National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for determination improved mobility

  1. Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology In February ...

  2. Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borrill, Julian; Dart, Eli; Gore, Brooklin; Habib, Salman; Myers, Steven T.; Nugent, Peter; Petravick, Don; Thomas, Rollin

    2015-10-02

    In February 2015 the third workshop in the CrossConnects series, with a focus on Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology, was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Scientists from fields including astrophysics, cosmology, and astronomy collaborated with experts in computing and networking to outline strategic opportunities for enhancing scientific productivity and effectively managing the ever-increasing scale of scientific data.

  3. Determination of carrier lifetime and mobility in colloidal quantum dot films via impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, Arup K.; Lasanta, Tania; Bernechea, Maria; Diedenhofen, Silke L.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2014-02-10

    Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) proves to be a powerful tool for the determination of carrier lifetime and majority carrier mobility in colloidal quantum dot films. We employ IS to determine the carrier lifetime in PbS quantum dot Schottky solar cells with Al and we verify the validity of the technique via transient photovoltage. We also present a simple approach based on an RC model that allows the determination of carrier mobility in PbS quantum dot films and we corroborate the results via comparison with space charge limited measurements. In summary, we demonstrate the potential of IS to characterize key-to-photovoltaics optoelectronic properties, carrier lifetime, and mobility, in a facile way.

  4. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  5. An improved thin film approximation to accurately determine the optical conductivity of graphene from infrared transmittance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, J. W.; Bol, A. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sanden, M. C. M. van de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-07-07

    This work presents an improved thin film approximation to extract the optical conductivity from infrared transmittance in a simple yet accurate way. This approximation takes into account the incoherent reflections from the backside of the substrate. These reflections are shown to have a significant effect on the extracted optical conductivity and hence on derived parameters as carrier mobility and density. By excluding the backside reflections, the error for these parameters for typical chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene on a silicon substrate can be as high as 17% and 45% for the carrier mobility and density, respectively. For the mid- and near-infrared, the approximation can be simplified such that the real part of the optical conductivity is extracted without the need for a parameterization of the optical conductivity. This direct extraction is shown for Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmittance measurements of CVD graphene on silicon in the photon energy range of 3707000?cm{sup ?1}. From the real part of the optical conductivity, the carrier density, mobility, and number of graphene layers are determined but also residue, originating from the graphene transfer, is detected. FTIR transmittance analyzed with the improved thin film approximation is shown to be a non-invasive, easy, and accurate measurement and analysis method for assessing the quality of graphene and can be used for other 2-D materials.

  6. Method for determining hydrogen mobility as a function of temperature in superconducting niobium cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    May, Robert

    2008-03-11

    A method for determining the mobility of hydrogen as a function of temperature in superconducting niobium cavities comprising: 1) heating a cavity under test to remove free hydrogen; 2) introducing hydrogen-3 gas into the cavity; 3) cooling the cavity to allow absorption of hydrogen-3; and 4) measuring the amount of hydrogen-3 by: a) cooling the cavity to about 4.degree. K while flowing a known and regulated amount of inert carrier gas such as argon or helium into the cavity; b) allowing the cavity to warm at a stable rate from 4.degree. K to room temperature as it leaves the chamber; and c) directing the exit gas to an ion chamber radiation detector.

  7. Improved determination of the width of the top quark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatia S.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M. -C.; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; de Jong S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goussiou A.; Graf C. P.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph.; Grivaz J. -F.; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; La Cruz I. Heredia-De; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li H.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; Melnitchouk A.; Menezes D.; Mercadante P. G.; Merkin M.; et al.

    2012-05-04

    We present an improved determination of the total width of the top quark, {Gamma}{sub t}, using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The total width {Gamma}{sub t} is extracted from the partial decay width {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) and the branching fraction {Beta}(t {yields} Wb). {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) is obtained from the t-channel single top-quark production cross section and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb) is measured in t{bar t} events. For a top mass of 172.5 GeV, the resulting width is {Gamma}{sub t} = 2.00{sub -0.43}{sup +0.47} GeV. This translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.29{sub -0.63}{sup +0.90}) x 10{sup -25} s. We also extract an improved direct limit on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix element 0.81 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at 95% C.L. and a limit of |V{sub tb}| < 0.59 for a high-mass fourth-generation bottom quark assuming unitarity of the fourth-generation quark-mixing matrix.

  8. Enhanced thermoelectric performance in Cu-intercalated BiTeI by compensation weakening induced mobility improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Lihua; Yang, Jiong; Chi, Miaofang; Wang, Shanyu; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Yang, Jihui

    2015-09-23

    The low weighted carrier mobility has long been considered to be the key challenge for improvement of thermoelectric (TE) performance in BiTeI. The Rashba-effect-induced two-dimensional density of states in this bulk semiconductor is beneficial for thermopower enhancement, which makes it a prospective compound for TE applications. In this report, we show that intercalation of minor Cu-dopants can substantially alter the equilibria of defect reactions, selectively mediate the donor-acceptor compensation, and tune the defect concentration in the carrier conductive network. Consequently, the potential fluctuations responsible for electron scattering are reduced and the carrier mobility in BiTeI can be enhanced by a factor of two to three between 10 K and 300 K. The carrier concentration can also be optimized by tuning the Te/I composition ratio, leading to higher thermopower in this Rashba system. Cu-intercalation in BiTeI gives rise to higher power factor, slightly lower lattice thermal conductivity, and consequently improved figure of merit. Compared with pristine BiTe0.98I1.02, the TE performance in Cu0.05BiTeI reveals a 150% and 20% enhancement at 300 and 520 K, respectively. Ultimately, these results demonstrate that defect equilibria mediated by selective doping in complex TE and energy materials could be an effective approach to carrier mobility and performance optimization.

  9. Enhanced thermoelectric performance in Cu-intercalated BiTeI by compensation weakening induced mobility improvement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Lihua; Yang, Jiong; Chi, Miaofang; Wang, Shanyu; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Yang, Jihui

    2015-09-23

    The low weighted carrier mobility has long been considered to be the key challenge for improvement of thermoelectric (TE) performance in BiTeI. The Rashba-effect-induced two-dimensional density of states in this bulk semiconductor is beneficial for thermopower enhancement, which makes it a prospective compound for TE applications. In this report, we show that intercalation of minor Cu-dopants can substantially alter the equilibria of defect reactions, selectively mediate the donor-acceptor compensation, and tune the defect concentration in the carrier conductive network. Consequently, the potential fluctuations responsible for electron scattering are reduced and the carrier mobility in BiTeI can be enhanced by amore » factor of two to three between 10 K and 300 K. The carrier concentration can also be optimized by tuning the Te/I composition ratio, leading to higher thermopower in this Rashba system. Cu-intercalation in BiTeI gives rise to higher power factor, slightly lower lattice thermal conductivity, and consequently improved figure of merit. Compared with pristine BiTe0.98I1.02, the TE performance in Cu0.05BiTeI reveals a 150% and 20% enhancement at 300 and 520 K, respectively. Ultimately, these results demonstrate that defect equilibria mediated by selective doping in complex TE and energy materials could be an effective approach to carrier mobility and performance optimization.« less

  10. Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. Second annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, F.D.; Donaruma, L.G.; Hatch, M.J.

    1981-04-01

    The objective of this laboratory work is to develop improved mobility control agents that are more effective than the commercial polymers currently used in this process. During the second year of the project, the baseline testing of commercial products was completed. These baseline tests with polymers include studies on mobility control, retention, and shear degradation in Berea cores, the effect of common ions on rheological properties, thermal stability, microbial degradation, and surfactant-polymer interactions. These data are used for comparison of the commercial agents at standardized sets of conditions, and are also used to evaluate new, modified, or improved polymers. Work was also initiated on the synthesis, characterization, and preliminary screening of new and modified polymers. Testing of these analogs provides systematic correlations of polymer performance with polymer structure. This preliminary testing consists of measurements of shear degradation and viscosity loss in NaCl brines by the use of a simplified screening procedure. To date, a number of potential structure-utility relationships have been observed. Solution viscosities of all nonionic polymers tested are essentially insensitive to changes in NaCl concentration. Increasing the charge-to-mass ratio (degree of hydrolysis) of either polyacrylamides or N-alkyl analogs enhances the ability of these polymers to build viscosity in low salinity NaCl brines. However, such polymers are increasingly subject to viscosity loss as the salinity is increased. Above a certain critical molecular weight, polymers become more susceptible to shear degradation. Many of the polymers that possess stiffer backbones exhibit improved brine and shear stability. The results of these studies will be used to develop an improved mobility control polymer in the next phase of this project.

  11. Improved carrier mobility of chemical vapor deposition-graphene by counter-doping with hydrazine hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Haoran; Sui, Yanping; Zhang, Yaqian; Ge, Xiaoming; Yu, Guanghui Xie, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaoliang; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xinyu

    2015-03-02

    We developed a counter-doping method to tune the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene by varying the concentration and time of graphene exposure to hydrazine hydrate (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O). The shift of G and 2D peaks of Raman spectroscopy is analyzed as a function of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O concentration. The result revealed that N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O realized n-type doping on CVD grown graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement proved the existence of nitrogen, which indicated the adsorption of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} on the surface of graphene. After counter-doping, carrier mobility, which was measured by Hall measurements, increased three fold.

  12. Award Fee Determination Shows Performance Improvement in WTP Contractor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – EM Office of River Protection (ORP) Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor Bechtel National Inc. improved its performance slightly in calendar year 2015 compared to the last half of 2014, earning 66 percent of its possible award fee, or $8.31 million out of a possible $12.6 million.

  13. Determining the risk of cardiovascular disease using ion mobility of lipoproteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2010-05-11

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  14. Experimental determination of contaminant metal mobility as a function of temperature, time and solution chemistry. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, S.; Bruton, C.; O'Day, P.; Sahai, N.

    1997-01-01

    'Strontium is significantly more mobile than other hazardous radioactive metals. Its partitioning between aqueous and solid phases is controlled by reactions that occur at the interface between natural waters and minerals. At a groundwater site in Hanford (200-BP-5), the aerial extent of the {sup 90}Sr plume is 100 times larger than the aerial extent of the {sup 137}Cs and the {sup 239}Pu plumes. Similarly, contaminated, perched watertables at INEL have much higher aqueous concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than {sup 137}Cs, presumably because Cs is preferentially sorbed to solids (Duncan 1995). Under high physical flow conditions, such as those in the highly fractured rock at Hanford and INEL, {sup 90}Sr present in plumes may spread off-site and cause contamination of aquifers or other water sources. Geochemical factors that may contribute to the overall mobility of Sr in natural waters are the solubilities of phases such as strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) and formation of strong complexes with sulfate and nitrate. Although {sup 90}Sr is mobilized in natural waters in these examples, significant concentrations may also be present in solid phases. Sorption experiments using a wide variety of substrates at room temperature have shown that Sr is removed from solution under certain conditions. Additionally, strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) may precipitate at low Sr concentrations in the pH range of waters in contact with basaltic rocks, which varies between pH 8 and 10. Waters contain variable amounts of carbonate owing to atmospheric interactions; the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} is about 10 x 3.5 atm in air and commonly as high as 10 x 2.5 atm in soils. The objective of this work is to determine the fundamental data needed to predict the behavior of strontium at temperature and time scales appropriate to thermal remediation. The authors approach combines macroscopic sorption/precipitation and desorption/dissolution kinetic experiments, which track changes in solution composition

  15. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitts, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines effect of rock type on oil recovery by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. This report also begins a series of evaluations to improve the economics of alkaline-surfactant-polymer oil recovery.

  16. Actions taken by DOD on GAO recommendations to improve spare parts requirements determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-04-30

    GAO found that actions taken by the military services and DOD to improve the spare parts requirements determination process, in response to prior GAO report recommendations, have resulted in estimated cost savings of over $800 million during the past 5 years. Additional actions in process should result in further estimated savings of over $500 million.

  17. Method for improve x-ray diffraction determinations of residual stress in nickel-base alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Robert M.; Cohen, Isadore

    1990-01-01

    A process for improving the technique of measuring residual stress by x-ray diffraction in pieces of nickel-base alloys which comprises covering part of a predetermined area of the surface of a nickel-base alloy with a dispersion, exposing the covered and uncovered portions of the surface of the alloy to x-rays by way of an x-ray diffractometry apparatus, making x-ray diffraction determinations of the exposed surface, and measuring the residual stress in the alloy based on these determinations. The dispersion is opaque to x-rays and serves a dual purpose since it masks off unsatisfactory signals such that only a small portion of the surface is measured, and it supplies an internal standard by providing diffractogram peaks comparable to the peaks of the nickel alloy so that the alloy peaks can be very accurately located regardless of any sources of error external to the sample.

  18. Method for improving x-ray diffraction determinations of residual stress in nickel-base alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, R.M.; Cohen, I.

    1988-04-26

    A process for improving the technique of measuring residual stress by x-ray diffraction in pieces of nickel-base alloys is discussed. Part of a predetermined area of the surface of a nickel-base alloy is covered with a dispersion. This exposes the covered and uncovered portions of the surface of the alloy to x-rays by way of an x-ray diffractometry apparatus, making x-ray diffraction determinations of the exposed surface, and measuring the residual stress in the alloy based on these determinations. The dispersion is opaque to x-rays and serves a dual purpose, since it masks off unsatisfactory signals such that only a small portion of the surface is measured, and it supplies an internal standard by providing diffractogram peaks comparable to the peaks of the nickel alloy so that the alloy peaks can be very accurately located regardless of any sources of error external to the sample. 2 figs.

