomic system is simulated by the Debye-screening model for the valence-core interaction. It is observed that the magnitude of spin-orbit energy shift reduces for both the upper component 3p{sub 3/2} and the lower component 3p{sub 1/2} with increasing plasma screening strength, thereby reducing the spin-orbit energy separation between these two components as the screening becomes stronger. As a consequence, the magnitude of fine-structure splitting between the D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} line energies of sodium drops significantly with stronger plasma screening. The optical (absorption) oscillator strength for 3s ? 3p transition is seen to reduce with stronger screening and this leads to a screening-induced gradual suppression of the 3p ? 3s spontaneous decay rate.

Basu, Joyee, E-mail: joyeebasu@yahoo.com; Ray, Debasis, E-mail: ray.debasis@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, West Bengal 711 103 (India)] [Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, West Bengal 711 103 (India)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when must-take wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Nuclear spin relaxation of sodium cations in bacteriophage Pf1 solutions D. N. Sobieski, N. R. Krueger, S. Vyas,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear spin relaxation of sodium cations in bacteriophage Pf1 solutions D. N. Sobieski, N. R The nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectra for the I=3/2 23 Na cation dissolved into filamentous bacteriophage the 23 Na nuclear quadrupole moment and the electric field gradient produced by the negatively charged Pf

Augustine, Mathew P.

427

Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, Environmental Management Cleanup Projects. Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

Gary Mecham

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

Herbst, Alan K.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

429

Testing and Disposal Strategy for Secondary Wastes from Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

Herbst, Alan Keith

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

The PDZ Domain Protein PICK1 and the Sodium Channel BNaC1 Interact and Localize at Mechanosensory Terminals of Dorsal Root  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The PDZ Domain Protein PICK1 and the Sodium Channel BNaC1 Interact and Localize at Mechanosensory) in a yeast two-hybrid screen. We show by two-hybrid assays, glutathione S-transfer- ase pull-down assays Purkinje neu- rons, localizing to their dendrites and cell bodies. There- fore, PICK1 interacts with BNa

Corey, David P.

432

Evaluation of Heterogeneous Options: Effects of MgO versus UO2 Matrix Selection for Minor Actinide Targets in a Sodium Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary focus of this work was to compare MgO with UO2 as target matrix material options for burning minor actinides in a transmutation target within a sodium fast reactor. This analysis compared the transmutation performance of target assemblies having UO2 matrix to those having specifically MgO inert matrix.

M. Pope; S. Bays; R. Ferrer

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in lower dimensions Bose-Einstein condensates of sodium atoms have been prepared in optical and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in lower dimensions Bose-Einstein condensates of sodium dimensions exceeds the interaction energy between atoms. This realized condensates of lower dimensionality [1]. In anisotropic traps, a primary indicator of crossing the transition temperature for Bose- Einstein condensation

434

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. BME-23, NO. 3, MAY 1976 tion of Bayluscide and sodium Pentachlorophenate in the Egypt-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and sodium Pentachlorophenate in the Egypt- 49 project area," Bull. World Health Org., vol. 35, pp. 357 mansoni infections in the Egypt- 49 project area, 1. sampling techniques and procedures for mea- suring. Mallah, "The behavioural pattern of social and religious water-contact activities in the Egypt-49

435

ELSEVIER Journal ofNon-CrystallineSolids208 (1996)267-276 An XPS study of iron sodium silicate glass surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

silicate glass surfaces A. Mekki a,b, D. Holland a,*, C.F. McConville a, M. Salim b a Department of Physics of the local structure of silicate, germanate, and phosphate-based glasses [1-4]. Iron sodium silicate glasses. For silicate glasses, however, Fe 2+ exhibits a higher solubility and ionic diffusion than Fe 3+, suggesting

Mekki, Abdelkarim

436

Formation of Quantum-Degenerate Sodium Molecules A current frontier in the field of ultracold gases is the study of ultracold molecules. In  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a Feshbach resonance [1]. More than 105 molecules were generated with a conversion efficiency of ~4%. High sodium molecules from an atomic Bose- Einstein condensate by ramping an applied magnetic field across trap. The small expansion velocity corresponds to a temperature of about 30 nK, characteristic of high

437

Determination of platinum and palladium in geologic samples by ion exchange chromatography with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alternative procedure to the classical fire assay method for determining Pt and Pd in sulfide ores, concentrates, and furnace mattes is presented. A suitable amount of sample is digested with aqua regla and filtered and any remaining gangue is digested with a mixture of HF and HClO/sub 4/. The solution is filtered and the residue fused with sodium peroxide granules. The fused salts are dissolved in a dilute HCl acid solution and all three solutions combined. The resultant solution is passed through a Bio-Rad AG 50W-X8 cation exchange resin in the H/sup +/ form. The chlorocomplex anions of Pt and Pd are not retained by the cation exchange resin while the base metal cations are efficiently removed from the eluent. Pt and Pd concentrations are subsequently determined with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Preliminary experiments showing the method's potential expandability to Au are included.