  19. Novel imaging techniques, integrated with mineralogical, geochemical and microbiological characterizations to determine the biogeochemical controls on technetium mobility in FRC sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan R. Lloyd

    2009-02-03

    The objective of this research program was to take a highly multidisciplinary approach to define the biogeochemical factors that control technetium (Tc) mobility in FRC sediments. The aim was to use batch and column studies to probe the biogeochemical conditions that control the mobility of Tc at the FRC. Background sediment samples from Area 2 (pH 6.5, low nitrate, low {sup 99}Tc) and Area 3 (pH 3.5, high nitrate, relatively high {sup 99}Tc) of the FRC were selected (http://www.esd.ornl.gov/nabirfrc). For the batch experiments, sediments were mixed with simulated groundwater, modeled on chemical constituents of FRC waters and supplemented with {sup 99}Tc(VII), both with and without added electron donor (acetate). The solubility of the Tc was monitored, alongside other biogeochemical markers (nitrate, nitrite, Fe(II), sulfate, acetate, pH, Eh) as the 'microcosms' aged. At key points, the microbial communities were also profiled using both cultivation-dependent and molecular techniques, and results correlated with the geochemical conditions in the sediments. The mineral phases present in the sediments were also characterized, and the solid phase associations of the Tc determined using sequential extraction and synchrotron techniques. In addition to the batch sediment experiments, where discrete microbial communities with the potential to reduce and precipitate {sup 99}Tc will be separated in time, we also developed column experiments where biogeochemical processes were spatially separated. Experiments were conducted both with and without amendments proposed to stimulate radionuclide immobilization (e.g. the addition of acetate as an electron donor for metal reduction), and were also planned with and without competing anions at high concentration (e.g. nitrate, with columns containing Area 3 sediments). When the columns had stabilized, as determined by chemical analysis of the effluents, we used a spike of the short-lived gamma emitter {sup 99m}Tc (50-200 MBq; half

  20. Improved oil production using economical biopolymer-surfactant blends for profile modification and mobility control. Final report, November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, J.; Barrufet, M.A.; Burnett, D.B.

    1998-12-01

    In the past, starch hydrocolloids have not been effective alternates to partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides, copolymers, and xanthan gum polymers as water shutoff agents in fractures and in matrix flow configurations. Poor injectivity and questionable stability have usually prevented their use in profile control applications. However, in recent years, the demands of the oil and gas drilling industry have led to the development of new drilling, drill-in, and completion fluids with improved functionality. New types of modified starches have contributed to these new drill in fluid (DIF) products. It was felt that the properties of the new products would lend themselves to applications in improved recovery. The objective of this project has been to evaluate the use of agricultural starch biopolymers for gelled and polymer applications in oil recovery processes. The authors believe that there is great potential for finding new functional starch products because of their chemical and structural flexibility, low cost, and wide availability. The goals of this project have been, therefore, to systematically investigate how the physical properties and chemical composition of relatively inexpensive agricultural starch products will influence their use as effective selective permeability control agents or as gels for water shut-off.

  1. Improving the chances of successful protein structure determination with a random forest classifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahandideh, Samad [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92307 (United States); Joint Center for Structural Genomics, (United States); Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Godzik, Adam, E-mail: adam@burnham.org [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92307 (United States); Joint Center for Structural Genomics, (United States); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Using an extended set of protein features calculated separately for protein surface and interior, a new version of XtalPred based on a random forest classifier achieves a significant improvement in predicting the success of structure determination from the primary amino-acid sequence. Obtaining diffraction quality crystals remains one of the major bottlenecks in structural biology. The ability to predict the chances of crystallization from the amino-acid sequence of the protein can, at least partly, address this problem by allowing a crystallographer to select homologs that are more likely to succeed and/or to modify the sequence of the target to avoid features that are detrimental to successful crystallization. In 2007, the now widely used XtalPred algorithm [Slabinski et al. (2007 ?), Protein Sci.16, 24722482] was developed. XtalPred classifies proteins into five crystallization classes based on a simple statistical analysis of the physicochemical features of a protein. Here, towards the same goal, advanced machine-learning methods are applied and, in addition, the predictive potential of additional protein features such as predicted surface ruggedness, hydrophobicity, side-chain entropy of surface residues and amino-acid composition of the predicted protein surface are tested. The new XtalPred-RF (random forest) achieves significant improvement of the prediction of crystallization success over the original XtalPred. To illustrate this, XtalPred-RF was tested by revisiting target selection from 271 Pfam families targeted by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) in PSI-2, and it was estimated that the number of targets entered into the protein-production and crystallization pipeline could have been reduced by 30% without lowering the number of families for which the first structures were solved. The prediction improvement depends on the subset of targets used as a testing set and reaches 100% (i.e. twofold) for the top class of predicted targets.

  2. Improved Mobility Control for Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Silica-Polymer-Initiator (SPI) Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Kenneth

    2014-01-31

    SPI gels are multi-component silicate based gels for improving (areal and vertical) conformance in oilfield enhanced recovery operations, including water-floods and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods, as well as other applications. SPI mixtures are like-water when pumped, but form light up to very thick, paste-like gels in contact with CO{sub 2}. When formed they are 3 to 10 times stronger than any gelled polyacrylamide gel now available, however, they are not as strong as cement or epoxy, allowing them to be washed / jetted out of the wellbore without drilling. This DOE funded project allowed 8 SPI field treatments to be performed in 6 wells (5 injection wells and 1 production well) in 2 different fields with different operators, in 2 different basins (Gulf Coast and Permian) and in 2 different rock types (sandstone and dolomite). Field A was in a central Mississippi sandstone that injected CO{sub 2} as an immiscible process. Field B was in the west Texas San Andres dolomite formation with a mature water-alternating-gas miscible CO{sub 2} flood. Field A treatments are now over 1 year old while Field B treatments have only 4 months data available under variable WAG conditions. Both fields had other operational events and well work occurring before/ during / after the treatments making definitive evaluation difficult. Laboratory static beaker and dynamic sand pack tests were performed with Ottawa sand and both fields’ core material, brines and crude oils to improve SPI chemistry, optimize SPI formulations, ensure SPI mix compatibility with field rocks and fluids, optimize SPI treatment field treatment volumes and methods, and ensure that strong gels set in the reservoir. Field quality control procedures were designed and utilized. Pre-treatment well (surface) injectivities ranged from 0.39 to 7.9 MMCF/psi. The SPI treatment volumes ranged from 20.7 cubic meters (m{sup 3}, 5460 gallons/ 130 bbls) to 691 m{sup 3} (182,658 gallons/ 4349 bbls). Various size and types

  3. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  4. Significantly Improving Regional Seismic Amplitude Tomography at Higher Frequencies by Determining S -Wave Bandwidth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fisk, Mark D.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2016-05-03

    Characterizing regional seismic signals continues to be a difficult problem due to their variability. Calibration of these signals is very important to many aspects of monitoring underground nuclear explosions, including detecting seismic signals, discriminating explosions from earthquakes, and reliably estimating magnitude and yield. Amplitude tomography, which simultaneously inverts for source, propagation, and site effects, is a leading method of calibrating these signals. A major issue in amplitude tomography is the data quality of the input amplitude measurements. Pre-event and prephase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tests are typically used but can frequently include bad signals and exclude good signals. The deficiencies ofmore » SNR criteria, which are demonstrated here, lead to large calibration errors. To ameliorate these issues, we introduce a semi-automated approach to assess the bandwidth of a spectrum where it behaves physically. We determine the maximum frequency (denoted as Fmax) where it deviates from this behavior due to inflections at which noise or spurious signals start to bias the spectra away from the expected decay. We compare two amplitude tomography runs using the SNR and new Fmax criteria and show significant improvements to the stability and accuracy of the tomography output for frequency bands higher than 2 Hz by using our assessments of valid S-wave bandwidth. We compare Q estimates, P/S residuals, and some detailed results to explain the improvements. Lastly, for frequency bands higher than 4 Hz, needed for effective P/S discrimination of explosions from earthquakes, the new bandwidth criteria sufficiently fix the instabilities and errors so that the residuals and calibration terms are useful for application.« less

  5. Determining conductivity and mobility values of individual components in multiphase composite Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Tristan W.; Brown, David R.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Zeier, Wolfgang G.; Melot, Brent C.

    2014-10-27

    The intense interest in phase segregation in thermoelectrics as a means to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity and to modify the electronic properties from nanoscale size effects has not been met with a method for separately measuring the properties of each phase assuming a classical mixture. Here, we apply effective medium theory for measurements of the in-line and Hall resistivity of a multiphase composite, in this case Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se. The behavior of these properties with magnetic field as analyzed by effective medium theory allows us to separate the conductivity and charge carrier mobility of each phase. This powerful technique can be used to determine the matrix properties in the presence of an unwanted impurity phase, to control each phase in an engineered composite, and to determine the maximum carrier concentration change by a given dopant, making it the first step toward a full optimization of a multiphase thermoelectric material and distinguishing nanoscale effects from those of a classical mixture.

  6. Structure of CPV17 polyhedrin determined by the improved analysis of serial femtosecond crystallographic data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ginn, Helen M.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Ji, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Hanwen; Axford, Danny; Gildea, Richard J.; Winter, Graeme; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Wagner, Armin; et al

    2015-03-09

    The X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) allows the analysis of small weakly diffracting protein crystals, but has required very many crystals to obtain good data. Here we use an XFEL to determine the room temperature atomic structure for the smallest cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus polyhedra yet characterized, which we failed to solve at a synchrotron. These protein microcrystals, roughly a micron across, accrue within infected cells. We use a new physical model for XFEL diffraction, which better estimates the experimental signal, delivering a high-resolution XFEL structure (1.75 Å), using fewer crystals than previously required for this resolution. The crystal lattice and proteinmore » core are conserved compared with a polyhedrin with less than 10% sequence identity. We explain how the conserved biological phenotype, the crystal lattice, is maintained in the face of extreme environmental challenge and massive evolutionary divergence. Our improved methods should open up more challenging biological samples to XFEL analysis.« less

  7. Unquenched determination of the kaon parameter B{sub K} from improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamiz, Elvira; Collins, Sara; Davies, Christine T.H.; Lepage, G. Peter; Shigemitsu, Junko; Wingate, Matthew

    2006-06-01

    The use of improved staggered actions (HYP, Asqtad) has been proved to reduce the scaling corrections that affected previous calculations of B{sub K} with unimproved (standard) staggered fermions in the quenched approximation. This improved behavior allows us to perform a reliable calculation of B{sub K} including quark vacuum polarization effects, using the MILC configurations with n{sub f}=2+1 flavors of sea fermions. We perform such a calculation for a single lattice spacing, a=0.125 fm, and with kaons made up of degenerate quarks with m{sub s}/2. The valence strange quark mass m{sub s} is fixed to its physical value and we use two different values of the light sea quark masses. After a chiral extrapolation of the results to the physical value of the sea quark masses, we find B-circumflex{sub K}=0.83{+-}0.18, where the error is dominated by the uncertainty in the lattice to continuum matching at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}). The matching will need to be improved to get the precision needed to make full use of the experimental data on {epsilon}{sub K} to constrain the unitarity triangle.

  8. Determination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances May 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  9. Improved Measurement of the Positive-Muon Lifetime and Determination of the Fermi Constant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitwood, D. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Crnkovic, J.; Debevec, P. T.; Hertzog, D. W.; Kammel, P.; Kiburg, B.; Kunkle, J.; McNabb, R.; Mulhauser, F.; Oezben, C. S.; Polly, C. C.; Webber, D. M.; Winter, P.; Banks, T. I.; Crowe, K. M.; Lauss, B.; Barnes, M. J.; Wait, G. D.; Battu, S.

    2007-07-20

    The mean life of the positive muon has been measured to a precision of 11 ppm using a low-energy, pulsed muon beam stopped in a ferromagnetic target, which was surrounded by a scintillator detector array. The result, {tau}{sub {mu}}=2.197 013(24) {mu}s, is in excellent agreement with the previous world average. The new world average {tau}{sub {mu}}=2.197 019(21) {mu}s determines the Fermi constant G{sub F}=1.166 371(6)x10{sup -5} GeV{sup -2} (5 ppm). Additionally, the precision measurement of the positive-muon lifetime is needed to determine the nucleon pseudoscalar coupling g{sub P}.

  10. Improved determination of the atmospheric parameters of the pulsating sdB star Feige 48

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latour, M.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Green, E. M.; Chayer, P.

    2014-06-10

    As part of a multifaceted effort to better exploit the asteroseismological potential of the pulsating sdB star Feige 48, we present an improved spectroscopic analysis of that star based on new grids of NLTE, fully line-blanketed model atmospheres. To that end, we gathered four high signal-to-noise ratio time-averaged optical spectra of varying spectral resolutions from 1.0 to 8.7 , and we made use of the results of four independent studies to fix the abundances of the most important metals in the atmosphere of Feige 48. The mean atmospheric parameters we obtained from our four spectra of Feige 48 are: T {sub eff} = 29,850 60 K, log g = 5.46 0.01, and log N(He)/N(H) = 2.88 0.02. We also modeled, for the first time, the He II line at 1640 from the STIS archive spectrum of the star, and with this line we found an effective temperature and a surface gravity that match well with the values obtained with the optical data. With some fine tuning of the abundances of the metals visible in the optical domain, we were able to achieve a very good agreement between our best available spectrum and our best-fitting synthetic one. Our derived atmospheric parameters for Feige 48 are in rather good agreement with previous estimates based on less sophisticated models. This underlines the relatively small effects of the NLTE approach combined with line blanketing in the atmosphere of this particular star, implying that the current estimates of the atmospheric parameters of Feige 48 are reliable and secure.

  11. The black hole binary V4641 Sagitarii: Activity in quiescence and improved mass determinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Rachel K. D.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Buxton, Michelle; Cantrell, Andrew G.; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Kennedy-Shaffer, Ross; Orosz, Jerome A.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.

    2014-03-20

    We examine ?10 yr of photometric data and find that the black hole X-ray binary V4641 Sgr has two optical states, passive and active, during X-ray quiescence. The passive state is dominated by ellipsoidal variations and is stable in the shape and variability of the light curve. The active state is brighter and more variable. Emission during the active state varies over the course of the orbital period and is redder than the companion star. These optical/infrared states last for weeks or months. V4641 Sgr spends approximately 85% of X-ray quiescence in the passive state and 15% in the active. We analyze passive colors and spectroscopy of V4641 Sgr and show that they are consistent with a reddened B9III star (with E(B V) = 0.37 0.19) with little or no contribution from the accretion disk. We use X-ray observations with an updated ephemeris to place an upper limit on the duration of an X-ray eclipse of <8.3 in phase (?1.6 hr). High-resolution spectroscopy yields a greatly improved measurement of the rotational velocity of the companion star of V {sub rot}sin i = 100.9 0.8 km s{sup 1}. We fit ellipsoidal models to the passive state data and find an inclination angle of i = 72.3 4.1, a mass ratio of Q = 2.2 0.2, and component masses for the system of M {sub BH} = 6.4 0.6 M {sub ?} and M {sub 2} = 2.9 0.4 M {sub ?}. Using these values we calculate an updated distance to V4641 Sgr of 6.2 0.7 kpc.

  12. MOBILITY AGREEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MOBILITY AGREEMENT I hereby acknowledge that, as a condition of my employment as a Criminal Investigator with the Department of Energy, Office of Inspector General, I may be required to relocate to an OIG office in another geographic location based on the needs of the organization. I understand that my failure to accept such a directed reassignment could be a basis for my separation from the service. _______________________________ Signature Date

  13. Mobile Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govSitesMobile Facility AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010

  14. Mobil lube dewaxing technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, C.L.; McGuiness, M.P.

    1995-09-01

    Currently, the lube refining industry is in a period of transition, with both hydroprocessing and catalytic dewaxing gathering momentum as replacements for solvent extraction and solvent dewaxing. In addition, lube product quality requirements have been increasing, both in the US and abroad. Mobil has developed a broad array of dewaxing catalytic technologies which can serve refiners throughout the stages of this transition. In the future, lube feedstocks which vary in source and wax content will become increasingly important, requiring an optimized system for highest performance. The Mobil Lube Dewaxing (MLDW) process is the work-horse of the catalytic dewaxing technologies, being a robust, low cost technology suitable for both solvent extracted and hydrocracked feeds. The Mobil Selective Dewaxing (MSDW) process has been recently introduced in response to the growth of hydroprocessing. MSDW requires either severely hydrotreated or hydrocracked feeds and provides improved lube yields and VI. For refiners with hydrocrackers and solvent dewaxing units, Mobil Wax Isomerization (MWI) technology can make higher VI base stocks to meet the growing demand for very high quality lube products. A review of these three technologies is presented in this paper.

  15. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  16. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  17. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Amjad, Zahra; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Gholampour, Akbar; Norouz, Prviz

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  18. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  19. MobileMatch App

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MobileMatch VolunteerMatch Mobile App MobileMatch is a mobile extension (app) to LANL's VolunteerMatch site that allows volunteers to search, sign up and track hours. Contact Giving Campaigns & Volunteering Debbi Wersonick Community Relations & Partnerships (505) 667-7870 Email Engage anytime, anywhere with this easy and intuitive tool! Using MobileMatch app is easy mobilematch-app Now LANL volunteers can search, sign up and track hours right on their mobile device. Get on the Volunteer

  20. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  1. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  2. Mobile Technology Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-05-15

    The order establishes requirements, assigns responsibilities, and provides guidance for federal mobile technology management and employee use of both government furnished and personally-owned mobile devices within DOE and NNSA. Establishes requirements for use of User Agreements to govern mobile devices used for official duties. Does not cancel other directives.

  3. EPA Climate Leaders Mobile Source Guidance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA Climate Leaders Mobile Source Guidance AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Phase: Determine...

  4. Ion mobility sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  5. Energize Mobile | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Web Application Link: www.tendrilinc.comenergy-providersapplicationenergize Cost: Free Energize Mobile Screenshot References: Tendril1 Logo: Energize Mobile This...

  6. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (HMEM)...

  7. ARM Mobile Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, Brad; Coulter, Rich

    2010-12-13

    This video provides an overview of the ARM Mobile Facilities, two portable climate laboratories that can deploy anywhere in the world for campaigns of at least six months.

  8. Mobile Ice Nucleus Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Kok, G. L.

    2012-05-07

    This first year report presents results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to assess the flow and temperature profiles within the mobile ice nucleus spectrometer.

  9. ARM Mobile Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Orr, Brad; Coulter, Rich

    2014-09-15

    This video provides an overview of the ARM Mobile Facilities, two portable climate laboratories that can deploy anywhere in the world for campaigns of at least six months.

  10. Mobile Technology Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2013-11-21

    The directive will ensure that federal organizations and employees within the Department can use mobile technology to support mission requirements in a safe and secure manner.

  11. Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mobile Home Assessment | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mobile Home Assessment Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mobile Home Assessment Mobile Home Assessment - Complete (5.85 MB) Lesson Plan: Mobile Home Assessment (310.8 KB) PowerPoint: Mobile Home Assessment (5.69 MB) More Documents & Publications Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Mechanical Systems and Improve Duct Systems Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Building Shell Retrofit Strategies Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: HVAC Distribution System

  12. Control Scheme Modifications Increase Efficiency of Steam Generation System at Exxon Mobil Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights control scheme modifications made to the steam system at ExxonMobil's Mary Ann Gas Plant in Mobile, Alabama, which improved steam flow efficiency and reduced energy costs.

  13. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Field Workers | Department of Energy Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants' (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC)

  14. The relationship between grain boundary structure, defect mobility, and grain boundary sink efficiency

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Vernon, Louis J.; Martinez, Enrique; Voter, Arthur F.

    2015-03-13

    Nanocrystalline materials have received great attention due to their potential for improved functionality and have been proposed for extreme environments where the interfaces are expected to promote radiation tolerance. However, the precise role of the interfaces in modifying defect behavior is unclear. Using long-time simulations methods, we determine the mobility of defects and defect clusters at grain boundaries in Cu. We find that mobilities vary significantly with boundary structure and cluster size, with larger clusters exhibiting reduced mobility, and that interface sink efficiency depends on the kinetics of defects within the interface via the in-boundary annihilation rate of defects. Thus,more » sink efficiency is a strong function of defect mobility, which depends on boundary structure, a property that evolves with time. Further, defect mobility at boundaries can be slower than in the bulk, which has general implications for the properties of polycrystalline materials. Finally, we correlate defect energetics with the volumes of atomic sites at the boundary.« less

  15. IMPROVED Ni I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2014-04-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 371 Ni I lines in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a new echelle spectrograph are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to previously reported Ni I transition probability measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrograph, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability uncertainty over previous measurements. The new Ni I data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ni abundances. Lines covering a wide range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects.

  16. Intelligent mobile security systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that mobile security systems are becoming increasingly important to military (Army, Air Force) and non-military (Drug Enforcement Agency, Border Patrol) organizations as the level and sophistication of terrorist activity increases. Frequently, organizations are required to deploy at remote sites on little notice. To ensure protection of life and equipment, security systems are sometimes required. Often, the personnel deployed on these missions are not adequately trained in the selection, installation, and operation of today's complex security equipment. The Intelligent Mobile Security System (IMSS) concept, as being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), allows untrained, non-technical personnel to configure, deploy, operate, and troubleshoot temporary/mobile physical security system. The IMSS may be used at nuclear facilities.

  17. Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1816 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (August 2006) | Department of Energy Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1816 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (August 2006) Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United

  18. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  19. Mobility Agreement for Criminal Investigators | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mobility Agreement for Criminal Investigators Mobility Agreement for Criminal Investigators PDF icon Mobility Agreement More Documents & Publications Semiannual Report to Congress: ...

  20. Mobility platform coupling device and method for coupling mobility platforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.

    2002-01-01

    A coupling device for connecting a first mobility platform to a second mobility platform in tandem. An example mobility platform is a robot. The coupling device has a loose link mode for normal steering conditions and a locking position, tight link mode for navigation across difficult terrain and across obstacles, for traversing chasms, and for navigating with a reduced footprint in tight steering conditions.

  1. IMPROVED Ti II log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2013-10-01

    Atomic transition probability measurements for 364 lines of Ti II in the UV through near-IR are reported. Branching fractions from data recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a new echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes to determine these transition probabilities. The new results are in generally good agreement with previously reported FTS measurements. Use of the new echelle spectrometer, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enables a reduction of systematic errors and overall improvement in transition probability accuracy over previous measurements. The new Ti II data are applied to high-resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to derive new, more accurate Ti abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. The Ti abundances derived using Ti II for these two stars match those derived using Ti I and support the relative Ti/Fe abundance ratio versus metallicity seen in previous studies.

  2. CX-010297: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Improved Mobility Control in Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Recovery Using SPI Gels CX(s) Applied: B3.11 Date: 05/03/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  3. CX-008266: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Improved Mobility Control in Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Recovery Using SPI Gels CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/23/2012 Location(s): Mississippi Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  4. CX-009472: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small Molecule Associative Carbon Dioxide Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control CX(s) Applied: A1, B3.6 Date: 10/15/2012 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. Long range hopping mobility platform.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a mesoscale hopping mobility platform (Hopper) to overcome the longstanding problems of mobility and power in small scale unmanned vehicles. The system provides mobility in situations such as negotiating tall obstacles and rough terrain that are prohibitive for other small ground base vehicles. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) provided the funding for the hopper project.

  6. SLS complementary logic devices with increase carrier mobility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, Roger J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    In an electronic device comprising a semiconductor material and having at least one performance characteristic which is limited by the mobility of holes in the semiconductor material, said mobility being limited because of a valence band degeneracy among high-mobility and low-mobility energy levels accessible to said holes at the energy-momentum space maximum, an improvement is provided wherein the semiconductor material is a strained layer superlattice (SLS) whose layer compositions and layer thicknesses are selected so that the strain on the layers predominantly containing said at least one carrier type splits said degeneracy and modifies said energy levels around said energy-momentum space maximum in a manner whereby said limitation on the mobility of said holes is alleviated.

  7. SLS complementary logic devices with increase carrier mobility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1991-07-09

    In an electronic device comprising a semiconductor material and having at least one performance characteristic which is limited by the mobility of holes in the semiconductor material, said mobility being limited because of a valence band degeneracy among high-mobility and low-mobility energy levels accessible to said holes at the energy-momentum space maximum, an improvement is provided wherein the semiconductor material is a strained layer superlattice (SLS) whose layer compositions and layer thicknesses are selected so that the strain on the layers predominantly containing said at least one carrier type splits said degeneracy and modifies said energy levels around said energy-momentum space maximum in a manner whereby said limitation on the mobility of said holes is alleviated. 5 figures.

  8. MO-G-18C-07: Improving T2 Determination and Quantification of Lipid Methylene Protons in Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breitkreutz, D.; Fallone, B. G.; Yahya, A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transverse relaxation (T{sub 2}) determination and quantification of lipid methylene chain (1.3 ppm) protons by rewinding their J-coupling evolution. Methods: MRS experiments were performed on four lipid phantoms, namely, almond, corn, sunflower and oleic acid, using a 3 T Philips MRI scanner with a transmit/receive birdcage head coil. Two PRESS (Point RESolved Spectroscopy) pulse sequences were used. The first PRESS sequence employed standard bandwidth (BW) (?550 Hz) RF (radiofrequency) refocussing pulses, while the second used refocussing pulses of narrow BW (?50 Hz) designed to rewind J-coupling evolution of the methylene protons in the voxel of interest. Signal was acquired with each sequence from a 555 mm{sup 3} voxel, with a repetition time (TR) of 3000 ms, and with echo times (TE) of 100 to 200 ms in steps of 20 ms. 2048 sample points were measured with a 2000 Hz sampling bandwidth. Additionally, 30 mm outer volume suppression slabs were used to suppress signal outside the voxel of interest. The frequency of the RF pulses was set to that of the methylene resonance. Methylene peak areas were calculated and fitted in MATLAB to a monexponentially decaying function of the form M{sub 0}exp(-TE/T{sub 2}), where M{sub 0} is the extrapolated area when TE = 0 ms and yields a measure of concentration. Results: The determined values of M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} increased for all fatty acids when using the PRESS sequence with narrow BW refocussing pulses. M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} values increased by an average amount (over all the phantoms) of 31% and 14%, respectively. Conclusion: This investigation has demonstrated that J-coupling interactions of lipid methylene protons causes non-negligible signal losses which, if not accounted for, Result in underestimations of their levels and T{sub 2} values when performing MRS measurements. Funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the

  9. Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies 2005 Diesel Engine...

  10. Gender determination of avian embryo

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  11. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  12. Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and mobile substations (MTS) to rapidly restore electrical service to areas subjected to blackouts as a result of equipment failure, natural disasters, acts of terrorism, or war. ...

  13. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Our experiments proved that this property leads to improved oil recovery by increasing alternatively, oil mobility and conformance control. less Authors: Jorge Gabitto ; Maria ...

  14. Estimation of retired mobile phones generation in China: A comparative study on methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bo; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Song, Xiaolong

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The sales data of mobile phones in China was revised by considering the amount of smuggled and counterfeit mobile phones. • The estimation of retired mobile phones in China was made by comparing some relevant methods. • The advanced result of estimation can help improve the policy-making. • The method suggested in this paper can be also used in other countries. • Some discussions on methodology are also conducted in order for the improvement. - Abstract: Due to the rapid development of economy and technology, China has the biggest production and possession of mobile phones around the world. In general, mobile phones have relatively short life time because the majority of users replace their mobile phones frequently. Retired mobile phones represent the most valuable electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) in the main waste stream because of such characteristics as large quantity, high reuse/recovery value and fast replacement frequency. Consequently, the huge amount of retired mobile phones in China calls for a sustainable management system. The generation estimation can provide fundamental information to construct the sustainable management system of retired mobile phones and other waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). However, the reliable estimation result is difficult to get and verify. The priority aim of this paper is to provide proper estimation approach for the generation of retired mobile phones in China, by comparing some relevant methods. The results show that the sales and new method is in the highest priority in estimation of the retired mobile phones. The result of sales and new method shows that there are 47.92 million mobile phones retired in 2002, and it reached to 739.98 million in China in 2012. It presents an increasing tendency with some fluctuations clearly. Furthermore, some discussions on methodology, such as the selection of improper approach and error in the input data, are also conducted in order to

  15. Mobility of charge carriers in porous silicon layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsh, P. A. Martyshov, M. N.; Latysheva, A. P.; Vorontsov, A. S.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2008-12-15

    The (conduction) mobility of majority charge carriers in porous silicon layers of the n and p types is estimated by joint measurements of electrical conductivity and free charge carrier concentration, which is determined from IR absorption spectra. Adsorption of donor and acceptor molecules leading to a change in local electric fields in the structure is used to identify the processes controlling the mobility in porous silicon. It is found that adsorption of acceptor and donor molecules at porous silicon of the p and n types, respectively, leads to a strong increase in electrical conductivity, which is associated with an increase in the concentration of free carrier as well as in their mobility. The increase in the mobility of charge carriers as a result of adsorption indicates the key role of potential barriers at the boundaries of silicon nanocrystals and may be due to a decrease in the barrier height as a result of adsorption.