Brown, R.J.; Biggs, W.R.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O - 6.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO{sub 2} cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient.

Hermann, S.D.; Gese, N.J. [Separations Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Wurth, L.A. [Zinc Air Inc., 5314-A US Hwy 2 West, Columbia Falls, MT 59912 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Toeplitz determinants with merging singularities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study asymptotic behavior for determinants of $n\\times n$ Toeplitz matrices corresponding to symbols with two Fisher-Hartwig singularities at the distance $2t\\ge0$ from each other on the unit circle. We obtain large $n$ asymptotics which are uniform for $0gas, and a conjecture of Fyodorov and Keating on the second moment of powers of the characteristic polynomials of random matrices.

T. Claeys; I. Krasovsky

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

440

Method for determining gene knockouts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

Maranas, Costas D. (Port Matilda, PA); Burgard, Anthony R. (State College, PA); Pharkya, Priti (State College, PA)

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Method for determining gene knockouts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

Maranas, Costa D; Burgard, Anthony R; Pharkya, Priti

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

442

Determining boiler-water makeup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In boiler operations, it is desirable to determine blowdown--and, thus, the feedwater`s concentration cycles--because it enables operators to calculate the theoretical concentrations of iron, copper or dispersant in the system. These calculations are important for maintaining boiler cleanliness. In practice, however, it isn`t always feasible to determine blowdown. For example, if the steam, feedwater and blowdown flows are not measured in a system, or if the measurements are not accurate, the blowdown and feedwater concentration cycles cannot be accurately determined. Also, if demineralized makeup water with very-low silica concentrations is mixed with essentially silica-free condensate, the ratio of silica in the boiler water to the silica in the feedwater may not yield accurate values for the concentration cycle. This method for calculating concentration cycles is accurate to within 5%, when the accuracy of the parameters measured are within the following limits: steam flow (2%); phosphate, residual (5%); micro calcium (50%); micro iron (25%); and phosphate, feed (10%).

Beecher, J.; Herman, K. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States). Drew Industrial Div.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Thermodynamic study of gaseous sodium-phosphorous-oxygen ternary molecules by high temperature mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 8 + 8, 67. 1 + 8, 79. 9 + 4, 105 + 10, 109. 2 + 8 and 14. 3 + 6, 0 -1 respectively. The atomization energies, AH , in keel mole for the a' molecules, NaPO, NaOP, NaPO , and NaPO were determined as 210. 7 + 11, 212. 4 + ll, 329. 7 + 11, and 432. 7... ) I(Nap ) Relative I(PO ) ion currents I(P02 ) in amps. I(NaPO ) I(NaP02 ) I(NaP03 ) 1 1270 1. 38xlp-o 2 1317 2. 98%10 3 1320 2. 73?10 4 1336 3. 78xlp 5 1353 5. 51%10 6 1277 1. 40xlp -8 7 1301 1. 50xlp 8 1308 1. 61xlp 9 1315 '1. 74xlp...