  16. IMPROVED V I log(gf) VALUES AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, J. E.; Wood, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Feigenson, T.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: mpwood@wisc.edu E-mail: tfeigenson@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2015-01-01

    New emission branching fraction measurements for 836 lines of the first spectrum of vanadium (V I) are determined from hollow cathode lamp spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory 1 m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a high-resolution echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are combined with recently published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for the 836 lines. The FTS data are also used to extract new hyperfine structure A coefficients for 26 levels of neutral vanadium. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the V abundance in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937, yielding log ε(V) = 3.956 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.037) based on 93 V I lines and log ε(V) = 1.89 ± 0.03 (σ = 0.07) based on nine V I lines, respectively, using the Holweger-Müller 1D model. These new V I abundance values for the Sun and HD 84937 agree well with our earlier determinations based upon V II.

  17. Michigan, Missouri: Innovative Mobile Exhibits Bring Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Michigan, Missouri: Innovative Mobile Exhibits Bring Electric Vehicles to Students and Public Michigan, Missouri: Innovative Mobile Exhibits Bring Electric Vehicles to Students and...

  18. Electron mobility enhancement in (100) oxygen-inserted silicon channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Nuo; King Liu, Tsu-Jae; Takeuchi, Hideki; Hytha, Marek; Cody, Nyles W.; Stephenson, Robert J.; Mears, Robert J.; Kwak, Byungil; Cha, Seon Yong

    2015-09-21

    High performance improvement (+88% in peak G{sub m} and >30% in linear and saturation region drain currents) was observed for N-MOSFETs with Oxygen-Inserted (OI) Si channel. From TCAD analysis of the C-V measurement data, the improvement was confirmed to be due to electron mobility enhancement of the OI Si channel (+75% at N{sub inv} = 4.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} and +25% at N{sub inv} = 8.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}). Raman and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements confirmed that negligible strain is induced in the OI Si layer, and hence, it cannot be used to explain the origin of mobility improvement. Poisson-Schrödinger based quantum mechanical simulation was performed, taking into account phonon, surface roughness and Coulomb scatterings. The OI layer was modeled as a “quasi barrier” region with reference to the Si conduction band edge to confine inversion electrons. Simulation explains the measured electron mobility enhancement as the confinement effect of inversion electrons while the formation of an super-steep retrograde well doping profile in the channel (as a result of dopant diffusion blocking effect accompanied by introduction of the OI layer) also contributes 50%–60% of the mobility improvement.

  19. IMPROVED V II log(gf) VALUES, HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS, AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2014-10-01

    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ε(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = –2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  20. Improved low-lying energy levels determined from solar coronal forbidden and spin-forbidden lines in the 500-1500 A range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G.A. . E-mail: george.doschek@nrl.navy.mil

    2007-09-15

    We list observed parity-forbidden and spin-forbidden lines in the 500-1600 A range emitted by solar coronal plasmas and derive improved energy levels from their wavelengths. The lines, emitted by astrophysical abundant elements, belong to transitions within the ground configurations of the type ns{sup 2} np {sup k}, for n = 2, 3 and k = 0-5, and between the lowest term of the first excited configuration 2s2p {sup k+1} and the 2s{sup 2}2p {sup k} ground configurations for k = 0, 1, 2. For each line we give the newly measured wavelength, and the measured or predicted wavelength from the NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (which except for a few cases includes the previously reported compilation of Kaufman and Sugar [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 15 (1986) 321]), and the values of the transition probability taken from the ASD and CHIANTI database. The list contains measured wavelengths of 136 lines of which over 100 were not available for the Kaufman and Sugar compilation. In addition we provide energy levels that were derived from the reported lines.

  1. Novel CO2-Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2002-01-15

    The objective of this contract was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO2.

  2. Production of ⁶¹Cu by the natZn(p,α) reaction: Improved separation and specific activity determination by titration with three chelators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asad, Ali H.; Smith, Suzanne V.; Morandeau, Laurence M.; Chan, Sun; Jeffery, Charmaine M.; Price, Roger I.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the cyclotron-based production of position-emitting ⁶¹Cu using the (p,α) reaction at 11.7 MeV was investigated starting from natural-zinc (natZn) and enriched ⁶⁴Zn-foil targets, as well as its subsequent purification. For natZn, a combination of three resins were assessed to separate ⁶¹Cu from contaminating 66,67,68Ga and natZn. The specific activity of the purified ⁶¹Cu determined using ICP-MS analysis ranged from 143.3±14.3(SD) to 506.2±50.6 MBq/μg while the titration method using p-SCN-Bn-DOTA, p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and diamsar gave variable results (4.7±0.2 to 412.5±15.3 MBq/μg), with diamsar lying closest to the ICP-MS values. Results suggest that the p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and p-SCN-Bn-NOTA titration methods are significantly affected by the presence of trace-metal contaminants.

  3. Production of ⁶¹Cu by the natZn(p,α) reaction: Improved separation and specific activity determination by titration with three chelators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Asad, Ali H.; Smith, Suzanne V.; Morandeau, Laurence M.; Chan, Sun; Jeffery, Charmaine M.; Price, Roger I.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the cyclotron-based production of position-emitting ⁶¹Cu using the (p,α) reaction at 11.7 MeV was investigated starting from natural-zinc (natZn) and enriched ⁶⁴Zn-foil targets, as well as its subsequent purification. For natZn, a combination of three resins were assessed to separate ⁶¹Cu from contaminating 66,67,68Ga and natZn. The specific activity of the purified ⁶¹Cu determined using ICP-MS analysis ranged from 143.3±14.3(SD) to 506.2±50.6 MBq/μg while the titration method using p-SCN-Bn-DOTA, p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and diamsar gave variable results (4.7±0.2 to 412.5±15.3 MBq/μg), with diamsar lying closest to the ICP-MS values. Results suggest that the p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and p-SCN-Bn-NOTA titration methods aremore » significantly affected by the presence of trace-metal contaminants.« less

  4. Production of ?Cu by the natZn(p,?) reaction: Improved separation and specific activity determination by titration with three chelators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asad, Ali H.; Smith, Suzanne V.; Morandeau, Laurence M.; Chan, Sun; Jeffery, Charmaine M.; Price, Roger I.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the cyclotron-based production of position-emitting ?Cu using the (p,?) reaction at 11.7 MeV was investigated starting from natural-zinc (natZn) and enriched ??Zn-foil targets, as well as its subsequent purification. For natZn, a combination of three resins were assessed to separate ?Cu from contaminating 66,67,68Ga and natZn. The specific activity of the purified ?Cu determined using ICP-MS analysis ranged from 143.314.3(SD) to 506.250.6 MBq/?g while the titration method using p-SCN-Bn-DOTA, p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and diamsar gave variable results (4.70.2 to 412.515.3 MBq/?g), with diamsar lying closest to the ICP-MS values. Results suggest that the p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and p-SCN-Bn-NOTA titration methods are significantly affected by the presence of trace-metal contaminants.

  5. Effect of improved TLD dosimetry on the determination of dose rate constants for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy seeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, M.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To more accurately account for the relative intrinsic energy dependence and relative absorbed-dose energy dependence of TLDs when used to measure dose rate constants (DRCs) for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy seeds, to thereby establish revised “measured values” for all seeds and compare the revised values with Monte Carlo and consensus values. Methods: The relative absorbed-dose energy dependence, f{sup rel}, for TLDs and the phantom correction, P{sub phant}, are calculated for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds using the EGSnrc BrachyDose and DOSXYZnrc codes. The original energy dependence and phantom corrections applied to DRC measurements are replaced by calculated (f{sup rel}){sup −1} and P{sub phant} values for 24 different seed models. By comparing the modified measured DRCs to the MC values, an appropriate relative intrinsic energy dependence, k{sub bq}{sup rel}, is determined. The new P{sub phant} values and relative absorbed-dose sensitivities, S{sub AD}{sup rel}, calculated as the product of (f{sup rel}){sup −1} and (k{sub bq}{sup rel}){sup −1}, are used to individually revise the measured DRCs for comparison with Monte Carlo calculated values and TG-43U1 or TG-43U1S1 consensus values. Results: In general, f{sup rel} is sensitive to the energy spectra and models of the brachytherapy seeds. Values may vary up to 8.4% among {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed models and common TLD shapes. P{sub phant} values depend primarily on the isotope used. Deduced (k{sub bq}{sup rel}){sup −1} values are 1.074 ± 0.015 and 1.084 ± 0.026 for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds, respectively. For (1 mm){sup 3} chips, this implies an overall absorbed-dose sensitivity relative to {sup 60}Co or 6 MV calibrations of 1.51 ± 1% and 1.47 ± 2% for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds, respectively, as opposed to the widely used value of 1.41. Values of P{sub phant} calculated here have much lower statistical uncertainties than literature values, but

  6. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  7. In situ wettability determination improves formation evalution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desbrandes, R. )

    1989-08-01

    Wettability is an important petrophysic parameter which affects capillary pressure, relative permeability, electric properties, water cut production, waterflood behavior, and enhanced recovery. This article describes in situ wettability laboratory experiments and field studies. A laboratory model has been built with a 12-ft long 4-in. clear plastic pipe. A 1 7/8-in. slotted plastic liner has been placed on one side. Ottawa sand F-95 has been packed in the annulus either nontreated, in its naturally water wet condition, or after a silane treatment to render it oil wet. Provided in the sand pack for measurement are 12 pressure pickups with an accurate Omega digital pressure gage. A typical pressure profile recorded during oil drive in a water saturated water wet sand pack is shown. The front was left to stabilize for 60 days. A pressure profile recorded during a water drive in an oil saturated oil wet sand pack is shown. The abrupt change from the water pressure gradient can be seen clearly for the water wet and the oil wet sand. It occurs exactly as expected. The measurements show that the change occurs in less than 4 in. which is the distance between two pressure pickups.

  8. Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Neutral (tradeoff of additional lighting power for additional control) 99 90.1-2010dk 9. ... ASHRAE 90.1 and 62.1, NEMA MG 1, and NFPA 70 and 96. Neutral (updates references ...

  9. Detecting and Removing Data Artifacts in Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Spencer A.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Clowers, Brian H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Payne, Samuel H.

    2014-12-01

    Applying Hadamard transform multiplexing to ion mobility separations (IMS) can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and throughput for IMS coupled mass spectrometry (MS) measurements by increasing the ion utilization efficiency. However, it has been determined that both fluctuations in ion intensity as well as spatial shifts in the multiplexed data lower the signal-to-noise ratios and appear as noise in downstream processing of the data. To address this problem, we have developed a novel algorithm that discovers and eliminates data artifacts. The algorithm uses knowledge of the true signal peaks derived from the encoded data and allows for both artifacts and noise to be removed with high confidence, decreasing the likelihood of false identifications in subsequent data processing. The result is that IMS-MS can be applied to increase measurement sensitivity while avoiding artifacts that have previously limited its utility.

  10. NERSC Releases Mobile Apps to Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases Mobile Apps to Users NERSC Releases Mobile Apps to Users Job Status, MOTD and Pilot of VASP Submission Available with More to Come April 23, 2012 In an effort to make...

  11. Improved aethalometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.

    1988-01-25

    An improved aethalometer having a single light source and a single light detector and two light paths from the light source to the light detector. A quartz fiber filter is inserted in the device, the filter having a collection area in one light path and a reference area in the other light path. A gas flow path through the aethalometer housing allows ambient air to flow through the collection area of the filter so that aerosol particles can be collected on the filter. A rotating disk with an opening therethrough allows light for the light source to pass alternately through the two light paths. The voltage output of the detector is applied to a VCO and the VCO pulses for light transmission separately through the two light paths, are counted and compared to determine the absorption coefficient of the collected aerosol particles. 5 figs.

  12. Mobile phone and my health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surducan, Aneta; Dabala, Dana; Neamtu, Camelia Surducan, Vasile Surducan, Emanoil

    2013-11-13

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection.

  13. ARM - ARM Mobile Facility 1 Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CenterARM Mobile Facility 1ARM Mobile Facility 1 Article Media Contact Hanna Goss hanna-dot-goss-at-pnnl-dot-gov @armnewsteam Field Notes Blog Topics Field Notes117 AGU 3 AMIE 10 ARM Aerial Facility 2 ARM Mobile Facility 1 7 ARM Mobile Facility 2 47 ARM Mobile Facility 3 1 BAECC 1 BBOP 4 CARES 1 Data Quality Office 2 ENA 2 GOAMAZON 7 HI-SCALE 4 LASIC 3 MAGIC 15 MC3E 17 PECAN 3 SGP 8 STORMVEX 29 TCAP 3 Search News Search Blog News Center All Categories What's this? Social Media Guidance News

  14. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  15. An ion mobility mass spectrometer for investigating photoisomerization and photodissociation of molecular ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, B. D.; Coughlan, N. J. A.; Markworth, P. B.; Bieske, E. J.; Continetti, R. E.

    2014-12-15

    An ion mobility mass spectrometry apparatus for investigating the photoisomerization and photodissociation of electrosprayed molecular ions in the gas phase is described. The device consists of a drift tube mobility spectrometer, with access for a laser beam that intercepts the drifting ion packet either coaxially or transversely, followed by a quadrupole mass filter. An ion gate halfway along the drift region allows the instrument to be used as a tandem ion mobility spectrometer, enabling mobility selection of ions prior to irradiation, with the photoisomer ions being separated over the second half of the drift tube. The utility of the device is illustrated with photoisomerization and photodissociation action spectra of carbocyanine molecular cations. The mobility resolution of the device for singly charged ions is typically 80 and it has a mass range of 100-440 Da, with the lower limit determined by the drive frequency for the ion funnels, and the upper limit by the quadrupole mass filter.