Miller, Federico

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

18-Membered cyclic esters derived from glycolide and lactide: preparations, structures and coordination to sodium ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From reactions between glycolide or lactide (4 equiv.) with 4-dimethylaminopyridine, DMAP (1 equiv.) and NaBPh4 (1 equiv.) in benzene at 70 C the cyclic ester adducts (CH{sub 2}C(O)O){sub 6}NaBPh{sub 4} and (CHMeC(O)O){sub 6}NaBPh{sub 4} are formed respectively. The structures of the salts Na[(S,R,S,R,S,R)-(CH{sub 3}CHC(O)O){sub 6}]{sub 2}BPh{sub 4} {center_dot} CH{sub 3}CN and (CH{sub 2}C(O)O){sub 6}NaBPh{sub 4} {center_dot} (CH{sub 3}CN){sub 2} are reported. The cyclic esters were separated by chromatography and the structures of (CH{sub 2}C(O)O){sub 6}, (S,R,R,R,R,R)-(CHMeC(O)O){sub 6} and (S,S,R,R,R,R)-(CHMeC(O)O){sub 6} were determined. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data are reported for one of each of the six enantiomers of (CHMeC(O)O){sub 6} and the two meso isomers. The mechanism for the formation of these 18-membered rings is discussed in terms of an initial reaction between DMAP and NaBPh{sub 4} in hot benzene that produces NaPh and DMAP:BPh{sub 3} in the presence of the monomer lactide. The cyclic esters (CHMeC(O)O){sub 6} can also be obtained from the reaction between polylactide, PLA, in the presence of DMAP and NaBPh{sub 4}. The cyclic esters 3-methyl-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione and 3,6,6-trimethyl-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione undergo similar ring enlarging reactions to give cyclic 18-membered ring esters as determined by ESI-MS.

Chisholm, Malcolm H.; Gallucci, Judith C.; Yin, Hongfeng (OSU)

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

445

Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO.sub.2 are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO.sub.2 present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and T1 can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention.

Herrmann, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Sodium to sodium carbonate conversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for converting radioactive alkali metal into a low level disposable solid waste material. The radioactive alkali metal is atomized and introduced into an aqueous caustic solution having caustic present in the range of from about 20 wt % to about 70 wt % to convert the radioactive alkali metal to a radioactive alkali metal hydroxide. The aqueous caustic containing radioactive alkali metal hydroxide and CO{sub 2} are introduced into a thin film evaporator with the CO{sub 2} present in an amount greater than required to convert the alkali metal hydroxide to a radioactive alkali metal carbonate, and thereafter the radioactive alkali metal carbonate is separated from the thin film evaporator as a dry powder. Hydroxide solutions containing toxic metal hydroxide including one or more metal ions of Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag and Tl can be converted into a low level non-hazardous waste using the thin film evaporator of the invention. 3 figs.

Herrmann, S.D.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

Price determination for breeding bulls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Oammittee) Ra A. ietrzch C. J ~) Daru. I (Heai of August l987 Price Detezlainatian for Breeding Bulls. (August 1987) Jerry Carl Namkan, B. S. , Texas A&M University; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Donald E. Ferris A study using two different data... sets was conducted to determine the factors affecting the price of zmg~ Hereford hulls. In the first data set, both ~ and lagged national ~ feeder steer, utility cow, and crude oil prices, and net farm income were analyzed in a regzmsion procedure...

Namken, Jerry Carl

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Crystal face temperature determination means  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

449

Determining $?$ from cluster correlation function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown how data on the cluster correlation function can be used in order to reconstruct the density of the pregalactic density field on the cluster mass scale. The method is applied to the data on the cluster correlation amplitude -- richness dependence. The spectrum of the recovered density field has the same shape as the density field derived from data on the galaxy correlation function which is measured as function of linear scales. Matching the two amplitudes relates the mass to the comoving scale it contains and thereby leads to a direct determination of $\\Omega$. The resultant density parameter turns out to be $\\Omega$=0.25.

A. Kashlinsky

1998-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

450

Structure determination of enterovirus 71  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

451

CX-003701: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

701: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003701: Categorical Exclusion Determination Bio-Diesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09162010...

452

CX-008797: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

797: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008797: Categorical Exclusion Determination Coal Pile Basin Project CX(s) Applied: B1.29 Date: 06042012 Location(s): Tennessee...

453

CX-009105: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-009105: Categorical Exclusion Determination 284-H Track Coal Hopper Pit Modifications CX(s) Applied: B1.28 Date: 08292012 Location(s): South...

454

CX-001500: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-001500: Categorical Exclusion Determination Forrest County Geothermal Energy Project CX(s) Applied: B3.1, A9 Date: 04012010 Location(s): Forrest County,...

455

CX-000940: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-000940: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Generation Wind Power at Navy Sites - Second Meteorological tower at Naval Station Newport, Rhode Island;...

456

CX-012001: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

01: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-012001: Categorical Exclusion Determination Meter Installation at Fossil Lake Solar Project CX(s) Applied: B1.7 Date: 04242014...