  16. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC LIGANDS ON THE STABILITY AND MOBILITY OF REDUCED TC(IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathalie A. Wall; Baohua Gu

    2012-12-20

    The primary objectives were (1) to quantify the interactions of organic ligands with Tc(IV) through the generation of thermodynamic (complexation) and kinetic parameters needed to assess and predict the mobility of reduced Tc(IV) at DOE contaminated sites; and (2) to determine the impact of organic ligands on the mobility and fate of reduced Tc(IV) under field geochemical conditions.

  17. Temperature dependence of diffusion length, lifetime and minority electron mobility in GaInP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultes, F. J.; Haegel, N. M.; Christian, T.; Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Jones-Albertus, R.; Pickett, E.; Liu, T.; Misra, P.; Sukiasyan, A.; Yuen, H.

    2013-12-09

    The mobility of electrons in double heterostructures of p-type Ga{sub 0.50}In{sub 0.50}P has been determined by measuring minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime. The minority electron mobility increases monotonically from 300?K to 5?K, limited primarily by optical phonon and alloy scattering. Comparison to majority electron mobility over the same temperature range in comparably doped samples shows a significant reduction in ionized impurity scattering at lower temperatures, due to differences in interaction of repulsive versus attractive carriers with ionized dopant sites. These results should be useful in modeling and optimization for multi-junction solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.

  18. Effect of the mobility on (I-V) characteristics of the MOSFET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benzaoui, Ouassila; Azizi, Cherifa

    2013-12-16

    MOSFET Transistor was the subject of many studies and research works (electronics, data-processing, telecommunications...) in order to exploit its interesting and promising characteristics. The aim of this contribution is devoted to the effect of the mobility on the static characteristics I-V of the MOSFET. The study enables us to calculate the drain current as function of bias in both linear and saturated modes; this effect is evaluated using a numerical simulation program. The influence of mobility was studied. Obtained results allow us to determine the mobility law in the MOSFET which gives optimal (I-V) characteristics of the component.

  19. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  20. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  2. Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

  3. Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies | Department of Energy Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_elion.pdf (158.94 KB) More Documents & Publications EPA Mobile Source Rule Update Efficient Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines The California Demonstration Program for Control of PM from

  4. NREL: Transportation Research - Sustainable Mobility Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mobility Initiative Graphic of four concentric circles starting with the traveler and branching out to encompass the vehicle, transport system, and built environment. NREL's Sustainable Mobility Initiative approaches sustainable transportation as a network of travelers, services, and environments-rather than just vehicles and roads-using connectivity and automation to optimize mobility and significantly reduce related energy consumption. This concept of an intelligent, integrated, and dynamic

  5. Running Greener: E-Mobility at SAP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 neutral Reduce consumption of fossil fuels and noise Environmental Mobility Unique battery subsidy as benefit Enjoy free charging exclusively at SAP's charging spots...

  6. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic...

  7. Mobile Power Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    laboratory focused on United NationsDepartment of Transportation compliance and battery performance testing. References: Mobile Power Solutions1 This article is a stub....

  8. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (1 Mechanic Shop)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate will perform preventative, predictive, and corrective maintenance on Bonneville Power Administration (BPA's) light and heavy mobile equipment in maintenance and filed...

  9. Clean Mobile AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AG Place: Munich, Bavaria, Germany Sector: Vehicles Product: Manufacturer of fuel cell-powered drives for small vehicles. References: Clean Mobile AG1 This article is a...

  10. Mobile Business Innovation Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innovation Center Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mobile Business Innovation Center Place: United States Product: Government & NGO ( Government Public sector ) References:...

  11. Mobile Energy Products Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Mobile Energy Products Inc Place: Colorado Springs, Colorado Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Manufacturing subsidiary, which produces nickel sintered plaque for...

  12. Public Transport: Moving towards Sustainable Mobility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Public Transport: Moving towards Sustainable Mobility AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment Programme...

  13. Improved CZT for Gamma Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JAMES, R.

    2015-03-16

    The goal of the project is to advance the state of the art for spectroscopic and imaging detectors for nonproliferation uses by developing a fundamental understanding of defects limiting the performance of large-volume CZT detectors and fixing them, and increasing the detector size and electron mobility-lifetime product while reducing the cost of detector-grade crystals. Interaction points can be precisely determined in 3D for CZT detectors.

  14. Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S.

    2009-11-15

    The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

  15. Ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2007-08-21

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  16. Mobile autonomous robotic apparatus for radiologic characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudar, A.M.; Ward, C.R.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.; Harpring, L.J.; Collins, M.X.; Anderson, E.K.

    1999-08-10

    A mobile robotic system is described that conducts radiological surveys to map alpha, beta, and gamma radiation on surfaces in relatively level open areas or areas containing obstacles such as stored containers or hallways, equipment, walls and support columns. The invention incorporates improved radiation monitoring methods using multiple scintillation detectors, the use of laser scanners for maneuvering in open areas, ultrasound pulse generators and receptors for collision avoidance in limited space areas or hallways, methods to trigger visible alarms when radiation is detected, and methods to transmit location data for real-time reporting and mapping of radiation locations on computer monitors at a host station. A multitude of high performance scintillation detectors detect radiation while the on-board system controls the direction and speed of the robot due to pre-programmed paths. The operators may revise the preselected movements of the robotic system by ethernet communications to remonitor areas of radiation or to avoid walls, columns, equipment, or containers. The robotic system is capable of floor survey speeds of from 1/2-inch per second up to about 30 inches per second, while the on-board processor collects, stores, and transmits information for real-time mapping of radiation intensity and the locations of the radiation for real-time display on computer monitors at a central command console. 4 figs.

  17. Mobile autonomous robotic apparatus for radiologic characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudar, Aed M.; Ward, Clyde R.; Jones, Joel D.; Mallet, William R.; Harpring, Larry J.; Collins, Montenius X.; Anderson, Erin K.

    1999-01-01

    A mobile robotic system that conducts radiological surveys to map alpha, beta, and gamma radiation on surfaces in relatively level open areas or areas containing obstacles such as stored containers or hallways, equipment, walls and support columns. The invention incorporates improved radiation monitoring methods using multiple scintillation detectors, the use of laser scanners for maneuvering in open areas, ultrasound pulse generators and receptors for collision avoidance in limited space areas or hallways, methods to trigger visible alarms when radiation is detected, and methods to transmit location data for real-time reporting and mapping of radiation locations on computer monitors at a host station. A multitude of high performance scintillation detectors detect radiation while the on-board system controls the direction and speed of the robot due to pre-programmed paths. The operators may revise the preselected movements of the robotic system by ethernet communications to remonitor areas of radiation or to avoid walls, columns, equipment, or containers. The robotic system is capable of floor survey speeds of from 1/2-inch per second up to about 30 inches per second, while the on-board processor collects, stores, and transmits information for real-time mapping of radiation intensity and the locations of the radiation for real-time display on computer monitors at a central command console.

  18. Sour gas dehydration in Mobile Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betts, F.C. Jr.; Lay, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    An evaluation of Mobil`s different methods of sour gas development utilized offshore and processes selected are presented with the maintenance history. The conclusions are based on field data showing past performance with a correlation made for future development and the selection criteria for dehydration.

  19. Interdigitated Electrical Contacts for Low Electronic Mobility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Semiconductor Photovoltaic Devices - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Interdigitated Electrical Contacts for Low Electronic Mobility Semiconductor Photovoltaic Devices Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Structures useful for forming contacts to materials having low charge carrier mobility are described. Methods for their formation and use are also described. These

  20. MobileWeb.jpg | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Information MobileWeb

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Device Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey Thuen

    2013-01-01

    The On-Device Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Applications (ODAMA) project was started in an effort to protect mobile devices used in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from cyber attack. Because mobile devices hide as much of the computer as possible, the users ability to assess the software running on their system is limited. The research team chose Googles Android platform for this initial research because it is open source and it would give us freedom in our approach, including the ability to modify the mobile devices operating system itself. The research team concluded that a Privileged Application was the right approach, and the result was ODAMA. This project is an important piece of the work to secure the expanding use of mobile devices with our nations critical infrastructure.

  2. Simulation Model of Mobile Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmunds, T; Faissol, D; Yao, Y

    2009-01-27

    In this paper, we consider a mobile source that we attempt to detect with man-portable, vehicle-mounted or boat-mounted radiation detectors. The source is assumed to transit an area populated with these mobile detectors, and the objective is to detect the source before it reaches a perimeter. We describe a simulation model developed to estimate the probability that one of the mobile detectors will come in to close proximity of the moving source and detect it. We illustrate with a maritime simulation example. Our simulation takes place in a 10 km by 5 km rectangular bay patrolled by boats equipped with 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch NaI detectors. Boats to be inspected enter the bay and randomly proceed to one of seven harbors on the shore. A source-bearing boat enters the mouth of the bay and proceeds to a pier on the opposite side. We wish to determine the probability that the source is detected and its range from target when detected. Patrol boats select the nearest in-bound boat for inspection and initiate an intercept course. Once within an operational range for the detection system, a detection algorithm is started. If the patrol boat confirms the source is not present, it selects the next nearest boat for inspection. Each run of the simulation ends either when a patrol successfully detects a source or when the source reaches its target. Several statistical detection algorithms have been implemented in the simulation model. First, a simple k-sigma algorithm, which alarms with the counts in a time window exceeds the mean background plus k times the standard deviation of background, is available to the user. The time window used is optimized with respect to the signal-to-background ratio for that range and relative speed. Second, a sequential probability ratio test [Wald 1947] is available, and configured in this simulation with a target false positive probability of 0.001 and false negative probability of 0.1. This test is utilized when the mobile detector maintains

  3. Feasibility of CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources Feasibility of CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources Presents integrated system for post-combustion CO2 capture from mobile sources PDF icon ...

  4. DOE Science Showcase - Research on the "Go" with OSTI mobile...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research on the "Go" with OSTI mobile Now you can find full-text technical reports from the Department of Energy from your mobile device. The new mobile OSTI website http:...

  5. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec

    2002-12-20

    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in evaluating the efficacy

  6. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The Phase I effort was based on a robot called the Remote Work Vehicle (RWV) that was previously developed by CMU for use in D&D operations at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement. During Phase I of this program, the RWV was rehabilitated and upgraded with contemporary control and user interface technologies and used as a testbed for remote D&D operations. We established a close working relationship with the DOE Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). In the second phase, we designed and developed a next generation mobile worksystem, called Rosie, and a semi-automatic task space scene analysis system, called Artisan, using guidance from RTDP. Both systems are designed to work with and complement other RTDP D&D technologies to execute selective equipment removal scenarios in which some part of an apparatus is extricated while minimally disturbing the surrounding objects. RTDP has identified selective equipment removal as a timely D&D mission, one that is particularly relevant during the de-activation and de-inventory stages of facility transitioning as a means to reduce the costs and risks associated with subsequent surveillance and monitoring. In the third phase, we tested and demonstrated core capabilities of Rosie and Artisan; we also implemented modifications and enhancements that improve their relevance to DOE`s facility transitioning mission.

  7. ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup ...

  8. V-235: Cisco Mobility Services Engine Configuration Error Lets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Cisco Mobility Services Engine Configuration Error Lets Remote Users Login Anonymously V-235: Cisco Mobility Services Engine Configuration Error Lets Remote Users Login ...

  9. MHK Technologies/Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform.jpg...

  10. And the Oscar for Sustainable Mobile Lighting Goes to.... Lighting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    There are about 100,000 diesel-powered mobile lighting towers in the United States, ... building, and testing a mobile lighting tower powered by hydrogen fuel cell ...

  11. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone ...

  12. Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economy.gov - Mobile Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile AgencyCompany Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector:...

  13. Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for multifunctional, antifouling surfaces Title: Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for ...

  14. How Would You Use Your Mobile Device to Save Energy?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More and more, people are using their phones and mobile devices to find information -- tell us how you would use your mobile device to save energy.

  15. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using...

  16. Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field ...

  17. TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer ...

  18. ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Alice ...

  19. Mobile Gallery | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mobile Gallery OSTI.gov Mobile Get full-text documents, citations, patents, green energy research results, and more. Narrow results by document type, download and email results. ...

  20. Public Finance Mechanisms to Mobilize Investment in Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobilize Investment in Climate Change Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Public Finance Mechanisms to Mobilize Investment in Climate Change...

  1. Automotive Fuels - The Challenge for Sustainable Mobility | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels - The Challenge for Sustainable Mobility Automotive Fuels - The Challenge for Sustainable Mobility Overview of challenges and future fuel options deer12warnecke.pdf (1.72 ...

  2. Engineers Go Mobile with Tablets, Bring Benefits to Waste Treatment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Engineers Go Mobile with Tablets, Bring Benefits to Waste Treatment Plant Project Engineers Go Mobile with Tablets, Bring Benefits to Waste Treatment Plant Project June 15, 2016 - ...

  3. GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility Vehicle ...

  4. Mobile Gallery | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mobile Gallery OSTI.gov Mobile Get full-text documents, citations, patents, green energy research results, and more. Narrow results by document type, download and email results. ...

  5. Persu Mobility was Venture Vehicles Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Persu Mobility was Venture Vehicles Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Persu Mobility (was Venture Vehicles Inc) Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90067 Product: Los Angeles...

  6. Efficiency Improvements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency improvements Efficiency Improvements New Target Alignment Sensor Installed on NIF For successful ignition experiments, NIF's 192 laser beams and targets must be aligned within a tolerance of about 20 microns-about one-fifth the diameter of an average human hair. Achieving this level of precision requires many fine-tuned calibrations and correlations between the laser beams and the target. Earlier this month a key instrument for achieving this level of precision, a new target alignment

  7. Method for enhancing the resolving power of ion mobility separations over a limited mobility range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

    2014-09-23

    A method for raising the resolving power, specificity, and peak capacity of conventional ion mobility spectrometry is disclosed. Ions are separated in a dynamic electric field comprising an oscillatory field wave and opposing static field, or at least two counter propagating waves with different parameters (amplitude, profile, frequency, or speed). As the functional dependencies of mean drift velocity on the ion mobility in a wave and static field or in unequal waves differ, only single species is equilibrated while others drift in either direction and are mobility-separated. An ion mobility spectrum over a limited range is then acquired by measuring ion drift times through a fixed distance inside the gas-filled enclosure. The resolving power in the vicinity of equilibrium mobility substantially exceeds that for known traveling-wave or drift-tube IMS separations, with spectra over wider ranges obtainable by stitching multiple segments. The approach also enables low-cutoff, high-cutoff, and bandpass ion mobility filters.

  8. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  9. Mobile Munitions Assessment System Field Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; K. D. Watts

    1999-05-27

    The US has developed, stored, tested, and conducted disposal operations on various forms of chemical munitions for several decades. The remnants of these activities have resulted in the presence of suspect CWM at more than 200 sites in the US, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands. An advanced Mobile Munitions Assessment System (Phase II MMAS) has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under contract to the US Army's Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel for use in the assessment and characterization of ''non-stockpile'' chemical warfare materiel (CWM). The Phase II MMAS meets the immediate need to augment response equipment currently used by the US Army with a system that includes state-of-the-art assessment equipment and advanced sensors. The Phase II MMAS will be used for response to known storage and remediation sites. This system is designed to identify the munition type; evaluate the condition of the CWM; evaluate the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the CWM; determine if fuzes, bursters, or safety and arming devices are in place; identify the chemical fill; provide other data (e.g., meteorological data) necessary for assessing the risk associated with handling, transporting, and disposing of CWM; and record the data on a dedicated computer system. The Phase II MMAS is capable of over-the-road travel and air transport to any site for conducting rigorous assessments of suspect CWM. The Phase II MMAS utilizes a specially-designed commercial motor home to provide a means to transport an interactive network of non-intrusive characterization and assessment equipment. The assessment equipment includes radiography systems, a gamma densitometer system, a Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) system, a Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) system, air monitoring equipment (i.e., M-90s and a field ion spectroscopy system), and a phase determination

  10. MOBILIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS GENERATED FROM CEMENT LEACHATES MOVING THROUGH A SRS SANDY SEDIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.

    2011-09-20

    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  11. PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, R.B.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  12. Dynamic multiplexed analysis method using ion mobility spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA

    2010-05-18

    A method for multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer in which the effectiveness and efficiency of the multiplexed method is optimized by automatically adjusting rates of passage of analyte materials through an IMS drift tube during operation of the system. This automatic adjustment is performed by the IMS instrument itself after determining the appropriate levels of adjustment according to the method of the present invention. In one example, the adjustment of the rates of passage for these materials is determined by quantifying the total number of analyte molecules delivered to the ion trap in a preselected period of time, comparing this number to the charge capacity of the ion trap, selecting a gate opening sequence; and implementing the selected gate opening sequence to obtain a preselected rate of analytes within said IMS drift tube.

  13. LESSONS LEARNED Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition (Summer 2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noonan, Christine F.; Henry, Michael J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of the lessons learned document for the BEOWulf Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition is to capture the project’s lessons learned in a formal document for use by other project managers on similar future projects. This document may be used as part of new project planning for similar projects in order to determine what problems occurred and how those problems were handled and may be avoided in the future. Additionally, this document details what went well with the project and why, so that other project managers may capitalize on these actions. Project managers may also use this document to determine who the project team members were in order to solicit feedback for planning their projects in the future. This document will be formally communicated with the organization and will become a part of the organizational assets and archives.

  14. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  15. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salton, Jonathan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Garretson, Justin (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Wetmore, CO); Hobart, Clinton G. (Albuquerque, NM); Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  16. Oak Ridge Mobile Agent Community (ORMAC)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-06-30

    The Oak Ridge Mobile Agent Community (ORMAC) framework software facilitates the execution of a collection of mobile software agents across a heterogeneous collection of computer systems. ORMAC provides the software agents with the ability to communicate with each other in a synchronous and asynchronous manner. Also, ORMAC allows the software agents to move to any computer system in the community and continue execution there. ORMAC is intended to aid programmers in solving a very generalmore » set of distributed software problems.« less

  17. The effects of mobile ATM switches on PNNI peer group operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1997-04-01

    This contribution discusses why, and how, mobile networks and mobile switches might be discussed during Phase 1 of the WATM standards process. Next, it reviews mobile routers within Mobile IP. That IP mobility architecture may not apply to the proposed mobile ATM switches. Finally, it discusses problems with PNNI peer group formation and operation when mobile ATM switches are present.

  18. Sulfide-Driven Arsenic Mobilization from Arsenopyrite and Black Shale Pyrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, W.; Young, L; Yee, N; Serfes, M; Rhine, E; Reinfelder, J

    2008-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that sulfide drives arsenic mobilization from pyritic black shale by a sulfide-arsenide exchange and oxidation reaction in which sulfide replaces arsenic in arsenopyrite forming pyrite, and arsenide (As-1) is concurrently oxidized to soluble arsenite (As+3). This hypothesis was tested in a series of sulfide-arsenide exchange experiments with arsenopyrite (FeAsS), homogenized black shale from the Newark Basin (Lockatong formation), and pyrite isolated from Newark Basin black shale incubated under oxic (21% O2), hypoxic (2% O2, 98% N2), and anoxic (5% H2, 95% N2) conditions. The oxidation state of arsenic in Newark Basin black shale pyrite was determined using X-ray absorption-near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Incubation results show that sulfide (1 mM initial concentration) increases arsenic mobilization to the dissolved phase from all three solids under oxic and hypoxic, but not anoxic conditions. Indeed under oxic and hypoxic conditions, the presence of sulfide resulted in the mobilization in 48 h of 13-16 times more arsenic from arsenopyrite and 6-11 times more arsenic from isolated black shale pyrite than in sulfide-free controls. XANES results show that arsenic in Newark Basin black shale pyrite has the same oxidation state as that in FeAsS (-1) and thus extend the sulfide-arsenide exchange mechanism of arsenic mobilization to sedimentary rock, black shale pyrite. Biologically active incubations of whole black shale and its resident microorganisms under sulfate reducing conditions resulted in sevenfold higher mobilization of soluble arsenic than sterile controls. Taken together, our results indicate that sulfide-driven arsenic mobilization would be most important under conditions of redox disequilibrium, such as when sulfate-reducing bacteria release sulfide into oxic groundwater, and that microbial sulfide production is expected to enhance arsenic mobilization in sedimentary rock aquifers with major pyrite-bearing, black

  19. Hooked differential mobility spectrometry apparatus and method therefore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A [Richland, WA; Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    Disclosed are a device and method for improved interfacing of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) or field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzers of substantially planar geometry to subsequent or preceding instrument stages. Interfacing is achieved using curved DMS elements, where a thick ion beam emitted by planar DMS analyzers or injected into them for ion filtering is compressed to the gap median by DMS ion focusing effect in a spatially inhomogeneous electric field. Resulting thinner beams are more effectively transmitted through necessarily constrained conductance limit apertures to subsequent instrument stages operated at a pressure lower than DMS, and/or more effectively injected into planar DMS analyzers. The technology is synergetic with slit apertures, slit aperture/ion funnels, and high-pressure ion funnel interfaces known in the art which allow for increasing cross-sectional area of MS inlets. The invention may be used in integrated analytical platforms, including, e.g., DMS/MS, LC/DMS/MS, and DMS/IMS/MS that could replace and/or enhance current LC/MS methods, e.g., for proteomics research.

  20. Not Your Parents' Mobile Home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Hadley, Donald L.

    2002-11-01

    This article describes construction of the first manufactured home ever produced from structural insulated panels. The home was built in July 2000 by Champion Enterprises at its Silverton, Oregon, plant. The house was completed on the assembly line in 9 days including a 300-mile road test. The paper examines the design and approval process leading to the project, the manufacturing process and its adjustment to SIPs, and the transportation and energy performance of the house after it was built. PNNL coordinated this project and conducted long-term monitoring on the house. The WSU Energy Program conducted building diagnostics testing once the house was occupied. PNNL and WSU involvement was funded by the U.S. DOE Building America Program. The Oregon Office of Energy conducted blower door and duct blaster tests. The completed home was estimated to reduce energy consumption by 50% and to have twice the structural strength required by HUD code for manufactured homes. The demonstration proved that the manufactured home production line could support SIPs production simultaneously with traditional construction and without major modifications, the line work in parallel with SIPs and traditional materials. The project revealed severl possibilities for further improving cost and time savings with SIPs construction, that might translate into increased capacity.

  1. IMPROVED log(gf) VALUES FOR LINES OF Ti I AND ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERES OF THE SUN AND METAL-POOR STAR HD 84937 (ACCURATE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES FOR Ti I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, J. E.; Guzman, A.; Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J. E-mail: adrianaguzman2014@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2013-04-01

    New atomic transition probability measurements for 948 lines of Ti I are reported. Branching fractions from Fourier transform spectra and from spectra recorded using a 3 m echelle spectrometer are combined with published radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements to determine these transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found in comparisons to the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The new Ti I data are applied to re-determine the Ti abundance in the photospheres of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 using many lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential to explore possible non-local thermal equilibrium effects. The variation of relative Ti/Fe abundance with metallicity in metal-poor stars observed in earlier studies is supported in this study.

  2. Low-temperature high-mobility amorphous IZO for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morales-Masis, Monica; Martin De Nicolas, Silvia; Holovsky, Jakub; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-07-13

    Parasitic absorption in the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) front electrode is one of the limitations of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells efficiency. To avoid such absorption while retaining high conductivity, TCOs with high electron mobility are preferred over those with high carrier density. Here, we demonstrate improved SHJ solar cell efficiencies by applying high-mobility amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the front TCO. We sputtered a-IZO at low substrate temperature and low power density and investigated the optical and electrical properties, as well as subband tail formation-quantified by the Urbach energy (EU)-as a function of the sputtering oxygen partial pressure.more » We obtain an EU as low as 128 meV for films with the highest Hall mobility of 60 cm2/Vs. When comparing the performance of a-IZO films with indium tin oxide (ITO) and hydrogenated indium oxide (IO:H), we find that IO:H (115 cm2/Vs) exhibits a similar EU of 130 meV, while ITO (25 cm2/Vs) presents a much larger EU of up to 270 meV. The high film quality, indicated by the low EU, the high mobility, and low free carrier absorption of the developed a-IZO electrodes, result in a significant current improvement, achieving conversion efficiencies over 21.5%, outperforming those with standard ITO.« less

  3. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

  4. Mobility of atoms under ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseevskii, V.; Gertsriken, D.; Kovtun, V.; Tyshkevich, V.; Fal'chenko, V.

    1981-10-01

    Argon ions bombardment (Eapprox.1KeV) of Armco iron in a cold glow discharge plasma (T< or approx. =150/sup 0/C) has been performed to investigate the mobility and behavior of the atoms in the crystal lattice and the formation of a solid solution of Argon in iron.(AIP)

  5. Portable control device for networked mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feddema, John T.; Byrne, Raymond H.; Bryan, Jon R.; Harrington, John J.; Gladwell, T. Scott

    2002-01-01

    A handheld control device provides a way for controlling one or multiple mobile robotic vehicles by incorporating a handheld computer with a radio board. The device and software use a personal data organizer as the handheld computer with an additional microprocessor and communication device on a radio board for use in controlling one robot or multiple networked robots.

  6. Texas Tech University mobile doppler radars provide unique wind...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Texas Tech University mobile doppler radars provide unique wind measurements to multi-instrument DOE Field Campaign HomeWind Energy, Wind NewsTexas Tech University mobile doppler ...

  7. Comments on: Texas Tech University mobile doppler radars provide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    texas-tech-university-mobile-doppler-radars-provide-unique-wind-measurements-to-multi-instrument-doe-field-campaign...

  8. WPN 93-5: Recommended Installation Standards for Mobile Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide technical assistance to the states on recommended installation techniques for weatherization materials installed on mobile homes.

  9. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Emission Reduction Specialists 2004_deer_sloan.pdf (48.07 KB) More Documents & Publications Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road Diesel Engines SCR & DPF RETROFITS FOR MOBILE DIESEL ENGINES

  10. Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mobile Lighting Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting," originally held on November 13, 2012. In addition to this recording, you can access the presentation slides. A text version of this recording will be available soon

  11. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves AgencyCompany Organization: various Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Prepare a Plan,...

  12. Doping dependence and anisotropy of minority electron mobility in molecular beam epitaxy-grown p type GaInP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haegel, N. M.; Christian, T.; Norman, A. G.; Mascarenhas, A.; Scandrett, C.; Misra, Pranob; Liu, Ting; Sukiasyan, Arsen; Pickett, Evan; Yuen, Homan

    2014-11-17

    Direct imaging of minority electron transport via the spatially resolved recombination luminescence signature has been used to determine carrier diffusion lengths in GaInP as a function of doping. Minority electron mobility values are determined by performing time resolved photoluminescence measurements of carrier lifetime on the same samples. Values at 300 K vary from ∼2000 to 400 cm{sup 2}/V s and decrease with increasing doping. Anisotropic diffusion lengths and strongly polarized photoluminescence are observed, resulting from lateral composition modulation along the [110] direction. We report anisotropic mobility values associated with carrier transport parallel and perpendicular to the modulation direction.

  13. wws_mobile1.jpg | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information wws_mobile1

  14. Reply Comments of T-Mobile USA, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    T-Mobile USA, Inc. Reply Comments of T-Mobile USA, Inc. T-Mobile USA, Inc. ("T-Mobile") hereby submits these reply comments in response to the above-captioned Request for ...

  15. Use of ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) Data to Study Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhanqing

    2012-12-19

    General goals: 1) Facilitating the deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Ancillary Facility (AAF) in China in 2008, 2) Processing, retrieving, improving and analyzing observation data from ground-based, air-borne and space-borne instruments; 3) Conducting a series of studies to gain insights into the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols on radiation, clouds, and precipitation using both

  16. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Time Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (FAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-30

    We report the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (FAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The FAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional information of detected features from the measured FAIMS compensation fields and IMS drift times, while also obtaining accurate ion masses. These separations thereby increase the overall separation power, resulting increased information content, and provide more complete characterization of more complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by e.g. improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by chemical noise and other interfering peaks.