457

CX-012193: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-012193: Categorical Exclusion Determination "Slatt Substation Meter and Communication Equipment Installation CX(s) Applied: B1.7 Date: 05052014...

458

CX-000016: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-000016: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ross-Lexington 1 Meter Project CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 12172009 Location(s): Vancouver, Washington...

459

CX-010133: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-010133: Categorical Exclusion Determination Establish Digital Density Meter Analytical Capability in 735-A, D-wing CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03112013...

460

CX-010740: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-010740: Categorical Exclusion Determination Integration of Behind-the-Meter Photovoltaic Fleet Forecasts into Utility Grid System Operations CX(s) Applied: A9,...

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461

CX-000374: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-000374: Categorical Exclusion Determination Novel Sorbents for Emission Control from Coal Combustion CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12112009 Location(s):...

462

CX-004126: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004126: Categorical Exclusion Determination Machine Shop Equipment Burn CX(s) Applied: B1.12 Date: 08022010 Location(s): New Mexico...

463

CX-008803: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-008803: Categorical Exclusion Determination Milling Machine Replacement Projects CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 05142012 Location(s): Tennessee...

464

CX-006593: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-006593: Categorical Exclusion Determination Vermont Biofuels Initiative: Renewable Energy Resources CDP-09 CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 08292011 Location(s):...

465

CX-011482: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-011482: Categorical Exclusion Determination Obtain soil samples for potential D-Area borrow sources CX(s) Applied: B6.1 Date: 11072013...

466

CX-004198: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-004198: Categorical Exclusion Determination Lurance Canyon Burn Site Soil and Groundwater Site Characterization CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 06142010 Location(s):...

467

CX-008632: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-008632: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sampling of Soil Vapor Extraction Wells at the Western Sector Dynamic Underground Stripping System CX(s)...

468

CX-005672: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

672: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005672: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Systems Integration Facility Excavation Soil Stockpile CX(s) Applied: B1.15 Date: 04...

469

CX-006710: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006710: Categorical Exclusion Determination Binary Power Unit Test (Recurrent Engineering LLC, Geothermal Test) CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 08...

470

CX-009133: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009133: Categorical Exclusion Determination New York Program Year 2012 Formula Grants - State Energy Program CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date:...

471

CX-000935: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-000935: Categorical Exclusion Determination Onondaga County, New York Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

472

CX-002167: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002167: Categorical Exclusion Determination New York State Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Infrastructure Deployment CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date:...

473

CX-002168: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002168: Categorical Exclusion Determination New York State Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Infrastructure Deployment CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date:...

474

CX-001088: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-001088: Categorical Exclusion Determination City of New York American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

475

CX-006748: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006748: Categorical Exclusion Determination New York State Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Infrastructure Deployment CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date:...

476

CX-007020: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007020: Categorical Exclusion Determination New York State Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Infrastructure Deployment CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date:...

477

CX-001403: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-001403: Categorical Exclusion Determination West New York Energy Efficiency Projects CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 04092010 Location(s): West New...

478

CX-001260: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001260: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Audit, Revolving Loan Program, Mortgage Buy-Down Program, Energy Efficiency Retrofits,...

479

CX-003761: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-003761: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ramgen Supersonic Shock Wave Compression and Engine Technology CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09032010 Location(s):...

480

CX-009134: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

34: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009134: Categorical Exclusion Determination Wave Energy Technology- New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination nasi sodium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

CX-005120: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-005120: Categorical Exclusion Determination Wavebob Advanced Wave Energy Conversion Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 01272011 Location(s):...

482

CX-009553: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-009553: Categorical Exclusion Determination Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refiner-Ready Bio-Oils...

483

CX-003518: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-003518: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy from Biomass Research and Technology Transfer Program CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08232010...

484

CX-007003: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-007003: Categorical Exclusion Determination Missile System Low-Earth Orbit Nanosatellite Integrated Defense Autonomous System Component Development CX(s)...

485

CX-004926: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

926: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004926: Categorical Exclusion Determination Radioactive Waste Management Complex ? Analytical Laboratory Operations CX(s) Applied: B3.1...

486

CX-000903: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

903: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000903: Categorical Exclusion Determination Smart Grid Photovoltaic Pilot CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 02242010 Location(s): Illinois...

487

CX-009151: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exclusion Determination CX-009151: Categorical Exclusion Determination Simpson College Boiler Plant De-Centralization CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 09242012 Location(s): Iowa...