  17. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Chen, Da-Ren

    2007-05-08

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  18. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  19. Bioenergy 2016: Mobilizing the Bioeconomy through Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On July 12–14, 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE’s) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) will host its ninth annual conference—Bioenergy 2016: Mobilizing the Bioeconomy through Innovation. Partnering with the Clean Energy Research and Education Foundation (CEREF), this year's conference will focus on opportunities to grow future feedstock supplies and break through technology barriers to achieve a stronger bioeconomy.

  20. WIPP Receives Waste Characterized With Mobile System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Immediate Release WIPP Receives Waste Characterized With Mobile System CARLSBAD, N.M., April 12, 2002 - The first shipment of transuranic waste characterized by the Central Characterization Project arrived Saturday (April 6) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The shipment came to WIPP from DOE's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The shipment was the eighth to WIPP from the Savannah River Site, but the first under the newly approved Central

  1. Analytical admittance characterization of high mobility channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mammeri, A. M.; Mahi, F. Z.; Varani, L.

    2015-03-30

    In this contribution, we investigate the small-signal admittance of the high electron mobility transistors field-effect channels under a continuation branching of the current between channel and gate by using an analytical model. The analytical approach takes into account the linearization of the 2D Poisson equation and the drift current along the channel. The analytical equations discuss the frequency dependence of the admittance at source and drain terminals on the geometrical transistor parameters.

  2. EPA Mobile Source Enforcement Memo 1A

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460 OFFICE OF ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE September 4, 1997 Addendum to Mobile Source Enforcement Memorandum 1A SUBJECT: Tampering Enforcement Policy for Alternative Fuel Aftermarket Conversions A. Purpose The purpose of this document is to clarify and revise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "tampering" enforcement policy for motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines originally designed to

  3. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  4. Mobile Robotics Activities in DOE Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Lujan; Jerry Harbour; John T. Feddema; Sharon Bailey; Jacob Barhen; David Reister

    2005-03-01

    This paper will briefly outline major activities in Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories focused on mobile platforms, both Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV’s) as well as Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s). The activities will be discussed in the context of the science and technology construct used by the DOE Technology Roadmap for Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM)1 published in 1998; namely, Perception, Reasoning, Action, and Integration. The activities to be discussed span from research and development to deployment in field operations. The activities support customers in other agencies. The discussion of "perception" will include hyperspectral sensors, complex patterns discrimination, multisensor fusion and advances in LADAR technologies, including real-world perception. "Reasoning" activities to be covered include cooperative controls, distributed systems, ad-hoc networks, platform-centric intelligence, and adaptable communications. The paper will discuss "action" activities such as advanced mobility and various air and ground platforms. In the RIM construct, "integration" includes the Human-Machine Integration. Accordingly the paper will discuss adjustable autonomy and the collaboration of operator(s) with distributed UGV’s and UAV’s. Integration also refers to the applications of these technologies into systems to perform operations such as perimeter surveillance, large-area monitoring and reconnaissance. Unique facilities and test beds for advanced mobile systems will be described. Given that this paper is an overview, rather than delve into specific detail in these activities, other more exhaustive references and sources will be cited extensively.

  5. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2010-04-20

    In a media of finite viscosity, the Coulomb force of external electric field moves ions with some terminal speed. This dynamics is controlled by “mobility” - a property of the interaction potential between ions and media molecules. This fact has been used to separate and characterize gas-phase ions in various modes of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) developed since 1970. Commercial IMS devices were introduced in 1980-s for field detection of volatile traces such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. Coupling to soft-ionization sources, mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatographic methods in 1990-s had allowed IMS to handle complex samples, enabling new applications in biological and environmental analyses, nanoscience, and other areas. Since 2003, the introduction of commercial systems by major instrument vendors started bringing the IMS/MS capability to broad user community. The other major development of last decade has been the differential IMS or “field asymmetric waveform IMS” (FAIMS) that employs asymmetric time-dependent electric field to sort ions not by mobility itself, but by the difference between its values in strong and weak electric fields. Coupling of FAIMS to conventional IMS and stacking of conventional IMS stages have enabled two-dimensional separations that dramatically expand the power of ion mobility methods.

  6. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  7. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2014-12-07

    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  8. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate, (3) using partially formed gels, (4

  9. CX-007901: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CX-007901: Categorical Exclusion Determination Improving Atmospheric Models for Offshore Wind Resource Mapping and Prediction Using LIDAR, Aircraft, and In-Ocean...

  10. CX-100526 Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This NEPA determination applies to the remaining Tasks 2.0-6.0, including outdoor test support, strain improvement, control optimization, preprocessing unit operations and ...

  11. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  12. Pilot Project Technology Business Case: Mobile Work Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Ken; Lawrie, Sean; Niedermuller, Josef

    2015-05-01

    Performance advantages of the new pilot project technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on demonstrating actual cost reductions that can be credited to budgets and thereby truly reduce O&M or capital costs. Technology enhancements, while enhancing work methods and making work more efficient, often fail to eliminate workload such that it changes overall staffing and material cost requirements. It is critical to demonstrate cost reductions or impacts on non-cost performance objectives in order for the business case to justify investment by nuclear operators. The Business Case Methodology (BCM) was developed in September of 2015 to frame the benefit side of II&C technologies to address the “benefit” side of the analysis—as opposed to the cost side—and how the organization evaluates discretionary projects (net present value (NPV), accounting effects of taxes, discount rates, etc.). The cost and analysis side is not particularly difficult for the organization and can usually be determined with a fair amount of precision (not withstanding implementation project cost overruns). It is in determining the “benefits” side of the analysis that utilities have more difficulty in technology projects and that is the focus of this methodology. The methodology is presented in the context of the entire process, but the tool provided is limited to determining the organizational benefits only. This report describes a the use of the BCM in building a business case for mobile work packages, which includes computer-based procedures and other automated elements of a work package. Key to those impacts will be identifying where the savings are

  13. Efficient Mobility Summit: Transportation and the Future of Dynamic Mobility Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    On October 27, 2015, The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) brought together local and national thought leaders to discuss the convergence of connectivity, vehicle automation, and transportation infrastructure investments at the Future Energy Efficient Mobility Workshop. The half-day workshop was held in conjunction with the Colorado Department of Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications. Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications.

  14. Mobilization of dust and exfoliation of erosion product films in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martynenko, Yu. V.; Nagel, M. Yu.

    2012-04-15

    The mobilization of dust (i.e., detachment and removal of dust grains from a substrate) and the exfoliation of a film of erosion products in tokamaks have been studied theoretically. The following mechanisms of dust mobilization have been taken into account: (i) sharp heating (thermal shock) as a result of, e.g., plasma disruption and edge instabilities; (ii) substrate vibrations; and (iii) gas and plasma flow (wind) action. The most effective mobilization takes place under the action of sharp heating. Power fluxes that are characteristic of edge instabilities can mobilize dust grains with dimensions within or even greater than 0.1-1 {mu}m. The velocities of detached grains reach {nu} {approx} 100 m/s for heavy grains and up to {nu} {approx} 300 m/s for the light ones. Conditions favoring the exfoliation of a film of erosion products are determined. It is shown that exfoliation under the action of edge instabilities can take place at a film thickness of h > 1 {mu}m. Under the action of thermal-shock-induced stresses, the exfoliated film flakes with a size ranging from fractions of a millimeter to several centimeters break into pieces.

  15. STTR Phase 1 Final Technical Report for Project Entitled "Developing a Mobile Torrefaction Machine"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Joseph J.

    2014-03-11

    The goal of this project, sponsored by Agri-Tech Producers, LLC (ATP), the small business grantee, was to determine if the torrefaction technology, developed by North Carolina State University (NCSU), which ATP has licensed, could be feasibly deployed in a mobile unit. The study adds to the area investigated, by having ATP’s STTR Phase I team give thoughtful consideration to how to use NCSU’s technology in a mobile unit. The findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology would best perform in units 30’ by 80’ (See Spec Sheet for the Torre-Tech 5.0 Unit in the Appendix) and the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility investigation suggested that such units were not easily, efficiently or safely utilized in a forest or farm setting. (Note rendering of possible mobile system in the Appendix) Therefore, the findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology could not feasibly be deployed as a mobile unit.

  16. Reconciling macro- with nano- carrier mobility measurements in organic photovoltaic blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, Yamila M.; Maragliano, Carlo; Chiesa, Matteo; Al Ghaferi, Amal; Stefancich, Marco

    2014-04-28

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) is a valuable tool for electrical characterization of organic photovoltaics. However, the quantitative interpretation of the data is complicated by an apparent disagreement between the carrier mobilities calculated by CAFM and those determined by macroscopic measurements, with no apparent physical explanation for the discrepancy. In the present work, the space charge limited current model (specifically Mott-Gurney law) and its assumptions are assessed, and a physical model reconciling this discrepancy is proposed. Its applicability on the tip-sample system used in CAFM measurements is discussed, by accounting for the high electric fields arising around the tip of the CAFM probe and affecting carrier mobility. Charge carrier mobility is calculated from current-voltage curves obtained from conductive atomic force microscopy spectroscopy scans done on Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): 95% PC{sub 70}BM ([6,6]-Phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester)/5% PC{sub 60}BM ([6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) samples for different concentration ratios of donor and acceptor. We show that charge carrier mobilities obtained with this model are in satisfactory agreement with macroscopic measurements available in literature.

  17. Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Annual report, October 1981-September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, G.A.

    1984-11-01

    The ongoing objectives of this project are: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity and inaccessible pore volume on micellar/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. Section 2 of this report includes the results for capillary desaturation experiments for low tension fluids in Berea. These results show that some residual brine remains during microemulsion flooding even at the highest capillary number obtained in this experiment. Section 2 also includes more extensive results from the dispersion and relative permeability experiments. This section also includes data which extends the dispersion and relative permeability results from the case of two-phase flow to include initial results of three-phase flow at steady state. Section 3 is a complete description of our updated simulator. Section 4 describes and gives the results of an oil recovery experiment. Section 5 compares the results of this oil recovery experiment with our simulator. The agreement is the best obtained so far. Section 6 compares our simulator with a Sloss experiment reported by Gupta. Again, the agreement is good and demonstrates the capability of the improved simulator to account for the separation of alcohol and surfactant. Section 7 contains the results of several 2-D areal simulations involving new features of the 2-D simulator reported last year. Section 8 is a list of some of the major conclusions of this simulation research. Section 9 is an SPE paper combining the results of Senol with Walsh, a Ph.D. student of Lake and Schechter. Her polymer experiments were interpreted using Walsh's geochemical simulator. 133 references, 118 figures, 21 tables.

  18. CX-002260: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Penetrator Testing with Mobile Gas Guns and Mobile Davis GunsCX(s) Applied: B3.11Date: 03/09/2010Location(s): Socorro, New MexicoOffice(s): NNSA-Headquarters, Sandia Site Office

  19. CX-004222: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mobile Environmental Measurement System (MEMS) Mobile Lab Truck (ATML)CX(s) Applied: B3.11Date: 05/19/2010Location(s): New MexicoOffice(s): Sandia Site Office

  20. CX-004352: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alabama-City-MobileCX(s) Applied: A9, B1.32, B2.5, B5.1Date: 11/01/2010Location(s): Mobile, AlabamaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  1. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  2. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  3. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  4. Analytical laboratory and mobile sampling platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Smiecinski, A.

    1996-04-30

    This is the final report for the Analytical Laboratory and Mobile Sampling Platform project. This report contains only major findings and conclusions resulting from this project. Detailed reports of all activities performed for this project were provided to the Project Office every quarter since the beginning of the project. This report contains water chemistry data for samples collected in the Nevada section of Death Valley National Park (Triangle Area Springs), Nevada Test Site springs, Pahranagat Valley springs, Nevada Test Site wells, Spring Mountain springs and Crater Flat and Amargosa Valley wells.

  5. Improvement of graphene field-effect transistors by hexamethyldisilazane surface treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Sk. Fahad; Sonde, Sushant; Rahimi, Somayyeh; Tao, Li; Banerjee, Sanjay; Akinwande, Deji, E-mail: deji@ece.utexas.edu [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    We report the improvement of the electrical characteristics of graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) treatment. Both electron and hole field-effect mobilities are increased by 1.5??2, accompanied by effective residual carrier concentration reduction. Dirac point also moves closer to zero Volt. Time evolution of mobility data shows that mobility improvement saturates after a few hours of HMDS treatment. Temperature-dependent transport measurements show small mobility variation between 77 K and room temperature (295?K) before HMDS application. But mobility at 77 K is almost 2 times higher than mobility at 295?K after HMDS application, indicating reduced carrier scattering. Performance improvement is also observed for FETs made on hydrophobic substratean HMDS-graphene-HMDS sandwich structure. Raman spectroscopic analysis shows that G peak width is increased, G peak position is down shifted, and intensity ratio between 2D and G peaks is increased after HMDS application. We attribute the improvements in electronic transport mainly to enhanced screening and mitigation of adsorbed impurities from graphene surface upon HMDS treatment.

  6. New Approaches to Differential Mobility Analysis for Airborne Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Approaches to Differential Mobility Analysis for Airborne Measurements Rick Flagan Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science and Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 Support: NSF, ONR, Davidow Foundation Differential Mobility Analysis Air Sample Aerosol Charger/Neutralizer (Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization) Sheath Air Q sh ~ 10 Q a Volumetric flow rate Q s Exhaust Q ex =Q sh Differential Mobility Analyzer DMA (Aerodynamic Analog of Sector Mass

  7. Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Emission Credit Brokers 2002_deer_sloan.pdf (184.47 KB) More Documents & Publications Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System Evaluation of NH3-SCR Catalyst Technology on a 250-kW Stationary Diesel Genset

  8. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 12, 2015. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (1.99 MB) More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | October 2014 Swipe Left, Power Down: Using Interactive Media to Instill Behavior Change (301)

  9. An Overview of the SGP Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Overview of the SGP Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Collins, Don Texas A&M University Spencer, Chance Texas A&M University Category: Instruments A differential mobility analyzer / tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA / TDMA) system was integrated into the Aerosol Observing System (AOS) trailer at the SGP site in September, 2005. This instrument is used to continuously characterize the size-resolved concentration, hygroscopicity, and volatility of submicron particles. These

  10. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yellowstone National Park | Department of Energy Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park Case study describes the performance of a mobile photovoltaic system installed in 2011 to provide power to Bechler Ranger Station in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. This small, remote outpost is not served by the electric utility grid and previously

  11. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM ...

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Deployment of AAF Scanning Mobility Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The SMPS was operated with a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter. Aerosol particles were first classified by the differential mobility analyzer inside the SMPS, the classified ...

  13. Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company (SAMREF) Name: Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) Address: P.O. Box 30078 Place: Yanbu, Saudi Arabia Sector: Oil and Gas Product: Crude Oil Refining Phone...

  14. ECIS, Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lighting Applications - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate ...

  15. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Furthermore, the mobile agent provides computational power to make near real-time assessments on the structural conditions. This paper will discuss such prototype systems, which ...

  16. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural health monitoring ... Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. ...

  17. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 24, 2016 Title: Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and...

  18. Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Inert Gas Permeation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Supercooled liquid...

  19. A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile and Stationary Engine SCRDPF ApplicationsData-Logger for Vehicle Data Acquisition This project describes a novel ...

  20. ARM: AOS: Scanning-Mobility Particle Sizer; temperature and RH...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AOS: Scanning-Mobility Particle Sizer; temperature and RH output Authors: Derek Hageman ; Bill Behrens ; Janek Uin ; Robert Bullard ; Cynthia Salwen ; Cynthia Salwen ; Annette ...

  1. Google Archives by Fiscal Year — Mobile Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From the EERE Web Statistics Archive: Corporate sites, retired Google Analytics profile for the Mobile site for fiscal year 2012-13.

  2. MHK Technologies/New Knowledge Wind and Wave Renewable Mobile...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Knowledge Wind and Wave Renewable Mobile Wind and Wave Power Plant Platform < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage New Knowledge...

  3. Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These measurements were performed independently both in Ume University, Sweden, and in Groningen University, Netherlands, and gave very similar values of mobility, with values as ...

  4. Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium mobility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium mobility in vadose zone sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium ...

  5. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for structural health monitoring applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural health monitoring ...

  6. Mobile Truck Stop Electrification Locator Now Available - News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a billion gallons of fuel each year nationwide," said Wendy Dafoe, NREL manager of DOE's Alternative Fuels and Advanced ... of electrification sites, the mobile locator can ...

  7. Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tunneling Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy You ...

  8. Energy Department Launches Mobile App for Energy Emergencies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    launched a mobile app called Lantern Live that helps consumers quickly find and share critical information about nearby gas stations and power outages during energy emergencies. ...

  9. Sandia Energy - Patent Awarded for the Fuel Cell Mobile Light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patent Awarded for the Fuel Cell Mobile Light Home Energy CRF Facilities Partnership News Energy Efficiency News & Events Systems Engineering Center for Infrastructure Research and...

  10. Efficiency Nova Scotia Releases Energy Efficiency Mobile App...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network member Efficiency Nova Scotia recently released Spot it-an energy efficiency game app for mobile devices. The app features 13 levels where ...

  11. Low-temperature high-mobility amorphous IZO for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales-Masis, Monica; Martin De Nicolas, Silvia; Holovsky, Jakub; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-07-13

    Parasitic absorption in the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) front electrode is one of the limitations of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells efficiency. To avoid such absorption while retaining high conductivity, TCOs with high electron mobility are preferred over those with high carrier density. Here, we demonstrate improved SHJ solar cell efficiencies by applying high-mobility amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the front TCO. We sputtered a-IZO at low substrate temperature and low power density and investigated the optical and electrical properties, as well as subband tail formation-quantified by the Urbach energy (EU)-as a function of the sputtering oxygen partial pressure. We obtain an EU as low as 128 meV for films with the highest Hall mobility of 60 cm2/Vs. When comparing the performance of a-IZO films with indium tin oxide (ITO) and hydrogenated indium oxide (IO:H), we find that IO:H (115 cm2/Vs) exhibits a similar EU of 130 meV, while ITO (25 cm2/Vs) presents a much larger EU of up to 270 meV. The high film quality, indicated by the low EU, the high mobility, and low free carrier absorption of the developed a-IZO electrodes, result in a significant current improvement, achieving conversion efficiencies over 21.5%, outperforming those with standard ITO.

  12. Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

  13. Hanford Solar Power: Cost Effective and Mobile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – EM’s Richland Operations Office (RL) has tasked contractor Mission Support Alliance (MSA) with improving sustainable energy usage on the Hanford site.

  14. Linear magnetoresistance caused by mobility fluctuations in n-doped Cd3As2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Narayanan, A.; Watson, M. D.; Blake, S. F.; Bruyant, N.; Drigo, L.; Chen, Y. L.; Prabhakaran, D.; Yan, B.; Felser, C.; Kong, T.; et al

    2015-03-19

    Cd3As2 is a candidate three-dimensional Dirac semimetal which has exceedingly high mobility and nonsaturating linear magnetoresistance that may be relevant for future practical applications. We report magnetotransport and tunnel diode oscillation measurements on Cd3As2, in magnetic fields up to 65 T and temperatures between 1.5 and 300 K. We find that the nonsaturating linear magnetoresistance persists up to 65 T and it is likely caused by disorder effects, as it scales with the high mobility rather than directly linked to Fermi surface changes even when approaching the quantum limit. As a result of the observed quantum oscillations, we determine themore » bulk three-dimensional Fermi surface having signatures of Dirac behavior with a nontrivial Berry phase shift, very light effective quasiparticle masses, and clear deviations from the band-structure predictions. In very high fields we also detect signatures of large Zeeman spin splitting (g~16).« less

  15. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  16. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many compounds, our attempts to make acetate-rich high molecular weight polymers and small hydrogen-bonding compounds did not yield a highly CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer or hydrogen-bonding associative thickener. The conclusions of our molecular modeling calculations confirmed that although acetates are indeed 'CO{sub 2}-philic', nitrogen-containing amines also interact favorably with CO{sub 2} and should also be examined. Therefore we obtained and synthesized many N-rich (e.g. amine-containing) polymers. Unfortunately, we found that the intermolecular polymer-polymer interactions between the amines were so strong that the polymers were essentially insoluble in CO{sub 2}. For the convenience of the reader, a table of all of the polymers evaluated during this research is provided.

  17. Checking out HUD`s proposed mobile home performance standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.

    1993-11-01

    This article evaluates both the performance of two mobile homes built to meet recently proposed federal energy performance standards and the standards themselves. Topics include test methods, results, thermal exposure infrared scan results; regulators, thermal characteristics of test homes, real life conditions, factory observations, the future of mobile home energy efficiency.

  18. Limits of carrier mobility in Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} conducting films deposited by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissig, B. Jäger, T.; Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y. E.; Ding, L.

    2015-06-01

    Electron transport in Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} (ATO) films is studied to unveil the limited carrier mobility observed in sputtered films as compared to other deposition methods. Transparent and conductive ATO layers are deposited from metallic tin targets alloyed with antimony in oxygen atmosphere optimized for reactive sputtering. The carrier mobility decreases from 24 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} to 6 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} when increasing the doping level from 0 to 7 at. %, and the lowest resistivity of 1.8 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm corresponding to the mobility of 12 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} which is obtained for the 3 at. % Sb-doped ATO. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements and near-infrared reflectance measurements reveal that the carrier mobility in sputtered ATO is limited by ingrain scattering. In contrast, the mobility of unintentionally doped SnO{sub 2} films is determined mostly by the grain boundary scattering. Both limitations should arise from the sputtering process itself, which suffers from the high-energy-ion bombardment and yields polycrystalline films with small grain size.

  19. The relationship between polymer mobility and potential energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, John Dwane; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Budzien, Joanne L.

    2005-01-01

    The WLF equation is typically used to describe the dependence of polymer mobility on temperature at atmospheric pressure. Tests at different pressures would at least require different WLF parameterization. Completely different tests, for example, probing the temperature dependence of mobility at constant density, would require even greater modifications. By performing molecular dynamics simulations on simple chain molecules equilibrated at different thermodynamic states, we have shown that the mobility depends in a more general sense on the potential energy density of the system. That is, mobilities for any equilibrated state collapse onto one master curve when plotted against the potential energy density. Moreover, this relationship can be fit by either a 'generalized' WLF equation or by a power-law relationship observed in critical phenomena. When this mobility relationship is used within a rheologically simple, thermodynamically consistent, viscoelastic framework, quantitative agreement is seen between experimental data and theoretical predictions on a range of tests covering enthalpy relaxation to mechanical yield to physical aging.

  20. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller

    2006-09-09

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a

  1. Mobile Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements of Standard Waste Boxes (SWB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Berg, Randal K.; Haggard, Daniel L.; Hilliard, James R.; Mapili, Gabriel M.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile NDA system was composed and qualified for Safeguards measurements of multiple standard waste boxes (SWB) generated as a result of clean-out activities at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The system included a neutron slab counter and high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. PC/FRAM software was used to determine the isotopic composition of plutonium residue contained in the waste in order to interpret two independent measurement results provided by total neutron counting and gamma energy analysis (GEA). The measurement procedure developed to estimate transuranic (TRU) content of boxes was based on assumptions about characteristics of the matrix and material distribution. The neutron slab counter was calibrated with various plutonium working standards that were placed in a surrogate SWB specifically made to simulate miscellaneous waste debris. Transmission measurements with a californium source were used to correct for the matrix effects. An In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was used to acquire spectra from SWBs and ISOCS software was applied to generate the efficiency curve of the HPGe detector. Infinite energy extrapolation was introduced to correct GEA results for self-attenuation. The gamma and neutron results obtained on multiple SWBs are compared and discussed in the paper. Revised measurement positions for the detector and the transmission source are also suggested based on experience gained during the measurements.

  2. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-05-07

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement.

  3. Efficiency Improvements - 2016

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Efficiency Improvements - 2016 June Dual-Purpose Positioner Installed on NIF March A NIF Record: 17 Shots in a Week January Improving Optics Processing Efficiencies

  4. Hydropower Process Improvements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Improvements William J. Palmer Hydropower Program Manager South Atlantic Division 2 April 2015 BUILDING STRONG Focus Areas For Process Improvements InspectionsCondition ...

  5. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heather D. Medema; Ronald K. Farris

    2012-09-01

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC) for field workers in an NPP setting. This document especially is directed at NPP business managers, Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and other non-Information Technology personnel. This information is not intended to replace basic project management practices or reiterate these processes, but is to support decision-making, planning, and preparation of a business case.

  6. Analyses to Verify and Improve the Accuracy of the Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, Mark P; Gettings, Michael B

    2008-12-01

    A series of analyses were performed to determine the reasons that the Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) over predicted space-heating energy savings as measured in a recent field test and to develop appropriate corrections to improve its performance. The study used the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Building Energy Simulation Test (BESTEST) to verify that MHEA accurately calculates the UA-values of mobile home envelope components and space-heating energy loads as compared with other, well-accepted hourly energy simulation programs. The study also used the Procedures for Verification of RESNET Accredited HERS Software Tools to determine that MHEA accurately calculates space-heating energy consumptions for gas furnaces, heat pumps, and electric-resistance furnaces. Even though MHEA's calculations were shown to be correct from an engineering point of view, three modifications to MHEA's algorithms and use of a 0.6 correction factor were incorporated into MHEA to true-up its predicted savings to values measured in a recent field test. A simulated use of the revised version of MHEA in a weatherization program revealed that MHEA would likely still recommend a significant number of cost-effective weatherization measures in mobile homes (including ceiling, floor, and even wall insulation and far fewer storm windows). Based on the findings from this study, it was recommended that a revised version of MHEA with all the changes and modifications outlined in this report should be finalized and made available to the weatherization community as soon as possible, preferably in time for use within the 2009 Program Year.

  7. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break

  8. Method for determining asphaltene stability of a hydrocarbon-containing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-02-05

    A method for determining asphaltene stability in a hydrocarbon-containing material having solvated asphaltenes therein is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, it involves the steps of: (a) precipitating an amount of the asphaltenes from a liquid sample of the hydrocarbon-containing material with an alkane mobile phase solvent in a column; (b) dissolving a first amount and a second amount of the precipitated asphaltenes by changing the alkane mobile phase solvent to a final mobile phase solvent having a solubility parameter that is higher than the alkane mobile phase solvent; (c) monitoring the concentration of eluted fractions from the column; (d) creating a solubility profile of the dissolved asphaltenes in the hydrocarbon-containing material; and (e) determining one or more asphaltene stability parameters of the hydrocarbon-containing material.

  9. Single shot spin readout with a cryogenic high-electron-mobility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Single shot spin readout with a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier at ... high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier at sub-Kelvin temperatures We use a ...

  10. Uranium vacancy mobility at the sigma 5 symmetric tilt grain boundary in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2012-05-02

    An important consequence of the fissioning process occurring during burnup is the formation of fission products. These fission products alter the thermo-mechanical properties of the fuel. They also lead to macroscopic changes in the fuel structure, including the formation of bubbles that are connected to swelling of the fuel. Subsequent release of fission gases increase the pressure in the plenum and can cause changes in the properties of the fuel pin itself. It is thus imperative to understand how fission products, and fission gases in particular, behave within the fuel in order to predict the performance of the fuel under operating conditions. Fission gas redistribution within the fuel is governed by mass transport and the presence of sinks such as impurities, dislocations, and grain boundaries. Thus, to understand how the distribution of fission gases evolves in the fuel, we must understand the underlying transport mechanisms, tied to the concentrations and mobilities of defects within the material, and how these gases interact with microstructural features that might act as sinks. Both of these issues have been addressed in previous work under NEAMS. However, once a fission product has reached a sink, such as a grain boundary, its mobility may be different there than in the grain interior and predicting how, for example, bubbles nucleate within grain boundaries necessitates an understanding of how fission gases diffuse within boundaries. That is the goal of the present work. In this report, we describe atomic level simulations of uranium vacancy diffusion in the pressence of a {Sigma}5 symmetric tilt boundary in urania (UO{sub 2}). This boundary was chosen as it is the simplest of the boundaries we considered in previous work on segregation and serves as a starting point for understanding defect mobility at boundaries. We use a combination of molecular statics calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to determine how the mobility of uranium vacancies is